WorldWideScience

Sample records for significantly increased compared

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Soo In

    2008-01-01

    The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; 18.9% (13,083) of the total medical doctors registered (69,097) were women in 2006, compared to 13.6% (2,216) in 1975. The proportion of female doctors will jump up by 2010 considering that nearly 40% of the medical students are women as of today. This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.6 (6)% to 18% (453), from 1975 to 2006 and now women residents comprise 39% (206) of all. This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet. Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.

  3. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Gaurav; Majumdar, Abha; Lall, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C.; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis. PMID:27382234

  4. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  5. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  6. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. We show this to be the case for an error model in which the variance of an observable is interpreted as its error and for the standard error model in photonic experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Mermin inequality yields a Bell test which is statistically more significant than the Ardehali inequality in the case of a photonic four-qubit state that is close to a GHZ state. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the above inequalities for different levels of noise.

  7. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  8. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  9. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  11. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  12. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  13. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  14. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  15. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  16. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  17. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  18. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  20. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  1. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. THE SMALL BUT SIGNIFICANT AND NONTRANSITORY INCREASE IN PRICES (SSNIP TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Niminet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Small but Significant Nontransitory Increase in Price Test was designed to define the relevant market by concepts of product, geographical area and time. This test, also called the ,,hypothetical monopolistic test” is the subject of many researches both economical and legal as it deals with economic concepts as well as with legally aspects.

  3. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  4. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using 99m Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  5. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  7. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8 concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003–2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year−1 (R2 = 0.92. It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  8. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  9. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Combining modularity, conservation, and interactions of proteins significantly increases precision and coverage of protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sers Christine T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of newly sequenced genomes and genes is constantly increasing, elucidation of their function still is a laborious and time-consuming task. This has led to the development of a wide range of methods for predicting protein functions in silico. We report on a new method that predicts function based on a combination of information about protein interactions, orthology, and the conservation of protein networks in different species. Results We show that aggregation of these independent sources of evidence leads to a drastic increase in number and quality of predictions when compared to baselines and other methods reported in the literature. For instance, our method generates more than 12,000 novel protein functions for human with an estimated precision of ~76%, among which are 7,500 new functional annotations for 1,973 human proteins that previously had zero or only one function annotated. We also verified our predictions on a set of genes that play an important role in colorectal cancer (MLH1, PMS2, EPHB4 and could confirm more than 73% of them based on evidence in the literature. Conclusions The combination of different methods into a single, comprehensive prediction method infers thousands of protein functions for every species included in the analysis at varying, yet always high levels of precision and very good coverage.

  11. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Atkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and treated with modern COG protocols (n=80 to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5% were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P<0.004 for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P=0.7. Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P=0.0005, disease risk (P<0.0001, age (P=0.0001, and BMI z-score (P<0.0001 at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P=0.01. Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  12. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  13. Childhood-compared to adolescent-onset bipolar disorder has more statistically significant clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jessica N; Miller, Shefali; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Wang, Po W; Chang, Kiki D; Hill, Shelley J; Rasgon, Natalie L; Ketter, Terence A

    2015-07-01

    The strengths and limitations of considering childhood-and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (BD) separately versus together remain to be established. We assessed this issue. BD patients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorder Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Patients with childhood- and adolescent-onset were compared to those with adult-onset for 7 unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics with replicated associations with early-onset patients. Among 502 BD outpatients, those with childhood- (adolescent- (13-18 years, N=218) onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 unfavorable illness characteristics, including lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder, at least ten lifetime mood episodes, lifetime alcohol use disorder, and prior suicide attempt, than those with adult-onset (>18 years, N=174). Childhood- but not adolescent-onset BD patients also had significantly higher rates of first-degree relative with mood disorder, lifetime substance use disorder, and rapid cycling in the prior year. Patients with pooled childhood/adolescent - compared to adult-onset had significantly higher rates for 5/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics, while patients with childhood- compared to adolescent-onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics. Caucasian, insured, suburban, low substance abuse, American specialty clinic-referred sample limits generalizability. Onset age is based on retrospective recall. Childhood- compared to adolescent-onset BD was more robustly related to unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics, so pooling these groups attenuated such relationships. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which adolescent-onset BD represents an intermediate phenotype between childhood- and adult-onset BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  15. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  18. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  19. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  20. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  1. Specific mixing facilitates the comparative quantification of phosphorylation sites with significant dysregulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Bo [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); Liu, Zheyi; Dong, Mingming; Mao, Jiawei; Zhou, Ye; Chen, Jin [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Fangjun, E-mail: wangfj@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); Zou, Hanfa [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative analyses of proteome and proteome post-translational modifications (PTMs) play more and more important roles in biological, pharmaceutical and clinical studies. However, it is still a big challenge to accurately quantify the proteins or proteins PTM sites with extreme relative abundances in comparative protein samples, such as the significantly dysregulated ones. Herein, a novel quantification strategy, Mixing at Specific Ratio (MaSR) before isotope labeling, had been developed to improve the quantification accuracy and coverage of extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites. Briefly, the comparative protein samples were firstly mixed together at specific ratios of 9:1 and 1:9 (w/w), followed with mass differentiate light and heavy isotope labeling, respectively. The extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites, even if the newly expressed or disappeared ones, could be accurately quantified due to all of the proteins' relative abundances had been adjusted to 2 orders of magnitude (1/9-9) by this strategy. The number of quantified phosphorylation sites with more than 20 folds changes was improved about 10 times in comparative quantification of pervanadate stimulated phosphoproteome of HeLa cells, and 134 newly generated and 21 disappeared phosphorylation sites were solely quantified by the MaSR strategy. The significantly up-regulated phosphorylation sites were mainly involved in the key phosphoproteins regulating the insulin-related pathways, such as PI3K-AKT and RAS-MAPK pathways. Therefore, the MaSR strategy exhibits as a promising way in elucidating the biological processes with significant dysregulations. - Highlights: • All the proteins' relative abundances were adjusted into 2 orders of magnitude (1/9-9). • The quantification accuracy and coverage of extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites had been improved. • The newly expressed or disappeared proteins and protein

  2. Systematic comparative and sensitivity analyses of additive and outranking techniques for supporting impact significance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Monterde-Diaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria-Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the significance of environmental impacts is one of the most important and all together difficult processes of Environmental Impact Assessment. This is largely due to the multicriteria nature of the problem. To date, decision techniques used in the process suffer from two drawbacks, namely the problem of compensation and the problem of identification of the 'exact boundary' between sub-ranges. This article discusses these issues and proposes a methodology for determining the significance of environmental impacts based on comparative and sensitivity analyses using the Electre TRI technique. An application of the methodology for the environmental assessment of a Power Plant project within the Valencian Region (Spain) is presented, and its performance evaluated. It is concluded that contrary to other techniques, Electre TRI automatically identifies those cases where allocation of significance categories is most difficult and, when combined with sensitivity analysis, offers greatest robustness in the face of variation in weights of the significance attributes. Likewise, this research demonstrates the efficacy of systematic comparison between Electre TRI and sum-based techniques, in the solution of assignment problems. The proposed methodology can therefore be regarded as a successful aid to the decision-maker, who will ultimately take the final decision

  3. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  4. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...

  5. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  6. Prognostic significance of low skeletal muscle mass compared with protein-energy malnutrition in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Ishii, Akio; Iwata, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Yuho; Ishii, Noriko; Yuri, Yukihisa; Takata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Nishimura, Takashi; Yoh, Kazunori; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naoto; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the impact of low skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) on survival as compared with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 206 individuals with LC were analyzed. We retrospectively examined the impact of LSMM, as defined by psoas muscle mass at the third lumber on computed tomography, on survival as compared with PEM. In terms of comparison of the effects of LSMM and PEM on survival, we used time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our study cohort included 115 men and 91 women with a median age of 67 years. There were 140 patients with Child-Pugh A, 62 with Child-Pugh B, and 4 with Child-Pugh C. A total of 117 patients (56.8%) had LSMM and 52 patients (25.2%) had PEM. The proportion of PEM in patients with LSMM (31.62%, 37/117) was significantly higher than in patients without LSMM (16.85%, 15/89) (P = 0.0229). In the multivariate analysis for the entire cohort, the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, lower body mass index, presence of LSMM, lower triglyceride value, poorer renal function, and higher des-γ-carboxy prothrombin value were found to be significant adverse predictors linked to overall survival, while presence of PEM tended to be significant. In the time-dependent ROC analysis, all area under the ROCs for survival in LSMM at each time point were higher than those in PEM except for Child-Pugh B patients. In this comparison of LSMM and PEM on clinical outcomes in LC patients, it was shown that LSMM may have stronger prognostic impact than PEM. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  7. A Note on Comparing the Power of Test Statistics at Low Significance Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan; Elston, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious fact that the power of a test statistic is dependent upon the significance (alpha) level at which the test is performed. It is perhaps a less obvious fact that the relative performance of two statistics in terms of power is also a function of the alpha level. Through numerous personal discussions, we have noted that even some competent statisticians have the mistaken intuition that relative power comparisons at traditional levels such as α = 0.05 will be roughly similar to relative power comparisons at very low levels, such as the level α = 5 × 10 -8 , which is commonly used in genome-wide association studies. In this brief note, we demonstrate that this notion is in fact quite wrong, especially with respect to comparing tests with differing degrees of freedom. In fact, at very low alpha levels the cost of additional degrees of freedom is often comparatively low. Thus we recommend that statisticians exercise caution when interpreting the results of power comparison studies which use alpha levels that will not be used in practice.

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  9. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  10. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  11. Transabdominal cerclage: the significance of dual pathology and increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Roy G; Topping, Joanne; Quenby, Siobhan M

    2005-10-01

    Transabdominal cerclage is a recognised treatment for cervical weakness with a history of recurrent mid-trimester loss and a failed elective vaginal suture. The emergence of dual pathology, such as antiphospholipid syndrome and bacterial vaginosis, is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-5.8). The first 40 cases are described where strict adherence to an investigation protocol and consistent treatment plan has been implemented.

  12. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  13. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  14. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  15. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  16. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  17. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  18. The prevalence of coeliac disease is significantly higher in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariné, M; Farre, C; Alsina, M; Vilar, P; Cortijo, M; Salas, A; Fernández-Bañares, F; Rosinach, M; Santaolalla, R; Loras, C; Marquès, T; Cusí, V; Hernández, M I; Carrasco, A; Ribes, J; Viver, J M; Esteve, M

    2011-02-01

    Some limited studies of coeliac disease have shown higher frequency of coeliac disease in infancy and adolescence than in adulthood. This finding has remained unnoticed and not adequately demonstrated. To assess whether there are age and gender differences in coeliac disease prevalence. A total of 4230 subjects were included consecutively (1 to ≥80 years old) reproducing the reference population by age and gender. Sample size was calculated assuming a population-based coeliac disease prevalence of 1:250. After an interim analysis, the paediatric sample was expanded (2010 children) due to high prevalence in this group. Anti-transglutaminase and antiendomysial antibodies were determined and duodenal biopsy was performed if positive. Log-linear models were fitted to coeliac disease prevalence by age allowing calculation of percentage change of prevalence. Differences between groups were compared using Chi-squared test. Twenty-one subjects had coeliac disease (male/female 1:2.5). Coeliac disease prevalence in the total population was 1:204. Coeliac disease prevalence was higher in children (1:71) than in adults (1:357) (P = 0.00005). A significant decrease of prevalence in older generations was observed [change of prevalence by age of -5% (95% CI: -7.58 to -2.42%)]. In the paediatric expanded group (1-14 years), a decrease of coeliac disease prevalence was also observed [prevalence change: -17% (95% CI: -25.02 to -6.10)]. The prevalence of coeliac disease in childhood was five times higher than in adults. Whether this difference is due to environmental factors influencing infancy, or latency of coeliac disease in adulthood, remains to be demonstrated in prospective longitudinal studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  2. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  4. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  5. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  6. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  7. Comparative estimation of radioecological significance of natural and technogenic objects of exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Kazakov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Stocks of radionuclides in natural and technogenic objects of a Zone (forests, meadows, former agricultural lands, water objects etc., object 'Shelter', Sites of Radioactive Waste Disposal (SRAWD) and Sites of Temporary Localization of Radioactive Waste (STLRAW)) are estimated. The estimations of fluxes of radionuclides both inside a Zone and out of its borders in normal conditions as well as in case of different natural and technogenic cataclysms (floods, fires, emergencies etc.) with account of probabilities of such events are discussed. The significance of the main fluxes of radionuclide migration beyond the Zone borders is estimated: a surface water flux (river Pripyat), air (wind) transfer, biogenic flux, technogenic migration. The significance of the non-radiological factors influenced on the ecological situation in a Zone (phyto-and zoosanitary, sanitary-epidemiological conditions) is discussed. The problems of irradiation of vegetation and animal organisms in terrestrial and water ecosystems, of personnel and people living on a Zone territory without permission (so called 'self-settlers') are considered. The priority directions of activities for control over the radiological and ecological situation on the territory and in objects of a Zone are formulated. (author)

  8. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  9. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  10. Comparative Anatomy of Myosoton Aquaticum and Stellaria Media and its Systematic Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Bai, L.; Zhou, X.; Wu, L.; Liao, H.

    2016-01-01

    To provide evidence insight into the phylogenetic position of the Myosoton Monch., the anatomy of Myosoton aquaticum and Stellaria media were comparatively observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anatomy of M. aquaticum and St. media is that (1) Root is composed of uniseriate epidermis, parenchyma cortex, endodermis, pericycle and central cylinder, and primary xylem of root is tetrarch. (2) Stem epidermis is arranged in closeness and parallel, and has distinct shuttle-shape tuber. (3) Leaf is dorsiventral mesophyll with palisade layer and spongy parenchyma. (4) Anomocytic type of stomatas are found in the epidermis of the leaf, stem and sepal. (5) Pollen is single and spheroidal. A number of germ pores are completely sunken, papillate and polypantoporate. (6) Crassuliod type of seeds have simple papillae and no strophiole is observed. Seed coat is rounded shape minute secondary sculpturing with an outer surface formed by foveolate epidermal walls. (7) From the globular floral primordium develop to complete bisexual flower, the process of floral initiation is nearly the same. The result supports that: the higher similarity in organ anatomy and floral ontogeny of M. aquaticum and St. media, justifies it is appropriate that Myosoton aquaticum belongs to Stellaria. (author)

  11. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  12. Decline eccentric squats increases patellar tendon loading compared to standard eccentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsgaard, M; Aagaard, P; Roikjaer, S; Olsen, D; Jensen, M; Langberg, H; Magnusson, S P

    2006-08-01

    Recent studies have shown excellent clinical results using eccentric squat training on a 25 degrees decline board to treat patellar tendinopathy. It remains unknown why therapeutic management of patellar tendinopathy using decline eccentric squats offer superior clinical efficacy compared to standard horizontal eccentric squats. This study aimed to compare electromyography activity, patellar tendon strain and joint angle kinematics during standard and decline eccentric squats. Thirteen subjects performed unilateral eccentric squats on flat-and a 25 degrees decline surface. During the squats, electromyography activity was obtained in eight representative muscles. Also, ankle, knee and hip joint goniometry was obtained. Additionally, patellar tendon strain was measured in vivo using ultrasonography as subjects maintained a unilateral isometric 90 degrees knee angle squat position on either flat or 25 degrees decline surface. Patellar tendon strain was significantly greater (Psquat position on the decline surface compared to the standard surface. The stop angles of the ankle and hip joints were significantly smaller during the decline compared to the standard squats (Psquats (Psquats. The use of a 25 degrees decline board increases the load and the strain of the patellar tendon during unilateral eccentric squats. This finding likely explains previous reports of superior clinical efficacy of decline eccentric squats in the rehabilitative management of patellar tendinopathy.

  13. Circulatory and muscle metabolic responses to draught work compared to increasing trotting velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A; Persson, S G

    1988-11-01

    Circulatory and muscle metabolic responses were studied in 10 horses which all performed incremental draught work at a low trotting speed on a treadmill (D-test) and also exercise with gradually increasing velocities (S-test). Exercise was continued until the horses could no longer maintain the weights above the floor or maintain speed trotting without changing gait to a gallop. Muscle biopsies were taken from the gluteus and the semitendinosus muscles before, and immediately after, exercise. The heart rate (HR) increased linearly with both increasing draught resistance and velocity and reached mean values of 212 and 203 beats/min, respectively. Blood lactate levels increased exponentially to mean values of 12.9 and 7.9 mmol/litre in the two tests. Both HR and blood lactate levels were significantly higher at the cessation of work in the D-test compared to the S-test. The relationship between HR and blood lactate response in the S-test was similar to that in the D-test. The red cell volume was determined after a standardised exercise tolerance test and was significantly correlated both to the weightloading and to the velocity, producing a HR of 200 beats/min. The changes seen in muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate were similar in the two tests, whereas significantly higher lactate levels and lower creatine phosphate and adenosine triphosphate levels were seen in the D-test compared to the S-test. It was concluded that high oxidative capacity is of importance both for fast trotting and for draught work.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  15. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  17. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN, which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread, which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05. The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively. The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15. Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40. Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005 independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for

  18. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  19. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-12-07

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  20. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  1. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  2. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  3. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  4. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  5. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  6. Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Matsui, Takashi; Yook, Jang Soo; Soya, Hideaki

    2013-03-14

    Recently, we reported that voluntary resistance wheel running with a resistance of 30% of body weight (RWR), which produces shorter distances but higher work levels, enhances spatial memory associated with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling compared to wheel running without a load (WR) [17]. We thus hypothesized that RWR promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a neuronal substrate underlying this memory improvement. Here we used 10-week-old male Wistar rats divided randomly into sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR groups. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with the thymidine analogue 5-Bromo-2'-deoxuridine (BrdU) for 3 consecutive days before wheel running. We found that even when the average running distance decreased by about half, the average work levels significantly increased in the RWR group, which caused muscular adaptation (oxidative capacity) for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed that the total BrdU-positive cells and newborn mature cells (BrdU/NeuN double-positive) in the dentate gyrus increased in both the WR and RWR groups. These results provide new evidence that RWR has beneficial effects on AHN comparable to WR, even with short running distances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  8. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  9. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  10. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  11. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys.Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling.Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys.These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  12. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; McKenzie, Samantha J; Beck, Alan M; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs) compared to toys. Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers). Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact) and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing) as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining) in the presence of animals compared to toys. These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  13. Social Behaviors Increase in Children with Autism in the Presence of Animals Compared to Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; McKenzie, Samantha J.; Beck, Alan M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs) compared to toys. Methods Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers). Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Results Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact) and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing) as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining) in the presence of animals compared to toys. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD. PMID:23468902

  14. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Increases Colonoscopic Adenoma Detection Rate Compared With Air Insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher D; McCamley, Chere; Swan, Michael P

    2018-03-07

    To determine the effect of carbon dioxide insufflation on the most important outcome measure of colonoscopic quality: adenoma detection rate (ADR). Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females in Australia. Carbon dioxide has in recent times become the insufflation methodology of choice for screening colonoscopy for bowel cancer, as this has been shown to have significant advantages when compared with traditional air insufflation. Endoscopies performed over a period of 9 months immediately before and after the implementation of carbon dioxide insufflation at endoscopy centers were eligible for inclusion. The difference in ADR between the carbon dioxide and air insufflation methods was statistically significant, with an increased ADR in the carbon dioxide group. The superiority of carbon dioxide insufflation was sustained with a logistic regression model, which showed ADR was significantly impacted by insufflation method. Carbon dioxide insufflation is known to reduce abdominal pain, postprocedural duration of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and analgesic requirements. This study represents for the first time the beneficial effect of carbon dioxide insufflation upon the key quality colonoscopy indicator of ADR.

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts (≥1,600 cm 3 , n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT

  16. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  17. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  18. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    =0.038 compared to controls. Significant differences were also observed for secondary variables: lower values for relative parietooccipital delta and frontocentral alpha activity among AN patients than among controls.Conclusion: We observed slight excess frontal theta and lower relative alpha and delta amplitudes among AN patients than among controls. This pattern is possibly related to a slight frontal lobe dysfunction in AN, or it may reflect increased attention/vigilance or another state-related change in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. Keywords: anorexia, EEG, frontal theta, alpha, delta, eating disorders

  19. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  20. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  1. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  2. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  3. A High-Throughput Computational Framework for Identifying Significant Copy Number Aberrations from Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable identification of copy number aberrations (CNA from comparative genomic hybridization data would be improved by the availability of a generalised method for processing large datasets. To this end, we developed swatCGH, a data analysis framework and region detection heuristic for computational grids. swatCGH analyses sequentially displaced (sliding windows of neighbouring probes and applies adaptive thresholds of varying stringency to identify the 10% of each chromosome that contains the most frequently occurring CNAs. We used the method to analyse a published dataset, comparing data preprocessed using four different DNA segmentation algorithms, and two methods for prioritising the detected CNAs. The consolidated list of the most commonly detected aberrations confirmed the value of swatCGH as a simplified high-throughput method for identifying biologically significant CNA regions of interest.

  4. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  5. Increasing Healthcare Burden of Chronic Liver Disease Compared to Other Chronic Diseases, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrani, Sumeet K; Kouznetsova, Maria; Ogola, Gerald; Taylor, Thomas; Masica, Andrew; Pope, Brandon; Trotter, James; Kamath, Patrick; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2018-05-23

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a common and expensive condition, and studies of CLD-related hospitalizations have underestimated the true burden of disease. We analyzed data from a large diverse healthcare system to compare time trends in CLD-related hospitalizations with those of congestive heart failure (CHF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We collected data from a large healthcare system in Texas on hospitalizations related to CLD (n=27,783), CHF (n=60,415), and COPD (n=34,199) from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2013. We calculated annual hospitalization rates (per 100,000) and compared hospital course, inpatient mortality, ancillary services and re-admissions. Compared to patients with CHF (median age, 71 years) or COPD (median age 69 years), patients with CLD were significantly younger (median age 57 years; PCLD were uninsured (11.7% vs 5.4% for CHF and 5.4% for COPD; PCLD vs 9.3% for CHF and 5.0% for COPD; PCLD had Medicare (41.5% vs 68.6% with CHF and 70.1% with COPD; PCLD-related hospitalization increased by 92% (from 1295/100,000 to 2490/100,000), compared to 6.7% for CHF (from 3843/100,000 to 4103/100,000) and 48.8% for COPD (from 1775/100,000 to 2642/100,000). During this time period, CLD-related hospitalizations covered by Medicare increased from 31.8% to 41.5%, whereas hospitalizations covered by Medicare did not change for CHF (remained at 70%) or COPD (remained at 70%). Patients with CLD had longer hospital stays (7.3 days vs 6.2 days for CHF or 5.9 days for COPD; PCLD died or were discharged to hospice (14.2% vs 11.5% of patients with CHF and 9.3% of patients with COPD PCLD were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days (25% vs 21.9% of patients with CHF and 20.6% with COPD; PCLD. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  7. Diagnostic significance of rib series in minor thorax trauma compared to plain chest film and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstetter, Patrick; Dornia, Christian; Schäfer, Stephan; Wagner, Merle; Dendl, Lena M; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schreyer, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    Rib series (RS) are a special radiological technique to improve the visualization of the bony parts of the chest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rib series in minor thorax trauma. Retrospective study of 56 patients who received RS, 39 patients where additionally evaluated by plain chest film (PCF). All patients underwent a computed tomography (CT) of the chest. RS and PCF were re-read independently by three radiologists, the results were compared with the CT as goldstandard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value were calculated. Significance in the differences of findings was determined by McNemar test, interobserver variability by Cohens kappa test. 56 patients were evaluated (34 men, 22 women, mean age =61 y.). In 22 patients one or more rib fracture could be identified by CT. In 18 of these cases (82%) the correct diagnosis was made by RS, in 16 cases (73%) the correct number of involved ribs was detected. These differences were significant (p = 0.03). Specificity was 100%, negative and positive predictive value were 85% and 100%. Kappa values for the interobserver agreement was 0.92-0.96. Sensitivity of PCF was 46% and was significantly lower (p = 0.008) compared to CT. Rib series does not seem to be an useful examination in evaluating minor thorax trauma. CT seems to be the method of choice to detect rib fractures, but the clinical value of the radiological proof has to be discussed and investigated in larger follow up studies.

  8. Increased risk of treatment with antidepressants in stroke compared with other chronic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik; Harhoff, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with stroke than in the general population but it is unclear whether patients with stroke are at an increased risk of being treated for depression and anxiety compared with patients with other chronic illness. The objective...... of the present study was to investigate whether the rate of treatment with antidepressants is increased in patients with stroke compared with patients with other chronic illness and compared with the general population. By linkage of nationwide case registers, all patients who received a main diagnosis of stroke...

  9. Comparative analysis of diagnostic significance of biomarkers’ panels in cardiac recipients in the long term period after transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A and ST2 in recipients with cardiac rejection in different periods after transplantation. Materials and methods. The study included 144 cardiac recipients aged from 12 to 71 (mean age 44 ± 14 years old, among those 112 were men. Venous blood plasma taken on the same day with endomyocardial biopsy was used for the study. The concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB were measured using xMAP technology. The concentrations of ST2 were measured by ELISA. Results. Men had significantly higher levels of ST2 and VEGF-A compared to women (p = 0.03. No correlation was found between the levels of biomarkers (sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A, ST2 and age, diagnosis before transplantation, presence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Comparative analysis of the biomarkers’ levels didn’t show significant difference between patients with heart transplant rejection and without it in the first month and in the first year after transplantation. The ST2 level was significantly higher in patients with heart rejection (p = 0.01 in the long term period (1–5 years after transplantation compared to patients without rejection. Relative risk of cardiac transplant rejection was significantly higher in patients with high (>22.8 ng/ml ST2 level (RR = 2.59 ± 0.33; Se – 35%, Sp – 93%. However, its combination with other biomarkers improved their diagnostic value. Relative risk for panel including ST2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB 3.47 ± 0.55, Se – 57%, Sp – 91%; relative risk for panel including ST2, sCD40L and PDGF-BB was 3.75 ± 0.59, Se – 50%, Sp – 92%. The highest diagnostic efficacy for the heart transplant rejection was reached by a panel of biomarkers that included ST2 and PDGF-BB (RR = 5.0 ± 0.56 [95% CI 1.68–14.92], Se – 63%, Sp – 94%. Conclusion. ST2 had the biggest

  10. A significant increase in the pepsinogen I/II ratio is a reliable biomarker for successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Osumi

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT, anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG, in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital. We evaluated the relationship between H. pylori eradication and percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios before and 3 months after treatment with CLEIA® (FUJIREBIO Inc, Tokyo, Japan. The gold standard of H. pylori eradication was defined as negative by the UBT performed 3 months after completion of eradication treatment. Cut-off values for percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios were set as +40, +25 and +10% when the serum PG I/II ratio before treatment was below 3.0, above 3.0 but below 5.0 and 5.0 or above, respectively.Serum PG I and PG II levels were measured in 562 patients with H. pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 433 patients studied (77.0%. The ratios of first, second, third-line and penicillin allergy eradication treatment were 73.8% (317/429, 88.3% (99/112, 75% (12/16 and 100% (5/5, respectively. An increasing percentage in the serum levels of the PG I/II ratios after treatment compared with the values before treatment clearly distinguished success from failure of eradication (108.2±57.2 vs. 6.8±30.7, p<0.05. Using the above cut-off values, the sensitivity, specificity and validity for determination of H. pylori were 93.1, 93.8 and 93.2%, respectively.In conclusion, the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios are useful as evaluation criteria for assessing the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.

  11. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P; Iafrate, A John

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis.

  13. The comparative mind-set: from animal comparisons to increased purchase intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Wyer, Robert S

    2008-09-01

    Stimulating people to state a preference for one of two commercial products can increase their willingness to purchase not only one of these products, but also other products in a totally unrelated domain. However, willingness to make a purchase in a given domain (e.g., computers) can also be increased by asking individuals (a) to indicate which of two stimuli in a different domain (e.g., vacation packages) they dislike more, (b) to compare the relative attractiveness of wild animals, (c) to compare the animals with respect to physical attributes, and (d) to estimate how similar one object is to another. Moreover, the effects generalize to decisions about dating partners, as well as consumer products. In short, making any type of comparative judgment appears likely to give rise to a comparative-judgment mind-set and, therefore, to influence decisions in subsequent situations.

  14. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  15. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  18. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jiryaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1 goal-setting strategy and 2 group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05. BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  19. Comparability of Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory ratings by staff, significant others and people with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F

    2004-06-01

    To determine the internal consistency, reliability and comparability of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) and sub-scales completed by people with acquired brain injury (ABI), family and significant others (SO) and rehabilitation staff. 134 people with ABI consecutively seen for outpatient rehabilitation evaluation. MPAI-4 protocols based on independent ratings by the people with ABI undergoing evaluation, SO and rehabilitation staff were submitted to Rasch Facets analysis to determine the internal consistency of the overall measure and sub-scales (Ability, Adjustment and Participation indices) for each rater group and for a composite measure based on all rater groups. Rater agreement for individual items was also examined. Rasch indicators of internal consistency were entirely within acceptable limits for 3-rater composite full scale and sub-scale measures; these indicators were generally within acceptable limits for measures based on a single rater group. Item agreement was generally acceptable; disagreements suggested various sources of bias for specific rater groups. The MPAI-4 possesses satisfactory internal consistency regardless of rating source. A composite measure based on ratings made independently by people with ABI, SO and staff may serve as a 'gold standard' for research purposes. In the clinical setting, assessment of varying perspectives and biases may not only best represent outcome as evaluated by all parties involved but be essential to developing effective rehabilitation plans.

  20. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  2. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  3. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  6. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-10-01

    Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  7. A Significant Increase of RNAi Efficiency in Human Cells by the CMV Enhancer with a tRNAlys Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNAlys and CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNAlys or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene.

  8. A Significant Increase of RNAi Efficiency in Human Cells by the CMV Enhancer with a tRNAlys Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Ma; Zhenhua, Xie; Feng, Liu; Hang, Ning; Yuyang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNAlys and CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNAlys or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene. PMID:19859553

  9. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  10. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  11. No increased risk of developing depression in diabetes compared to other chronic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Siersma, Volkert

    2003-01-01

    of patients. There was no difference in the risk for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It is concluded that older patients with diabetes do not seem to have an increased risk of developing severe depression compared with patients with other chronic illness.......Several studies have found that the prevalence of depression in patients with diabetes is higher than in the general population but it is unclear whether patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing depression compared with patients with other chronic illnesses. In a nationwide case...... register study, all patients who had a discharge diagnosis of diabetes or of osteoarthritis at first admission in a period from 1977 to 1997 were identified. The probability of being readmitted and discharged with a diagnosis of depression was estimated with competing risks models in survival analysis...

  12. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  13. The XX sex chromosome complement in mice is associated with increased spontaneous lupus compared with XY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, Manda V; Itoh, Noriko; Gold, Stefan M; Lawson, Gregory W; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2012-08-01

    Many autoimmune diseases are characterised by a female predominance. This may be caused by sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both. This report uses a transgenic mouse model to investigate how sex chromosome complement, not confounded by differences in gonadal type, might contribute to lupus pathogenesis. Transgenic NZM2328 mice were created by deletion of the Sry gene from the Y chromosome, thereby separating genetic from gonadal sex. Survival, renal histopathology and markers of immune activation were compared in mice carrying the XX versus the XY(-) sex chromosome complement, with each genotype being ovary bearing. Mice with XX sex chromosome complement compared with XY(-) exhibited poorer survival rates and increased kidney pathology. Splenic T lymphocytes from XX mice demonstrated upregulated X-linked CD40 ligand expression and higher levels of activation markers ex vivo. Increased MMP, TGF and IL-13 production was found, while IL-2 was lower in XX mice. An accumulation of splenic follicular B cells and peritoneal marginal zone B cells was observed, coupled with upregulated costimulatory marker expression on B cells in XX mice. These data show that the XX sex chromosome complement, compared with XY(-), is associated with accelerated spontaneous lupus.

  14. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG during stabilized and normal walking.Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 minutes; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e. lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability.

  15. Platelet reactivity changes significantly throughout all trimesters of pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state: a prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N

    2013-12-01

    Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of uteroplacental disease and platelet reactivity may be an important marker of uteroplacental disease activity. However, platelet reactivity has not been evaluated comprehensively in normal pregnancy. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity using a number of agonists at defined time points in pregnancy using a novel platelet assay and compare these with a nonpregnant cohort.

  16. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was 5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased incidence of postoperative infections during prophylaxis with cephalothin compared to doxycycline in intestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Nilsen, Roy M; Svensen, Rune

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The antibiotics used for prophylaxis during surgery may influence the rate of surgical site infections. Tetracyclines are attractive having a long half-life and few side effects when used in a single dose regimen. We studied the rate of surgical site infections during changing regimens...... controls. The registration included time periods when the regimen was changed from doxycycline to cephalothin and back again. RESULTS: The SSI in the colorectal department increased from 19% to 30% (p=0.002) when doxycycline was substituted with cephalothin and decreased to 17% when we changed back...... to doxycycline (p=0.005). In the gynaecology department the surgical site infection rate did not increase significantly. Subgroup analysis showed major changes in infections in rectal resections from 20% to 35% (p=0.02) and back to 12% (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Doxycycline combined with metronidazole...

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  19. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  20. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Incani, Renzo N; Franco, Carolina R; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I; Hermans, Peter W M; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic

  1. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly M Verhagen

    Full Text Available Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism.Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18% while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37% and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%. Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20.In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and

  2. Visually directed vs. software-based targeted biopsy compared to transperineal template mapping biopsy in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Massimo; McCartan, Neil; Freeman, Alex; Punwani, Shonit; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2015-10-01

    Targeted biopsy based on cognitive or software magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to transrectal ultrasound registration seems to increase the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer as compared with standard biopsy. However, these strategies have not been directly compared against an accurate test yet. The aim of this study was to obtain pilot data on the diagnostic ability of visually directed targeted biopsy vs. software-based targeted biopsy, considering transperineal template mapping (TPM) biopsy as the reference test. Prospective paired cohort study included 50 consecutive men undergoing TPM with one or more visible targets detected on preoperative multiparametric MRI. Targets were contoured on the Biojet software. Patients initially underwent software-based targeted biopsies, then visually directed targeted biopsies, and finally systematic TPM. The detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason score ≥3+4 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥4mm) of one strategy against another was compared by 3×3 contingency tables. Secondary analyses were performed using a less stringent threshold of significance (Gleason score ≥4+3 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥6mm). Median age was 68 (interquartile range: 63-73); median prostate-specific antigen level was 7.9ng/mL (6.4-10.2). A total of 79 targets were detected with a mean of 1.6 targets per patient. Of these, 27 (34%), 28 (35%), and 24 (31%) were scored 3, 4, and 5, respectively. At a patient level, the detection rate was 32 (64%), 34 (68%), and 38 (76%) for visually directed targeted, software-based biopsy, and TPM, respectively. Combining the 2 targeted strategies would have led to detection rate of 39 (78%). At a patient level and at a target level, software-based targeted biopsy found more clinically significant diseases than did visually directed targeted biopsy, although this was not statistically significant (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.48; 51.9% vs. 44.3%, P = 0.24). Secondary

  3. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  4. Increased recovery of touch DNA evidence using FTA paper compared to conventional collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Irina A; Calloway, Cassandra

    2017-04-01

    Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method. However, the DNA collection yield was dependent on the collection method. A statistically significant difference in DNA yield was observed between FTA scraping and double swabbing methods (p = 0.0051), with FTA paper collecting a two-fold higher amount. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in DNA yields between the double swabbing and tape lifting techniques (p = 0.21). Based on the DNA concentration required for 1 ng input, 47% of the samples collected using FTA paper would be expected to yield a short tandem repeat (STR) profile compared to 30% and 23% using double swabbing or tape, respectively. Further, 55% and 77% of the samples collected using double swabbing or tape, respectively, did not yield a high enough DNA concentration for the 0.5 ng of DNA input recommended for conventional STR kits and would be expected to result in a partial or no profile compared to 35% of the samples collected using FTA paper. STR analysis was conducted for a subset of the higher concentrated samples to confirm that the DNA collected from the steering wheel was from the driver. 32 samples were selected with DNA amounts of at least 1 ng total DNA (100 pg/μl when concentrated if required). A mixed STR profile was observed for 26 samples (88%) and the last driver was the major DNA contributor for 29 samples (94%). For one sample, the last driver was the minor DNA contributor. A full STR profile of the last driver was observed for

  5. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  6. Increased immunogenicity of the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine compared to a conventional subunit vaccine in elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, R.; Pozzi, T.; Montomoli, E.; Fragapane, E.; Senatore, F.; Minutello, M.; Podda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Three-hundred and eight outpatient elderly subjects (≥ 65 years) were randomly assigned to receive the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (FLUAD; n = 204) or a conventional subunit influenza vaccine (AGRIPPAL S1; n = 104) in order to compare the safety and immunogenicity of the two vaccines. Although mild pain at the injection site was reported more frequently by subjects immunised with the adjuvanted vaccine, both vaccines were shown to be safe and well tolerated. The adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic as indicated by higher post-immunisation geometric mean titres (GMTs) and by higher proportions of subjects with post-immunisation ≥ four fold increases of antibody titres or subjects with ≥ 1/160 post-immunisation HI titres. These differences, statistically significant for all three strains after immunisation, indicated that, by addition of the MF59 adjuvant emulsion, conventional subunit influenza antigens acquire an enhanced immunogenicity without any clinically significant increase of their reactogenicity

  7. Increased radiosensitivity of cerebral capillaries in neonatal Gunn rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.; Arn, D.

    1979-01-01

    The extent of petechial haemorrhages of the cerebral cortex examined between 14 hours and 4 days after X-irradiation to the head was compared in Sprague-Dawley and homozygous Gunn rats with congenital hyperbilirubinaemia. Animals 1 to 2 days old received single doses of either 250, 500 or 750 rad. By means of a special scoring scale the degree of the damage to the micro vasculature was semi-quantitatively estimated. In both strains a significant difference in effect was obtained between 250 and 500 rad, but not between 500 and 750 rad. The shape of the dose-effect curve in Gunn rats was similar to that of Sprague-Dawley rats, but displaced upwards. In Gunn rats the effect of 250 rad was greater that that of 750 rad in Sprague-Dawley rats. Possible radiosensitizing mechanisms are discussed with reference to the literature and these results. (author)

  8. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  11. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  12. The biomechanical characteristics of wearing FitFlop™ sandals highlight significant alterations in gait pattern: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Darren C; Farmer, Laura J; Sayers, Jason B; Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N

    2015-05-01

    The net contribution of all muscles that act about a joint can be represented as an internal joint moment profile. This approach may be advantageous when studying footwear-induced perturbations during walking since the contribution of the smaller deeper muscles that cross the ankle joint cannot be evaluated with surface electromyography. Therefore, the present study aimed to advance the understanding of FitFlop™ footwear interaction by investigating lower extremity joint moment, and kinematic and centre of pressure profiles during gait. 28 healthy participants performed 5 walking trials in 3 conditions: a FitFlop™ sandal, a conventional sandal and an athletic trainer. Three-dimensional ankle joint, and sagittal plane knee and hip joint moments, as well as corresponding kinematics and centre of pressure trajectories were evaluated. FitFlop™ differed significantly to both the conventional sandal and athletic trainer in: average anterior position of centre of pressure trajectory (Pgait pattern of wearers. An anterior displacement of the centre of pressure trajectory during early stance is the primary response to the destabilising effect of the mid-sole technology, and this leads to reductions in sagittal plane ankle joint range of motion and corresponding kinetics. Future investigations should consider the clinical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Malignant progressive tumor cell clone exhibits significant up-regulation of cofilin-2 and 27-kDa modified form of cofilin-1 compared to regressive clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Wang, Yufeng; Okada, Futoshi; Baron, Byron; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Takao; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    QR-32 is a regressive murine fibrosarcoma cell clone which cannot grow when they are transplanted in mice; QRsP-11 is a progressive malignant tumor cell clone derived from QR-32 which shows strong tumorigenicity. A recent study showed there to be differentially expressed up-regulated and down-regulated proteins in these cells, which were identified by proteomic differential display analyses by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Cofilins are small proteins of less than 20 kDa. Their function is the regulation of actin assembly. Cofilin-1 is a small ubiquitous protein, and regulates actin dynamics by means of binding to actin filaments. Cofilin-1 plays roles in cell migration, proliferation and phagocytosis. Cofilin-2 is also a small protein, but it is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. There are many reports showing the positive correlation between the level of cofilin-1 and cancer progression. We have also reported an increased expression of cofilin-1 in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to adjacent paired normal tissues. On the other hand, cofilin-2 was significantly less expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Therefore, the present study investigated the comparison of the levels of cofilin-1 and cofilin-2 in regressive QR-32 and progressive QRsP-11cells by western blotting. Cofilin-2 was significantly up-regulated in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells (p<0.001). On the other hand, the difference of the intensities of the bands of cofilin-1 (18 kDa) in QR-32 and QRsP-11 was not significant. However, bands of 27 kDa showed a quite different intensity between QR-32 and QRsP-11, with much higher intensities in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 (p<0.001). These results suggested that the 27-kDa protein recognized by the antibody against cofilin-1 is a possible biomarker for progressive tumor cells.

  14. Delayed flumazenil injection after endoscopic sedation increases patient satisfaction compared with immediate flumazenil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Jung; Bang, Byoung Wook; Kim, Hyung Gil; Kwon, Kye Sook; Shin, Yong Woon; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Park, Shin Goo

    2014-01-01

    Flumazenil was administered after the completion of endoscopy under sedation to reduce recovery time and increase patient safety. We evaluated patient satisfaction after endoscopy under sedation according to the timing of a postprocedural flumazenil injection. In total, 200 subjects undergoing concurrent colonoscopy and upper endoscopy while sedated with midazolam and meperidine were enrolled in our investigation. We randomly administered 0.3 mg of flumazenil either immediately or 15 minutes after the endoscopic procedure. A postprocedural questionnaire and next day telephone interview were conducted to assess patient satisfaction. Flumazenil injection timing did not affect the time spent in the recovery room when comparing the two groups of patients. However, the subjects in the 15 minutes injection group were more satisfied with undergoing endoscopy under sedation than the patients in the immediate injection group according to the postprocedural survey (p=0.019). However, no difference in overall satisfaction, memory, or willingness to undergo a future endoscopy was observed between the two groups when the telephone survey was conducted on the following day. This study demonstrated that a delayed flumazenil injection after endoscopic sedation increased patient satisfaction without prolonging recovery time, even though the benefit of the delayed flumazenil injection did not persist into the following day.

  15. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  16. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  17. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  18. Increasing Disadvantages in Cancer Survival in New Zealand Compared to Australia, between 2000-05 and 2006-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mark Elwood

    Full Text Available New Zealand has lower cancer survival compared to its neighbour Australia. If this were due to long established differences between the two patient populations, it might be expected to be either constant in time, or decreasing, as improving health services deals with inequities. In this study we compared trends in relative cancer survival ratios in New Zealand and Australia between 2000-05 and 2006-10, using data from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. Over this period, Australia showed significant improvements (6.0% in men, 3.0% in women in overall 5-year cancer survival, with substantial increases in survival from major cancer sites such as lung, bowel, prostate, and breast cancers. New Zealand had only a 1.8% increase in cancer survival in men and 1.3% in women, with non-significant changes in survival from lung and bowel cancers, although there were increases in survival from prostate and breast cancers. For all cancers combined, and for lung and bowel cancer, the improvements in survival and the greater improvements in Australia were mainly in 1-year survival, suggesting factors related to diagnosis and presentation. For breast cancer, the improvements were similar in each country and seen in survival after the first year. The findings underscore the need to accelerate the efforts to improve early diagnosis and optimum treatment for New Zealand cancer patients to catch up with the progress in Australia.

  19. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rasmus Rivinius,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Bastian Schmack,2 Christian Erbel,1 Christian A Gleissner,1 Mohammadreza Akhavanpoor,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Fabrice F Darche,1 Patrick A Schweizer,1 Dierk Thomas,1 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Tom Bruckner,3 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, 3Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF and mortality after HTX.Methods: Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone. Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival.Results: Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0% received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105. Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this

  20. Increased detection of mastitis pathogens by real-time PCR compared to bacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-09-21

    Rapid and accurate identification of mastitis pathogens is important for disease control. Bacterial culture and isolate identification is considered the gold standard in mastitis diagnosis but is time consuming and results in many culture-negative samples. Identification of mastitis pathogens by PCR has been proposed as a fast and sensitive alternative to bacterial culture. The results of bacterial culture and PCR for the identification of the aetiological agent of clinical mastitis were compared. The pathogen identified by traditional culture methods was also detected by PCR in 98 per cent of cases indicating good agreement between the positive results of bacterial culture and PCR. A mastitis pathogen could not be recovered from approximately 30 per cent of samples by bacterial culture, however, an aetiological agent was identified by PCR in 79 per cent of these samples. Therefore, a mastitis pathogen was detected in significantly more milk samples by PCR than by bacterial culture (92 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively) although the clinical relevance of PCR-positive culture-negative results remains controversial. A mixed infection of two or more mastitis pathogens was also detected more commonly by PCR. Culture-negative samples due to undetected Staphylococcus aureus infections were rare. The use of PCR technology may assist in rapid mastitis diagnosis, however, accurate interpretation of PCR results in the absence of bacterial culture remains problematic.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese and Malawian children: a cross-cultural comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei

    2014-08-14

    Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5-5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6-9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4-6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3-5.9). We conclude that diverse cultures affect children's mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures.

  2. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous intervention for infrainguinal occlusive disease in women: equivalent outcomes despite increased severity of disease compared with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRubertis, Brian G; Vouyouka, Angela; Rhee, Soo J; Califano, Joseph; Karwowski, John; Angle, Niren; Faries, Peter L; Kent, K Craig

    2008-07-01

    Experience with open surgical bypass suggests similar overall outcomes in women compared with men, but significantly increased risk of wound complications. Percutaneous treatment of lower extremity occlusive disease is therefore an attractive alternative in women, although it is not clear whether there is a difference in outcomes between women and men treated with this technique. We sought to determine the results and predictors of failure in women treated by percutaneous intervention. Percutaneous infrainguinal revascularization was performed on 309 women between 2001 and 2006. Procedures, complications, demographics, comorbidities, and follow-up data were entered into a prospective database for review. Patency was assessed primarily by duplex ultrasonography. Outcomes were expressed by Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by log-rank analysis. A total of 447 percutaneous interventions performed in 309 women were analyzed and compared with 553 interventions in men. Mean age in women was 73.2 years; comorbidities included hypertension (HTN) (86%), diabetes melitus (DM) (58%), chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) (15%), hemodialysis (7%), hypercholesterolemia (52%), coronary artery disease (CAD) (42%), and tobacco use (47%). Indications in women included claudication (38.0%), rest pain (18.8%), and tissue loss (43.2%). Overall primary & secondary patency and limb-salvage rates for women were 38% +/- 4%, 66% +/- 3%, and 80% +/- 4% at 24 months. In this patient sample, women were significantly more likely than men to present with limb-threatening ischemia (61.6% vs 47.3%, P diabetes, and advanced TASC severity lesions were at increased risk of failure overall, there were no differences between women and men with these characteristics. Percutaneous infrainguinal revascularization is a very effective modality in women with lower extremity occlusive disease. Although women in this sample were more likely to present with limb-threat than men, patency and limb-salvage rates were

  4. Increased prevalence of low back pain among physiotherapy students compared to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Mazzocchin, Thaís; de Braga, Gustavo Lisbôa; Kleber, Fabrício Diniz; Barreto, Felipe; Santin, Juliana Tosetto; Barazzetti, Daniel; Lazzaretti, Lucas; Steiner, Bruna; Beckenkamp, Natália Laste

    2011-03-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that physiotherapists have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). The association between physiotherapy students, who are potentially exposed to the same LBP occupational risks as graduates, and LBP has never been demonstrated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The study design includes a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based study was carried out with physiotherapy and medical students. LBP was measured as lifetime, 1-year and point prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find the factors associated with LBP. Bivariate analyses were also performed to assess differences between LBP characteristics in the two courses. 77.9% of the students had LBP at some point in their lives, 66.8% in the last year and 14.4% of them reported they were suffering from LBP at the moment of answering the questionnaire. Physiotherapy students reported a higher prevalence of LBP when compared with the medical students in all measures. In the logistic regression model, physiotherapy students (A-OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.35-4.67; p = 0.003), and being exposed to the undergraduate study for more than four semesters (A-OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.43-4.55; p = 0.001) were independently associated with LBP. There were no differences between the courses concerning pain intensity and disability. As it was a cross-sectional study, we were not able to observe accurately if there is an increasing incidence of LBP during the course. Also, we did not intend to identify which activities in the course were associated with the development of LBP. This study clearly demonstrated an association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The length of course exposure is also associated with LBP.

  5. Are Obese Patients at an Increased Risk of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Compared to Non-obese Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Isaac José Felippe Corrêa; Pinto, Rodrigo Ambar; Jorge, José Marcio Neves; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Bustamante-Lopez, Leonardo Alfonso; Cecconello, Ivan; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Factors associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure such as chronic cough, morbid obesity, and constipation may be related to pelvic floor dysfunction. In this study, we compared anorectal manometry values and clinical data of class II and III morbidly obese patients referred to bariatric surgery with that of non-obese patients. We performed a case-matched study between obese patients referred to bariatric surgery and non-obese patients without anorectal complaints. The groups were matched by age and gender. Men and nulliparous women with no history of abdominal or anorectal surgery were included in the study. Anorectal manometry was performed by the stationary technique, and clinical evaluation was based on validated questionnaires. Mean age was 44.8 ± 12.5 years (mean ± SD) in the obese group and 44.1 ± 11.8 years in the non-obese group (p = 0.829). In the obese group, 65.4% of patients had some degree of fecal incontinence. Mean squeeze pressure was significantly lower in obese than in non-obese patients (155.6 ± 64.1 vs. 210.1 ± 75.9 mmHg, p = 0.004), and there was no significant difference regarding mean rest pressure in obese patients compared to non-obese ones (63.7 ± 23.1 vs. 74.1 ± 21.8 mmHg, p = 0.051). There were no significant differences in anorectal manometry values between continent and incontinent obese patients. The prevalence of fecal incontinence among obese patients was high regardless of age, gender, and body mass index. Anal squeeze pressure was significantly lower in obese patients compared to non-obese controls.

  6. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  7. Increased expression of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in osteoarthritis of human knee joint compared to hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John H; Rai, Vikrant; Dilisio, Matthew F; Sekundiak, Todd D; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by the destruction of cartilage. The greatest risk factors for the development of OA include age and obesity. Recent studies suggest the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of OA. The two most common locations for OA to occur are in the knee and hip joints. The knee joint experiences more mechanical stress, cartilage degeneration, and inflammation than the hip joint. This could contribute to the increased incidence of OA in the knee joint. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including high-mobility group box-1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, and alarmins (S100A8 and S100A9), are released in the joint in response to stress-mediated chondrocyte and cartilage damage. This facilitates increased cartilage degradation and inflammation in the joint. Studies have documented the role of DAMPs in the pathogenesis of OA; however, the comparison of DAMPs and its influence on OA has not been discussed. In this study, we compared the DAMPs between OA knee and hip joints and found a significant difference in the levels of DAMPs expressed in the knee joint compared to the hip joint. The increased levels of DAMPs suggest a difference in the underlying pathogenesis of OA in the knee and the hip and highlights DAMPs as potential therapeutic targets for OA in the future.

  8. Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic-Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored. We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic-ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department (ED) presentation. We evaluated the records of 53,313 ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June 2015. The HR-to-systolic ratio was compared to SIRS criteria for sepsis prediction. There were 884 patients with discharge diagnoses of sepsis, severe sepsis, and/or septic shock. Variations in three presenting variables, heart rate, systolic BP and temperature were determined to be primary early predictors of sepsis with a 74% (654/884) accuracy compared to 34% (304/884) using SIRS criteria (p < 0.0001)in confirmed septic patients. Physiologically-based predictive analytics improved the accuracy and expediency of sepsis identification via detection of variations in HR-to-systolic ratio. This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PEGylated polylysine dendrimers increase lymphatic exposure to doxorubicin when compared to PEGylated liposomal and solution formulations of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma M; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Bulitta, Jürgen B; McIntosh, Michelle P; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-11-28

    Improved delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the lymphatic system has the potential to augment outcomes for cancer therapy by enhancing activity against lymph node metastases. Uptake of small molecule chemotherapeutics into the lymphatic system, however, is limited. Nano-sized drug carriers have the potential to promote access to the lymphatics, but to this point, this has not been examined in detail. The current study therefore evaluated the lymphatic exposure of doxorubicin after subcutaneous and intravenous administration as a simple solution formulation or when formulated as a doxorubicin loaded PEGylated poly-lysine dendrimer (hydrodynamic diameter 12 nm), a PEGylated liposome (100 nm) and various pluronic micellar formulations (~5 nm) to thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. Plasma and lymph pharmacokinetics were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic modelling in S-ADAPT, and Berkeley Madonna software was used to predict the lymphatic exposure of doxorubicin over an extended period of time. The micelle formulations displayed poor in vivo stability, resulting in doxorubicin profiles that were similar to that observed after administration of the doxorubicin solution formulation. In contrast, the dendrimer formulation significantly increased the recovery of doxorubicin in the thoracic lymph after both intravenous and subcutaneous dosing when compared to the solution or micellar formulation. Dendrimer-doxorubicin also resulted in increases in lymphatic doxorubicin concentrations when compared to the liposome formulation, although liposomal doxorubicin did increase lymphatic transport when compared to the solution formulation. Specifically, the dendrimer formulation increased the recovery of doxorubicin in the lymph up to 30 h post dose by up to 685 fold and 3.7 fold when compared to the solution and liposomal formulations respectively. Using the compartmental model to predict lymphatic exposure to longer time periods suggested that doxorubicin exposure to

  10. Financing schemes increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in public and private buildings. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    What are the solutions to the municipal budget cuts? How can the cities finance their energy transition? What can we do to make it a driving force to boost the local economy and job creation? What are the new financial cash flows for this new economy? One of the solutions is to rethink financing solutions, and the local authorities that are engaged in energy transition are the best placed to do so. Many cities have voluntarily committed to reducing CO_2 emissions on their territories, notably by increasing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources. Nearly 6,500 cities are committed to the objective to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO_2 reduction objective by 2020. They have already developed their Baseline Emissions Inventories and Sustainable Energy Action Plans and thus are well aware of the energy flows on their territories, energy saving potential and the cost-effectiveness of the planned measures. The next step is to secure their financing sources and here both the private and public sector play a key role. Governments at all levels (European, national, regional and local), financial institutions, businesses, citizens and other local stakeholders should channel part of their funds to measures that help achieving our common energy and climate goals. Local authorities' role is to motivate and coordinate players on their territory. For its part, the European Union increased the amount allocated to energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in its 2014-2020 budget, giving a signal that a shift towards a low carbon economy is one of its top priorities. This could be a significant boost for local energy transition. However, the European Commission also announced that the EU budget should be spent in a more sustainable way and announced a progressive move from grants to loans and innovative financial instruments, in particular for projects that are viable on the current market. Many front-running Covenant signatories dedicate their human

  11. Clinical significance of rare copy number variations in epilepsy: a case-control survey using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Antonietta; Paravidino, Roberta; Malacarne, Michela; Gimelli, Stefania; Robbiano, Angela; Traverso, Monica; Pezzella, Marianna; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Bianchi, Amedeo; Elia, Maurizio; Falace, Antonio; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Freri, Elena; Galasso, Roberta; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Molinatto, Cristina; Cavani, Simona; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Striano, Salvatore; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Silengo, Margherita; Cavaliere, Maria Luigia; Benelli, Matteo; Magi, Alberto; Piccione, Maria; Dagna Bricarelli, Franca; Coviello, Domenico A; Fichera, Marco; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico

    2012-03-01

    To perform an extensive search for genomic rearrangements by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in patients with epilepsy. Prospective cohort study. Epilepsy centers in Italy. Two hundred seventy-nine patients with unexplained epilepsy, 265 individuals with nonsyndromic mental retardation but no epilepsy, and 246 healthy control subjects were screened by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. Identification of copy number variations (CNVs) and gene enrichment. Rare CNVs occurred in 26 patients (9.3%) and 16 healthy control subjects (6.5%) (P = .26). The CNVs identified in patients were larger (P = .03) and showed higher gene content (P = .02) than those in control subjects. The CNVs larger than 1 megabase (P = .002) and including more than 10 genes (P = .005) occurred more frequently in patients than in control subjects. Nine patients (34.6%) among those harboring rare CNVs showed rearrangements associated with emerging microdeletion or microduplication syndromes. Mental retardation and neuropsychiatric features were associated with rare CNVs (P = .004), whereas epilepsy type was not. The CNV rate in patients with epilepsy and mental retardation or neuropsychiatric features is not different from that observed in patients with mental retardation only. Moreover, significant enrichment of genes involved in ion transport was observed within CNVs identified in patients with epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy show a significantly increased burden of large, rare, gene-rich CNVs, particularly when associated with mental retardation and neuropsychiatric features. The limited overlap between CNVs observed in the epilepsy group and those observed in the group with mental retardation only as well as the involvement of specific (ion channel) genes indicate a specific association between the identified CNVs and epilepsy. Screening for CNVs should be performed for diagnostic purposes preferentially in patients with epilepsy and mental retardation or

  12. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of CA72-4 Compared with CEA and CA19-9 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ychou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and CA 19-9 are both widely used in the follow up of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. More recently another tumor marker, named CA 72-4 has been identified and characterized using two different monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and CC49. Several reports evaluated CA 72-4 as a serum tumor marker for gastric cancer and compared its clinical utility with that of CEA or CA 19-9; few reports concerned its prognostic value. In the present study, CA 72-4 is evaluated and compared with CEA and CA 19-9 in various populations of patients with gastric cancer and benign disease; for 52 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 57 patients without neoplastic disease CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 were evaluated before treatment. Sensitivity of the tumor markers CA 72-4, CA 19-9 and CEA at the recommended cut-off level in all 52 patients were 58%, 50% the sensitivity increased to 75%. of these markers, for non metastatic patients, multivariate analyses indicated that none of the markers were significant, when adjusted for gender and age (which were indicators of poor prognosis; patients with abnormal values of CA72-4 tended to have shorter survival than patients with normal values (p < 0.07. In the metastatic population, only high values of CA19-9 (p < 0.02 and gender (women (p < 0.03 were indicators of poor prognosis in univariate analysis; multivariate analysis revealed that both CA72-4 (p = 0.034 and CA19-9 p = 0.009, adjusted for gender were independent prognostic factors. However, CA72-4 lost significance (p = 0.41 when adjusted for CA19-9 and gender, indicating that CA19-9 provides more prognostic information than CA72-4.

  13. Esomeprazole use is independently associated with significant reduction of BMD: 1-year prospective comparative safety study of four proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Hoti, Kreshnik; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Karakulak, Çağla

    2016-09-01

    Because of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), their the use is increasing dramatically. The risk of adverse effects of short-term PPI therapy is low, but there are important safety concerns for potential adverse effects of prolonged PPI therapy. Findings from studies assessing the association between PPI use and bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk are contradictory. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess potential association of PPI treatment with the 12-month change in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. The study was performed in 200 PPI users and 50 PPI nonusers. Lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck, and total hip BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and at 12 months. A total of 209 subjects completed the entire 12 months of the study and were included in the final analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at 12 months PPI use was associated with statistically significant reductions in femur neck and total hip T scores (Z = -2.764, p = 0.005 and Z = -3.281, p = 0.001, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only esomeprazole added significantly to the prediction of total lumbar spine and femur neck T scores (p = 0.048 and p = 0.037, respectively). Compared with the baseline, 12 months of PPI treatment resulted in lower femur neck and total hip BMD T scores. Among the four PPIs studied, esomeprazole was independently associated with significant reduction of BMD, whereas omeprazole had no effects on BMD. Considering the widespread use of PPIs, BMD screening should be considered in the case of prolonged PPI use.

  14. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  15. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    V was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity.

  16. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    .007). Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decline eccentric squats increases patellar tendon loading compared to standard eccentric squats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Aagaard, P; Roikjaer, S

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown excellent clinical results using eccentric squat training on a 25 degrees decline board to treat patellar tendinopathy. It remains unknown why therapeutic management of patellar tendinopathy using decline eccentric squats offer superior clinical efficacy compared...

  18. Labral Reattachment in Femoroacetabular Impingement Surgery Results in Increased 10-year Survivorship Compared With Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwander, Helen; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz; Steppacher, Simon D

    2017-04-01

    Since the importance of an intact labrum for normal hip function has been shown, labral reattachment has become the standard method for open or arthroscopic treatment of hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, no long-term clinical results exist evaluating the effect of labral reattachment. A 2-year followup comparing open surgical treatment of FAI with labral resection versus reattachment was previously performed at our clinic. The goal of this study was to report a concise followup of these patients at a minimum of 10 years. We asked if patients undergoing surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of mixed-type FAI with labral reattachment compared with labral resection had (1) improved hip pain and function based on the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score; and (2) improved survival at 10-year followup. Between June 1999 and July 2002, we performed surgical hip dislocation with femoral neck osteoplasty and acetabular rim trimming in 52 patients (60 hips) with mixed-type FAI. In the first 20 patients (25 hips) until June 2001, a torn labrum or a detached labrum in the area of acetabular rim resection was resected. In the next 32 patients (35 hips), reattachment of the labrum was performed. The same indications were used to perform both procedures during the periods in question. Of the 20 patients (25 hips) in the first group, 19 patients (95%) (24 hips [96%]) were available for clinical and/or radiographic followup at a minimum of 10 years (mean, 13 years; range, 12-14 years). Of the 32 patients (35 hips) in the second group, 29 patients (91%) (32 hips [91%]) were available for clinical and/or radiographic followup at a minimum of 10 years (mean, 12 years; range, 10-13 years). We used the anterior impingement test to assess pain. Function was assessed using the Merle d'Aubigné- Postel score and ROM. Survivorship calculation was performed using the method of Kaplan-Meier with failure defined as conversion to THA, progression of osteoarthritis (of one

  19. Chimeric anti-tenascin antibody 81C6: Increased tumor localization compared with its murine parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, Michael R.; Archer, Gary E.; Garg, Pradeep K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Bigner, Darell D.

    1996-01-01

    When labeled using the Iodogen method, a chimeric antibody composed of the human IgG 2 constant region and the variable regions of murine anti-tenascin 81C6 exhibited superior uptake in human glioma xenografts compared with its murine parent. In the current study, three paired-label experiments were performed in athymic mice with subcutaneous D-54 MG human glioma xenografts to evaluate further the properties of radioiodinated chimeric 81C6. These studies demonstrated that (a) the enhanced tumor uptake of chimeric 81C6 is specific; (b) when labeling was performed using N-succinimidyl 3-iodobenzoate, chimeric 81C6 again showed preferential accumulation in tumor compared with murine 81C6; and (c) the tumor uptake advantage observed previously with murine 81C6 for N-succinimidyl 3-iodobenzoate compared with Iodogen labeling did not occur with chimeric 81C6

  20. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,…

  1. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. METHODS: Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running

  2. Whole Genome Sequencing Increases Molecular Diagnostic Yield Compared with Current Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Retinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingford, Jamie M; Barton, Stephanie; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Williams, Simon G; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; O'Sullivan, James; Lamb, Janine A; Perveen, Rahat; Hall, Georgina; Newman, William G; Bishop, Paul N; Roberts, Stephen A; Leach, Rick; Tearle, Rick; Bayliss, Stuart; Ramsden, Simon C; Nemeth, Andrea H; Black, Graeme C M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of whole genome sequencing (WGS) with targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the diagnosis of inherited retinal disease (IRD). Case series. A total of 562 patients diagnosed with IRD. We performed a direct comparative analysis of current molecular diagnostics with WGS. We retrospectively reviewed the findings from a diagnostic NGS DNA test for 562 patients with IRD. A subset of 46 of 562 patients (encompassing potential clinical outcomes of diagnostic analysis) also underwent WGS, and we compared mutation detection rates and molecular diagnostic yields. In addition, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the 2 techniques to identify known single nucleotide variants (SNVs) using 6 control samples with publically available genotype data. Diagnostic yield of genomic testing. Across known disease-causing genes, targeted NGS and WGS achieved similar levels of sensitivity and specificity for SNV detection. However, WGS also identified 14 clinically relevant genetic variants through WGS that had not been identified by NGS diagnostic testing for the 46 individuals with IRD. These variants included large deletions and variants in noncoding regions of the genome. Identification of these variants confirmed a molecular diagnosis of IRD for 11 of the 33 individuals referred for WGS who had not obtained a molecular diagnosis through targeted NGS testing. Weighted estimates, accounting for population structure, suggest that WGS methods could result in an overall 29% (95% confidence interval, 15-45) uplift in diagnostic yield. We show that WGS methods can detect disease-causing genetic variants missed by current NGS diagnostic methodologies for IRD and thereby demonstrate the clinical utility and additional value of WGS. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are Female Soccer Players at an Increased Risk of Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Compared With Their Athletic Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa M; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J; Dahm, Diane L

    2016-10-01

    returned to soccer had a second ACL tear. Soccer players had an increased rate of both graft tear and contralateral ACL injury compared with similar non-soccer athletes. Older age and return to soccer were significant risk factors for graft rupture. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Holmes

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition.We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3 and men (17 cells/mm3 annually, with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2 had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%, compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%; in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4% than non-pregnant women (14.4%. Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5% compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%, (absolute

  7. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles B; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Elul, Batya; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Ssali, John; Kambugu, Andrew; Musick, Beverly S; Cohen, Craig; Williams, Carolyn; Diero, Lameck; Padian, Nancy; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute

  8. Increased Gamma Brainwave Amplitude Compared to Control in Three Different Meditation Traditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Braboszcz

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60-110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together. Moreover, this gamma power was positively correlated with participants meditation experience. Independent component analysis was used to show that gamma activity did not originate in eye or muscle artifacts. In addition, we observed higher 7-11 Hz alpha activity in the Vipassana group compared to all the other groups during both meditation and instructed mind wandering and lower 10-11 Hz activity in the Himalayan yoga group during meditation only. We showed that meditation practice is correlated to changes in the EEG gamma frequency range that are common to a variety of meditation practices.

  9. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients report increased pain at five years compared with two years after surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Caltoum, Christine; Petcharaporn, Maty; Bastrom, Tracey P; Pawelek, Jeff B; Betz, Randal R; Clements, David H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Lowe, Thomas G; Newton, Peter O

    2008-05-01

    A multicenter study of changes in Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome measures after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To evaluate changes in patient determined outcome measures between 2 and 5 years after AIS surgery. Current surgical procedures have been shown to improve subjective measures in patients with AIS. At 2-year follow-up, AIS patients reported significant improvement in all 4 preoperative domains of the SRS questionnaire. In addition, the major Cobb angle was shown to be negatively correlated with preoperative scores in the pain, general self-image, and general function domains. Five-year SRS scores have not been evaluated previously. A multicenter, prospectively generated database was used to obtain perioperative, radiographic, and SRS-24 outcomes data. The inclusion criteria were: a diagnosis of AIS, surgical treatment (anterior, posterior, or combined), a comprehensive set of radiographic measures, and completed preoperative, 2-year, and 5-year SRS questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare changes in patient responses for each of the 7 outcome domains. Univariate analysis of variance was used to compare the change in pain score at 5 years to the level of the lowest instrumented vertebrae and surgical approach. A correlation analysis was used to determine the association between changes in any of the radiographic variables and changes in SRS scores. The data were checked for normality and equal variances, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.01. Forty-nine patients (42 women, 7 men; 14.2 +/- 2.1 year old; 5.4 +/- 0.6 years follow-up) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Thirty-seven of 49 (76%) of these patients underwent an open or thoracoscopic anterior procedure. SRS-24 scores improved significantly in 3 of the 4 preoperative domains at the 2-year visit. At 5 years postop, a statistically significant decrease in the pain score (4.2 +/- 0.6 to 3.9 +/- 0.9, P = 0

  10. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  11. IGF-IEc expression is increased in secondary compared to primary foci in neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Krystallenia I; Philippou, Anastassios; Boutzios, Georgios; Theohari, Irini; Koutsilieris, Michael; Delladetsima, Ioanna Kassiani; Kaltsas, Gregory A

    2017-10-03

    Different Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA transcripts are produced by alternative splicing and particularly the IGF-IEc isoform has been implicated in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer. In the present study, we examined the potential role of IGF-IEc expression as a new immunohistochemical marker of aggressiveness in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). We utilized immunohistochemical analysis in tissue specimens of 47 patients with NENs, to evaluate the expression of IGF-IEc (%) and Ki-67 proliferation index (%). Specimens from patients with tumors of different tissue origin, of either primary or metastatic lesions and of different grade were examined. Cytoplasmic IGF-IEc staining was found in 23 specimens of NENs or NECs: 10 pancreatic, 4 small bowel, 3 gastric, 1 lung, 1 uterine and 4 poorly differentiated of unknown primary origin. Ki-67 and IGF-IEc expression was positively correlated in all the samples studied (r=0.31, p=0.03). IGF-1Ec expression was more prevalent in specimens originating from metastatic foci with high Ki-67 compared to primary sites with low Ki-67 expression (p=0.036). These findings suggest a possible role of IGF-IEc in NEN tumorigenesis and progression to metastases that could be used as an additional new marker of a more aggressive behavior and a potential drugable target.

  12. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Humidification of inspired oxygen is increased with pre-nasal cannula, compared to intranasal cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellweg, Dominic; Wenze, Markus; Hoehn, Ekkehard; Bourgund, Olaf; Haidl, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Oxygen therapy is usually combined with a humidification device, to prevent mucosal dryness. Depending on the cannula design, oxygen can be administered pre- or intra-nasally (administration of oxygen in front of the nasal ostia vs cannula system inside the nasal vestibulum). The impact of cannula design on intra-nasal humidity, however, has not been investigated to date. First, to develop a system, that samples air from the nasal cavity and analyzes the humidity of these samples. Second, to investigate nasal humidity during pre-nasal and intra-nasal oxygen application, with and without humidification. We first developed and validated a sampling and analysis system to measure humidity from air samples. By means of this system we measured inspiratory air samples from 12 subjects who received nasal oxygen with an intra-nasal and pre-nasal cannula at different flows, with and without humidification. The sampling and analysis system showed good correlation to a standard hygrometer within the tested humidity range (r = 0.99, P humidification (P = .001, P humidification. With the addition of humidification we observed no significant change in humidity at any flow, and independent of pre- or intranasal oxygen administration. Pre-nasal administration of dry oxygen achieves levels of intranasal humidity similar to those achieved by intranasal administration in combination with a bubble through humidifier. Pre-nasal oxygen simplifies application and may reduce therapy cost.

  15. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranza, Anna; Leopold, Kerstin; Maier, Marina; Taddei, Anna Rita; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L -1 . Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  16. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, Anna, E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.i [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Leopold, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.leopold@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier, Marina, E-mail: marina.maier@ch.tum.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Taddei, Anna Rita, E-mail: artaddei@unitus.i [CIME, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Scoccianti, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.scoccianti@uniurb.i [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Uomo, dell' Ambiente e della Natura, Universita di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Urbino (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L{sup -1}. Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  17. Humans and great apes share increased neocortical neuropeptide Y innervation compared to other haplorhine primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann eRaghanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY plays a role in a variety of basic physiological functions and has also been implicated in regulating cognition, including learning and memory. A decrease in neocortical NPY has been reported for Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, potentially contributing to associated cognitive deficits. The goal of the present analysis was to examine variation in neocortical NPY-immunoreactive axon and varicosity density among haplorhine primates (monkeys, apes, and humans. Stereologic methods were used to measure the ratios of NPY-expressing axon length density to total neuron density (ALv/Nv and NPY-immunoreactive varicosity density to neuron density (Vv/Nv, as well as the mean varicosity spacing in neocortical areas 10, 24, 44, and 22 (Tpt of humans, African great apes, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys. Humans and great apes showed increased cortical NPY innervation relative to monkey species for ALv/Nv and Vv/Nv. Furthermore, humans and great apes displayed a conserved pattern of varicosity spacing across cortical areas and layers, with no differences between cortical layers or among cortical areas. These phylogenetic differences may be related to shared life history variables and may reflect specific cognitive abilities.

  18. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ten-year mortality is increased after hospitalization for atopic dermatitis compared with the general population, but reduced compared with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Andersen, Yuki M F

    2017-01-01

    Background Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) are chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Mortality is increased in psoriasis, yet no studies on mortality in AD are currently available.  Objective We investigated 10-year mortality after hospitalization for AD compared with psoriasis and the genera...

  20. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Clinical Significance of Oscillatory Components in the Rhythmic Structure of Pulse Signal in the Diagnostics of Psychosomatic Disorders in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desova, A A; Dorofeyuk, A A; Anokhin, A M

    2017-01-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of the types of spectral density typical of various parameters of pulse signal. The experimental material was obtained during the examination of school age children with various psychosomatic disorders. We also performed a typological analysis of the spectral density functions corresponding to the time series of different parameters of a single oscillation of pulse signals; the results of their comparative analysis are presented. We determined the most significant spectral components for two disordersin children: arterial hypertension and mitral valve prolapse.

  2. Comparable cerebral oxygenation patterns in younger and older adults during dual-task walking with increasing load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA and older (OA adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back. Changes in accuracy (% as well as oxygenated (HbO and deoxygenated (HbR hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 yrs and 14 OA (M = 66.85 yrs walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC. In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back compared to the highest (2-back; p ˂ .001. YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = .009, and particularly in the 2-back task (p = .048. In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT in specific ROIs for ∆HbO (3 YA, 1 OA and ∆HbR (7 YA, 8 OA. After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = .028 and significant task effects (SM < DT in HbR for 6 of the 8 ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace.

  3. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of CPAP treatment. Methods to prevent OSA as well as treatment in its early stage may be recommended. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  4. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  5. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  6. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  7. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  9. Prognostic Significance of Creatinine Increases During an Acute Heart Failure Admission in Patients With and Without Residual Congestion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the PROTECT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; Cleland, John G; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cursack, Guillermo C; Milo, Olga; Teerlink, John R; Givertz, Michael M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Dittrich, Howard C; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Voors, Adriaan A; Davison, Beth A

    2018-05-01

    The importance of a serum creatinine increase, traditionally considered worsening renal function (WRF), during admission for acute heart failure has been recently debated, with data suggesting an interaction between congestion and creatinine changes. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed the association of WRF with length of hospital stay, 30-day death or cardiovascular/renal readmission and 90-day mortality in the PROTECT study (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Daily creatinine changes from baseline were categorized as WRF (an increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more) or not. Daily congestion scores were computed by summing scores for orthopnea, edema, and jugular venous pressure. Of the 2033 total patients randomized, 1537 patients had both available at study day 14. Length of hospital stay was longer and 30-day cardiovascular/renal readmission or death more common in patients with WRF. However, these were driven by significant associations in patients with concomitant congestion at the time of assessment of renal function. The mean difference in length of hospital stay because of WRF was 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) more days ( P =0.0019), and the hazard ratio for WRF on 30-day death or heart failure hospitalization was 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.09) times higher ( P =0.0205), in significantly congested than nonsignificantly congested patients. A similar trend was observed with 90-day mortality although not statistically significant. In patients admitted for acute heart failure, WRF defined as a creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL was associated with longer length of hospital stay, and worse 30- and 90-day outcomes. However, effects were largely driven by patients who had residual congestion at the time of renal function assessment. URL: https

  10. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  12. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  13. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (Pphytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  14. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  15. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sex-comparative study of mouse cerebellum physiology under adult-onset hypothyroidism: The significance of GC-MS metabolomic data normalization in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga-Nteve, Christoniki; Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Margarity, Marigoula; Klapa, Maria I

    2017-01-15

    A systematic data quality validation and normalization strategy is an important component of the omic profile meta-analysis, ensuring comparability of the profiles and exclusion of experimental biases from the derived biological conclusions. In this study, we present the normalization methodology applied on the sets of cerebellum gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles of 124days old male and female animals in an adult-onset-hypothyroidism (AOH) mouse model before combining them into a sex-comparative analysis. The employed AOH model concerns the monitoring of the brain physiology of Balb/cJ mice after eight-week administration of 1%w/v KClO 4 in the drinking water, initiated on the 60th day of their life. While originating from the same animal study, the tissues of the two sexes were processed and their profiles acquired and analyzed at different time periods. Hence, the previously published profile set of male mice was first re-annotated based on the presently available resources. Then, after being validated as acquired under the same analytical conditions, both profiles sets were corrected for derivatization biases and filtered for low-confidence measurements based on the same criteria. The final normalized 73-metabolite profiles contribute to the currently few available omic datasets of the AOH effect on brain molecular physiology, especially with respect to sex differentiation. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated one (unknown) and three (succinate, benzoate, myristate) metabolites with significantly higher and lower, respectively, cerebellum concentration in the hypothyroid compared to the euthyroid female mice. The respective numbers for the males were two and 24. Comparison of the euthyroid cerebellum metabolic profiles between the two sexes indicated 36 metabolites, including glucose, myo- and scyllo-inositol, with significantly lower concentration in the females versus the males. This implies that the female mouse cerebellum has

  17. Increased risk of dialysis and end-stage renal disease among HIV patients in Denmark compared with the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Magnus G; Helleberg, Marie; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV patients have increased risk of impaired renal function. We aimed to estimate the incidence of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT) and start of chronic renal replacement therapy (cRRT) among HIV patients compared with population controls. METHODS: In a nationwide, population......-based cohort study we analysed incidence rates (IR), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and risk factors for aRRT and cRRT among HIV patients compared with an age- and gender-matched population control cohort using Poisson regression. RESULTS: We identified 5300 HIV patients and 53 000 population controls. The IRs...

  18. Equivalence between Increasing Returns and Comparative Advantage as the Determinants of Intra-industry Trade: An Industry Analysis for Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Honggue Lee

    2018-01-01

    A two-part model is estimated to see if increasing returns and comparative advantage are empirically equivalent in explaining intra-industry trade. The model has separate mechanisms for determining the occurrence and the extent of intra-industry trade. Estimation is based on an augmented Grubel-Lloyd index derived from the data set on SITC 7 goods at the 3-digit SITC (Revision 4) for country pairs in which Korea is fixed as a source country. Estimation results show that both increasing return...

  19. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared...

  1. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative studies on the increase of uterine weight and related mechanisms of cadmium and p-nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenchang; Yang Jinsong; Wang Jiali; Xia Pincang; Xu Youqiong; Jia Haimei; Chen Yongshan

    2007-01-01

    The research was designed to compare the effect of cadmium and p-nonylphenol on the increase of uterine weight and to study the related mechanisms. It provided basic evidence for us to understand the possible different mechanisms among different EEDs. In this study, both ovaries of 60 Wistar rats (28 days age) were ectomized, and after 21 days recovery, the rats were randomly assigned into six groups and exposed to cadmium (0.12, 1.20 mg/kg), NP (100, 200 mg/kg), control (sterile PBS), and positive control (17β-estradiol) per day for 3 days, respectively, then related indexes were detected. The results showed that the increase of uterine weight induced by cadmium was accompanied by the increase of the thickness of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium but the decrease of nuclear/cytoplasm of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium, while the increase of uterine weight induced by p-nonylphenol was accompanied by the increase of the thickness of luminal epithelium cell, endometrium, and myometrium but the decrease of nuclear/cytoplasm of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium. Cadmium could inhibit the positive expression of PCNA while p-nonylphenol prompted it. Exposure to cadmium and NP both could also stimulate phosphorylation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, implying that this signal pathway had an effect on the increase of the uterine weight induced by cadmium and p-nonylphenol. The results indicate that cadmium may induce the increase of uterine weight, which is accompanied with toxic effect on endometrium, while NP's effect of the increase of uterine weight is due to cell proliferation of endometrium, the mechanisms of which are the same as estrogen, but they may both activate ERK signal pathway

  3. A randomized trial of protein supplementation compared with extra fast food on the effects of resistance training to increase metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambre, David; Vergara, Marta; Lood, Yvonne; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2012-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effects of resistance training combined with increased energy intake or protein-supplementation on lean body-mass, resting metabolic-rate (RMR) and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-four healthy males (aged 19-32 years) performed resistance exercise for 12 weeks aiming for at least 1 hour training-sessions 3 times a week. The participants were randomized to consume extra protein (33 g whey protein/day) or a meal of fast-food/day (1350 kcal, 41 g protein). Body-composition was measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and RMR by indirect calorimetry. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the 3-month training period and after 12 months. The body weight increased from 75.1 ± 6.9 kg to 78.7 ± 7.2 kg (p < 0.0001), without differences between the groups. RMR increased from 1787 ± 143 kcal/24 h to 1954 ± 187 kcal/24 h (p < 0.0001, N = 24), which was more than expected from the increase in lean body-mass (increase from 59.7 ± 4.3 kg to 61.8 ± 4.1 kg p = 0.004). Fasting serum-insulin levels increased in the fast-food group compared with the extra-protein group (p = 0.03). ApoB increased from 0.691 ± 0.14 g/L to 0.768 ± 0.17 g/L, p = 0.004, in the fast-food group only. Long-term follow up after 12 months showed that RMR, body weight, total fat and lean body-masses did not differ from baseline (n = 19). Resistance training for 12 weeks increased RMR and lean body-mass similarly when based on either an increased energy-intake or protein supplement. However, the increase in RMR was higher than expected from the increase in lean body-mass. Thus resistance training could potentially decrease the risk of obesity by induction of increased RMR.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Characterization of 4 Human Liver-Derived Single Cell Culture Models Reveals Significant Variation in the Capacity for Drug Disposition, Bioactivation, and Detoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison-Young, Rowena L C; Mitsa, Dimitra; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Mottram, David; Alexandre, Eliane; Richert, Lysiane; Aerts, Hélène; Weaver, Richard J; Jones, Robert P; Johann, Esther; Hewitt, Philip G; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Goldring, Christopher E P; Kitteringham, Neil R; Park, B Kevin

    2015-10-01

    In vitro preclinical models for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are usually based on cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (cPHH) or human hepatic tumor-derived cell lines; however, it is unclear how well such cell models reflect the normal function of liver cells. The physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological phenotyping of available cell-based systems is necessary in order to decide the testing purpose for which they are fit. We have therefore undertaken a global proteomic analysis of 3 human-derived hepatic cell lines (HepG2, Upcyte, and HepaRG) in comparison with cPHH with a focus on drug metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins (DMETs), as well as Nrf2-regulated proteins. In total, 4946 proteins were identified, of which 2722 proteins were common across all cell models, including 128 DMETs. Approximately 90% reduction in expression of cytochromes P450 was observed in HepG2 and Upcyte cells, and approximately 60% in HepaRG cells relative to cPHH. Drug transporter expression was also lower compared with cPHH with the exception of MRP3 and P-gp (MDR1) which appeared to be significantly expressed in HepaRG cells. In contrast, a high proportion of Nrf2-regulated proteins were more highly expressed in the cell lines compared with cPHH. The proteomic database derived here will provide a rational basis for the context-specific selection of the most appropriate 'hepatocyte-like' cell for the evaluation of particular cellular functions associated with DILI and, at the same time, assist in the construction of a testing paradigm which takes into account the in vivo disposition of a new drug. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  5. No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Carter, Olivia; Forte, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Research exploring the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1 has produced homogenous results. The most common explanations to address this homogeneity concerns the differential impact of varied tDCS parameters (such as stimulation intensity or electrode montage). To explore this, we systematically examined the effects of 15 different tDCS protocols on a well-elucidated neurobehavioral system: simple visual motor reaction time (smRT). For the initial phase of this study, 150 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of 5 experimental groups (2mA anodal, 2mA cathodal, 1mA anodal, 1mA cathodal, or sham) across 3 different conditions (orbitofrontal, bilateral, or extracephalic reference electrode location). The active electrode was always placed over M1 and tDCS lasted for 20min. Starting ~5min prior to stimulation and running continuously for ~30min, participants were repeatedly presented with a visual cue centered on a computer monitor and asked to press a response button as quickly as possible at stimulus onset (stimuli number: 100 pre-, 400 during-, and 100-post stimulation - interstimulus interval: 1-3s). Ex-gaussian distribution curves, miss, and error rates were determined for each normalized batch of 100 RTs and compared using a two-way ANOVA. As the largest group differences were seen with 2mA anodal (compared to sham) stimulation using an orbitofrontal montage, an additional 60 healthy participants were recruited to further test for significance in this condition. No significant impact of tDCS was seen on any parameter of smRT distribution, error rate, or miss rate, regardless of polarity, stimulation intensity, electrode montage, or stimulation-to-task relationship. Our results suggest that tDCS over M1 might not have a predictable or reliable effect on short duration smRT. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the mechanisms by which tDCS might modulate more complex motor behaviors. Additional

  6. Growth/differentiation factor-5 significantly enhances periodontal wound healing/regeneration compared with platelet-derived growth factor-BB in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Rak; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Young-Taek; Bastone, Patrizia; Pippig, Susanne D; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2010-08-01

    Recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) in a particulate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) carrier is being evaluated to support periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate periodontal wound healing/regeneration following an established clinical (benchmark) protocol including surgical implantation of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP in comparison with that following implantation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF) combined with a particulate beta-TCP biomaterial using an established canine defect model. Bilateral, 4 x 5 mm (width x depth), one-wall, critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mandibular second and fourth pre-molar teeth in five adult Beagle dogs. Defect sites were randomized to receive rhGDF-5/beta-TCP or the rhPDGF construct followed by wound closure for primary intention healing. The animals were sacrificed following an 8-week healing interval for histological and histometric examination. Clinical healing was generally uneventful. Sites receiving rhGDF-5/beta-TCP exhibited a significantly enhanced cementum formation compared with sites receiving the rhPDGF construct, averaging (+/-SD) 4.49+/-0.48 versus 2.72+/-0.91 mm (palveolar bone. Both protocols displayed beta-TCP residues apparently undergoing resorption. Application of both materials appears safe, as they were associated with limited, if any, adverse events. rhGDF-5/beta-TCP shows a significant potential to support/accelerate periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Application of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP appears safe and should be further evaluated in human clinical trials.

  7. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  8. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla eAksoy Aksel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic path (pp-CA1 synapse and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse. Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We established that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (> 24h was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing.

  9. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in small infants with significant lung disease may offer faster recovery of respiratory function when compared to surgical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hazeem, Anas A; Gillespie, Matthew J; Thun, Haley; Munson, David; Schwartz, Matthew C; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J; Glatz, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    To describe our experience with percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small infants and compare outcomes to matched surgical patients. Ligation via thoracotomy has been used to close PDAs in small infants, but has been associated with respiratory and hemodynamic compromise. We hypothesized that percutaneous closure would offer faster recovery of respiratory function. Patients closure between January 2000 and April 2012 were reviewed and matched to contemporary surgical patients on gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), procedure weight (WT), and ventilation mode. Patients returned to baseline respiratory status when the product of mean airway pressure and FiO2 returned to pre-procedural levels. Eight matched pairs were included. Median BW, GA, and WT were 1.43 kg (0.52-2.97), 29.8 weeks (24-39), and 2.8 kg (2.2-3.9) for catheter patients and 1.55 kg (0.48-3.04), 29 weeks (23-37), and 2.75 kg (2.3-4.2) for surgical patients. Complete PDA closure occurred in all. The median time to return to baseline respiratory status was significantly shorter in the percutaneous group (17 hr (range 0-113) vs. 53 hr (range 13-219), P closure of PDA in small infants on respiratory support is equivalent in safety and efficacy and may offer shorter recovery time than surgical ligation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Direct in vivo evidence for increased proliferation of CLL cells in lymph nodes compared to bone marrow and peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herndon, Thomas M; Chen, Shih-Ann; Saba, Nakhle S

    2017-01-01

    of active cell proliferation remains to be definitively determined. Based on findings that CLL cells in LNs have increased expression of B-cell activation genes, we tested the hypothesis that the fraction of 'newly born' cells would be highest in the LNs. Using a deuterium oxide ((2)H) in vivo labeling...... method in which patients consumed deuterated (heavy) water ((2)H2O), we determined CLL cell kinetics in concurrently obtained samples from LN, PB and BM. The LN was identified as the anatomical site harboring the largest fraction of newly born cells, compared to PB and BM. In fact, the calculated birth...

  11. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  12. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  13. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McDonald

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males. Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90, but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140. Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25% increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  14. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  15. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2005 and 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-06-25

    China's forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China's forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China's forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(15) g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr(-1) (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr(-1); 1 Tg = 10(12) g). Our findings suggest that China's forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050.

  16. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  17. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. I. Influence of sample deposition conditions in oligonucleotide analysis to achieve significant increases in both sensitivity and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-11-01

    Spraying of oligonucleotide-matrix solutions through a stainless steel (ss) sieve (38 microm, 450 mesh) leads to the formation, on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sample holder, of uniformly distributed microcrystals, well separated from each other. When the resulting sample holder surface is irradiated by laser, abundant molecular species form, with a clear increase in both intensity and resolution with respect to values obtained by 'Dried Droplet', 'Double Layer', and 'Sandwich' deposition methods. In addition, unlike the usual situation, the sample is perfectly homogeneous, and identical spectra are obtained by irradiating different areas. On one hand, the data indicate that this method is highly effective for oligonucleotide MALDI analysis, and on the other, that it can be validly employed for fully automated MALDI procedures.

  19. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  20. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Casey, Cameron P. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stratton, Kelly G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zink, Erika M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Weitz, Karl K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bloodsworth, Kent J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Orton, Daniel J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Moore, Ronald J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland OR USA; Pedersen, Catherine [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Orwoll, Eric [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Smith, Richard D. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-05

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules were identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.

  1. Overexpression of an exotic thermotolerant β-glucosidase in trichoderma reesei and its significant increase in cellulolytic activity and saccharification of barley straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashtban Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichoderma reesei is a widely used industrial strain for cellulase production, but its low yield of β-glucosidase has prevented its industrial value. In the hydrolysis process of cellulolytic residues by T. reesei, a disaccharide known as cellobiose is produced and accumulates, which inhibits further cellulases production. This problem can be solved by adding β-glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose to glucose for fermentation. It is, therefore, of high vvalue to construct T. reesei strains which can produce sufficient β-glucosidase and other hydrolytic enzymes, especially when those enzymes are capable of tolerating extreme conditions such as high temperature and acidic or alkali pH. Results We successfully engineered a thermostable β-glucosidase gene from the fungus Periconia sp. into the genome of T. reesei QM9414 strain. The engineered T. reesei strain showed about 10.5-fold (23.9 IU/mg higher β-glucosidase activity compared to the parent strain (2.2 IU/mg after 24 h of incubation. The transformants also showed very high total cellulase activity (about 39.0 FPU/mg at 24 h of incubation whereas the parent strain almost did not show any total cellulase activity at 24 h of incubation. The recombinant β-glucosidase showed to be thermotolerant and remains fully active after two-hour incubation at temperatures as high as 60°C. Additionally, it showed to be active at a wide pH range and maintains about 88% of its maximal activity after four-hour incubation at 25°C in a pH range from 3.0 to 9.0. Enzymatic hydrolysis assay using untreated, NaOH, or Organosolv pretreated barley straw as well as microcrystalline cellulose showed that the transformed T. reesei strains released more reducing sugars compared to the parental strain. Conclusions The recombinant T. reesei overexpressing Periconia sp. β-glucosidase in this study showed higher β-glucosidase and total cellulase activities within a shorter incubation

  2. Recombinant deamidated mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase have similar or increased activity compared to wild-type enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, David; Foote, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    The enzyme Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (ErA) is an important biopharmaceutical product used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Like all proteins, certain asparagine (Asn) residues of ErA are susceptible to deamidation to aspartic acid (Asp), which may be a concern with respect to enzyme activity and potentially to pharmaceutical efficacy. Recombinant ErA mutants containing Asn to Asp changes were expressed, purified and characterised. Two mutants with single deamidation sites (N41D and N281D) were found to have approximately the same specific activity (1,062 and 924 U/mg, respectively) as the wild-type (908 U/mg). However, a double mutant (N41D N281D) had an increased specific activity (1261 U/mg). The N41D mutation conferred a slight increase in the catalytic constant (k cat 657 s(-1)) when compared to the WT (k cat 565 s(-1)), which was further increased in the double mutant, with a k cat of 798 s(-1). Structural analyses showed that the slight changes caused by point mutation of Asn41 to Asp may have reduced the number of hydrogen bonds in this α-helical part of the protein structure, resulting in subtle changes in enzyme turnover, both structurally and catalytically. The increased α-helical content observed with the N41D mutation by circular dichroism spectroscopy correlates with the difference in k cat, but not K m. The N281D mutation resulted in a lower glutaminase activity compared with WT and the N41D mutant, however the N281D mutation also imparted less stability to the enzyme at elevated temperatures. Taken as a whole, these data suggest that ErA deamidation at the Asn41 and Asn281 sites does not affect enzyme activity and should not be a concern during processing, storage or clinical use. The production of recombinant deamidated variants has proven an effective and powerful means of studying the effect of these changes and may be a useful strategy for other biopharmaceutical products.

  3. High proportions of Staphylococcus epidermidis in dental caries harbor multiple classes of antibiotics resistance, significantly increase inflammatory interleukins in dental pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Muzaheed; Aldeyab, Sultan Salem; Alfawaz, Sara A; AlKheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ahmed Khan, Aftab

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of most prevalent in dental caries or dental pulp which has the capability of horizontal genetic transfer between different bacterial species in the oropharynx, suggesting that it may evolve with the dissemination of resistant determinants, This study was performed to molecularly characterize and differentiate S. epidermidis isolated from dental caries and healthy individual. Also, two important cytokines in inflammation were assayed caused due to S. epidermidis of health and dental caries sources. Dental caries strains were more resistant with high MIC 50 and MIC 90 value. These isolates also showed the presence of mecA gene and another virulence gene i. e sea and seb comparatively more than healthy individual isolates. SCCmec types, III and IV was more prevalent in dental caries isolates where an as healthy individual was more non-typable. Additionally, the quantity of IL-1β and IL-8 caused due to dental caries isolates was seen more which indicate dental caries isolates are able to induce. This study showed that S. epidermidis a normal flora of oropharyngeal are more diverse to those strains which cause dental caries. S. epidermidis owns a prodigious genetic plasticity that permits to obtain, lose or regulate genetic elements that provide compensations to improve its colonization in the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Hesketh, John E.; Sinclair, Bruce R.; Koolaard, John P.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. PMID:25268836

  5. Increased risk of developing dementia in patients with major affective disorders compared to patients with other medical illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between affective disorder and subsequent dementia is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorder have an increased risk of developing dementia compared to patients with other chronic illnesses. METHOD: By linkage...... of the psychiatric and somatic nation-wide registers of all hospitalised patients in Denmark, 2007 patients with mania, 11741 patients with depression, 81380 patients with osteoarthritis and 69149 patients with diabetes were identified according to diagnosis at first-ever discharge from a psychiatric or somatic...... hospital between 1 January 1977 and 31 December 1993. The risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on subsequent re-admission was estimated with the use of survival analyses. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia than patients...

  6. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative estimation of inevitable endogenous ileal flow of amino acids in Pekin ducks under varying dietary or physiological conditions and their significance to nutritional requirements for amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, D O

    2017-10-01

    In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg. Four floor pens of eight 85-day-old ducks were randomly allocated to each diet. Similar diets were mixed in experiment 2 but corn cob meal replaced cellulose as the fiber source. A high SO (HSO) series was also formed by increasing the SO level from 40 g/kg in the basal series to 100 g/kg. Thus the LCF series was concurrently classified as low SO (LSO) series to control SO effect. Each of the eventual 9 diets were fed to 5 floor pens of ten 65-day-old ducks. Ileal AA flow was measured after a 5 day feeding period in both experiments. Linear regression was calculated between ileal flow and dietary intake of individual AA. The IEIF interpreted as the y-intercept of each linear function responded neither to elevated ingestion of each CF type nor to SO level. Age and DMI had no effect on IEIF computed in relation to BW, but wide discrepancies resulted when related to DMI. Overall IEIF of AA varied between 14.3 to 129.8 mg/kg BW d-1. These flows were established in model computations to account for 10 to 64% of the recommended intake of limiting AA. In conclusion the ileal inevitable flow is constant within the dietary/age conditions investigated. However it is modulated by feed intake and accounts for a significant portion of total amino acid requirement. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP use among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindoga Mukandavire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  9. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  11. Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with increased wall and turbulence shear stress levels compared to trileaflet aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-06-01

    Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence  and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes.

  12. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  13. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  14. Black women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease compared with white women with PCOS [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer K; Johnson, Lauren N C; Limaye, Meghana; Feldman, Rebecca A; Sammel, Mary; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in white and black adolescents and adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with controls. Retrospective cohort study. Center for PCOS. Subjects with PCOS with data on race and cardiometabolic risk (n = 519). Controls were age and race matched from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population (1999-2006). None. MetSyn, coronary heart disease risk, and general CVD risk. Black adolescents and young adults with PCOS had an increased prevalence of MetSyn compared with their white counterparts (adolescents relative risk 2.65 [95% confidence interval 1.29-5.4], adults relative risk 1.44 [95% confidence interval 1.21-2.6]). In contrast, there was no difference in risk of MetSyn between black and white adolescents and adult women in the NHANES dataset. After controlling for age and body mass index, black women with PCOS had a significantly increased prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein and high glucose. The general CVD risk was significantly increased in black adults with PCOS. This is the first study to comprehensively demonstrate increased risk of MetSyn in both black adolescents and adult women with PCOS compared with white subjects with PCOS. This racial disparity was not present in the NHANES controls. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the independent impact of PCOS and race on CVD risk in women. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  16. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  17. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  18. Lexical Retention and Cultural Significance in Tzeltal-Tzotzil Comparative Ethnobotany. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Brent; And Others

    Attempts have been made by linguists and anthropologists to reconstruct aspects of culture history by using synchronically derived lexical data. Related to this concern with culture history is one which attempts to explore the diachronic processes of lexical change over time. As a result of a comparative survey of Tzeltal and Tzotzil…

  19. Personality over Policy: A Comparative History of the Founding and Early Development of Four Significant American Manuscript Repositories of Business, Industry, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Erik C.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation compares and contrasts the founding and early manuscript collecting activities of four publicly accessible American archival repositories known for their extensive holdings in business, industrial, and technological history: the Baker Library at Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts; the Hagley Library and Museum in…

  20. Pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders show increased cortisol secretion and poor sleep compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Anges; Stadelmann, Stephanie; von Klitzing, Kai; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2012-05-01

    Various studies of child cortisol secretion and sleep show a close association between poor sleep, deterioration of the HPA axis and unfavorable psychological functioning. However, there is little evidence as to whether these associations are clearly present in pre-school children suffering from psychiatric disorders. A total of 30 pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders (anxiety, adjustment disorders, emotional and attachment disorder; hyperactivity or oppositional disorder) and 35 healthy controls took part in the study. Saliva cortisol secretion was assessed both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was assessed via activity monitoring for seven consecutive days and nights, using a digital movement-measuring instrument. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing children's cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The Berkeley Puppet Interview provided child-based reports of cognitive-emotional processes. Compared to healthy controls, children suffering from psychiatric disorders had much higher cortisol secretion both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was also more disturbed, and parents and teachers rated children suffering from psychiatric disorders as cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally more impaired, relative to healthy controls. Children with psychiatric disorders reported being more bullied and victimized. In five-year old children the presence of psychiatric disorders is reflected not only at psychological, social and behavioral, but also at neuroendocrine and sleep-related levels. It is likely that these children remain at increased risk for suffering from psychiatric difficulties later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten Bentzen; Olsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    to increase 25(OH)D by 1 nmol l(-1). The artificial dose of 6 SEDs of only hands and face significantly increased 25(OH)D and resulted in a dose of 0.52 SEDs required to increase 25(OH)D significantly by 1 nmol l(-1). Artificial UVB was thus at least 8 times more efficient in increasing 25(OH)D than solar UVR......Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...

  2. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuwadee Paiboon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In addition, decreased levels of mRNA associated with T-cell signaling were found in the jejunum and ileum. Several members of the Solute Carrier (SLC and Adenosine Triphosphate Binding Cassette (ABC superfamilies of membrane transporters were found to be differentially expressed; these genes may play a role in differences in nutrient and xenobiotic absorption and disposition. mRNA expression of SLC39a4_predicted, a zinc transporter, was increased in all tissues, suggesting that it is involved in increased zinc uptake during lactation. Microarray data are available through GEO under GSE19175. Conclusions We detected differential expression of mRNA from several pathways in lactating dams, including upregulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in liver and intestine, consistent with Srebp activation. Differential T-Cell signaling in the two most distal regions of the small intestine (ileum and

  3. Systemic thrombolysis increases hemorrhagic stroke risk without survival benefit compared with catheter-directed intervention for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nathan L; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Singh, Michael J; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-03-01

    Systemic thrombolysis (ST) and catheter-directed intervention (CDI) are both used in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the comparative outcomes of these two therapies remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare short-term mortality and safety outcomes between the two treatments using a large national database. Patients presenting with acute PE were identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2012. Comorbidities, clinical characteristics, and invasive procedures were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD) codes and the Elixhauser comorbidity index. To adjust for anticipated baseline differences between the two treatment groups, propensity score matching was used to create a matched ST cohort with clinical and comorbid characteristics similar to those of the CDI cohort. Subgroups of patients with and without hemodynamic shock were analyzed separately. Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, overall bleeding risk, and hemorrhagic stroke risk. Of 263,955 subjects with acute PE, 1.63% (n = 4272) received ST and 0.55% (n = 1455) received CDI. ST subjects were older, had more chronic comorbidities, and had higher rates of respiratory failure (ST, 27.9% [n = 1192]; CDI, 21.2% [n = 308]; P mortality (ST, 16.7% [n = 714]; CDI, 9.4% [n = 136]; P hemorrhagic stroke rates (ST, 2.2% [n = 96]; CDI, 1.4% [n = 20]; P = .041). After propensity matching, 1430 patients remained in each cohort; baseline characteristics of the matched cohorts did not differ significantly using standardized difference comparisons. Analysis of the matched cohorts did not demonstrate a significant effect of CDI on in-hospital mortality or overall bleeding risk but did show a significant protective effect against hemorrhagic stroke compared with ST (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.82; P = .01). Subgroup analysis showed decreased odds of hemorrhagic stroke for CDI in the nonshock

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with increased impedance measures of reflux compared to non-fibrotic disease among pre-lung transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, S; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2015-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although the mechanism remains unclear. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration may lead to lung fibrosis, while increased pulmonary workload may also worsen GER. Comparing the GER profile of IPF patients to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with similar lung function may help delineate the role of GER in IPF pathogenesis. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF and COPD patients undergoing pre-lung transplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) off acid suppression at a tertiary center in 2008-2014. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Baseline demographics, pulmonary function test, and MII-pH results were recorded. Univariate analyses were performed using Fisher's exact (binary variables) and Student's t (continuous variables) tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 90 subjects (54 IPF, 36 COPD) met inclusion criteria. Compared to COPD, IPF patients had increased total reflux episodes (65.9 vs 46.1, p = 0.02), proximal reflux episodes (30.3 vs 20.3, p = 0.04), and prevalence of abnormal total reflux episodes (38.9% vs 16.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analyses, abnormal total reflux episodes (OR: 4.9, p = 0.05) and bolus reflux exposure time (OR: 4, p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with IPF. Abnormal reflux was significantly more prevalent among IPF patients after controlling for lung disease severity. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration likely plays a role in fibrosis in IPF. A significant portion of IPF patients had increased non-acid reflux. Therapies aiming to prevent reflux of gastric contents may be more beneficial than antisecretory medications alone in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increased risk of peanut allergy in infants of Asian-born parents compared to those of Australian-born parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, J J; Peters, R L; Ponsonby, A-L; Gurrin, L C; Hill, D; Tang, M L K; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2014-12-01

    Asian infants appear to be over-represented among patients with clinical food allergy in Australia, but this has not been formally examined at the population level. Any difference in prevalence according to parental country of birth may be secondary to modifiable lifestyle factors. We aimed to quantify (i) differences in the prevalence of peanut allergy by parental country of birth and (ii) contribution of measured environmental exposures to these differences. The population-based HealthNuts study in Melbourne, Australia, screened 5276 infants (74% participation) with skin prick tests and sensitized infants underwent food challenge. Of these, 535 had a parent born in East Asia and 574 in UK/Europe. Associations between parents' country of birth and offspring peanut allergy were examined using multiple logistic regression. Compared to infants with two Australian-born parents, peanut allergy was more common among infants with parent/s born in East Asia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.1) but not those with parent/s born in the UK/Europe (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.5). Paradoxically rates of allergic disease were lower among Asian parents. A higher prevalence of eczema among infants of Asian parents explained around 30% of the increase in peanut allergy, while differences in dog ownership explained around 18%. The high peanut allergy prevalence among infants of Asian-born parents appears to have occurred in a single generation and was not present among infants with parents migrating from other countries, suggesting gene-environment interactions are important. The role of eczema and microbial exposure in food allergy prevention warrants exploration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Hypertrophy Models Reveals Divergent Gene Transcription Profiles and Points to Translational Regulation of Muscle Growth through Increased mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass is a result of the balance between protein breakdown and protein synthesis. It has been shown that multiple conditions of muscle atrophy are characterized by the common regulation of a specific set of genes, termed atrogenes. It is not known whether various models of muscle hypertrophy are similarly regulated by a common transcriptional program. Here, we characterized gene expression changes in three different conditions of muscle growth, examining each condition during acute and chronic phases. Specifically, we compared the transcriptome of Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscles collected (1 during the rapid phase of postnatal growth at 2 and 4 weeks of age, (2 24 h or 3 weeks after constitutive activation of AKT, and (3 24 h or 3 weeks after overload hypertrophy caused by tenotomy of the Tibialis Anterior muscle. We observed an important overlap between significantly regulated genes when comparing each single condition at the two different timepoints. Furthermore, examining the transcriptional changes occurring 24 h after a hypertrophic stimulus, we identify an important role for genes linked to a stress response, despite the absence of muscle damage in the AKT model. However, when we compared all different growth conditions, we did not find a common transcriptional fingerprint. On the other hand, all conditions showed a marked increase in mTORC1 signaling and increased ribosome biogenesis, suggesting that muscle growth is characterized more by translational, than transcriptional regulation.

  7. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  8. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  9. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Chandler, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease

  10. High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M.; Incani, Renzo N.; Franco, Carolina R.; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Results Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). Conclusions In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were

  11. Increased Neural Activation during Picture Encoding and Retrieval in 60-Year-Olds Compared to 20-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Evers, E. A. T.; Jolles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging has been associated with both reduced and increased neural activity during task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased neural activation during memory encoding and retrieval is already present at the age of 60 as well as to obtain more insight into the mechanism behind increased activity.…

  12. Comparative study of carbonic anhydrase activity in waters among different geological eco-environments of Yangtze River basin and its ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzung'a, Sila Onesmus; Pan, Weizhi; Shen, Taiming; Li, Wei; Qin, Xiaoqun; Wang, Chenwei; Zhang, Liankai; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-04-01

    This study provides the presence of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in waters of the Yangtze River basin, China, as well as the correlation of CA activity with HCO 3 - concentration and CO 2 sink flux. Different degrees of CA activity could be detected in almost all of the water samples from different geological eco-environments in all four seasons. The CA activity of water samples from karst areas was significantly higher than from non-karst areas (PP3 - concentration (r=0.672, P2 sink flux (r=0.602, P=0.076) in karst areas. This suggests that CA in waters might have a promoting effect on carbon sinks for atmospheric CO 2 in karst river basins. In conditions of similar geological type, higher CA activity was generally detected in water samples taken from areas that exhibited better eco-environments, implying that the CA activity index of waters could be used as an indicator for monitoring ecological environments and protection of river basins. These findings suggest that the role of CA in waters in the karst carbon sink potential of river basins is worthy of further in-depth studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  14. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Kiyomi; Tajiri, Hisao; Muto, Manabu

    1999-01-01

    Cystic tumor of the pancreas has been investigated by a variety of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is being widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for investigation of the biliary tree and pancreatic duct system. The purpose of this study was to compare MRCP images with those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and computed tomography (CT) in order to clarify the diagnostic efficacy of MRCP for cystic tumor of the pancreas. We retrospectively studied 15 patients with cystic tumor of the pancreas that had been surgically resected and histopathologically confirmed. There were five cases of intraductal papillary adenocarcinoma, five of intraductal papillary adenoma, two of serous cyst adenoma, two of retention cyst associated with invasive ductal adenocarcinoma and one of solid cystic tumor. In all cases MRCP correctly identified the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and showed the entire cystic tumor and the communication between the tumor and the MPD. On the other hand, the detection rate by ERCP of the cystic tumor and the communication between the cystic tumor and the MPD was only 60%. Although the detection rates by CT for the septum and solid components inside the cystic tumor were 100 and 90.0%, respectively, those of MRCP for each were 58.3 and 20.0%. MRCP is capable of providing diagnostic information superior to ERCP for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas. Although MRCP may provide complementary information about the whole lesion of interest, the characteristic internal features of cystic tumor of the pancreas should be carefully diagnosed in combination with CT. (author)

  15. Prevalence and clinical significance of respiratory viruses and bacteria detected in tuberculosis patients compared to household contact controls in Tanzania: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhimbira, F; Hiza, H; Mbuba, E; Hella, J; Kamwela, L; Sasamalo, M; Ticlla, M; Said, K; Mhalu, G; Chiryamkubi, M; Schindler, C; Reither, K; Gagneux, S; Fenner, L

    2018-03-23

    To describe the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in tuberculosis (TB) patients and in their household contact controls, and to determine the clinical significance of respiratory pathogens in TB patients. We studied 489 smear-positive adult TB patients and 305 household contact controls without TB with nasopharyngeal swab samples within an ongoing prospective cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2013 and 2015. We used multiplex real-time PCR to detect 16 respiratory viruses and seven bacterial pathogens from nasopharyngeal swabs. The median age of the study participants was 33 years; 61% (484/794) were men, and 21% (168/794) were HIV-positive. TB patients had a higher prevalence of HIV (28.6%; 140/489) than controls (9.2%; 28/305). Overall prevalence of respiratory viral pathogens was 20.4% (160/794; 95%CI 17.7-23.3%) and of bacterial pathogens 38.2% (303/794; 95%CI 34.9-41.6%). TB patients and controls did not differ in the prevalence of respiratory viruses (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.00, 95%CI 0.71-1.44), but respiratory bacteria were less frequently detected in TB patients (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53-0.94). TB patients with both respiratory viruses and respiratory bacteria were likely to have more severe disease (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.4; p 0.011). TB patients with respiratory viruses tended to have more frequent lung cavitations (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 0.93-2.7; p 0.089). Respiratory viruses are common for both TB patients and household controls. TB patients may present with more severe TB disease, particularly when they are co-infected with both bacteria and viruses. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimentally induced, synergistic late effects of a single dose of radiation and aging: significance in LKS fraction as compared with mature blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Isao; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Inoue, Tohru

    2015-03-01

    The number of murine mature blood cells recovered within 6 weeks after 2-Gy whole-body irradiation at 6 weeks of age, whereas in the case of the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) compartment [cells in the lineage-negative, c-kit-positive and stem-cell-antigen-1-positive (LKS) fraction], the numerical differences between mice with and without irradiation remained more than a year, but conclusively the cells showed numerical recovery. When mice were exposed to radiation at 6 months of age, acute damages of mature blood cells were rather milder probably because of their maturation with age; but again, cells in the LKS fraction were specifically damaged, and their numerical recovery was significantly delayed probably as a result of LKS-specific cellular damages. Interestingly, in contrast to the recovery of the number of cells in the LKS fraction, their quality was not recovered, which was quantitatively assessed on the basis of oxidative-stress-related fluorescence intensity. To investigate why the recovery in the number of cells in the LKS fraction was delayed, expression levels of genes related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis of cells in the bone marrow and LKS fraction were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the case of 21-month-old mice after radiation exposure, Ccnd1, PiK3r1 and Fyn were overexpressed solely in cells in the LKS fraction. Because Ccnd1and PiK3r1 upregulated by aging were further upregulated by radiation, single-dose radiation seemed to induce the acceleration of aging, which is related to the essential biological responses during aging based on a lifetime-dependent relationship between a living creature and xenobiotic materials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musonda, Kunda G; Nyonda, Mary; Filteau, Suzanne; Kasonka, Lackson; Monze, Mwaka; Gompels, Ursula A

    2016-06-01

    Breastfeeding imparts beneficial immune protection and nutrition to infants for healthy growth, but it is also a route for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. In previous studies, we showed that HCMV adversely affects infant development in Africa, particularly with maternal HIV exposure. In this study, we analyzed infants risks for acquisition of HCMV infection from breastfeeding and compared HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Two cohorts were studied in Zambia. (1) Two hundred sixty-one HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were compared for HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads and genotypes (glycoprotein gO) in milk from birth to 4 months postpartum. (2) Maternally HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants were compared for HCMV infection risk factors. The second cohort of 460 infants, from a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary-food to breastfeeding, were studied between 6 and 18 months of age. Human cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was assayed, and logistic regression was used to calculate risk factors for HCMV infection, including maternal HIV exposure and breastfeeding duration. Human cytomegalovirus was detected in breast milk from 3 days to 4 months postpartum, with significantly raised levels in HIV-positive women and independent of genotype. In infants, HCMV antibody seroprevalence was 83% by 18 months age. Longer breastfeeding duration increased infection risk in maternally HIV-unexposed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69 for 18 months vs 6 months vs never; 95% CI, 3.71-111.70; P breastfeeding, which is common in Africa, increased risk of HCMV infection in infants. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had extended milk HCMV secretion. Women who were HIV-positive secreted higher HCMV levels, and for longer duration, with their children at increased infection risk. Human cytomegalovirus control is required to maintain health benefits of breastfeeding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 ...

  19. An Analysis of Mathematics Interventions: Increased Time-on-Task Compared with Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, James M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Student achievement is not progressing on mathematics as measured by state, national, and international assessments. Much of the research points to mathematics curriculum and instruction as the root cause of student failure to achieve at levels comparable to other nations. Since mathematics is regarded as a gate keeper to many educational…

  20. Increased polyp detection using narrow band imaging compared with high resolution endoscopy in patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; van den Broek, F. J. C.; van Eeden, S.; Fockens, P.; Dekker, E.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is associated with colorectal cancer and is characterized by multiple hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) and adenomas. Narrow band imaging (NBI) may improve the detection of polyps in HPS. We aimed to compare polyp miss rates with NBI with

  1. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. (author)

  2. Patient Participation at Health Care Conferences: Engaged Patients Increase Information Flow, Expand Propagation, and Deepen Engagement in the Conversation of Tweets Compared to Physicians or Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utengen, Audun; Rouholiman, Dara; Gamble, Jamison G; Grajales, Francisco Jose; Pradhan, Nisha; Staley, Alicia C; Bernstein, Liza; Young, Sean D; Clauson, Kevin A; Chu, Larry F

    2017-08-17

    Health care conferences present a unique opportunity to network, spark innovation, and disseminate novel information to a large audience, but the dissemination of information typically stays within very specific networks. Social network analysis can be adopted to understand the flow of information between virtual social communities and the role of patients within the network. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact engaged patients bring to health care conference social media information flow and how they expand dissemination and distribution of tweets compared to other health care conference stakeholders such as physicians and researchers. From January 2014 through December 2016, 7,644,549 tweets were analyzed from 1672 health care conferences with at least 1000 tweets who had registered in Symplur's Health Care Hashtag Project from 2014 to 2016. The tweet content was analyzed to create a list of the top 100 influencers by mention from each conference, who were then subsequently categorized by stakeholder group. Multivariate linear regression models were created using stepwise function building to identify factors explaining variability as predictor variables for the model in which conference tweets were taken as the dependent variable. Inclusion of engaged patients in health care conference social media was low compared to that of physicians and has not significantly changed over the last 3 years. When engaged patient voices are included in health care conferences, they greatly increase information flow as measured by total tweet volume (beta=301.6) compared to physicians (beta=137.3, Psocial media impressions created (beta=1,700,000) compared to physicians (beta=270,000, PSocial network analysis of hubs and authorities revealed that patients had statistically significant higher hub scores (mean 8.26×10-4, SD 2.96×10-4) compared to other stakeholder groups' Twitter accounts (mean 7.19×10-4, SD 3.81×10-4; t273.84=4.302, Psocial media of health care

  3. Structured triglycerides were well tolerated and induced increased whole body fat oxidation compared with long-chain triglycerides in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, R; Hyltander, A; Körner, U; Lundholm, K

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed, on the basis of animal experiments, that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may exert more favorable effects on whole body metabolism of injured animals than long-chain triglycerides (LCT). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate whether structured triglycerides are associated with increased whole body fat oxidation without promotion of ketogenesis in postoperative patients. A structured lipid emulsion (73403 Pharmacia, Sweden) containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids, esterified randomly to glycerol in a triglyceride structure, was used. Whole body fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry in the postoperative period. Patients were randomized to receive structured lipids 1 day followed by LCT (Intralipid, Pharmacia) the next day or vice versa during 6 postoperative days. In part 1 of the study patients received fat at 1.0 g/kg per day in the presence of 80% of the basal requirement of nonprotein calories. In part 2 patients received fat at 1.5 g/kg per day in the presence of 120% of the nonprotein caloric requirement. Amino acids were always provided at 0.15 g N/kg per day. Structured lipids were not associated with any side effects, were rapidly cleared from the plasma compartment, and were rapidly oxidized without any significant hyperlipidemia or ketosis. Provision of structured lipids in the presence of excess of nonprotein calories (part 2) caused a significantly higher whole body fat oxidation (2.4 +/- 0.05 g/kg per day) compared with LCT provision (1.9 +/- 0.06 g/kg per day) (p structured triglycerides were associated with increased whole body fat oxidation in stressed postoperative patients, which is in line with the original metabolic and biochemical concept for structured triglycerides. The study provided evidence to support that structured lipids may represent a next generation of IV fat emulsions that may be clinically advantageous compared with conventional LCT emulsions in certain clinical conditions.

  4. The Reticulospinal Pathway Does Not Increase Its Contribution to the Strength of Contralesional Muscles in Stroke Survivors as Compared to Ipsilesional Side or Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStartling acoustic stimulation (SAS, via activation of reticulospinal (RS pathways, has shown to increase muscle strength in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that, given RS hyperexcitability in stroke survivors, SAS could increase muscle strength in stroke survivors. The objective was to quantify the effect of SAS on maximal and sub-maximal voluntary elbow flexion on the contralesional (impaired side in stroke survivors as compared to ipsilesional (non-impaired side and healthy controls.DesignThirteen hemiparetic stroke survivors and 12 healthy subjects volunteered for this investigation. Acoustic stimulation was given at rest, during ballistic maximal and sustained sub-maximal isometric elbow contractions using low (80 dB and high intensity sound (105 dB. The effect of acoustic stimuli was evaluated from EMG and force recordings.ResultsPrevalence of acoustic startle reflex with shorter latency in the impaired biceps was greater as compared to the response in the non-impaired side of stroke subjects and in healthy subjects. Delivery of SAS resulted in earlier initiation of elbow flexion and greater peak torque in healthy subjects and in stroke subjects with spastic hemiplegia during maximal voluntary elbow flexion tasks. During sub-maximal elbow flexion tasks, SAS-induced force responses were slightly greater on the impaired side than the non-impaired side. However, no statistically significant difference was found in SAS-induced responses between impaired and non-impaired sides at maximal and sub-maximal elbow flexion tasks.ConclusionThe findings suggest RS hyperexcitability in stroke survivors with spastic hemiplegia. The results of similar SAS-induced responses between healthy and stroke subjects indicate that RS projections via acoustic stimulation are not likely to contribute to muscle strength for stroke survivors to a significant extent.

  5. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. A comparative evaluation of root canal area increase using three different nickel-titanium rotary systems: An ex vivo cone-beam computed tomographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Deka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the area increase of root canals with ProTaper, iRaCe and Revo-S systems using cone beam computed tomography for analysis. Materials and Methodology: Forty five extracted human mandibular premolars having single canal and straight root were collected. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15. Samples were decoronized by maintaining root length at 14 mm. Pre-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scan was done after stabilizing the samples on wax blocks. The working length was determined at 1 mm short from the apical foramen by using a ISO 15 K-file tip protruding at apical foramen. Preparation was carried out according to the manufacturer′s instructions. Finally, canals were instrumented upto 30/.06 apically for each group. After each instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with 2ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by 2 ml of 17% EDTA solution. Final irrigation was done with 5ml of saline. Post instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scans of all samples in the 3 groups were acquired. Results: Mean percentage of area increase in different thirds of the canal was highest for ProTaper followed by i-RaCe and Revo-s system which was statistically significant. Interpretation and Conclusion: Root canal area increase was highest for ProTaper followed by i-Race and Revo-S systems.

  7. An increased flip angle in late phase Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI shows improved performance in bile duct visualization compared to T2w-MRCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelter, Lars, E-mail: lars.stelter@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.freyhardt@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Grieser, Christian, E-mail: christian.grieser@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Walter, Thula, E-mail: thula.walter@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Geisel, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.geisel@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Baur, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.baur@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • EOB-MRC acquired with a flip angle of 35° revealed a better diagnostic performance compared to T2w-MRCP. • EOB-MRC increased the readers’ confidence in identifying anatomic variations of the biliary tree. • As EOB-MRC comprises functional information it is a valuable adjunct to T2w-MRCP. - Abstract: Objectives: To estimate the additional value of an increased flip angle of 35° in late phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography, as compared to T2w-MRCP. Methods: 40 adult patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver including a T2-weighted 3D TSE MRCP (T2w-MRCP) as well as a late phase T1-weighted THRIVE sequences applying a flip angle of 35° (fa35). Two experienced observers evaluated the images regarding the delineation of the different biliary regions using a three-point grading system. A five-point scale was applied to determine the readers’ confidence in identifying anatomical variations of the biliary tree. ROI analysis was performed to compare the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios. Results: The quality for visualizing the biliary tree differed between T2w-MRCP and fa35 (p = <0.001). Late phase EOB-MRC was rated as good for delineating the entire biliary system, whereas T2w-MRCP received an overall poor rating. Especially the depiction of the intrahepatic bile ducts was estimated as problematic in T2w-MRCP. T2w-MRCP and fa35 revealed a discordant assessment of anatomical variations in 12.5% of the cases, comprising a generally higher confidence level for fa35 (4.0 ± 1.1 vs. 2.2 ± 1.2, p = <0.001). SNR proofed to be significantly higher in fa35 (p = <0.001), whereas T2w-MRCP revealed a significantly higher CNR (<0.001). Conclusions: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography acquired with a flip angle of 35° revealed a better diagnostic performance compared to T2w-MRCP and might be a valuable adjunct in assessing functional bile duct abnormalities.

  8. Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurinda, J.; Mapfumo, P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Rufino, M.C.; Chikowo, R.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Questions as to which crop to grow, where, when and with what management, will be increasingly challenging for farmers in the face of a changing climate. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergence, yield and financial benefits of maize, finger millet and sorghum, planted at different

  9. High-Tech or Low-Tech? Comparing Self-Monitoring Systems to Increase Task Independence for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Savage, Melissa; Meyer, Nancy K.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Hunley, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Independence is the ultimate goal for students with disabilities, including secondary students with autism. One avenue targeted for increasing independence and decreasing prompt-dependency is through self-monitoring. In this study, investigators sought to determine whether a difference exists in levels of task independence when three students with…

  10. Mortality in patients treated for Cushing's disease is increased, compared with patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O. M.; Biermasz, N. R.; Pereira, A. M.; Roelfsema, F.; van Aken, M. O.; Voormolen, J. H. C.; Romijn, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased mortality in patients with pituitary tumors after surgical treatment has been reported. However, it is unknown to what extent excess mortality is caused by pituitary tumors and their treatment in general and to what extent by previous exposure to hormonal overproduction. The aim of the

  11. Pericardial adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with chronic major depressive disorder compared to acute depression and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, K G; Herrmann, J; Stubbs, B; Krüger, T H C; Cordes, J; Deuschle, M; Schweiger, U; Hüper, K; Helm, S; Birkenstock, A; Hartung, D

    2017-01-04

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an estimated fourfold risk for premature death, largely attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), a fat compartment surrounding the heart, has been implicated in the development of coronary artery disease. An unanswered question is whether people with chronic MDD are more likely to have elevated PAT volumes versus acute MDD and controls (CTRL). The study group consists of sixteen patients with chronic MDD, thirty-four patients with acute MDD, and twenty-five CTRL. PAT and adrenal gland volume were measured by magnetic resonance tomography. Additional measures comprised factors of the metabolic syndrome, cortisol, relative insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6; IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α). PAT volumes were significantly increased in patients with chronic MDD>patients with acute MDD>CTRL. Adrenal gland volume was slightly enlarged in patients with chronic MDD>acute MDD>CTRL, although this difference failed to reach significance. The PAT volume was correlated with adrenal gland volume, and cortisol concentrations were correlated with depression severity, measured by BDI-2 and MADRS. Group differences were found concerning the rate of the metabolic syndrome, being most frequent in chronic MDD>acute MDD>CTRL. Further findings comprised increased fasting cortisol, increased TNF-α concentration, and decreased physical activity level in MDD compared to CTRL. Our results extend the existing literature in demonstrating that patients with chronic MDD have the highest risk for developing cardiovascular disorders, indicated by the highest PAT volume and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The correlation of PAT with adrenal gland volume underscores the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system as mediator for body-composition changes. Metabolic monitoring, health advices and motivation for the improvement of physical fitness may be recommended in

  12. COMPARING THE TREND BETWEEN SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT SPENDING AND THE INCREASE IN TAX REVENUE FOR THE COUNTRY’S TAXPAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Lerike; Moolman, Anneke Maré

    2017-01-01

    Adam Smith provides guidance through the four Canons of Taxation to assist government to design a good tax system based on a set of principles. These principles are being applied throughout the world, as well as in South Africa. However, the South African government has been challenged to reduce income inequality and promote growth. This has led to an increase in government spending. Although literature provides information about governmental spending, spending patterns have not been in...

  13. Increasing uptake of comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research among stakeholders: insights from conference discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ernest; Harrington, Rachel; Alexander, G Caleb; Saha, Soumi; Oehrlein, Elisabeth; Perfetto, Eleanor M

    2018-02-01

    The goal of comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) is to improve health outcomes by providing stakeholders with evidence directly relevant to decision making. In January 2017, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association Foundation, alongside the Academy for Managed Care Pharmacy, organized a conference aimed at engaging experts and opinion leaders representing clinicians, patients and payers to identify and discuss barriers and strategies to enhancing uptake and use of CER/PCOR. This report summarizes the conference discussion in the following sections: preconference survey; summary of barriers and strategies to the uptake of CER/PCOR identified by conference attendees; and future perspectives on the field.

  14. Stainless and Galvanized Steel, Hydrophobic Admixture and Flexible Polymer-Cement Coating Compared in Increasing Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosuè, Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The use of stainless or galvanized steel reinforcements, a hydrophobic admixture or a flexible polymer-cement coating were compared as methods to improve the corrosion resistance of sound or cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride rich solutions. The results show that in full immersion condition, negligible corrosion rates were detected in all cracked specimens, except those treated with the flexible polymer-cement mortar as preventive method against corrosion and the hydrophobic concrete specimens. High corrosion rates were measured in all cracked specimens exposed to wet-dry cycles, except for those reinforced with stainless steel, those treated with the flexible polymer-cement coating as restorative method against reinforcement corrosion and for hydrophobic concrete specimens reinforced with galvanized steel reinforcements.

  15. Paraplegia-quadriplegia Independently Increases All Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Complications: A Comparative Study Using the Modified Clavien System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danawala, Zeeshan A; Singh, Dinesh

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the perioperative complication rates for paraplegic-quadriplegic patients (PQPs) undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as compared with non-PQPs using a standardized method of complication reporting via the Clavien system. Two hundred thirteen consecutive PCNLs performed by a single surgeon were analyzed. There were 31 and 115 patients separated into PQP and non-PQP groups, respectively. Data collection included demographic and clinical factors, as well as perioperative and delayed complications. Complications were organized by the Clavien grade. All- and initial-procedure complications were analyzed. The rate of adverse events for each Clavien grade was calculated, and statistical comparisons were made. The relationship between PQP and complication severity was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. There were 38 and 43 initial-procedure complications in the PQP and non-PQP groups, respectively. The rate of adverse events was higher across the spectrum of Clavien grades for the PQP group, specifically grade 1 (48.4% vs 20.2%; P = .002), grade 2 (22.6% vs 5.3%; P = .004), grade 3b (12.9% vs 2.6%; P = .038), grade 4a (6.5% vs 0%), and grade 4b (9.7% vs 1.8%; P = .066). Approximately 51.6% and 31.5% of PQPs and non-PQPs experienced ≥ 1 complications, respectively (odds ratio = 2.34; P = .05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated paraplegia or quadriplegia status to be an independent risk factor for the development of perioperative complications after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio = 2.91; P = .040). PCNL complication rates are higher in PQPs compared with non-PQPs. This study is one of the first in PCNL to use a standardized reporting system to highlight high-risk individuals within the stone population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  18. Increasing Responsive Parent–Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental responsivity and children’s joint engagement. Significant gains in responsivity and time jointly engaged were found post JASPER parent-mediated intervention over a psychoeducation intervention. Further, combining higher levels of responsive behaviour with greater adoption of intervention strategies was associated with greater time jointly engaged. Findings encourage a focus on enhancing responsive behaviour in parent-mediated intervention models. PMID:26797940

  19. A wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. from Slovenia shows three bottlenecks in the anthocyanin pathway and significant differences in the expression of several regulatory genes compared to the common blue berry type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zala Zorenc

    Full Text Available Relative expressions of structural genes and a number of transcription factors of the anthocyanin pathway relevant in Vaccinium species, and related key enzyme activities were compared with the composition and content of metabolites in skins of ripe fruits of wild albino and blue bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus found in Slovenia. Compared to the common blue type, the albino variant had a 151-fold lower total anthocyanin and a 7-fold lower total phenolic content in their berry skin, which correlated with lower gene expression of flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (FGT; 33-fold, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT; 18-fold, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS; 11-fold, chalcone synthase (CHS, 7.6-fold and MYBPA1 transcription factor (22-fold. The expression of chalcone isomerase (CHI, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and MYBC2 transcription factor was reduced only by a factor of 1.5-2 in the albino berry skins, while MYBR3 and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H were increased to a similar extent. Expression of the SQUAMOSA class transcription factor TDR4, in contrast, was independent of the color type and does therefore not seem to be correlated with anthocyanin formation in this variant. At the level of enzymes, significantly lower FHT and DFR activities, but not of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and CHS/CHI, were observed in the fruit skins of albino bilberries. A strong increase in relative hydroxycinnamic acid derivative concentrations indicates the presence of an additional bottleneck in the general phenylpropanoid pathway at a so far unknown step between PAL and CHS.

  20. TOURISM IN TIME OF CRISIS AND INFLUENCE IN THE PROCESS OF INCREASE ECONOMIC. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ROMANIA-BULGARIA-GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Maria POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows an analysis of tourist activity in the period of crisis, as well as as far as this sector is retrieves in the process of increase in ecomonic among countries concerned. Have been taken into account three areas with different approaches in the field of tourism so as to be able to easily highlight difference between tradition in the case of Greece, exploitation and operation of the investment in Bulgaria and development in progress, in the case of Romania. In this way, the work of front proposes to analyze determinants underlying competitiveness in tourism from the perspective of the three states in direct competition, to highlight effects of communication on the competitiveness in the tourism industry. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a series of responses, from the perspective of the development strategies and communication, which could explain the results so different in its turn to the three national economy in the tourism sector.

  1. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Bone Structural Parameters Reveals Subchondral Cortical Plate Resorption and Increased Trabecular Bone Remodeling in Human Facet Joint Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Netzer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments. To this end, we conducted comparative micro computed tomography analysis in healthy (n = 15 and osteoarthritic (n = 22 lumbar facet joints. In osteoarthritic joints, subchondral cortical plate thickness and porosity were significantly reduced. The trabecular compartment displayed a 42 percent increase in bone volume fraction due to an increase in trabecular number, but not trabecular thickness. Bone structural alterations were associated with radiological osteoarthritis severity, mildly age-dependent but not gender-dependent. There was a lack of association between structural parameters of cortical and trabecular compartments in healthy and osteoarthritic specimens. The specific structural alterations suggest elevated subchondral bone resorption and turnover as a potential treatment target in facet joint osteoarthritis.

  3. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3–6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0–4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications. PMID:29293588

  4. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Mathew; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3-6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0-4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications.

  5. Local inpatient units may increase patients’ utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Sørgaard, Knut; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care. Methods Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays. Results The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients’ use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized), a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays. Conclusion Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care. PMID:26604843

  6. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Sørgaard, Knut; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care. Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays. The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized), a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays. Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.

  7. Unbalanced inflammatory reaction could increase tissue destruction and worsen skin infectious diseases - a comparative study of leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, F N; de Carvalho, L M V; Leite-Silva, J; Seba, A J; Pimentel, M I F; Fagundes, A; Madeira, M F; Lyra, M R; Oliveira, M M; Schubach, A O; Conceição-Silva, F

    2018-02-13

    The clinical presentations of skin diseases produced by different pathogens, as American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and sporotrichosis can be similar and possibly influenced by the skin immune system (SIS). The aim of the study was to understand the underlying mechanisms of skin inflammation produced by different pathogens. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze 96 patients: a- localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL-ATL); b- sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL-ATL); c-lymphocutaneous (LC-SP); d- fixed (F-SP) sporotrichosis. LCL-ATL and SCL-ATL had a significantly higher percentage of CD8, FasL and NOS2 than sporotrichosis. In contrast, LC-SP had a substantially higher percentage of CD4, BCl2 and neutrophils than ATL lesions. These results indicated some differences in the profile of the in situ immune response suggesting that SIS is a complex, adaptable system capable of different responses to intracellular or extracellular pathogens. However, regardless of the etiological agents, the inflammatory reaction and clinical manifestations can be similar. SCL-ATL and LC-SP presented similarities in both clinical presentation and in situ inflammatory profile (CD3, CD22, neutrophils, macrophages). The clinical presentation of ATL and sporotrichosis could be explained by a combination of factors both of the host SIS and the etiological agent. The unbalanced host parasite relationship could result in atypical manifestations of skin disease.

  8. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myklebust LH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars Henrik Myklebust,1 Knut Sørgaard,1,2 Rolf Wynn21Psychiatric Research Centre of North Norway, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, NorwayObjectives: In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care.Methods: Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays.Results: The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized, a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays.Conclusion: Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.Keywords: psychiatry, hospitalization, decentralization, outpatients, continuity of care, health service research, affective

  9. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    in circulation, and on gene expression on these infammatory marker in skeletal muscle (SM) and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. Material and Methods: 15 lean males and females (BMI 22.4±2 kg/m2) and 16 obese males and females (BMI 31.6±3 kg/m2) exercised for 120 minutes by ergometer bicycling at moderate intensity......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...... (55-60% of maximal heart rate). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0), after 60 minutes of bicycling (T=60), after 120 minutes of bicycling (T=120), whereas biopsies from AT and SM were obtained at T0 and T120. Results: Divided into weight-status, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNFα were at T=120...

  10. Trends in US malpractice payments in dentistry compared to other health professions - dentistry payments increase, others fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalliah, R P

    2017-01-13

    Background Little is known about trends in the number of malpractice payments made against dentists and other health professionals. Knowledge of these trends will inform the work of our professional organisations.Methods The National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) in the United States was utilised. Data about malpractice payments against dentists, hygienists, nurses, optometrists, pharmacists, physicians (DO and MD), physicians' assistants, podiatrists, psychologists, therapists and counsellors during 2004-14 were studied. Variables include type of healthcare provider, year malpractice payment was made and range of payment amount.Results In 2004 there were 17,532 malpractice payments against the studied health professions. In 2014 there were 11,650. In 2004, the number of malpractice payments against dentists represented 10.3% of all payments and in 2014 it represented 13.4%. Number of malpractice payments against dentists in 2012-2014 increased from 1,388 to 1,555.Conclusions There is an upward pressure on the number of dental malpractice payments over the last 3 years. Concurrently, there is a downward pressure on the number of combined non-dentist healthcare professional malpractice payments.

  11. Increased level of linkage disequilibrium in rural compared with urban communities: a factor to consider in association-study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, Veronique; Carothers, Andrew D; Hayward, Caroline; Teague, Peter; Hastie, Nicholas D; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F

    2005-05-01

    Few studies have investigated genetic differentiation within nonisolate European populations, despite the initiation of large national sample collections such as U.K. Biobank. Here, we used short tandem repeat markers to explore fine-scale genetic structure and to examine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within national subpopulations. We studied 955 unrelated individuals of local ancestry from nine Scottish rural regions and the urban center of Edinburgh, as well as 96 unrelated individuals from the general U.K. population. Despite little overall differentiation on the basis of allele frequencies, there were clear differences among subpopulations in the extent of pairwise LD, measured between a subset of X-linked markers, that reflected presumed differences in the depths of the underlying genealogies within these subpopulations. Therefore, there are strategic advantages in studying rural subpopulations, in terms of increased power and reduced cost, that are lost by sampling across regions or within urban populations. Similar rural-urban contrasts are likely to exist in many other populations with stable rural subpopulations, which could influence the design of genetic association studies and national biobank data collections.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the relative efficacy of the free mucosal graft and periosteal fenestration for increasing the vestibular depth - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the periosteal fenestration (PF and free mucosal graft (FMG techniques in mandibular anterior region to increase the vestibular depth. Methodology: A total of 20 systemically healthy cases (10 patients in each group with shallow vestibular depth and reduced width of attached gingiva in lower anterior region were included in the present study. Clinical parameters recorded included Gingival index (GI, Plaque index (PI, Oral hygiene index simplified (OHI S, Vestibular depth (VD, width of attached gingiva and post operative discomfort. Findings: The results at the end of 3 months showed that the mean GI, PI, OHI S decreased significantly and remained low throughout the study period. The mean gain in percentage of vestibular depth at the end of 3 months for group 1(PF was 48.4% with relapse of 7.2% from the baseline. For group 2 (FMG, the mean gain in percentage of vestibular depth at the end of 3 months for was 50% with relapse of 6.2% from the baseline. The mean gain in percentage of attached gingiva at 3 months for group 1 and 2 was 65.9% and 74%, respectively. In comparison of group 1 and 2, group 2 showed better results in terms of increasing the vestibular depth and attached gingiva than group 1 although the intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Conclusion: When aim of the clinician is to treat a patient with shallow vestibule together with reduced width of attached gingiva, the use of periosteal fenestration yields similar results to that of FMG.

  13. Increased CYP1A1 expression in human exfoliated urothelial cells of cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerrenhaus, Angelika; Roos, Peter H. [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Mueller, Tina [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); University Dortmund, Department of Statistics, Mathematical Statistics with Applications in Biometrics, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and nitrosamines, constituents of cigarette smoke, are known inducers of bladder cancer. The biochemical response of the target tissue, the bladder urothelium, following inhalation of cigarette smoke has not been studied so far. We used exfoliated transitional urothelial cells from human urine samples to analyze effects of smoking on induction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1. Samples of 40 subjects, including male and female smokers and non-smokers, were examined. A prerequisite for the immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the cells was the enrichment of the urothelial cell population. This was achieved by a new method which is based on magnetic cell sorting exploiting specific binding of immobilized Griffonia simplicifolia lectin to the surface of urothelial cells. Immunostaining of the final cell preparation with a monoclonal antibody to CYP1A1 showed that about 6% of the urothelial cells of non-smokers stained positive for CYP1A1. However, this fraction of positive cells was more than 44% of the urothelial cells in samples from cigarette smokers. In spite of the individual variation, the difference was statistically significant. There were no gender-related differences in the portion of CYP1A1 expressing urothelial cells of smokers and non-smokers. In essence, we show for the first time that human urothelial cells respond to cigarette smoking by induction of CYP1A1. The approach opens new fields of mechanistic and biomarker research with respect to the pathogenetic processes of cancer development in the human bladder. (orig.)

  14. Reconfiguring health workforce: a case-based comparative study explaining the increasingly diverse professional roles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Bont

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade the healthcare workforce has diversified in several directions with formalised roles for health care assistants, specialised roles for nurses and technicians, advanced roles for physician associates and nurse practitioners and new professions for new services, such as case managers. Hence the composition of health care teams has become increasingly diverse. The exact extent of this diversity is unknown across the different countries of Europe, as are the drivers of this change. The research questions guiding this study were: What extended professional roles are emerging on health care teams? How are extended professional roles created? What main drivers explain the observed differences, if any, in extended roles in and between countries? Methods We performed a case-based comparison of the extended roles in care pathways for breast cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We conducted 16 case studies in eight European countries, including in total 160 interviews with physicians, nurses and other health care professionals in new roles and 600+ hours of observation in health care clinics. Results The results show a relatively diverse composition of roles in the three care pathways. We identified specialised roles for physicians, extended roles for nurses and technicians, and independent roles for advanced nurse practitioners and physician associates. The development of extended roles depends upon the willingness of physicians to delegate tasks, developments in medical technology and service (redesign. Academic training and setting a formal scope of practice for new roles have less impact upon the development of new roles. While specialised roles focus particularly on a well-specified technical or clinical domain, the generic roles concentrate on organising and integrating care and cure. Conclusion There are considerable differences in the number and kind of extended roles between both countries and care

  15. Patients cured from craniopharyngioma or nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) suffer similarly from increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Adults patients previously treated for craniopharyngioma have increased general and physical fatigue compared to healthy controls. This could be related to disturbed sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to compare sleepiness and sleep patterns in those patients to healthy controls and to

  16. Significant reduction of peripheral blood interleukin-35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells, which are negatively correlated with an increase in the plasma IL-17 and cTnI level, in viral myocarditis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ouyang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral myocarditis (VMC has become an increasingly common heart disease that endangers human health. In the present study, the plasma interleukin-35 (IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients were detected to investigate the significance of changes in these parameters in the plasma of VMC patients and their association with the disease. Material and methods: ELISA was performed to detect the plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in 40 VMC patients and in 20 healthy individuals. Moreover, the plasma IL-17 levels in the VMC patients and in the healthy individuals were detected using an ELISA, and the cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI levels were detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to compare the differences in the groups. Results : Plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in acute phase VMC patients was lower than that in the healthy control group and the convalescent phase VMC patients. Additionally, the plasma IL-35 level in the VMC patients exhibited a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. The percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells also showed a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. Conclusions : The plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients was reduced, and the amount of the decrease was associated with the severity of the disease. These results suggest that IL-35 and CD4 + EBI3 + T might play important roles in the progression of VMC and could be used as indictors of the disease.

  17. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which may result in mixed infections of humans and exacerbation of the clinical course of Lyme disease cases on the studied area.

  18. A comparative study of the effect of stress on the cognitive parameters in women with increased body mass index before and after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M B; Ammu, S; Nayanatara, A K; Vinodini, N A; Pratik, K C; Anupama, N; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions. The present study aims to compare the effect of stress on the cognitive functions in overweight/obese women before and after menopause. A total of 142 female subjects constituting women before menopause between the ages of 18 and 44 years and women after menopause between the ages of 45 and 60 years were included in the sample. Participants were categorized into overweight/obese groups based on the body mass index. The major tool perceived stress scale was used for measuring the perception of stress. On the basis of the stress scale measurement, each group was classified into with stress and without stress. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III was used for measuring the cognitive functions. Premenopausal women with stress showed a significant (pembroidery, games and relaxation techniques should be recommended to prevent stress. Insights into the neurobiology before and after menopause can be gained from future studies examining the effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in relation to cognition and stress.

  19. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative genome-based identification of a cell wall-anchored protein from Lactobacillus plantarum increases adhesion of Lactococcus lactis to human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zuo, Fanglei; Yu, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2015-09-15

    Adhesion to host cells is considered important for Lactobacillus plantarum as well as other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to persist in human gut and thus exert probiotic effects. Here, we sequenced the genome of Lt. plantarum strain NL42 originating from a traditional Chinese dairy product, performed comparative genomic analysis and characterized a novel adhesion factor. The genome of NL42 was highly divergent from its closest neighbors, especially in six large genomic regions. NL42 harbors a total of 42 genes encoding adhesion-associated proteins; among them, cwaA encodes a protein containing multiple domains, including five cell wall surface anchor repeat domains and an LPxTG-like cell wall anchor motif. Expression of cwaA in Lactococcus lactis significantly increased its autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, and conferred the new ability to adhere to human colonic epithelial HT-29 cells by targeting cellular surface proteins, and not carbohydrate moieties, for CwaA adhesion. In addition, the recombinant Lc. lactis inhibited adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to HT-29 cells, mainly by exclusion. We conclude that CwaA is a novel adhesion factor in Lt. plantarum and a potential candidate for improving the adhesion ability of probiotics or other bacteria of interest.

  1. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  2. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  3. A randomized controlled trial comparing Circle of Security Intervention and treatment as usual as interventions to increase attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Mühlhan, Christine; Romer, Georg; Nolte, Tobias; Fonagy, Peter; Powell, Bert

    2014-01-30

    Psychopathology in women after childbirth represents a significant risk factor for parenting and infant mental health. Regarding child development, these infants are at increased risk for developing unfavorable attachment strategies to their mothers and for subsequent behavioral, emotional and cognitive impairments throughout childhood. To date, the specific efficacy of an early attachment-based parenting group intervention under standard clinical outpatient conditions, and the moderators and mediators that promote attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers, have been poorly evaluated. This randomized controlled clinical trial tests whether promoting attachment security in infancy with the Circle of Security (COS) Intervention will result in a higher rate of securely attached children compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Furthermore, we will determine whether the distributions of securely attached children are moderated or mediated by variations in maternal sensitivity, mentalizing, attachment representations, and psychopathology obtained at baseline and at follow-up. We plan to recruit 80 mother-infant dyads when infants are aged 4-9 months with 40 dyads being randomized to each treatment arm. Infants and mothers will be reassessed when the children are 16-18 months of age. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment and randomization, explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, research assessors and coders blinded to treatment allocation, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment protocols and assessments of treatment adherence and integrity. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of an attachment-based intervention that promotes attachment security in infants. Additionally, we anticipate being able to utilize data on maternal and child outcome measures to obtain preliminary indications about potential moderators of the intervention and inform hypotheses about which intervention

  4. Kidney transplantation does not increase the level of basic hope or life satisfaction compared with hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarow, P; Jankowska, M; Sańko-Resmer, J; Durlik, M; Grzeszczyk, M; Pączek, L

    2014-10-01

    Although renal replacement therapy can lead to improved health, it also can cause emotional disturbances in patients. It is believed that the success of renal replacement therapy hinges not only on medical parameters, but also on psychosocial factors, which is why modern medicine provides an ever-increasing role in the improvement of patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of life satisfaction, purpose in life, and basic hope in patients who had received renal replacement due to chronic kidney disease. We also tested whether the specific type of renal replacement therapy and kidney function parameters were influential factors on the above variables. Sixty-one adult patients treated via renal replacement for chronic kidney disease took part in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: 31 hemodialysis patients (15 women and 16 men, ages 23-77 years, mean 51.19 years, SD 14.53 years) and 30 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation (14 women and 16 men, ages 22-69 years, mean 48.40 years, SD 12.64 years). The following research tools were used for analysis: Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Purpose in Life Test (PIL), and Basic Hope Inventory (BHI-12). There were no statistical differences in the level of satisfaction with life between hemodialysis patients and postkidney transplant patients. The results for the SWLS obtained from both groups fell within the normal range. The average SWLS for hemodialysis patients remained 20.61, SD = 5.79; for postkidney transplant patients, it was 22.57, SD = 5.16. The PIL level in the group of hemodialysis patients (101.5, SD = 15.64) was significantly lower than in the group of postkidney transplant patients (109.7, SD = 15.54). The average BHI-12 level was similar in both groups. The average BHI-12 result for hemodialysis patients was 29.00 (SD = 5.06), and for postkidney transplant patients 29.93 (SD = 3.55). The correlations between the psychological variables and

  5. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägeli, Mirjam; Fasshauer, Mario; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Fendel, Angela; Brandi, Giovanna; Stover, John F

    2014-07-02

    Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0.75 g/ kg/ d up to 5 days) increased plasma and brain glutamine and alanine levels. This was not associated with elevated glutamate or signs of potential glutamate-mediated cerebral injury. The increased nitrogen load should be considered in patients with renal and hepatic dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02130674. Registered 5 April 2014.

  6. FTY720-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) electrospun scaffold significantly increases microvessel density over 7 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57b16/J mice: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D T; Chhabra, P; Langman, L; Botchwey, E A; Brayman, K L

    2011-11-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds could improve islet transplant success by physically mimicking the shape of extracellular matrix and by acting as a drug-delivery vehicle. Scaffolds implanted in alternate transplant sites must be prevascularized or very quickly vascularized following transplantation to prevent hypoxia-induced islet necrosis. The local release of the S1P prodrug FTY720 induces diameter enlargement and increases in length density. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate length and diameter differences between diabetic and nondiabetic animals implanted with FTY720-containing electrospun scaffolds using intravital imaging of dorsal skinfold window chambers. Electrospun mats of randomly oriented fibers we created from polymer solutions of PLAGA (50:50 LA:GA) with and without FTY720 loaded at a ratio of 1:200 (FTY720:PLAGA by wt). The implanted fiber mats were 4 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 mm thick. Increases in length density and vessel diameter were assessed by automated analysis of images over 7 days in RAVE, a Matlab program. Image analysis of repeated measures of microvessel metrics demonstrated a significant increase in the length density from day 0 to day 7 in the moderately diabetic animals of this preliminary study (P < .05). Furthermore, significant differences in length density at day 0 and day 3 were found between recently STZ-induced moderately diabetic and nondiabetic animals in response to FTY720 local release (P < .05, Student t test). Driving the islet revascularization process using local release of factors, such as FTY720, from biodegradable polymers makes an attractive system for the improvement of islet transplant success. Preliminary study results suggest that a recently induced moderately diabetic state may potentiate the mechanism by which local release of FTY720 from polymer fibers increases length density of microvessels. Therefore, local release of S1P receptor-targeted drugs is under further investigation for improvement of

  7. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  8. Policy-Led Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops: Testing for Increased Risk Rather Than Profiling Phenotypes Leads to Predictable and Transparent Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Raybould

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making. Science-led comparative risk assessment, on the other hand, tends to test null hypotheses of no difference between a GM crop and a comparator. The variables that are compared may have little or no relevance to any previously stated policy objective and hence decision-making tends to be ad hoc in response to possibly spurious statistical significance. We argue that policy-led comparative risk assessment is the far more effective method. With this in mind, we caution that phenotypic profiling of GM crops, particularly with omics methods, is potentially detrimental to risk assessment.

  9. Guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression is increased following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but guanylins do not play a significant role in body weight regulation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cachon, María L; Pedersen, Søren L; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether intestinal expression of guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A) and guanylate cyclase activator 2B (GUCA2B) genes is regulated in obese humans following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to evaluate the corresponding guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) peptides...... for potentially contributing to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB. METHODS: Enteroendocrine cells were harvested peri- and post-RYGB, and GUCA2A/GUCA2B mRNA expression was compared. GN, UGN and their prohormones (proGN, proUGN) were administered subcutaneously in normal-weight mice to evaluate effects...... on food intake. GN and UGN, as well as their prohormones, were evaluated for effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat pancreatic islets and perfused rat pancreas. RESULTS: GUCA2A and GUCA2B mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in enteroendocrine cells after RYGB. Peripheral...

  10. Are dogs that are fed from a raised bowl at an increased risk of gastric dilation volvulus compared with floor-fed dogs?

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    There are only two studies that study the effect of raised feeders on the risk of Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV) and their findings conflict. Only one study found a significant effect of feeder height, with large and giant breeds fed from a raised feeder being at an increased risk of GDV floor fed dogs. However, these authors found that, where the feeder was raised, the height of the feeder that increased the GDV risk was affected by the size of the dog. Large breed dogs were more likely t...

  11. Nurses caring for ENT patients in a district general hospital without a dedicated ENT ward score significantly less in a test of knowledge than nurses caring for ENT patients in a dedicated ENT ward in a comparable district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, C R; Black, D; Muhlschlegel, J; Jardine, A

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether there is a difference in ENT knowledge amongst nurses caring for patients on a dedicated ENT ward and nurses caring for ENT patients in a similar hospital without a dedicated ENT ward. A test of theoretical knowledge of ENT nursing care was devised and administered to nurses working on a dedicated ENT ward and then to nurses working on generic non-subspecialist wards regularly caring for ENT patients in a hospital without a dedicated ENT ward. The test scores were then compared. A single specialist ENT/Maxillo-Facial/Opthalmology ward in hospital A and 3 generic surgical wards in hospital B. Both hospitals are comparable district general hospitals in the south west of England. Nursing staff working in hospital A and hospital B on the relevant wards were approached during the working day. 11 nurses on ward 1, 10 nurses on ward 2, 11 nurses on ward 3 and 10 nurses on ward 4 (the dedicated ENT ward). Each individual test score was used to generate an average score per ward and these scores compared to see if there was a significant difference. The average score out of 10 on ward 1 was 6.8 (+/-1.6). The average score on ward two was 4.8 (+/-1.6). The average score on ward three was 5.5 (+/-2.1). The average score on ward 4, which is the dedicated ENT ward, was 9.7 (+/-0.5). The differences in average test score between the dedicated ENT ward and all of the other wards are statistically significant. Nurses working on a dedicated ENT ward have an average higher score in a test of knowledge than nurses working on generic surgical wards. This difference is statistically significant and persists despite banding or training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  13. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  14. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  15. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant reduction of normal tissue dose by proton radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Stage I or Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe Y.; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Xiaochun; Kang Yixiu; Riley, Beverly C.; Bilton, Stephen C.; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume histograms (DVH) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by photon or proton radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-volume histograms were compared between photon, including three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and proton plans at doses of 66 Gy, 87.5 Gy in Stage I (n = 10) and 60-63 Gy, and 74 Gy in Stage III (n 15). Results: For Stage I, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 31.8%, 24.6%, and 15.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 66 Gy, whereas they were 13.4%, 12.3%, and 10.9%, respectively, with proton with dose escalation to 87.5 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) (p = 0.002). For Stage III, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 54.1%, 46.9%, and 34.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 63 Gy, whereas they were 39.7%, 36.6%, and 31.6%, respectively, for proton with dose escalation to 74 CGE (p = 0.002). In all cases, the doses to lung, spinal cord, heart, esophagus, and integral dose were lower with proton therapy even compared with IMRT. Conclusions: Proton treatment appears to reduce dose to normal tissues significantly, even with dose escalation, compared with standard-dose photon therapy, either 3D-CRT or IMRT

  17. Comparative Approach to Define Increased Regulatory T Cells in Different Cancer Subtypes by Combined Assessment of CD127 and FOXP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years an increase of functional CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells has been established for patients with solid tumors, acute leukemias, and lymphomas. We have reported an expanded pool of CD4+CD25high Treg cells in patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL, multiple myeloma (MM as well as its premalignant precursor monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. In healthy individuals, low-level expression of CD127 on T cells in addition to the expression of FOXP3 has been associated with Treg cells. Here, we demonstrate that the expanded FOXP3+ T-cell population in patients with colorectal cancer, CLL, MGUS, MM, follicular lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease are exclusively CD127low Treg cells and were strongly suppressive. A significant portion of CD127lowFOXP3+ Treg cells expressed only low levels of CD25 suggesting that the previously reported expansion of CD25+ Treg cells underestimates the true expansion. The assessment of CCR7 and CD45RA expression on the expanded CD4+CD127lowFOXP3+ Treg cells revealed an increase of both naïve as well as central and effector memory Treg cells in peripheral blood. Our data strongly support superiority of combined CD127 and FOXP3 analysis in comparison to CD25 and FOXP3 assessment for further quantification of Treg cells in malignant diseases.

  18. Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine and Low-dose Isoflurane Increases Solute Transport via the Glymphatic Pathway in Rat Brain When Compared with High-dose Isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Helene; Lee, Hedok; Ding, Fengfei; Sun, Qian; Al-Bizri, Ehab; Makaryus, Rany; Probst, Stephen; Nedergaard, Maiken; Stein, Elliot A; Lu, Hanbing

    2017-12-01

    The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the supplementary effect of dexmedetomidine, which lowers norepinephrine, with isoflurane only, which does not. Female rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane (N = 8) or dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane (N = 8). Physiologic parameters were recorded continuously. Glymphatic transport was quantified by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter volumes were quantified from T1 maps, and blood vessel diameters were extracted from time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiograms. Electroencephalograms were recorded in separate groups of rats. Glymphatic transport was enhanced by 32% in rats anesthetized with dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane when compared with isoflurane. In the hippocampus, glymphatic clearance was sixfold more efficient during dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane anesthesia when compared with isoflurane. The respiratory and blood gas status was comparable in rats anesthetized with the two different anesthesia regimens. In the dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane rats, spindle oscillations (9 to 15 Hz) could be observed but not in isoflurane anesthetized rats. We propose that anesthetics affect the glymphatic pathway transport not simply by inducing unconsciousness but also by additional mechanisms, one of which is the repression of norepinephrine release.

  19. Pulmonary venous flow index as a predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance variability in congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary flow: a comparative study before and after oxygen inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde; Andrade, José Lázaro; Moises, Valdir; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia Camelo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There is no definitive and reliable echocardiographic method for estimating the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to differentiate persistent vascular disease from dynamic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pulmonary venous blood flow velocity-time integral (VTIpv) and PVR. Eighteen patients (10 females; 4 months to 22 years of age) with congenital heart disease and left to right shunt were studied. They underwent complete cardiac catheterization, including measurements of the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio, before and after 100% oxygen inhalation. Simultaneous left inferior pulmonary venous flow VTIpv was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. The PVR decreased significantly from 5.0 ± 2.6 W to 2.8 ± 2.2 W (P = 0.0001) with a significant increase in the Qp:Qs ratio, from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.4 (P = 0.0008), and the VTIpv increased significantly from 22.6 ± 4.7 cm to 28.1 ± 6.2 cm (P = 0.0002) after 100% oxygen inhalation. VTIpv correlated well with the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio (r = -0.74 and 0.72, respectively). Diagnostic indexes indicated a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 83%, a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 60%. The VTIpv correlated well with the PVR. The measurement of this index before and after oxygen inhalation may become a useful noninvasive test for differentiating persistent vascular disease from dynamic and flow-related pulmonary hypertension. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Randomized Trial to Compare Alternative Educational Interventions to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Hard-to-Reach Urban Minority Population with Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I; Shea, Steven

    2015-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial assessed different educational approaches for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake in a sample of primarily non-US born urban minority individuals, over aged 50, with health insurance, and out of compliance with screening guidelines. In one group, participants were mailed printed educational material (n = 180); in a second, participants' primary care physicians received academic detailing to improve screening referral and follow-up practices (n = 185); in a third, physicians received academic detailing and participants received tailored telephone education (n = 199). Overall, 21.5% of participants (n = 121) received appropriate screening within one year of randomization. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences between groups in screening rate. Among those 60 years of age or older, however, the detailing plus telephone education group had a higher screening rate than the print group (27.3 vs. 7.7%, p = .02). Different kinds of interventions will be required to increase colorectal cancer screening among the increasingly small population segment that remains unscreened. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392143.

  1. Are Dogs That Are Fed from a Raised Bowl at an Increased Risk of Gastric Dilation Volvulus Compared with Floor-Fed Dogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Anne Buckley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are only two studies that study the effect of raised feeders on the risk of Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV and their findings conflict. Only one study found a significant effect of feeder height, with large and giant breeds fed from a raised feeder being at an increased risk of GDV floor fed dogs. However, these authors found that, where the feeder was raised, the height of the feeder that increased the GDV risk was affected by the size of the dog. Large breed dogs were more likely to develop a GDV if fed from a bowl ≤ 1 foot tall, whereas giant breed dogs were more likely to develop a GDV if fed from a bowl > 1 foot tall. No studies found that feeding from a raised feeder reduced the risk of GDV relative to feeding from the floor. Therefore, the safest option in the absence of further evidence is to advise that owners of ‘at risk’ dogs feed from a feeder on the floor. This may not reduce the risk of GDV, but there is no evidence to suggest that it will increase the risk. 

  2. Comparative Genomics of Mycoplasma bovis Strains Reveals That Decreased Virulence with Increasing Passages Might Correlate with Potential Virulence-Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Rasheed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. To understand its virulence mechanisms, we sequenced three attenuated M. bovis strains, P115, P150, and P180, which were passaged in vitro 115, 150, and 180 times, respectively, and exhibited progressively decreasing virulence. Comparative genomics was performed among the wild-type M. bovis HB0801 (P1 strain and the P115, P150, and P180 strains, and one 14.2-kb deleted region covering 14 genes was detected in the passaged strains. Additionally, 46 non-sense single-nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were detected, which confirmed that more passages result in more mutations. A subsequent collective bioinformatics analysis of paralogs, metabolic pathways, protein-protein interactions, secretory proteins, functionally conserved domains, and virulence-related factors identified 11 genes that likely contributed to the increased attenuation in the passaged strains. These genes encode ascorbate-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIB and IIA components, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, glycerol, and multiple sugar ATP-binding cassette transporters, ATP binding proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, transketolase, and a variable surface protein. Fifteen genes were shown to be enriched in 15 metabolic pathways, and they included the aforementioned genes encoding pyruvate kinase, transketolase, enolase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production in M. bovis strains representing seven passages from P1 to P180 decreased progressively with increasing numbers of passages and increased attenuation. However, eight mutants specific to eight individual genes within the 14.2-kb deleted region did not exhibit altered H2O2 production. These results enrich the M. bovis genomics database, and they increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying M. bovis virulence.

  3. Carbohydrate Intake in Form of Gel Is Associated With Increased Gastrointestinal Distress but Not With Performance Differences Compared With Liquid Carbohydrate Ingestion During Simulated Long-Distance Triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareban, Mahdi; Zügel, David; Koehler, Karsten; Hartveg, Paul; Zügel, Martina; Schumann, Uwe; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Treff, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of exogenous carbohydrates (CHO) during prolonged endurance exercise, such as long-distance triathlon, is considered beneficial with regard to performance. However, little is known about whether this performance benefit differs among different forms of CHO administration. To this end, the purpose of our study was to determine the impact of CHO ingestion from a semisolid source (GEL) on measures of performance and gastrointestinal (GI) comfort compared with CHO ingestion from a liquid source (LIQ). Nine well-trained triathletes participated in this randomized crossover study. Each participant completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment under 2 conditions, once while receiving 67.2 ± 7.2 g · h-1 (M ± SD) of CHO from GEL and once while receiving 67.8 ± 4.2 g · h-1 of CHO from LIQ. The amount of fluid provided was matched among conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose, and lactate as well as GI discomfort were assessed at regular intervals during the experiment. The distance covered during the final all-out run was not significantly different among participants ingesting GEL (11.81 ± 1.38 km) and LIQ (11.91 ± 1.53 km; p = .89). RER, blood glucose, and lactate did not differ significantly at any time during the experiment. Seven participants reported GI discomfort with GEL, and no athlete reported GI discomfort with LIQ (p = .016). This study suggests that administration of GEL does not alter long-distance triathlon performance when compared with LIQ, but GEL seems to be associated with reduced GI tolerance. Athletes should consider this a potential disadvantage of GEL administration during long-distance triathlon.

  4. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  6. Clay minerals in sediments of Portuguese reservoirs and their significance as weathering products from over-eroded soils: a comparative study of the Maranhão, Monte Novo and Divor Reservoirs (South Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rita M. F.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Conceição, Patrícia I. S. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Southern region of Portugal is subjected to several forms of over-erosion. Most leached products, mainly composed of fine particles containing nutrients, metals or pesticides, are easily transported by river flows. When these are hindered by a physical barrier such as a dam, the particulate load accumulates on the bottom of the reservoirs, often leading to a pronounced decrease of water quality. Bottom sediments from three reservoirs were subjected to grain-size analysis and a study of clay minerals by X-ray diffraction. Most sediments contain a diverse set of clay minerals, mostly illites, smectites, chlorites and kaolinites. The nature of the clay minerals reflects the nature of the parent rocks. During the cycles of transport and temporary deposition, they may undergo significant chemical and physical transformations, which lead to an increase of expandable properties and therefore, to a higher cationic exchange capacity, determining its important role as vehicles of environmental pollutants.

  7. Liver-derived IGF-I contributes to GH-dependent increases in lean mass and bone mineral density in mice with comparable levels of circulating GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Sarah M; Tran, Jennifer L; Sos, Brandon C; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Weiss, Ethan J

    2011-07-01

    The relative contributions of circulating and locally produced IGF-I in growth remain controversial. The majority of circulating IGF-I is produced by the liver, and numerous mouse models have been developed to study the endocrine actions of IGF-I. A common drawback to these models is that the elimination of circulating IGF-I disrupts a negative feedback pathway, resulting in unregulated GH secretion. We generated a mouse with near total abrogation of circulating IGF-I by disrupting the GH signaling mediator, Janus kinase (JAK)2, in hepatocytes. We then crossed these mice, termed JAK2L, to GH-deficient little mice (Lit). Compound mutant (Lit-JAK2L) and control (Lit-Con) mice were treated with equal amounts of GH such that the only difference between the two groups was hepatic GH signaling. Both groups gained weight in response to GH but there was a reduction in the final weight of GH-treated Lit-JAK2L vs. Lit-Con mice. Similarly, lean mass increased in both groups, but there was a reduction in the final lean mass of Lit-JAK2L vs. Lit-Con mice. There was an equivalent increase in skeletal length in response to GH in Lit-Con and Lit-JAK2L mice. There was an increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in both groups, but Lit-JAK2L had lower BMD than Lit-Con mice. In addition, GH-mediated increases in spleen and kidney mass were absent in Lit-JAK2L mice. Taken together, hepatic GH-dependent production of IGF-I had a significant and nonredundant role in GH-mediated acquisition of lean mass, BMD, spleen mass, and kidney mass; however, skeletal length was dependent upon or compensated for by locally produced IGF-I.

  8. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  9. Randomized structured triglycerides increase lymphatic absorption of tocopherol and retinol compared with the equivalent physical mixture in a rat model of fat malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, P; Lee, T; DeMichele, S J

    2001-08-01

    Previously we demonstrated that the digestion, absorption and lymphatic transport of lipid and key essential fatty acids (EFA) from randomly interesterified fish oil/medium-chain structured triglycerides (STG) were significantly higher than an equivalent physical mixture (PM) in a normal lymph fistula rat model and in a rat model of lipid malabsorption caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The goals of this study were to further explore the potential absorptive benefits of STG by comparing the intestinal absorption and lymphatic transport of tocopherol and retinol when delivered gastrically with either STG or PM under normal conditions and after I/R injury to the small bowel. Food-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two treatments (sham controls or I/R). Under halothane anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was occluded for 20 min and then reperfused in I/R rats. The SMA was isolated but not occluded in control rats. In both groups, the mesenteric lymph duct was cannulated and a gastric tube was inserted. Each treatment group received 1 mL of the fish oil/MCT STG or PM (7 rats/group) along with (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol through the gastric tube followed by an infusion of PBS at 3 mL/h for 8 h. Lymph was collected hourly for 8 h. Under steady-state conditions, the amount of (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol transported into lymph was significantly higher in the STG-fed rats compared with those fed PM in both control and I/R groups. In addition, control and I/R rats given STG had earlier steady-state outputs of (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol and maintained approximately 30% higher outputs in lymph throughout the 8-h lymph collection period compared with rats given the PM. We conclude that STG provides the opportunity to potentiate improved absorption of fat-soluble vitamins under normal and malabsorptive states.

  10. Adaptive Immunity against Streptococcus pyogenes in Adults Involves Increased IFN-gamma and IgG3 Responses Compared with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Norrelykke; Blauenfeldt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Each year, millions of people are infected with Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to an estimated 500,000 annual deaths worldwide. For unknown reasons, school-aged children have substantially higher infection rates than adults. The goal for this study was to provide, to our knowledge, the first det...... cellular memory response in combination with IgG1/IgG3-dominated humoral immunity that increase with age. The significance of these data regarding both the increased GAS infection rate in children and the development of protective GAS vaccines is discussed.......Each year, millions of people are infected with Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to an estimated 500,000 annual deaths worldwide. For unknown reasons, school-aged children have substantially higher infection rates than adults. The goal for this study was to provide, to our knowledge, the first...... detailed characterization of the human adaptive immune response against S. pyogenes in both children and adults. We report that all adults in our study, as well as most children, showed immunity against the two conserved group A streptococci (GAS) Ags, streptococcal C5a peptidase and immunogenic secreted...

  11. Compare the Clinical Significance of the Biochemical Markers of Myocardial Damage Inspection%对比不同心肌损伤生化标记物检验的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 马昉

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比不同心肌损伤生化标记物检验的临床意义。方法随机选自2011年10月~2012年10月我院收治的80例心肌损伤患者,采用 AU640全自动型的生化仪对其心肌钙蛋白、肌红蛋白 I、血同型半胱氨酸、脑利钠肽前体、肌酸激酶同工酶水平进行相应的检测,对检验过程中不同标记物的应用价值及特点进行分析。结果80例心肌损伤患者经过相应的检测之后,灵敏度最高的是脑利钠肽前体,最低的是血同型半胱氨酸。结论在五种不同的心肌损伤生化标记物的检验过程中,各种标记物均可发挥明显的指导意义,对不同的标记物进行联合检测可以使诊治效果得到提升。%Objective To compare the clinical significance of the biochemical markers of myocardial damage inspection. Methods Randomly selected from October 2011 to October 2012,our hospital 80 cases of patients with myocardial injury,using type AU640 automatic biochemical instrument on the myocardial calcium,protein,myoglobin I,blood homocysteine,brain natriuretic peptide precursor,creatine kinase isoenzyme level corresponding detection,in the process of inspection application value and characteristics of different markers were analyzed. Results 80 cases of patients with myocardial injury after the corresponding detection,sensitivity is the highest brain natriuretic peptide precursor,blood homocysteine are the lowest. Conclusion In five different biochemical markers of myocardial injury during the process of inspection,al kinds of markers can play a significant guiding significance,for different markers for joint detection can make make a diagnosis and give treatment effect is improved.

  12. Increased transcript level of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) in human tricuspid compared with bicuspid aortic valves correlates with the stenosis severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Edit; Caidahl, Kenneth; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Bäck, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathomechanism of calcific aortic valve stenosis. ► We assessed the transcript levels for PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), acts as a DNA damage nick sensor in stenotic valves. ► Early stage of diseased tricuspid valves exhibited higher mRNA levels for PARP-1 compared to bicuspid valves. ► The mRNA levels for PARP-1 inversely correlated with the clinical stenosis severity in tricuspid valves. ► Our data demonstrated that DNA damage pathways might be associated with stenosis severity only in tricuspid valves. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress may contribute to the hemodynamic progression of aortic valve stenosis, and is associated with activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1. The aim of the present study was to assess the transcriptional profile and the topological distribution of PARP-1 in human aortic valves, and its relation to the stenosis severity. Human stenotic aortic valves were obtained from 46 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery and used for mRNA extraction followed by quantitative real-time PCR to correlate the PARP-1 expression levels with the non invasive hemodynamic parameters quantifying the stenosis severity. Primary isolated valvular interstitial cells (VICs) were used to explore the effects of cytokines and leukotriene C 4 (LTC 4 ) on valvular PARP-1 expression. The thickened areas of stenotic valves with tricuspid morphology expressed significantly higher levels of PARP-1 mRNA compared with the corresponding part of bicuspid valves (0.501 vs 0.243, P = 0.01). Furthermore, the quantitative gene expression levels of PARP-1 were inversely correlated with the aortic valve area (AVA) (r = −0.46, P = 0.0469) and AVA indexed for body surface area (BSA) (r = −0.498; P = 0.0298) only in tricuspid aortic valves. LTC 4 (1 nM) significantly elevated the mRNA levels of PARP-1 by 2.38-fold in VICs. Taken together, these data suggest that

  13. Clozapine usage increases the incidence of pneumonia compared with risperidone and the general population: a retrospective comparison of clozapine, risperidone, and the general population in a single hospital over 25 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Zachary R; George, Wales T; O'Brien, Jeffrey B; Jancik, Jon; Colon, Eduardo; Rasimas, Joseph J

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of pneumonia in patients taking clozapine was more frequent compared with those taking risperidone or no atypical antipsychotics at all before admission to a tertiary care medical center. This was a retrospective, case-matched study of 465 general medicine patients over a 25 month period from 1 July 2010 to 31 July 2012. Detailed electronic medical records were analyzed to explore the association between the use of two atypical antipsychotics and incidence of pneumonia. Of the 155 patients in the clozapine group, 54 (34.8%) had documented pneumonia compared with 22 (14.2%) in the risperidone group and 18 (11.6%) in the general population group. Clozapine, when compared with the untreated general population, was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (odds ratio=4.07; 95% confidence interval=2.25-7.36). There was, however, no significant increase in the risk of pneumonia associated with the use of risperidone (odds ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval=0.65-2.45). Clozapine use is associated with increased risk of pneumonia that may be related to immunologic factors or side effects of sedation and drooling that make aspiration more likely, although causative mechanisms require further investigation. These findings suggest that providers should use added caution in choosing candidates for clozapine therapy.

  14. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Schemmer, P.; Duex, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  15. Self-sampling to increase participation in cervical cancer screening: an RCT comparing home mailing, distribution in pharmacies, and recall letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, P; Fortunato, C; Barbarino, P; Boveri, S; Caroli, S; Del Mistro, A; Ferro, A; Giammaria, C; Manfredi, M; Moretto, T; Pasquini, A; Sideri, M; Tufi, M C; Cogo, C; Altobelli, E

    2015-02-17

    We performed a multicentre randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect on participation in organised screening programmes of a self-sampling device mailed home or picked up at a pharmacy compared with the standard recall letter. Women aged 30-64 non-responding to screening invitation were eligible. Response rate to first invitation ranged from 30% to 60% between centres. The control was the standard reminder letter to undergo the test used by the programme (Pap test in three centres and HPV DNA test in three other centres). Home mailing of the self-sampler was preceded by a letter with a leaflet about HPV. The analysis was intention-to-treat. In all, 14 041 women were randomised and recruited: 5012 in the control arm, 4516 to receive the self-sampler at home, and 4513 to pick up the self-sampler at a pharmacy. Participation was 11.9% in the control, 21.6% (relative participation: 1.75; 95% CI 1.60-1.93) in home, and 12.0% (relative participation: 0.96; 95% CI 0.86-1.07) in the pharmacy arms, respectively. The heterogeneity between centres was high (excess heterogeneity of that expected due to chance, i.e., I(2), 94.9% and 94.1% for home and pharmacy arm, respectively). The estimated impact on the overall coverage was +4.3% for home mail self-sampling compared with +2.2% for standard reminder. Home mailing of self-sampler proved to be an effective way to increase participation in screening programmes, even in those with HPV as primary testing. Picking up at pharmacies showed effects varying from centre to centre.

  16. Combined exposure of ELF magnetic fields and X-rays increased mutant yields compared with X-rays alone in pTN89 plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Shin; Nakahara, Takehisa; Sakurai, Tomonori; Komatsubara, Yoshiki; Miyakoshi, Junji; Isozumi, Yasuhito

    2005-01-01

    We have examined mutations in the supF gene carried by pTN89 plasmids in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to examine the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMFs) and/or X-rays to the plasmids. The plasmids were subjected to sham exposure or exposed to an ELFMF (5 mT), with or without X-ray irradiation (10 Gy). For the combined treatments, exposure to the ELFMF was immediately before or after X-ray irradiation. The mutant fractions were 0.94 x 10 -5 for X-rays alone, 1.58 x 10 -5 for an ELFMF followed by X-rays, and 3.64 x 10 -5 for X-rays followed by an ELFMF. Increased mutant fraction was not detected following exposure to a magnetic field alone, or after sham exposure. The mutant fraction for X-rays followed by an ELFMF was significantly higher than those of other treatments. Sequence analysis of the supF mutant plasmids revealed that base substitutions were dominant on exposure to X-rays alone and X-rays plus an ELFMF. Several types of deletions were detected in only the combined treatments, but not with X-rays alone. We could not find any mutant colonies in sham irradiated and an ELFMF alone treatment, but exposure to ELFMFs immediately before or after X-ray irradiation may enhance the mutations. Our results indicate that an ELFMF increases mutation and alters the spectrum of mutations. (author)

  17. Increased Circulating Level of the Survival Factor GP88 (Progranulin in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients When Compared to Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rak Tkaczuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin is a glycoprotein overexpressed in breast tumors and involved in their proliferation and survival. Since GP88 is secreted, an exploratory study was established to compare serum GP88 level between breast cancer patients (BC and healthy volunteers (HV. Methods An IRB approved prospective study enrolled 189 stage 1–4 BC patients and 18 HV. GP88 serum concentration was determined by immunoassay. Results Serum GP88 level was 28.7+ 5.8 ng/ml in HV and increased to 40.7+ 16.0 ng/ml ( P = 0.007 for stage 1-3 and 45.3 +23.3 ng/ml ( P = 0.0007 for stage 4 BC patients. There was no correlation between the GP88 level and BC characteristics such as age, race, tumor grade, ER, PR and HER-2 expression. Conclusion These data suggest that serial testing of serum GP88 levels may have value as a circulating biomarker for detection, monitoring and follow up of BC.

  18. Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vary Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 ± 23 vs 265 ± 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 ± 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E·eIF4G and inactive eIF4E·4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6

  19. Pitavastatin 4 mg Provides Significantly Greater Reduction in Remnant Lipoprotein Cholesterol Compared With Pravastatin 40 mg: Results from the Short-term Phase IV PREVAIL US Trial in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sponseller, Craig A; Toth, Peter P

    2016-03-01

    Remnants are partially hydrolyzed, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are implicated in atherosclerosis. We assessed the adequacy of pitavastatin 4 mg and pravastatin 40 mg in reducing atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, in particular remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C). From the Phase IV, multicenter, randomized, double-blind PREVAIL US (A Study of Pitavastatin 4 mg Vs. Pravastatin 40 mg in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia) trial, we examined lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions using Vertical Auto Profile testing and apolipoproteins B and A-I at baseline and 12 weeks. Participants with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia had LDL-C levels of 130 to 220 mg/dL and triglyceride levels ≤ 400 mg/dL. In this post hoc analysis, changes in lipid parameters were compared by using ANCOVA. Lipoprotein subfraction data were available in 312 patients (pitavastatin, n = 157; pravastatin, n = 155). Pitavastatin promoted a greater reduction in RLP-C than pravastatin (-13.6 [8.7] vs -9.3 [9.5] mg/dL). Furthermore, the pitavastatin group reported greater reductions in both components of RLP-C (both, P < 0.001): intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.5 [6.3] vs -6.4 [6.6] mg/dL) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 (-4.1 [3.5] vs -2.9 [3.8] mg/dL). There were also greater reductions in the major ratios of risk (apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and total cholesterol/HDL-C) (both, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in HDL-C, its subfractions, or natural log lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol. The mean age was 58.8 ± 8.9 years in the pitavastatin group and 57.0 ± 10.2 years in the pravastatin group. Compared with pravastatin 40 mg daily, pitavastatin 4 mg provided superior reductions in atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, including RLP-C. Future studies are needed investigate the clinical implications of lowering directly measured RLP-C as the principal target. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier

  20. Initial Report of a Prospective Dosimetric and Clinical Feasibility Trial Demonstrates the Potential of Protons to Increase the Therapeutic Ratio in Breast Cancer Compared With Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Julie A., E-mail: jbradley@floridaproton.org; Dagan, Roi; Ho, Meng Wei; Rutenberg, Michael; Morris, Christopher G.; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric endpoints between proton therapy (PT) and conventional radiation and determine the feasibility of PT for regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in women with breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From 2012 to 2014, 18 women (stage IIA-IIIB) requiring RNI prospectively enrolled on a pilot study. Median age was 51.8 years (range, 42-73 years). The cohort included breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and mastectomy patients and right- and left-sided cancers. Treatment targets and organs at risk were delineated on computed tomography scans, and PT and conventional plans were developed. Toxicity was prospectively recorded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. A Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test compared the dose-volume parameters. The primary endpoint was a reduction in cardiac V5. Results: Median follow-up was 20 months (range, 2-31 months). For all patients, the PT plan better met the dosimetric goals and was used for treatment. Proton therapy alone was used for 10 patients (9 postmastectomy, 1 after BCT) and combined proton–photon in 8 (6 BCT, 2 postmastectomy with immediate expander reconstruction). Proton therapy improved coverage of level 2 axilla (P=.0005). Adequate coverage of internal mammary nodes was consistently achieved with PT (median D95, 50.3 Gy; range, 46.6-52.1 Gy) but not with conventional radiation therapy (median D95, 48.2 Gy; range, 40.8-55 Gy; P=.0005). Median cardiac V5 was 0.6% with PT and 16.3% with conventional radiation (P<.0001). Median ipsilateral lung V5 and V20 were improved with PT (median V5 35.3% vs 60.5% [P<.0001]; and median V20, 21.6% vs 35.5% [P<.0001]). Grade 3 dermatitis developed in 4 patients (22%), which was the only grade 3 toxicity. No grade 4+ toxicities developed. Conclusion: Proton therapy for RNI after mastectomy or BCT significantly improves cardiac dose, especially for left-sided patients, and lung V5 and V20 in all patients without excessive acute toxicity

  1. Alternating Mupirocin/Gentamicin is Associated with Increased Risk of Fungal Peritonitis as Compared with Gentamicin Alone - Results of a Randomized Open-Label Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ping-Nam; Tong, Gensy M W; Wong, Yuk-Yi; Lo, Kin-Yee; Chan, Shuk-Fan; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kwok-Chi; Ho, Lo-Yi; Tse, Cindy W S; Mak, Siu-Ka; Wong, Andrew K M

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Catheter-related infection, namely exit-site infection (ESI) and peritonitis, is a major infectious complication and remains a main cause of technique failure for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). Topical application of antibiotic cream might reduce catheter-related infection but emergence of resistant or opportunistic organisms could be a concern. Optimal topical agents and regimens remain to be determined. We did a study to examine the effect of an alternating topical antibiotic regimen in preventing catheter-related infection. ♦ We performed a single-center, randomized, open-label study to compare daily topical application of gentamicin cream with a gentamicin/mupirocin alternate regimen to the exit site. Patients randomized to alternating regimen were asked to have daily application of gentamicin cream in odd months and mupirocin cream in even months. Primary outcomes were ESI and peritonitis. Secondary outcomes were catheter removal or death caused by catheter-related infection. A total of 146 patients (71, gentamicin group; 75, alternating regimen group) were enrolled with a total follow-up duration of 174 and 181 patient-years for gentamicin and alternating groups, respectively. All patients were followed up until catheter removal, death, transfer to another unit, transplantation or the end of the study on March 31, 2014. There were no significant differences in the age, sex, dialysis vintage, and rate of diabetes, helper-assisted dialysis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage state. ♦ No difference was seen in the time to first ESI or peritonitis. However, the time to first gram-negative peritonitis seemed longer for the gentamicin group (p = 0.055). The 2 groups showed a similar rate of ESI (0.17/yr vs 0.19/yr, p = 0.93) but P. aeruginosa ESI was less common in the gentamicin group (0.06/yr vs 0.11/yr, p Peritonitis rate was significantly lower in the gentamicin group (0.22/yr vs 0.32/yr, p peritonitis (0.08/yr

  2. β-Phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films encouraged more homogeneous cell distribution and more significant deposition of fibronectin towards the cell–material interface compared to α-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Y.K.A.; Zou, X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fang, Y.M. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, J.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, W.S. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Boey, F.Y.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, K.W., E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric response from β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) can potentially be exploited for biomedical application. We hypothesized that α and β-phase PVDF exert direct but different influence on cellular behavior. α- and β-phase PVDF films were synthesized through solution casting and characterized with FT-IR, XRD, AFM and PFM to ensure successful fabrication of α and β-phase PVDF films. Cellular evaluation with L929 mouse fibroblasts over one-week was conducted with AlamarBlue® metabolic assay and PicoGreen® proliferation assay. Immunostaining of fibronectin investigated the extent and distribution of extracellular matrix deposition. Image saliency analysis quantified differences in cellular distribution on the PVDF films. Our results showed that β-phase PVDF films with the largest area expressing piezoelectric effect elicited highest cell metabolic activity at day 3 of culture. Increased fibronectin adsorption towards the cell–material interface was shown on β-phase PVDF films. Image saliency analysis showed that fibroblasts on β-phase PVDF films were more homogeneously distributed than on α-phase PVDF films. Taken collectively, the different molecular packing of α and β-phase PVDF resulted in differing physical properties of films, which in turn induced differences in cellular behaviors. Further analysis of how α and β-phase PVDF may evoke specific cellular behavior to suit particular application will be intriguing. - Highlights: • β-Phase PVDF exhibited strongest piezoelectric effects compared to α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF induced more homogeneous cell distribution than α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF encouraged more fibronectin deposition at the cell–material interface.

  3. Replacing single frozen-thawed euploid embryos in a natural cycle in ovulatory women may increase live birth rates compared to medicated cycles in anovulatory women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alexis P; Setton, Robert; Stone, Logan D; Pereira, Nigel; Xu, Kangpu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes between natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in ovulatory women and programmed FET cycles in anovulatory women after undergoing in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening (IVF-PGS). This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an academic medical center. Patients undergoing single FET IVF-PGS cycles between October 2011 and December 2014 were included. Patients were stratified by type of endometrial replacement: programmed cycles with estrogen/progesterone replacement and natural cycles. IVF-PGS with 24-chromosome screening was performed on all included patients. Those patients with euploid embryos had single embryo transfer in a subsequent FET. The primary study outcome was live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included implantation, biochemical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. One hundred thirteen cycles met inclusion criteria: 65 natural cycles and 48 programmed cycles. The programmed FET group was younger (35.9 ± 4.5 vs. 37.5 ± 3.7, P = 0.03) and had a higher AMH (3.95 ± 4.2 vs. 2.37 ± 2.4, P = 0.045). The groups were similar for BMI, gravidity, parity, history of uterine surgery, and incidence of Asherman's syndrome. There was also no difference in embryo grade at biopsy or transfer, and proportion of day 5 and day 6 transfers. Implantation rates were higher in the natural FET group (0.66 ± 0.48 vs. 0.44 ± 0.50, P = 0.02). There was no difference in the rates of biochemical pregnancy or miscarriage. After controlling for age, live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate was higher in natural FETs with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.68 (95% CI 1.22-5.87). Natural FET in ovulatory women after IVF-PGS is associated with increased implantation and live birth rates compared to programmed FET in anovulatory women. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these findings hold true in other patient cohorts.

  4. Increased sensitivity to age-related differences in brain functional connectivity during continuous multiple object tracking compared to resting-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dørum, Erlend S; Kaufmann, Tobias; Alnæs, Dag; Andreassen, Ole A; Richard, Geneviève; Kolskår, Knut K; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Westlye, Lars T

    2017-03-01

    Age-related differences in cognitive agility vary greatly between individuals and cognitive functions. This heterogeneity is partly mirrored in individual differences in brain network connectivity as revealed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting potential imaging biomarkers for age-related cognitive decline. However, although convenient in its simplicity, the resting state is essentially an unconstrained paradigm with minimal experimental control. Here, based on the conception that the magnitude and characteristics of age-related differences in brain connectivity is dependent on cognitive context and effort, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally increasing cognitive load boosts the sensitivity to age and changes the discriminative network configurations. To this end, we obtained fMRI data from younger (n=25, mean age 24.16±5.11) and older (n=22, mean age 65.09±7.53) healthy adults during rest and two load levels of continuous multiple object tracking (MOT). Brain network nodes and their time-series were estimated using independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression, and the edges in the brain networks were defined as the regularized partial temporal correlations between each of the node pairs at the individual level. Using machine learning based on a cross-validated regularized linear discriminant analysis (rLDA) we attempted to classify groups and cognitive load from the full set of edge-wise functional connectivity indices. While group classification using resting-state data was highly above chance (approx. 70% accuracy), functional connectivity (FC) obtained during MOT strongly increased classification performance, with 82% accuracy for the young and 95% accuracy for the old group at the highest load level. Further, machine learning revealed stronger differentiation between rest and task in young compared to older individuals, supporting the notion of network dedifferentiation in cognitive aging. Task

  5. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  6. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  7. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  8. Expression of HIF-1α and Markers of Angiogenesis Are Not Significantly Different in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Compared to Other Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Future Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Lamis; Boulos, Fouad; Jabbour, Mark; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Fakhruddin, Najla; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer lacks estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptors rendering it refractory to available targetedtherapies. TNBC is associated with central fibrosis and necrosis, both indicators of tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α is up-regulated under hypoxia and its expression is associated with induction of angiogenesis resulting in proliferation, aggressive tumor phenotype and metastasis. In this study we evaluate the potential use of HIF-1α as aTNBC-specific marker. 62 TNBC, 64 HER2+, and 64 hormone-receptors positive breast cancer cases were evaluated for central fibrosis and necrosis, HIF-1α, HIF-1β, VEGFR3, CD31 expression and microvessel density. RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation of HIF-1α and VEGF transcripts was performed on 54 cases (18 from each subtype). HIF-1α protein was expressed in 35.5% TNBC, 45.3% HER2+and 25.0% ER+/PR+ (p = 0.055; χ2 test). PCRanalysis of subgroup of breast cancers, 84.2% expressed HIF-1α protein and its transcripts, while only 66.7% expressed VEGF transcripts simultaneously with the HIF-1α protein and its transcripts. Central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in TNBC (p = 0.015; χ2 test), while MVD was comparable among all groups (p = 0.928; χ2 test). VEGFR3 was highest in TNBC expressing HIF-1α. HIF-1β protein was expressed in 32.0% of HIF-1α(+), and in (44.3%) of HIF-1α(-) breast cancer cases (p = 0.033; χ2 test). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in cases with central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in the HER2+ followed by the TNBC (p = 0.156; χ2 test). A proportion of TNBC express HIF-1α but not in a significantly different manner from other breast cancer subtypes. The potential of anti-HIF-1α targeted therapy is therefore not a candidate for exclusive use in TNBC, but should be considered in all breast cancers, especially in the setting of clinically aggressive or

  9. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  10. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  11. Significant increase of Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficient in Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bi; Yang, Yaodong; Gao, Kun; Wang, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (abbreviated as BTZ-0.5BCT) is a piezoelectric ceramic with a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 (˜620 pC N-1) and has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates to replace PZT-based materials (200-710 pC N-1). However, its Curie temperature TC is relatively low (93 °C) limiting its application. In this letter, we found a temperature dependent Raman spectrum in BTZ-0.5BCT nanofibers (NFs), demonstrating a diffused tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition at 300 °C. This means that the TC of the NFs is nearly 207 °C higher than that of the normal bulk material. The increased TC is considered to be associated with the size effect of BTZ-0.5BCT nanoceramic subunits and the nanoporous nature of the fiber, resulting in discontinuous physical properties. The variation of the ferro/piezoelectricity over the fiber surface is attributed to the polycrystalline structure. The d33 (173.32 pm V-1) is improved in terms of the decreased Q factor result in an increase in d33 of 236.54 pm V-1 after polarization. With a high TC and a very large d33, BTZ-0.5BCT NFs are capable of providing electromechanical behavior used in moderate temperatures.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial Offering Higher- Compared with Lower-Dairy Second Meals Daily in Preschools in Guinea-Bissau Demonstrates an Attendance-Dependent Increase in Weight Gain for Both Meal Types and an Increase in Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the Higher-Dairy Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ionela; Pruzensky, William; Balan, Adrian; Brown, Carrie; Gamache, Madeleine G; Schleicher, Molly M; de Sa, Augusto Braima; Saltzman, Edward; Wood, Lauren; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains over the most effective approaches to prevent childhood malnutrition. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs) as a second daily meal in preschool children aged 3-5 y in Guinea-Bissau, and compared RUSFs with different levels of dairy protein. This study was a 3 mo cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial of 2 RUSFs differing in dairy protein in 533 boys and girls from 9 preschools. Children receiving RUSFs were compared with wait-listed controls, and all students received a daily school lunch. The RUSFs were delivered 5 d/wk for 3 mo and contained 478 kcal and 11.5 g protein per 92-g daily serving. Deliveries included a ready-to-use supplementary food with 15% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-15%) or one with 33% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-33%). Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses (>50 d of RUSF consumption) were conducted. Changes in the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) and height-for-age z score were primary outcomes. Additional outcomes included changes in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol binding protein. Baseline anthropometry was not different between groups (WAZ, -0.48 ± 1.04) and increased significantly over time (P 50 d had a significantly greater increase in WAZ relative to the increase in controls (+0.40 and +0.32 for RUSF-15% and RUSF-33%, respectively, compared with +0.24 in controls, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). RUSF-33%, but not RUSF-15%, also eliminated a decrease in MUAC observed in controls (-0.01 cm in RUSF-33% compared with -0.34 cm in controls, P < 0.05). The only difference between RUSF-15% and RUSF-33% was a mean decrease in hemoglobin in children receiving RUSF-15% (-0.5 compared with -0.002 g/dL, P = 0.05). Implementation of 2-meal preschool feeding programs is feasible in low-income countries, and there are measurable benefits relative to 1-meal programs in children attending preschool regularly. In

  13. Increase in Periodontal Interleukin-1β Gene Expression Following Osseous Resective Surgery Using Conventional Rotary Instruments Compared with Piezosurgery: A Split-Mouth Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Bergandi, Loredana; Saksing, Laura; Parducci, Francesca; Romano, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early inflammatory response following osseous resective surgery (ORS) with Piezosurgery compared to commonly used diamond burs. A sample was selected of 24 bilateral posterior sextants requiring ORS in 12 chronic periodontitis patients in a split-mouth design. In 12 sextants, bone recontouring was performed using a piezoelectric device. In the contralateral sextants, rotary instruments were used. Sextants treated with Piezosurgery obtained similar 12-month clinical results but lower postsurgical gene expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a well-known proinflammatory cytokine, and lower patient morbidity compared with sextants treated with rotary instruments. In spite of the longer surgical time, the use of Piezosurgery for ORS seems to promote more favorable wound healing compared with rotary instruments, as the lower pain and the low levels of IL-1β mRNA at the surgical sites suggest a milder underlying inflammatory response.

  14. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  15. Increases in multiple psychiatric disorders in parents and grandparents of patients with bipolar disorder from the USA compared with The Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Nolen, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveWe previously found that compared with Europe more parents of the USA patients were positive for a mood disorder, and that this was associated with early onset bipolar disorder. Here we examine family history of psychiatric illness in more detail across several generations.MethodsA total of

  16. Increases in multiple psychiatric disorders in parents and grandparents of patients with bipolar disorder from the USA compared with The Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Leverich, G.S.; Kupka, R.W.; Keck, P.E.; McElroy, S.L.; Altshuler, L.L.; Frye, M.A.; Rowe, M.; Grunze, H.; Suppes, T.; Nolen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We previously found that compared with Europe more parents of the USA patients were positive for a mood disorder, and that this was associated with early onset bipolar disorder. Here we examine family history of psychiatric illness in more detail across several generations. Methods A total

  17. Comparative scenario study of tropospheric ozone climate interactions using a global model. A 1% global increase rate, the IS92a IPCC scenario and a simplified aircraft traffic increase scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalita, S [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Service d` Aeronomie; Le Treut, H [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1998-12-31

    Sensitivity studies have been made to establish the relationship between different scenarios of tropospheric ozone increase and radiative forcing. Some aspects of the ozone-climate interactions for past and future scenarios are investigated. These calculations employ IMAGES tropospheric ozone concentrations for a pre-industrial, present and future atmospheres. The averaged last 10 years of the 25-year seasonal integrations were analyzed. The results of this study are preliminary. Ozone forcing is basically different from the CO{sub 2} forcing, for its regional and temporal structured nature and for its rather weak intensity. (R.P.) 14 refs.

  18. Comparative scenario study of tropospheric ozone climate interactions using a global model. A 1% global increase rate, the IS92a IPCC scenario and a simplified aircraft traffic increase scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalita, S. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Service d`Aeronomie; Le Treut, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1997-12-31

    Sensitivity studies have been made to establish the relationship between different scenarios of tropospheric ozone increase and radiative forcing. Some aspects of the ozone-climate interactions for past and future scenarios are investigated. These calculations employ IMAGES tropospheric ozone concentrations for a pre-industrial, present and future atmospheres. The averaged last 10 years of the 25-year seasonal integrations were analyzed. The results of this study are preliminary. Ozone forcing is basically different from the CO{sub 2} forcing, for its regional and temporal structured nature and for its rather weak intensity. (R.P.) 14 refs.

  19. Increased activity of a new chlorofluoroquinolone, BAY y 3118, compared with activities of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, K E

    1994-01-01

    A total of 435 clinical isolates of anaerobes were tested with a broth microdilution method to determine the activity of BAY y 3118 compared with those of other agents against anaerobic bacteria. All strains of Bacteroides capillosus, Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Eubacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Veillonella parvula were susceptible (MICs of < or = 2 micrograms/ml) to BAY y 3118. Against the 315 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis gro...

  20. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  1. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  2. Significantly increased lifetime of recent microchannel-plate photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britting, Alexander; Eyrich, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Albert; Uhlig, Fred [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-channel plate photo multipliers (MCP-PMT) are the favored sensors for the DIRC detectors (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light) of the PANDA experiment. The main reasons for this are their usability in high magnetic fields of up to 2 T, a time resolution of better than σ = 50 ps and a rate capability high enough to withstand a detected photon rate of about 200 kHz cm{sup -2} at the MCP-PMTs surface, which is anticipated at the average luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in PANDA. Moreover, for the reconstruction of the Cherenkov angle using the planned optics for the barrel DIRC a spatial resolution of about 5 mm at the focal plane is needed. Until recently the major drawback of MCP-PMTs was their limited lifetime which was by far not sufficient to stand the integrated anode charge, which is ∼ 5 C/cm{sup 2} for the Barrel-DIRC and even more for the Disc-DIRC. However, the latest MCP prototype devices show a hugh step forward in this respect. The results of these lifetime measurements are presented. The achieved values are meanwhile close to the PANDA requirements for the Barrel-DIRC.

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of measuring antibodies to alpha-fodrin compared to anti-Ro-52, anti-Ro-60, and anti-La in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelck, R.; Manthorpe, R.; Locht, Henning

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of autoantibodies to alpha-fodrin with conventional anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Data on internal organ manifestations were correlated with presence of autoantibodies. METHODS: We collected...... clinical and laboratory data from 321 patients with pSS (Copenhagen criteria), of which 205 fulfilled the new American-European 2002 consensus criteria. Sera were tested for autoantibodies against alpha-fodrin and recombinant Ro-52, Ro-60, and La proteins. RESULTS: Antibodies to alpha-fodrin were...

  4. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  5. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  6. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  7. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  8. Compared to controls, patients with ruptured aneurysm and surgical intervention show increase in symptoms of depression and lower cognitive performance, but their objective sleep is not affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Zimmerer, Stefan; Kalak, Nadeem; Planta, Sandra Von; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Müller, Andreas Albert; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-02-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) have impaired sleep and cognitive performance together with more difficulties in social and everyday life. Hypocortisolism has also been reported. However, a study assessing all dimensions between aSAH severity, objective and subjective sleep, cortisol secretion, cognitive performance and social and everyday life has not so far been performed. The aim of the present study was therefore two-fold: (1) to assess, in a sample of patients with aSAH, objective and subjective sleep, cognitive functioning, social skills and cortisol secretion concurrently, and (2) to compare patients on these variables with a control group. Twenty-one patients (17 females; mean age: 58.80 years) with ruptured aneurysm and surgical intervention and 21 (14 females; mean age: 58.90 years) age- and gender-matched controls took part in the study. Assessments covered objective sleep-EGG recordings, subjective sleep, salivary cortisol analysis, and psychological functioning including memory performance, mood, and emotion recognition. Compared to healthy controls, patients had lower scores for verbal memory performance and emotion recognition; they also reported more marked depressive symptoms and complained of poor sleep. However, no differences were found for objective sleep or cortisol secretion. Subjective and objective sleep, cortisol secretion and psychological functioning were unrelated. Findings indicate that patients with aSAH face psychological rather than physiological issues.

  9. The Lyme disease as the increasing health problem in Małopolskie voivodeship compared with Poland in 1998-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoła, Katarzyna; Koperny, Magdalena; Seweryn, Michał; Żak, Jacek; Bała, Małgorzata M

    Lyme disease is one of the most known tick borne diseases in Poland caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia burgdorferi. Most cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed in the northeastern Poland and the south of Poland, in Śląskie, Małopolskie, Podkarpackie voivodeship. The aim of the study was to evaluate epidemiological data of Lyme disease in Małopolskie voivodeship and other voivodeships in Poland and frequency analysis of the Lyme disease as an occupational disease. The authors analyzed prevalence from 1998 to 2014. Incidence of the Lyme disease was evaluated through review data from „Choroby zakaźne i zatrucia” Bulletin and Lyme disease as an occupational disease obtained data from the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź. It is estimated that the number of Lyme disease cases in Poland increased 18 times between 1998 and 2014 year (2,0 to 36 per 100,000 population), in the same period it was over 35 times of sudden rise in Lyme disease incidence in Małopolskie voivodeship. In years 2005-2014 the number of cases of Lyme disease as an occupational disease fluctuated with a slight upward trend both in Poland and Małopolskie voivoideship. In Poland number of reported cases is systematically increasing. Podlaskie and Warmińsko- Mazurskie voivodeships are areas of high prevalence. Exponential increase in the number of cases is observed in southern Poland, especially in Małopolskie voivodeship from 2013.

  10. Sulfonylurea in combination with insulin is associated with increased mortality compared with a combination of insulin and metformin in a retrospective Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M; Andersson, Charlotte; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individual sulfonylureas (SUs) and metformin have, in some studies, been associated with unequal hypoglycaemic, cardiovascular and mortality risks when used as monotherapy in type 2 diabetes. We investigated the outcomes in patients treated with different combinations of SUs...... and insulin vs a combination of metformin and insulin in a retrospective nationwide study. METHODS: All Danish individuals using dual therapy with SU + insulin or metformin + insulin without prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke were followed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2009 in nationwide...... + insulin and 16,910 used metformin + insulin. Patients receiving metformin + insulin were younger and had less comorbidity and a longer history of glucose-lowering treatment. SU + insulin was associated with higher mortality rates compared with metformin + insulin (76-126 vs 23 per 1,000 person...

  11. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    -fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...... was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management....

  12. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Clinical significance of preoperative serum albumin level for prognosis in surgically resected patients with non-small cell lung cancer: Comparative study of normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kentaro; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Kumeda, Hirotaka; Agatsuma, Hiroyuki; Hyogotani, Akira; Kawakami, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Asaka, Shiho; Ito, Ken-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether preoperative serum albumin level is related to the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgical resection, and the relationships between serum albumin level and clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We retrospectively evaluated 556 patients that underwent surgical resection for non-small cell lung cancer. The correlation between preoperative serum albumin level and survival was evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups according to the findings on chest high-resolution computed tomography (normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis), and the relationships between serum albumin level and clinicopathological characteristics, including prognosis, were evaluated. The cut-off value of serum albumin level was set at 4.2g/dL. Patients with low albumin levels (albumin emphysema group (n=48) and pulmonary fibrosis group (n=45) were significantly lower than that in the normal lung group (n=463) (p=0.009 and pulmonary fibrosis groups, but not in the emphysema group. Preoperative serum albumin level was an important prognostic factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. Divided into normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis groups, serum albumin level showed no influence only in patients in the emphysema group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical value and diagnostic relevance of 99mTc-diethyl-IODO-IDA (IODIDA) compared to 99mTc-diethyl-IDA (HEPATOBIDA) in patients with increased serum bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, J.; Hildebrandt, H.; Clemenz, N.; Schattenberg, J.; Weigand, H.

    1987-01-01

    In a combined study 20 patients with diseases of liver parenchyma and/or of the bile duct system were investigated with SOLCO-SCINT-IODIDA and SOLCOSCINT-HEPATOBIDA. Patients with normal serum bilirubin do not show qualitative or quantitative differences in hepatobiliary function parameters. With increasing serum bilirubin (X = 15,4 ng/ml, range 3,9 to 42,6 ng/ml) a markedly increased diagnostic relevance could be shown up for IODIDA. Image contrast between liver and heart is better for IODIDA by a factor 2, and there was never seen any renal activity excretion in IODIDA-studies up to serum bilirubin of 40 mg/dl. In 2/3 of the studies IODIDA provided better clinical results, whereas in 1/3 of the cases both compounds did not show significant differences. In no case HIDA showed better results compared to IODIDA. IODIDA proves to be the radiopharmaceutical of choice for all hepatobiliary function studies. (orig.) [de

  15. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  16. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  17. Four-fold increase in direct costs of stroke survivors with spasticity compared with stroke survivors without spasticity: the first year after the event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Erik; Smits, Anja; Borg, Jörgen; Terént, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of spasticity after first-ever stroke is approximately 20%, but there are no health economic studies on costs associated with spasticity after stroke. The objective of our study was to estimate direct costs of stroke with spasticity for patients surviving up to 1 year after the stroke event in comparison to costs of stroke without spasticity. A representative sample of patients with first-ever stroke hospitalized at Uppsala University Hospital was eligible for our cross-sectional survey. All direct costs during 1 year were identified for each patient, including costs for hospitalization (acute and rehabilitation), primary health care, medication, and costs for municipality services. Swedish currency was converted to Purchasing Power Parities US dollar (PPP$). Median age (interquartile range) was 73 years (18), and the proportion of women was 48%. The majority of the direct costs (78%) was associated with hospitalization, whereas 20% was associated with municipality services during 1 year after a first-ever stroke. Only 1% of all direct costs were related to primary health care and 1% to medication. The level of costs for patients with stroke was correlated with the presence of spasticity as measured with the modified Ashworth scale (r(s)=0.524) and with the degree of disability as measured with modified Rankin Scale (r(s)=0.624). The mean (median, interquartile range) direct cost for stroke patients with spasticity was PPP$ 84,195 (72,116, 53,707) compared with PPP$ 21,842 (12,385, 17,484) for patients with stroke without spasticity (Pstroke survivors are 4 times higher than direct costs for patients with stroke without spasticity during the first year after the event.

  18. "Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Susan T; Abaza, Hiba; Clarke, Kevin R; Burton, Ann; Sabrah, Nadia A; Rumman, Khaled A; Odeh, Nedal; Naoum, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    By the summer of 2014, the Syrian crisis resulted in a regional humanitarian emergency with 2.9 million refugees, including 608,000 in Jordan. These refugees access United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-sponsored clinics or Jordan Ministry of Health clinics, including tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Tuberculosis care in Syria has deteriorated with destroyed health infrastructure and drug supply chain. Syrian refugees may have undiagnosed tuberculosis; therefore, the UNHCR, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Public Health Strategy for Tuberculosis among Syrian Refugees in Jordan. This case study presents that strategy, its impact, and recommendations for other neighboring countries. UNHCR determined that World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for implementing a tuberculosis program in an emergency were met for the Syrian refugees in Jordan. Jordan NTP assessed their tuberculosis program and found that access to Syrian refugees was the one component of their program missing. Therefore, a strategy for tuberculosis control among Syrian refugees was developed. Since that development through work with IOM, UNHCR, and NTP, tuberculosis case detection among Syrian refugees is almost 40 % greater (74 cases/12 months or 1.01/100,000 monthly through June 2014 vs. 56 cases/16 months or 0.73/100,000 monthly through June 2013) using estimated population figures; more than two fold the 2012 Jordan tuberculosis incidence. Additionally, the WHO objective of curing ≥85 % of newly identified infectious tuberculosis cases was met among Syrian refugees. Tuberculosis (TB) rates among displaced persons are high, but increased detection is possible. High TB rates were found among Syrian refugees through active screening and will probably persist as the Syrian crisis continues. Active screening can detect tuberculosis early and reduce risk

  19. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  20. Increased Expression of Herpes Virus-Encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p in Cancer-Containing Prostate Tissue Compared to That in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Joong Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. Methods: A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. Results: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001. Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9. Conclusions: These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections.

  1. Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Theuring

    Full Text Available In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT, and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9% returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5% returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59. Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03. Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy.

  2. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  3. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  4. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  5. Asymptomatic proteinuria. Clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, S

    1977-09-01

    Patients with asymptomatic proteinuria have varied reasons for the proteinuria and travel diverse courses. In the individual with normal renal function and no systemic cause, ie, idiopathic asymptomatic proteinuria, the outlook is generally favorable. Microscopic hematuria probably raises some degree of question about prognosis. The kidney shows normal glomeruli, subtle changes, or an identifiable lesion. The initial approach includes a clinical and laboratory search for systemic disease, repeated urinalyses, quantitative measurements of proteinuria, determination of creatinine clearance, protein electrophoresis where indicated, and intravenous pyelography. The need for regularly scheduled follow-up evaluation is emphasized. Although the initial approach need not include renal biopsy, a decline in creatinine clearance, an increase in proteinuria, or both are indications for biopsy and consideration of drug therapy.

  6. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  7. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  8. The Absence of the Transcription Factor Yrr1p, Identified from Comparative Genome Profiling, Increased Vanillin Tolerance Due to Enhancements of ABC Transporters Expressing, rRNA Processing and Ribosome Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors derived from lignocellulose is conducive to producing biofuel and chemicals using abundant lignocellulosic materials. Vanillin is a major type of phenolic inhibitor in lignocellulose hydrolysates for S. cerevisiae . In the present work, the factors beneficial to vanillin resistance in yeast were identified from the vanillin-resistant strain EMV-8, which was derived from strain NAN-27 by adaptive evolution. We found 450 SNPs and 44 genes with InDels in the vanillin-tolerant strain EMV-8 by comparing the genome sequences of EMV-8 and NAN-27. To investigate the effects of InDels, InDels were deleted in BY4741, respectively. We demonstrated that the deletion of YRR1 improved vanillin tolerance of strain. In the presence of 6 mM vanillin, deleting YRR1 increase the maximum specific growth rate and the vanillin consumption rate by 142 and 51%, respectively. The subsequent transcriptome analysis revealed that deleting YRR1 resulted in changed expression of over 200 genes in the presence of 5 mM vanillin. The most marked changes were the significant up-regulation of the dehydrogenase ADH7 , several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and dozens of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Coincidently, the crude enzyme solution of BY4741( yrr1 Δ) exhibited higher NADPH-dependent vanillin reduction activity than control. In addition, overexpressing the ABC transporter genes PDR5, YOR1 , and SNQ2 , as well as the RNA helicase gene DBP2 , increased the vanillin tolerance of strain. Interestingly, unlike the marked changes we mentioned above, under vanillin-free conditions, there are only limited transcriptional differences between wildtype and yrr1 Δ. This indicated that vanillin might act as an effector in Yrr1p-related regulatory processes. The new findings of the relationship between YRR1 and vanillin tolerance, as well as the contribution of rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis to

  9. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  10. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  11. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  12. Endometrial Polyps and Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia Present Increased Prevalence of DNA Fragmentation Factors 40 and 45 (DFF40 and DFF45) Together With the Antiapoptotic B-Cell Lymphoma (Bcl-2) Protein Compared With Normal Human Endometria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Tomasz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Mikos, Marcin; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna

    2017-09-13

    DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is a key executor of apoptosis. It localizes to the nucleus together with DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45), which acts as a DFF40 inhibitor and chaperone. B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) protein is a proven antiapoptotic factor present in the cytoplasm. In this study, we aimed to investigate DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 immunoexpression in endometrial polyps (EPs) and benign endometrial hyperplasia (BEH) tissue compared with that in normal proliferative endometrium (NPE) and normal secretory endometrium (NSE) as well as normal post menopausal endometrium (NAE). This study used archived samples from 65 and 62 cases of EPs and BEH, respectively. The control group consisted of 52 NPE, 54 NSE, and 54 NAE specimens. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2. DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were more highly expressed in the glandular layer of EPs and BEH compared with the stroma, and this was not influenced by menopausal status. Both glandular and stromal expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were significantly higher in EPs compared with NPE, NSE, and NAE. Glandular BEH tissue showed significantly higher DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression than in NPE, NSE, and NAE. No differences in the glandular expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were observed between EP and BEH tissues, while Bcl-2 stromal expression in BEH was significantly lower than in EPs. Glandular, menopause-independent DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 overexpression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of EPs and BEH.

  13. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Østergaard, Marie Drivsholm; Bale, Carlito; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2014-01-23

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar negative effects. In 2007-2011, we conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A at routine vaccination contacts among children aged 6-23 months in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau. In the present study, we included 2331 children randomised to placebo who received live vaccines only (MV or MV+YF) or a combination of live and inactivated vaccines (MV+DTP or MV+YF+pentavalent). Mortality was compared in Cox proportional hazards models stratified for urban/rural enrolment adjusted for age and unevenly distributed baseline factors. While DTP was still used 685 children received MV only and 358 MV+DTP; following the change in programme, 940 received MV+YF only and 348 MV+YF+pentavalent. During 6 months of follow-up, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for co-administered live and inactivated vaccines compared with live vaccines only was 3.24 (1.20-8.73). For MV+YF+pentavalent compared with MV+YF only, the adjusted MRR was 7.73 (1.79-33.4). In line with previous studies of DTP, the present results indicate that pentavalent vaccine co-administered with MV and YF is associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar......Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...

  15. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  16. Third quarter 2007 sales increased by nearly 10%. Sales as at 30 September 2007: -6.5% compared to -11 % as at 30 June 2007. 2007 financial objective confirmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 30 October 2007 - During the third quarter of 2007, The Gaz de France Group achieved sales of euro 4,352 million, an increase of nearly 10 per cent compared to the third quarter of 2006. This growth reflects an improvement in the Group's business activities during the quarter in a background of almost neutral climatic conditions. Due to the good performance of the activities during the quarter, the change in sales over the nine first months of 2007 has improved to -6.5 per cent compared with -11 per cent over the first six months. As at 30 September 2007, Group sales amounted to euro 18,130 million compared to euro 19,391 million for the first nine months of 2006. In France, Group sales rose to euro 10,315 million. This was down by 7 per cent compared to the first nine months of 2006, mainly due to the exceptionally mild weather in the first half of 2007. Outside France, sales amount to euro 7,815 million, representing more than 40 per cent of Group sales. The third quarter of 2007 was also marked by the announcement, on 3 September 2007, of the new strategic direction of the planned merger with Suez. This project should be finalized as soon as possible during the first half of 2008. Gaz de France confirms its 2007 financial objective: '2007 will be a year of consolidation. The gross operating surplus should be in line with that of 2006'. This objective assumes average climate conditions during the last quarter of 2007

  17. Third quarter 2007 sales increased by nearly 10%. Sales as at 30 September 2007: -6.5% compared to -11 % as at 30 June 2007. 2007 financial objective confirmed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 30 October 2007 - During the third quarter of 2007, The Gaz de France Group achieved sales of euro 4,352 million, an increase of nearly 10 per cent compared to the third quarter of 2006. This growth reflects an improvement in the Group's business activities during the quarter in a background of almost neutral climatic conditions. Due to the good performance of the activities during the quarter, the change in sales over the nine first months of 2007 has improved to -6.5 per cent compared with -11 per cent over the first six months. As at 30 September 2007, Group sales amounted to euro 18,130 million compared to euro 19,391 million for the first nine months of 2006. In France, Group sales rose to euro 10,315 million. This was down by 7 per cent compared to the first nine months of 2006, mainly due to the exceptionally mild weather in the first half of 2007. Outside France, sales amount to euro 7,815 million, representing more than 40 per cent of Group sales. The third quarter of 2007 was also marked by the announcement, on 3 September 2007, of the new strategic direction of the planned merger with Suez. This project should be finalized as soon as possible during the first half of 2008. Gaz de France confirms its 2007 financial objective: '2007 will be a year of consolidation. The gross operating surplus should be in line with that of 2006'. This objective assumes average climate conditions during the last quarter of 2007.

  18. Antibiotics-first strategy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults is associated with increased rates of peritonitis at surgery. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing appendectomy and non-operative management with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podda, Mauro; Cillara, Nicola; Di Saverio, Salomone; Lai, Antonio; Feroci, Francesco; Luridiana, Gianluigi; Agresta, Ferdinando; Vettoretto, Nereo

    2017-10-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical diagnosis in young patients, with lifetime prevalence of about 7%. Debate remains on whether uncomplicated AA should be operated or not. Aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was to assess current evidence on antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated AA compared to standard surgical treatment. Systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing antibiotic therapy (AT) and surgical therapy-appendectomy (ST) for uncomplicated AA. Trials were reviewed for primary outcome measures: treatment efficacy based on 1 year follow-up, recurrence at 1 year follow-up, complicated appendicitis with peritonitis identified at the time of surgical operation and post-intervention complications. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and period of sick leave. Five RCTs comparing AT and ST qualified for inclusion in meta-analysis, with 1.351 patients included: 632 in AT group and 719 in ST group. Higher rate of treatment efficacy based on 1 year follow-up was found in ST group (98.3% vs 75.9%, P appendicitis with peritonitis identified at time of surgical operation was higher in AT group (19.9% vs 8.5%, P = 0.02). No statistically significant differences were found when comparing AT and ST groups for the outcomes of overall post-intervention complications (4.3% vs 10.9%, P = 0.32), post-intervention complications based on the number of patients who underwent appendectomy (15.8% vs 10.9%, P = 0.35), length of hospital stay (3.24 ± 0.40 vs 2.88 ± 0.39, P = 0.13) and period of sick leave (8.91 ± 1.28 vs 10.27 ± 0.24, P = 0.06). With significantly higher efficacy and low complication rates, appendectomy remains the most effective treatment for patients with uncomplicated AA. The subgroups of patients with uncomplicated AA where antibiotics can be more

  19. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Chitosan Nerve Guides with Regular or Increased Bendability for Acute and Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair: A Comprehensive Comparison with Autologous Nerve Grafts and Muscle-in-Vein Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stößel, Maria; Wildhagen, Vivien M; Helmecke, Olaf; Metzen, Jennifer; Pfund, Charlotte B; Freier, Thomas; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2018-05-08

    Reconstruction of joint-crossing digital nerves requires the application of nerve guides with a much higher flexibility than used for peripheral nerve repair along larger bones. Nevertheless, collapse-resistance should be preserved to avoid secondary damage to the regrowing nerve tissue. In recent years, we presented chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) to be highly supportive for the regeneration of critical gap length peripheral nerve defects in the rat. Now, we evidently increased the bendability of regular CNGs (regCNGs) by developing a wavy wall structure, that is, corrugated CNGs (corrCNGs). In a comprehensive in vivo study, we compared both types of CNGs with clinical gold standard autologous nerve grafts (ANGs) and muscle-in-vein grafts (MVGs) that have recently been highlighted in the literature as a suitable alternative to ANGs. We reconstructed rat sciatic nerves over a critical gap length of 15 mm either immediately upon transection or after a delay period of 45 days. Electrodiagnostic measurements were applied to monitor functional motor recovery at 60, 90, 120, and 150 (only delayed repair) days postreconstruction. Upon explanation, tube properties were analyzed. Furthermore, distal nerve ends were evaluated using histomorphometry, while connective tissue specimens were subjected to immunohistological stainings. After 120 days (acute repair) or 150 days (delayed repair), respectively, compression-stability of regCNGs was slightly increased while it remained stable in corrCNGs. In both substudies, regCNGs and corrCNGs supported functional recovery of distal plantar muscles in a similar way and to a greater extent when compared with MVGs, while ANGs demonstrated the best support of regeneration. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sex ratios in the most-selective elite US undergraduate colleges and universities are consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational systems increasingly select for conscientious personality compared with intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The main predictors of examination results and educational achievement in modern societies are intelligence (IQ - or general factor 'g' intelligence) and the personality trait termed 'Conscientiousness' (C). I have previously argued that increased use of continuous assessment (e.g. course work rather than timed and supervised examinations) and increased duration of the educational process implies that modern educational systems have become increasingly selective for the personality trait of Conscientiousness and consequently less selective for IQ. I have tested this prediction (in a preliminary fashion) by looking at the sex ratios in the most selective elite US universities. My two main assumptions are: (1) that a greater proportion of individuals with very high intelligence are men than women, and (2) that women are more conscientious than men. To estimate the proportion of men and women expected at highly-selective schools, I performed demonstration calculations based on three plausible estimates of male and female IQ averages and standard deviations. The expected percentage of men at elite undergraduate colleges (selecting students with IQ above 130 - i.e. in the top 2% of the population) were 66%, 61% and 74%. When these estimates were compared with the sex ratios at 33 elite colleges and universities, only two technical institutes had more than 60% men. Elite US colleges and universities therefore seem to be selecting primarily on the basis of something other than IQ - probably conscientiousness. There is a 'missing population' of very high IQ men who are not being admitted to the most selective and prestigious undergraduate schools, probably because their high school educational qualifications and evaluations are too low. This analysis is therefore consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational systems tend to select more strongly for Conscientiousness than for IQ. The implication is that modern undergraduates at the most-selective US schools are not

  2. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  3. Pediatric cleft palate patients show a 3- to 5-fold increase in cumulative radiation exposure from dental radiology compared with an age- and gender-matched population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Scarfe, William C; De Cock, Carl; Dula, Karl; Willems, Guy; Verdonck, An; Politis, Constantinus

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare estimates of pediatric cumulative exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from dental radiology between cleft palate (CP) subjects and age- and gender-matched controls (non-CP), with and without orthodontic treatment. The radiation exposure frequency of CP subjects and non-CP controls with and without orthodontic treatment was compared for two-dimensional radiography (intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric radiography), computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using cumulative radiation dose as an estimate. From this dose estimate, the age- and gender-dependent risk for radiation-induced stochastic effects was calculated for each patient group. CP patients received more radiographic examinations than non-CP controls, with the exception of intra-oral radiographs. The cumulative dose to CP patients was considerably higher (1963 μSv at the age of 20 years) than non-CP patients with (597 μSv) and without (383 μSv) orthodontic treatment, primarily due to the higher frequency of CT scanning. Accordingly, CP patients had a three to five times higher LAR than non-CP patients. This study suggests a significantly higher lifetime radiation exposure to CP patients than non-CP controls from dental radiographic procedures. Diagnostic benefits from the use of CT and CBCT in children must be justified and appropriate dose optimization strategies implemented. The present study indicates the need for proper justification and optimization of pediatric exposures in dentistry, with a special focus on high-risk groups.

  4. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Salvucci, Anthony; Crous, Pedro W; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti-Cheng Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka, Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot, and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka, is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven

  6. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  7. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  8. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  9. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  10. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  11. Evaluating the comparative effectiveness of different demand side interventions to increase maternal health service utilization and practice of birth spacing in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: an innovative, mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbaugh, Mari; Bapolisi, Wyvine; van de Weerd, Jennie; Zabiti, Michel; Mommers, Paula; Balaluka, Ghislain Bisimwa; Merten, Sonja

    2017-07-03

    In this protocol we describe a mixed methods study in the province of South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo evaluating the effectiveness of different demand side strategies to increase maternal health service utilization and the practice of birth spacing. Conditional service subsidization, conditional cash transfers and non-monetary incentives aim to encourage women to use maternal health services and practice birth spacing in two different health districts. Our methodology will comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches against each other and no intervention. This study comprises four main research activities: 1) Formative qualitative research to determine feasibility of planned activities and inform development of the quantitative survey; 2) A community-based, longitudinal survey; 3) A retrospective review of health facility records; 4) Qualitative exploration of intervention acceptability and emergent themes through in-depth interviews with program participants, non-participants, their partners and health providers. Female community health workers are engaged as core members of the research team, working in tandem with female survey teams to identify women in the community who meet eligibility criteria. Female community health workers also act as key informants and community entry points during methods design and qualitative exploration. Main study outcomes are completion of antenatal care, institutional delivery, practice of birth spacing, family planning uptake and intervention acceptability in the communities. Qualitative methods also explore decision making around maternal health service use, fertility preference and perceptions of family planning. The innovative mixed methods design allows quantitative data to inform the relationships and phenomena to be explored in qualitative collection. In turn, qualitative findings will be triangulated with quantitative findings. Inspired by the principles of grounded theory, qualitative

  12. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  13. Significance of blood examination in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shinobu; Ando, Atsushi; Kojima, Kazuhiko; Kikuta, Yoko.

    1978-01-01

    Blood examination made for the past 3 years revealed that the influences of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation (an average of 5 mrem/day) on peripheral blood are not detected. However, the blood examination, which is prescribed at least twice a year by law, is for determining whether or not the results of blood examination are within a normal range. Therefore, even though influences of a large amount of radiation are detected, it has little significance as a monitoring of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation. If the blood examination is used as a monitoring method for detecting exposure, it is important to compare the results with the previous ones in the same individuals. It is also necessary to increase the number of examinations and to study the blood more in detail. However, before that, the standard of the evaluation should be more defined because of its obscurity. The present blood examination is useful in managing the health generally. However, it is not good as a monitoring for chronic exposure of the extremely small amounts of radiation. Therefore, a routine biological method to be able to monitor radiation more precisely, is required. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ismail, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.; Khattak, M.B.; Anwar, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scal