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Sample records for significantly increased accumulation

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. Significance of Tc-99m pyrophosphate accumulation in unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tange, Shoichi; Kondo, Chisato; Ohta, Yoshiko; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Shigeta, Akiko; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Noboru; Hosoda, Saichi

    1993-01-01

    Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) and Tl-201 simultaneous dual energy single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 33 patients with clinically unstable angina. According to the presence or absence of PYP accumulation in the myocardium, the patients were classified as PYP (+) group (n=22) and PYP (-) group (n=11). Clinical features, types of unstable angina, ECG changes, and serial creatine kinase (CK) data were compared in the two groups. The 'new angina at rest' type of unstable angina was more significantly common in the PYP (+) group (16/22) than the PYP (-) group (2/11). The remaining 6 patients in the PYP (+) group and 2 patients in the PYP (-) group had 'angina of effort with changing pattern'. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of ST elevation and ST depression between the group: 59% in the PYP (+) group vs. 18% in the PYP (-) group for ST elevation and 23% in the PYP (+) group vs. 64% in the PYP (-) group for ST depression. The PYP (+) group showed significant improvement in ejection fraction in the stable state (57±12%) as compared with the unstable state (62±11%), although there was no difference between the stable and unstable state in the PYP (-) group. Although wall motion abnormality index (WMI) was poorer in the PYP (+) group than the PYP (-) group, it improved to the same degree as the PYP (-) group one month later. These data suggest that the area showing PYP (+) may reflect stunned myocardium and that Tc-99m PYP accumulation may correlate with clinical features of unstable angina. (N.K.)

  3. Increased superoxide accumulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Judge, Sharon; Cruz, Alex; Pourang, Deena; Mathews, Clayton E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is critically important in maintaining normal cellular energy homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in PDC give rise to congenital lactic acidosis and to progressive cellular energy failure. However, the subsequent biochemical consequences of PDC deficiency that may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disorder are poorly understood. We postulated that altered flux through PDC would disrupt mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in oxidative stress. Compared to cells from 4 healthy subjects, primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with variable mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit (E1α) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDA1) demonstrated reduced growth and viability. Superoxide (O(2)(.-)) from the Qo site of complex III of the electron transport chain accumulated in these cells and was associated with decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 was also decreased in patient cells, but there were no significant changes in the expression of cellular markers of protein or DNA oxidative damage. The expression of hypoxia transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) also increased in PDC deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that PDC deficiency is associated with an increase in O(2)(.-) accumulation coupled to a decrease in mechanisms responsible for its removal. Increased HIF1α expression may contribute to the increase in glycolytic flux and lactate production in PDC deficiency and, by trans-activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, may further suppress residual PDC activity through phosphorylation of the E1α subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Significance of Nuclear Accumulation of Foxo3a in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.-F.; Fang, F.-M.; Lu, C.-H.; Lu, M.-S.; Chen, W.-C.; Lee, K.-D.; Lin, P.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of Foxo3a in predicting the response to neoadjuvant treatment of, and prognosis for, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in a retrospective series of 60 biopsied esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and the correlation between nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and clinicopathologic features was analyzed, including patient survival. In addition, in vitro biologic changes, radiosensitivity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of esophageal carcinoma cells after experimental manipulation of Foxo3a expression levels were determined. Results: Clinical findings point to a significant correlation between the nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and the survival rate of esophageal cancer patients. In addition, Foxo3a is a significant predictor for the response to neoadjuvant therapy. In cell culture, irradiation and oxidative stress seemed to result in nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a. Down-regulation of Foxo3a significantly decreased radiosensitivity but had no obvious effect on tumor growth, as measured by a clonogenic assay in vitro and growth delay in vivo. Conclusions: Nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a in tumor cells was correlated with increased radiosensitivity and with improved patient survival. Thus, it is suggested that Foxo3a may be a potential marker for esophageal cancer

  5. Increased lipid droplet accumulation associated with a peripheral sensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lee L; Stimpson, Scott E; Hyland, Ryan; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by missense mutations in the SPTLC1 gene. The SPTLC1 protein is part of the SPT enzyme which is a ubiquitously expressed, critical and thus highly regulated endoplasmic reticulum bound membrane enzyme that maintains sphingolipid concentrations and thus contributes to lipid metabolism, signalling, and membrane structural functions. Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles containing sphingolipids and membrane bound proteins surrounding a core of neutral lipids, and thus mediate the intracellular transport of these specific molecules. Current literature suggests that there are increased numbers of lipid droplets and alterations of lipid metabolism in a variety of other autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study establishes for the first time, a significant increase in the presence of lipid droplets in HSN-1 patient-derived lymphoblasts, indicating a potential connection between lipid droplets and the pathomechanism of HSN-1. However, the expression of adipophilin (ADFP), which has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism, was not altered in lipid droplets from the HSN-1 patient-derived lymphoblasts. This appears to be the first report of increased lipid body accumulation in a peripheral neuropathy, suggesting a fundamental molecular linkage between a number of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Study of possibility of increasing the catchment's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovicova, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the possibility of increasing the catechumen's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase. This presentation solves possibilities of increasing of the retention capacity of ground waters on the dependence of surface water outflow on upper parts of Podluzianka River (Hron River Basin) and Predmieranka River (Kysuce River basin)

  7. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-21

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd(2+)/Ca(2+) in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  8. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  9. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  10. Potential for Increased Mercury Accumulation in the Estuary Food Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Davis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Present concentrations of mercury in large portions of San Francisco Bay (Bay, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta, and the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers are high enough to warrant concern for the health of humans and wildlife. Large scale tidal wetland restoration is currently under consideration as a means of increasing populations of fish species of concern. Tidal wetland restoration activities may lead to increased concentrations of mercury in the estuarine food web and exacerbate the existing mercury problem. This paper evaluates our present ability to predict the local and regional effects of restoration actions on mercury accumulation in aquatic food webs. A sport fish consumption advisory is in place for the Bay, and an advisory is under consideration for the Delta and lower Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Mercury concentrations in eggs of several water bird species from the Bay have exceeded the lowest observed effect level. A variety of mercury sources, largely related to historic mercury and gold mining, is present in the watershed and has created a spatially heterogeneous distribution of mercury in the Bay-Delta Estuary. Mercury exists in the environment in a variety of forms and has a complex biogeochemical cycle. The most hazardous form, methylmercury, is produced at a relatively high rate in wetlands and newly flooded aquatic habitats. It is likely that distinct spatial variation on multiple spatial scales exists in net methylmercury production in Bay-Delta tidal wetlands, including variation within each tidal wetland, among tidal wetlands in the same region, and among tidal wetlands in different regions. Understanding this spatial variation and its underlying causes will allow environmental managers to minimize the negative effects of mercury bioaccumulation as a result of restoration activities. Actions needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with this issue include a long term, multifaceted research effort, long

  11. Ecological significance of compatible solute accumulation by micro-organisms: from single cells to global climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, D T

    2000-07-01

    The osmoadaptation of most micro-organisms involves the accumulation of K(+) ions and one or more of a restricted range of low molecular mass organic solutes, collectively termed 'compatible solutes'. These solutes are accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, in order to balance the osmotic pressure of the growth medium and maintain cell turgor pressure, which provides the driving force for cell extension growth. In this review, I discuss the alternative roles which compatible solutes may also play as intracellular reserves of carbon, energy and nitrogen, and as more general stress metabolites involved in protection of cells against other environmental stresses including heat, desiccation and freezing. Thus, the evolutionary selection for the accumulation of a specific compatible solute may not depend solely upon its function during osmoadaptation, but also upon the secondary benefits its accumulation provides, such as increased tolerance of other environmental stresses prevalent in the organism's niche or even anti-herbivory or dispersal functions in the case of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). In the second part of the review, I discuss the ecological consequences of the release of compatible solutes to the environment, where they can provide sources of compatible solutes, carbon, nitrogen and energy for other members of the micro-flora. Finally, at the global scale the metabolism of specific compatible solutes (betaines and DMSP) in brackish water, marine and hypersaline environments may influence global climate, due to the production of the trace gases, methane and dimethylsulfide (DMS) and in the case of DMS, also couple the marine and terrestrial sulfur cycles.

  12. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  13. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousin

    Full Text Available The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging.

  14. Recent increases in sediment and nutrient accumulation in Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J.M.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines historical changes in sediment and nutrient accumulation rates in Bear Lake along the northeastern Utah/Idaho border, USA. Two sediment cores were dated by measuring excess 210Pb activities and applying the constant rate of supply (CRS) dating model. Historical rates of bulk sediment accumulation were calculated based on the ages within the sediment cores. Bulk sediment accumulation rates increased throughout the last 100 years. According to the CRS model, bulk sediment accumulation rates were TOC) were calculated by multiplying bulk sediment accumulation rates times the concentrations of these nutrients in the sediment. Accumulation rates of TP, TN, TIC, and TOC increased as a consequence of increased bulk sediment accumulation rates after the re-connection of Bear River with Bear Lake.

  15. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff. PMID:28115693

  16. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N; Bernstein, Diana N

    2017-02-07

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  17. Significance of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose accumulation in the stomach on positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ukawa, Kunio; Ohkawa, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    To explain the accumulation of 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose ( 18 FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) in the stomach and differences in its pattern, we focus on the accumulation pattern in association with endoscopic findings of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Of 599 cases undergoing 18 FDG-PET examinations, we retrospectively analyzed the pattern of 18 FDG accumulation in the stomach, findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and Hp infection. The pattern of 18 FDG accumulation was classified into three groups: localized accumulation only in the fornix (Group A, 32 patients), diffuse accumulation throughout the entire stomach (Group B, 49 patients), and no accumulation (Group C, 191 patients). Regarding the relation between Hp infection and 18 FDG accumulation, Hp infection was positive in 56.3% of Group A, 73.5% of Group B, and 24.1% of Group C, with significant differences (p 18 FDG accumulation and gastric mucosal inflammation, when Groups A and B were compared with Group C, nearly half of the cases in the former groups had papular redness with a significantly higher frequency of redness and erosion. Three cases found to have malignant tumor were limited to the former groups. One mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma case was also found in the same group. Accumulation of 18 FDG largely corresponded to mucosal inflammation including superficial gastritis and erosive gastritis, and therefore the main cause of non-specific 18 FDG accumulation was considered to be inflammatory mucosa (mainly redness). The accumulation pattern was not associated with atrophic changes of the gastric mucosa or with Hp infection, but with mucosal inflammatory changes, including redness and erosion localized to the fornix. Accumulation of 18 FDG in the stomach suggests a high probability of the presence of inflammatory change in the gastric mucosa forming a background for the development of cancer or malignant lymphoma, and thus requires

  18. Clinical significance of /sup 99m/technetium sulfur colloid accumulation in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.; Massari, P.U.; Brown, M.L.; Thrall, J.H.; Chang, B.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of /sup 99m/technetium sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/TcSC) was evaluated in 47 studies performed on 19 renal transplant patients by comparing its transplant activity to its bone marrow accumulation. There was a diagnosis of rejection in 21 of 22 studies (96.5 percent) in which marked transplant accumulation was noted. In 11 studies of patients with a clinical diagnosis of post-transplant acute tubular necrosis (ATN), the transplant activity varied from none to moderate. Rejection developed in 5 of 6 studies with minimal to moderate accumulation. Normally functioning renal transplant patients, or those with ATN and no superimposed rejection, do not show evidence of /sup 99m/TcSC accumulation

  19. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  20. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO 2 -equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO 2 m −2 h −1 , which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m −2 h −1 , respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation

  1. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    same time increase soil carbon accumulation. - Highlights: • Soils of exotic wetlands have higher greenhouse gas fluxes than native wetlands. • Exotic coastal wetlands have higher soil organic carbon stock than native ones. • Exotic Sonneratia mangrove forest has the highest total greenhouse gas fluxes. • Exotic Spartina marsh has the highest fluxes of trace greenhouse gas, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O.

  2. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  3. Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Soo In

    2008-01-01

    The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; 18.9% (13,083) of the total medical doctors registered (69,097) were women in 2006, compared to 13.6% (2,216) in 1975. The proportion of female doctors will jump up by 2010 considering that nearly 40% of the medical students are women as of today. This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.6 (6)% to 18% (453), from 1975 to 2006 and now women residents comprise 39% (206) of all. This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet. Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.

  4. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  5. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  6. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  7. Expression of mouse MGAT in Arabidopsis results in increased lipid accumulation in seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eEl Tahchy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for vegetable oil is projected to double within the next thirty years due to increasing food, fuel and industrial requirements. There is therefore great interest in metabolic engineering strategies that boost oil accumulation in plant tissues, however, efforts to date have only achieved levels of storage lipid accumulation in plant tissues far below the benchmark to meet demand. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT is predominantly associated with lipid absorption and resynthesis in the animal intestine where it catalyses monoacylglycerol (MAG to form diacylglycerol (DAG, and then triacylglycerol (TAG. In contrast plant lipid biosynthesis routes do not include MGAT. Rather, DAG and TAG are either synthesized from glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P by a series of three subsequent acylation reactions, or originate from phospholipids via an acyl editing pathway. Mouse MGATs 1 and 2 have been shown to increase oil content transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue by 2.6 fold. Here we explore the feasibility of this approach to increase TAG in Arabidopsis thaliana seed. The stable MGAT2 expression resulted in a significant increase in seed oil content by 1.32 fold. We also report evidence of the MGAT2 activity based on in vitro assays. Up to 3.9 fold increase of radiolabelled DAG were produced in seed lysate which suggest that the transgenic MGAT activity can result in DAG re-synthesis by salvaging the MAG product of lipid breakdown. The expression of MGAT2 therefore creates an independent and complementary TAG biosynthesis route to the endogenous Kennedy pathway and other glycerolipid synthesis routes.

  8. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhu, Lin; Ma, Zhongyou; Wang, Jianfei; Zhu, Jian

    2016-10-25

    Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana . In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient ( adc2-1 and d-arginine-treated) plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient ( nia1nia2noa1 and c-PTIO-treated) plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including FIT1 , FRO2 , and IRT1 were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions.

  9. Amiodarone increases the accumulation of DEA in a human alveolar epithelium-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Satoru; Itagaki, Shirou; Kobayashi, Masaki; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2008-07-01

    Amiodarone (AMD)-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is the most life-threatening side-effect of AMD treatment. N-Monodesethylamiodarone (DEA), an active metabolite of AMD, also exhibits cytotoxicity and tends to accumulate in the lung more intensively than AMD. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of DEA accumulation using A549 cells as a model of the alveolar epithelium. Typical ATP-depletion compounds caused an approximately 30% increase in the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells, although these effects were less than those in Caco-2 cells. Triiodothyronine (T(3)), which exhibited an inhibitory effect on DEA efflux in Caco-2 cells, did not affect the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells. On the other hand, 100 microM AMD caused an approximately 200% increase in DEA content in A549 cells, although AMD accumulation was not affected by 100 microM DEA. Since the reducing effect of AMD on cellular ATP levels and that of FCCP were similar, the mechanism by which DEA accumulation is increased by AMD might be different from the ATP-dependent DEA efflux mechanism. The decrease in cell viability by DEA in the presence of AMD (IC(50) value of DEA for A549 cell viability: 25.4+/-2.4 microM) was more pronounced than that by DEA alone (IC(50) value: 11.5+/-3.0 microM). This further DEA accumulation by AMD might be a factor responsible for the greater accumulation of DEA than that of AMD in the lung in long-term AMD-treated patients.

  10. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  11. Enhanced lysosomal acidification leads to increased chloroquine accumulation in CHO cells expressing the pfmdr1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, H. H.; Renkema, H.; Aerts, H.; Schurr, E.

    1994-01-01

    Expression of the pfmdr1-encoded Pgh1 protein of Plasmodium falciparum in CHO cells confers a phenotype of increased sensitivity to chloroquine due to an increased Pgh1-mediated accumulation of this antimalarial. Pgh1 carrying amino acid substitutions associated with chloroquine resistance in P.

  12. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. We show this to be the case for an error model in which the variance of an observable is interpreted as its error and for the standard error model in photonic experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Mermin inequality yields a Bell test which is statistically more significant than the Ardehali inequality in the case of a photonic four-qubit state that is close to a GHZ state. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the above inequalities for different levels of noise.

  13. Increased accumulation of dendritic cells in celiac disease associates with increased expression of autophagy protein LC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramaguru Rajaguru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD an immune-mediated disorder associates with accumulation of dendritic cell (DC in duodenal mucosa. Autophagy has recently been implicated in autoantigen formation. However, its role in CD is still unknown. Aim: To examine role of autophagic protein LC3 expressed by activated DC in CD. Materials and Methods : Thirty CD patients were analyzed at initial presentation and after 6 months of gluten-free diet (GFD. Duodenal biopsies were studied for histological changes and CD11c, CD86, and MAP1LC3A expressions by double immunohistochemistry (IHC. Masson′s trichrome (MT staining was used to assess basement membrane (BM thickness and Oil Red O (ORO staining for mucosal lipid deposit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for HLA-DQ system. Statistical analysis was done using paired and unpaired t test, chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and McNemar-Bowker test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 alleles were present in all studied patients. Increased BM thickness was observed in 63% and 73% had ORO-positive lipid in surface lining epithelium. Pre-treatment biopsies showed increased DCs expressing LC3, which were significantly less in follow-up biopsies. The follow-up biopsies had shown significant reduction in BM thickness and ORO. Conclusion : Histological improvement in duodenal biopsies was associated with reduction in activated DCs expressing autophagic protein, which probably play important role in pathogenesis of an autoimmune disorder like CD.

  14. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  15. MMP2-A2M interaction increases ECM accumulation in aged rat kidney and its modulation by calorie restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mok; Chung, Ki Wung; Jeong, Hyeong Oh; Lee, Bonggi; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, June Whoun; Kim, Seong Min; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2018-01-01

    Age-associated renal fibrosis is related with renal function decline during aging. Imbalance between accumulation and degradation of extracellular matrix is key feature of fibrosis. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) results based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were analyzed to identify key proteins that change during aging and calorie restriction (CR). Among the changed genes, A2M and MMP2, which are known to interact, exhibited the highest between centrality (BC) and degree values when analyzed by protein–protein interaction (PPI). Both mRNA and protein levels of MMP2 and A2M were increased during aging. Furthermore, the interaction between MMP2 and A2M was verified by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. MMP2 activity was further measured under the presence or absence of A2M-MMP2 interaction. MMP2 activity, which was increased under the absence of A2M-MMP2 interaction, was significantly decreased under the presence of interactions in aged kidney. We further hypothesized that the interaction between A2M-MMP2 played a role in the inactivation of MMP2 leading to accumulation of ECM including collagen type I and IV. Aged kidney showed highly accumulated MMP2 substrate proteins despite of increased MMP2 protein expression and CR blunted these accumulation. Additional in vivo analysis revealed that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 transcriptional factor was significantly increased thus increasing A2M expression during aging. STAT3 activating cytokines were also highly increased in aged kidney. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that A2M-MMP2 interaction has a role in age-associated renal ECM accumulation and in the suppression such fibrosis by CR. PMID:29464020

  16. Increased protoporphyrin IX accumulation does not improve the effect of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Heerfordt, I M; Wiegell, S R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is highly effective for treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/scalp, but less effective on the extremities. Insufficient accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may cause these inferior efficacy rates. However...... (P = 0·001 and P = 0·002, respectively). However, the median total clearance rates did not improve accordingly: 3hC+ (55·0%), 21hC- (55·0%) and 21hC+ (53·6%). Conversely, insufficient PpIX accumulation in the 3hC- regimen led to a significantly lower clearance rate (33·3%) than the other regimens (P...

  17. Energy accumulating substances for increase of replacement factor of petroleum from layer on Kumkol deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunusov, U.I.; Ospanov, E.S.; Nurabaev, B.K.; Ajshuakov, K.A.; Tursunkulov, Eh.T.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory researches with using of alloys of energy accumulating substances are carried out with the purpose of petroleum output increase on Kumkol deposit. Factor of petroleum replacement within range from 79.5 to 82.0 % is received by use silico-barium, silico-calcium and ferro-silicium with alkali and aluminium. (author)

  18. Increased Dapivirine tissue accumulation through vaginal film codelivery of dapivirine and Tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ayman; Devlin, Brid; Cost, Marilyn; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2014-05-05

    The HIV-1 replication inhibitor dapivirine (DPV) is one of the most promising drug candidates being used in topical microbicide products for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission. To be able to block HIV-1 replication, DPV must have access to the viral reverse transcriptase enzyme. The window for DPV to access the enzyme happens during the HIV-1 cellular infection cycle. Thus, in order for DPV to exert its anti-HIV activity, it must be present in the mucosal tissue or cells where HIV-1 infection occurs. A dosage form containing DPV must be able to deliver the drug to the tissue site of action. Polymeric films are solid dosage forms that dissolve and release their payload upon contact with fluids. Films have been used as vaginal delivery systems of topical microbicide drug candidates including DPV. For use in topical microbicide products containing DPV, polymeric films must prove their ability to deliver DPV to the target tissue site of action. Ex vivo exposure studies of human ectocervical tissue to DPV film revealed that DPV was released from the film and did diffuse into the tissue in a concentration dependent manner indicating a process of passive diffusion. Analysis of drug distribution in the tissue revealed that DPV accumulated mostly at the basal layer of the epithelium infiltrating the upper part of the stroma. Furthermore, as a combination microbicide product, codelivery of DPV and TFV from a polymeric film resulted in a significant increase in DPV tissue concentration [14.21 (single entity film) and 31.03 μg/g (combination film)], whereas no impact on TFV tissue concentration was found. In vitro release experiments showed that this observation was due to a more rapid DPV release from the combination film as compared to the single entity film. In conclusion, the findings of this study confirm the ability of polymeric films to deliver DPV and TFV to human ectocervical tissue and show that codelivery of the two agents has a significant impact on DPV

  19. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  20. Increase in density and accumulation of serotonin by human aging platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzano, D.; Aranda, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Foradori, A.; Lira, P.

    1984-01-01

    51 Cr-labeled autologous platelets were infused into splenectomized subjects and the specific radioactivities of high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet subpopulations were determined sequentially in postinfusion samples. These findings confirm previous observations in eusplenic individuals and support the hypothesis that human LD platelets are, on the average, younger than HD platelets. LD platelets contain 33.8 +/- 13.5 ng serotonin (5HT)/10(8) platelets and HD platelets 76.8 +/- 9.5 ng 5HT/10(8) platelets. Sequential measurements of 5HT in PRP platelets were performed during the recovery phase of thrombocytopenia following splenectomy in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a condition associated with aging of platelets in circulation. Presplenectomy platelet 5HT was 17.7 ng/10(8) platelets and on days 1, 6, and 12 after surgery it increased to 18.1, 37.8, and 61.0 ng/10(8) platelets. When three healthy volunteers were given aspirin (500 mg/day) for up to 15 days, no significant change in the 5HT content of circulating platelets was observed. The observation that human HD platelets, enriched with older cells, contain more 5HT than LD platelets taken together with the parallel increase in platelet 5HT and age during the recovery from thrombocytopenia in ITP patients and the lack of effect of aspirin on platelet 5HT content, provides initial evidence that human platelets accumulate 5HT during their life-span in circulation

  1. Increased risk of cataract development in WNIN-obese rats due to accumulation of intralenticular sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Giridharan, Nappan Veettil; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Validandi, Vakdevi; Pullakhandam, Raghu; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between obesity and increased incidence of ocular complications including cataract, yet the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms remained unclear. Previously we had demonstrated accumulation of sorbitol in the lens of obese rats (WNIN/Ob) and more so in a related strain with impaired glucose tolerance (WNIN/GR-Ob). However, only a few (15-20%) WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob rats develop cataracts spontaneously with age. To gain further insights, we investigated the susceptibility of eye lens proteins of these obese rat strains to heat- and UV-induced aggregation in vitro, lens opacification upon glucose-mediated sorbitol accumulation ex vivo, and onset and progression of cataract was followed by galactose feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The results indicated increased susceptibility toward heat- or UV-induced aggregation of lens proteins in obese animals compared to their littermate lean controls. Further, in organ culture studies glucose-induced sorbitol accumulation was found to be higher and thus the lens opacification was faster in obese animals compared to their lean littermates. Also, the onset and progression of galactose- or STZ-induced cataractogenesis was faster in obese animals compared to lean control. These results together with our previous observations suggest that obesity status could lead to hyperaccumulation of sorbitol in eye lens, predisposing them to cataract, primarily by increasing their susceptibility to environmental and/or physiological factors. Further, intralenticular sorbitol accumulation beyond a threshold level could lead to cataract in WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob rats. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n...... that metformin has no decreasing effect on the B(12) absorption. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results show that metformin treatment increases liver accumulation of B(12), thereby resulting in decreases in circulating B(12) and kidney accumulation of the vitamin. Our data questions whether the low plasma B......(12) observed in patients treated with metformin reflects impaired B(12) status, and rather suggests altered tissue distribution and metabolism of the vitamin....

  4. Effects of increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen on an upland moor: Nitrogen budgets and nutrient accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, M.G.; Caporn, S.J.M.; Carroll, J.A.; Cresswell, N.; Lee, J.A.; Reynolds, B.; Emmett, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term (11 years) ammonium nitrate additions on standing mass, nutrient content (% and kg ha -1 ), and the proportion of the added N retained within the different compartments of the system. The results showed that more than 90% of all N in the system was found in the soil, particularly in the organic (Oh) horizon. Added N increased the standing mass of vegetation and litter and the N content (kg N ha -1 ) of almost all measured plant, litter and soil compartments. Green tissue P and K content (kg ha -1 ) were increased, and N:P ratios were increased to levels indicative of P limitation. At the lowest treatment, most of the additional N was found in plant/litter compartments, but at higher treatments, there were steep increases in the amount of additional N in the underlying organic and mineral (Eag) horizons. The budget revealed that the proportion of added N found in the system as a whole increased from 60%, 80% and up to 90% in response to the 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha -1 year -1 treatments, respectively. - Additions of 40 kg N ha -1 over 11 years accumulated mainly in plant and litter compartments; higher additions accumulated mainly in the organic and mineral horizons

  5. Melatonin-induced increase of lipid droplets accumulation and in vitro maturation in porcine oocytes is mediated by mitochondrial quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Yin, Chao; Gong, Yabin; Liu, Jie; Guo, Huiduo; Zhao, Ruqian

    2018-01-01

    Melatonin, the major pineal secretory product, has a significant impact on the female reproductive system. Recently, the beneficial effects of melatonin on mammalian oocyte maturation and embryonic development have drawn increased attention. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. This study demonstrates that supplementing melatonin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium enhances IVM rate, lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation as well as triglyceride content in porcine oocytes. Decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) content indicated that melatonin induced a decrease of mitochondrial activity. The copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which encodes essential subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), was not affected by melatonin. However, the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes was significantly down-regulated after melatonin treatment. The DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, which regulates methylation and expression of mtDNA, was increased and translocated into the mitochondria in melatonin-treated oocytes. The inhibitory effect of melatonin on the expression of mtDNA was significantly prevented by simultaneous addition of DNMT1 inhibitor, which suggests that melatonin regulates the transcription of mtDNA through up-regulation of DNMT1 and mtDNA methylation. Increase of triglyceride contents after inhibition of OXPHOS indicated that mitochondrial quiescence is crucial for LDs accumulation in oocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin-induced reduction in mROS production and increase in IVM, and LDs accumulation in porcine oocytes is mediated by mitochondrial quiescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cross talk between increased intracellular zinc (Zn2+) and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chemical ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Lu, Qiping; Li, Yang V

    2017-10-01

    Both zinc (Zn 2+ ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to accumulate during hypoxic-ischemic stress and play important roles in pathological processes. To understand the cross talk between the two of them, here we studied Zn 2+ and ROS accumulation by employing fluorescent probes in HeLa cells to further the understanding of the cause and effect relationship of these two important cellular signaling systems during chemical-ischemia, stimulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed two Zn 2+ rises that were divided into four phases in the course of 30 min of OGD. The first Zn 2+ rise was a transient, which was followed by a latent phase during which Zn 2+ levels recovered; however, levels remained above a basal level in most cells. The final phase was the second Zn 2+ rise, which reached a sustained plateau called Zn 2+ overload. Zn 2+ rises were not observed when Zn 2+ was removed by TPEN (a Zn 2+ chelator) or thapsigargin (depleting Zn 2+ from intracellular stores) treatment, indicating that Zn 2+ was from intracellular storage. Damaging mitochondria with FCCP significantly reduced the second Zn 2+ rise, indicating that the mitochondrial Zn 2+ accumulation contributes to Zn 2+ overload. We also detected two OGD-induced ROS rises. Two Zn 2+ rises preceded two ROS rises. Removal of Zn 2+ reduced or delayed OGD- and FCCP-induced ROS generation, indicating that Zn 2+ contributes to mitochondrial ROS generation. There was a Zn 2+ -induced increase in the functional component of NADPH oxidase, p47 phox , thus suggesting that NADPH oxidase may mediate Zn 2+ -induced ROS accumulation. We suggest a new mechanism of cross talk between Zn 2+ and mitochondrial ROS through positive feedback processes that eventually causes excessive free Zn 2+ and ROS accumulations during the course of ischemic stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Overexpression of CtCHS1 Increases Accumulation of Quinochalcone in Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carthami flos, the dried petal of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, in which quinochalcone glucosides such as hydrosafflower yellow A (HSYA, carthamin are uniquely present and have been identified as active compounds. In the present study, through sequencing of a safflower floret cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found 23 unigenes (5 PALs, 1 C4Hs, 5 4CLs, 6 CHSs, 2 CHIs, 2 DFRs, 2 FLSs involved in flavonoid pathway, of which 4 were up-regulated differentially during quinochalcone glucosides accumulation with the floret developing stage. The up-regulated genes were verified by PCR methods. Considering chalcone synthase are entry enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, CHS1 was focused on target gene to verify its function furtherly. Bioinformation analysis showed that CHS1 shared 86.94% conserved residues with CHS from other plants. Subcellular localization showed that CtCHS1 was localized in cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. The transgenic safflower plant with overexpression CtCHS1 by Agrobacterium-mediated pollen-tube pathway method was firstly generated. The results present that expression of PAL2, PAL3, CHS1, CHS4, CHS6 increased and expression of CHI1 and CHI2 decreased in the transgenic plant floret. Meanwhile, the accumulation of quinochalcone glucosides increased by ∼20–30% and accumulation of quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside and quercetin decreased by 48 and 63% in the transgenic plant floret. These results suggested that CtCHS1 played an important role in quinochalcone glucosides biosynthesis rather than flavonol biosynthesis. These results also demonstrated that the pollen-tube pathway method was an efficient method for gene transformation in safflower. Our study will provide a deep understanding of potential synthetic genes involved in quinochalcone biosynthetic pathway.

  8. Placental triglyceride accumulation in maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with increased lipase gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes can cause fetal macrosomia and increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood of the offspring. Although increased transplacental lipid transport could be involved, the impact of maternal type 1 diabetes on molecular mechanisms for lipid transport...... in placenta is largely unknown. To examine whether maternal type 1 diabetes affects placental lipid metabolism, we measured lipids and mRNA expression of lipase-encoding genes in placentas from women with type 1 diabetes (n = 27) and a control group (n = 21). The placental triglyceride (TG) concentration....... These results suggest that maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with TG accumulation and increased EL and HSL gene expression in placenta and that optimal metabolic control reduces these effects....

  9. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  10. Acidified seawater increases accumulation of cobalt but not cesium in manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Narin; Kocaoğlan, Hasan Oğuz; Kılıç, Önder; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Belivermiş, Murat

    2018-04-01

    The pH of seawater around the world is expected to continue its decline in the near future in response to ocean acidification that is driven by heightened atmospheric CO 2 emissions. Concomitantly, economically-important molluscs that live in coastal waters including estuaries and embayments, may be exposed to a wide assortment of contaminants, including trace metals and radionuclides. Seawater acidification may alter both the chemical speciation of select elements as well as the physiology of organisms, and may thus pose at risk to many shellfish species, including the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The bioconcentration efficiency of two common radionuclides associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, 134 Cs and 57 Co, were investigated by exposing live clams to dissolved 134 Cs and 57 Co at control (pH = 8.1) and two lowered pH (pH = 7.8 and 7.5) levels using controlled aquaria. The uptake and depuration kinetics of the two radionuclides in the whole-body clam were followed for 21 and 35 days, respectively. At steady-state equilibrium, the concentration factor (CF ss ) for 57 Co increased as the pH decreased (i.e. 130 ± 5, 194 ± 6, and 258 ± 10 at pH levels 8.1, 7.8 and 7.5, respectively), whereas the 134 Cs uptake was not influenced by a change in pH conditions. During depuration, the lowest depuration rate constant of 57 Co by the manila clam was observed at the intermediate pH of 7.8. An increase in the accumulation of 57 Co at the intermediate pH value was thought to be caused mainly by the aragonitic shell of the clam, as well as the low salinity and alkalinity of seawater used in the experiment. Considering that accumulation consists of uptake and depuration, among the three pH conditions moderately acidified seawater enhanced most the accumulation of 57 Co. Accumulation of 134 Cs was not strongly influenced by a reduced pH condition, as represented by an analogous uptake constant rate and CF ss in each treatment. Such results suggest that

  11. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  12. α-Naphthoflavone Increases Lipid Accumulation in Mature Adipocytes and Enhances Adipocyte-Stimulated Endothelial Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Lin Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-activated factor that regulates biological effects associated with obesity. The AhR agonists, such as environmental contaminants 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and β-naphthoflavone (BNF, inhibit preadipocyte differentiation and interfere with the functions of adipose tissue, whereas the antagonist may have opposite or protective effects in obesity. This study investigated the effects of α-naphthoflavone (α-NF, an AhR antagonist, on adipogenesis- and angiogenesis-associated factors in mature adipocytes and on cross-talk of mature adipocytes with endothelial cells (ECs. Besides, the roles of the AhR on lipid accumulation and on secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were also determined by introducing siRNA of AhR. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF (1–5 μM for 16 h. Lipid accumulation and the expressions of AhR-associated factors in the cells were determined. The interaction between adipocytes and ECs was investigated by cultivating ECs with conditioned medium (CM from α-NF-treated mature adipocytes, followed by the determination of endothelial tube formation. The results showed that α-NF significantly increased triglyceride (TG accumulation in mature adipocytes, which was associated with increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, estrogen receptor (ER, as well as decreased expression of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT, cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1, and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (NRF-2 proteins. In addition, CM stimulated formation of tube-like structures in ECs, and α-NF further enhanced such stimulation in association with modulated the secretions of various angiogenic mediators by mature adipocytes. Similarly, increased TG accumulation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion were observed in AhR-knockout cells. In conclusion, α-NF increased TG accumulation in mature adipocytes and

  13. Mutation of the Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Enzyme Cytochrome P450 83A1 Monooxygenase Increases Camalexin Accumulation and Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simu; Bartnikas, Lisa M; Volko, Sigrid M; Ausubel, Frederick M; Tang, Dingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1), which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  14. Mutation of the glucosinolate biosynthesis enzyme cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase increases camalexin accumulation and powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simu eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1, which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  15. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat-accumulator increases the comfort in the passenger-compartment and the driving-safety. Latentwaermespeicher erhoeht den Fahrkomfort und die Fahrsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blueher, P.

    1991-10-01

    The integration of a heat-accumulator into the coolant system can significantly increase the comfort in the passenger-compartment and contribute to an improvement of the driving-safety. The newly developed heat-accumulator provides the required amount of energy to allow for a rapid heating-up of the passenger-compartment after an engine-coldstart and to prevent misting of the windows, especially the windscreen. In developing the heat accumulator focus was especially pointed on the environmental protection by systematically using harmless and recycable materials. (orig.).

  17. Acute Stimulant Treatment and Reinforcement Increase the Speed of Information Accumulation in Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Whitney D; White, Corey N; Hawk, Larry W

    2017-07-01

    The current studies utilized drift diffusion modeling (DDM) to examine how reinforcement and stimulant medication affect cognitive task performance in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with (n = 25; 88 % male) and without ADHD (n = 33; 82 % male) completed a 2-choice discrimination task at baseline (100 trials) and again a week later under alternating reinforcement and no-reinforcement contingencies (400 trials total). In Study 2, participants with ADHD (n = 29; 72 % male) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate and completed the same task utilized in Study 1 at baseline (100 trials). Children with ADHD accumulated information at a much slower rate than controls, as evidenced by a lower drift rate. Groups were similar in nondecision time and boundary separation. Both reinforcement and stimulant medication markedly improved drift rate in children with ADHD (ds = 0.70 and 0.95 for reinforcement and methylphenidate, respectively); both treatments also reduced boundary separation (ds = 0.70 and 0.39). Reinforcement, which emphasized speeded accuracy, reduced nondecision time (d = 0.37), whereas stimulant medication increased nondecision time (d = 0.38). These studies provide initial evidence that frontline treatments for ADHD primarily impact cognitive performance in youth with ADHD by improving the speed/efficiency of information accumulation. Treatment effects on other DDM parameters may vary between treatments or interact with task parameters (number of trials, task difficulty). DDM, in conjunction with other approaches, may be helpful in clarifying the specific cognitive processes that are disrupted in ADHD, as well as the basic mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of ADHD treatments.

  18. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  19. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors increases intracellular accumulation of berberine in murine and human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitor (PI-induced inflammatory response in macrophages is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that berberine (BBR, a traditional herbal medicine, prevents HIV PI-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in macrophages. We also found that HIV PIs significantly increased the intracellular concentrations of BBR in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms of HIV PI-induced BBR accumulation are unknown. This study examined the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp in HIV PI-mediated accumulation of BBR in macrophages.Cultured mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, human THP-1-derived macrophages, Wild type MDCK (MDCK/WT and human P-gp transfected (MDCK/P-gp cells were used in this study. The intracellular concentration of BBR was determined by HPLC. The activity of P-gp was assessed by measuring digoxin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123 efflux. The interaction between P-gp and BBR or HIV PIs was predicated by Glide docking using Schrodinger program. The results indicate that P-gp contributed to the efflux of BBR in macrophages. HIV PIs significantly increased BBR concentrations in macrophages; however, BBR did not alter cellular HIV PI concentrations. Although HIV PIs did not affect P-gp expression, P-gp transport activities were significantly inhibited in HIV PI-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the molecular docking study suggests that both HIV PIs and BBR fit the binding pocket of P-gp, and HIV PIs may compete with BBR to bind P-gp.HIV PIs increase the concentration of BBR by modulating the transport activity of P-gp in macrophages. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of potential drug-drug interactions is critical prior to applying successful combinational therapy in the clinic.

  20. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  1. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: → Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. → Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. → Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  2. Increase in cellulose accumulation and improvement of saccharification by overexpression of arabinofuranosidase in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Sumiyoshi

    Full Text Available Cellulosic biomass is available for the production of biofuel, with saccharification of the cell wall being a key process. We investigated whether alteration of arabinoxylan, a major hemicellulose in monocots, causes an increase in saccharification efficiency. Arabinoxylans have β-1,4-D-xylopyranosyl backbones and 1,3- or 1,4-α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to O-2 and/or O-3 of xylopyranosyl residues as side chains. Arabinose side chains interrupt the hydrogen bond between arabinoxylan and cellulose and carry an ester-linked feruloyl substituent. Arabinose side chains are the base point for diferuloyl cross-links and lignification. We analyzed rice plants overexpressing arabinofuranosidase (ARAF to study the role of arabinose residues in the cell wall and their effects on saccharification. Arabinose content in the cell wall of transgenic rice plants overexpressing individual ARAF full-length cDNA (OsARAF1-FOX and OsARAF3-FOX decreased 25% and 20% compared to the control and the amount of glucose increased by 28.2% and 34.2%, respectively. We studied modifications of cell wall polysaccharides at the cellular level by comparing histochemical cellulose staining patterns and immunolocalization patterns using antibodies raised against α-(1,5-linked l-Ara (LM6 and β-(1,4-linked d-Xyl (LM10 and LM11 residues. However, they showed no visible phenotype. Our results suggest that the balance between arabinoxylan and cellulose might maintain the cell wall network. Moreover, ARAF overexpression in rice effectively leads to an increase in cellulose accumulation and saccharification efficiency, which can be used to produce bioethanol.

  3. Genetic Engineering of Crypthecodinium cohnii to Increase Growth and Lipid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Diao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated suitable selected markers and optimized transformation protocols to develop a new genetic transformation methodology for DHA-producing Crypthecodinium cohnii. Additionally, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, potentially involved in CO2 fixation under autotrophic conditions, was selected as the target for construction of a gene knockdown mutant. Our results show that the constructs were successfully inserted into the C. cohnii chromosome by homologous recombination. Comparative analysis showed that deletion of the RuBisCO gene promoted cell growth and increased the lipid content of C. cohnii under heterotrophic conditions compared with those of the wild-type. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS based metabolomic analysis showed that the metabolites involved in energy metabolism were upregulated, suggesting that the deletion of the RuBisCO gene may contribute to the re-direction of more carbon or energy toward growth and lipid accumulation under heterotrophic conditions.

  4. Overexpression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Increases Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Transgenic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucui Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of human CETP did not change the plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but lowered plasma HDL-C and increased triglycerides. These data revealed that human CETP may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis mainly by decreasing HDL-C levels and increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells.

  5. Ratio of muscle mass to fat mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis is significantly correlated with liver fat accumulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinami, Noboru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Morita, Ayami; Yoshida, Akira; Hieshima, Kunio; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouch, Katsunori; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-05-01

    Obesity and ectopic fat accumulation are important conditions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our aim was to determine whether bioelectrical impedance body composition analysis combined with blood test results could estimate liver ectopic fat accumulation in patients with treatment-naïve T2DM. Subjects were 119 untreated T2DM patients. Computed tomography scans were performed to calculate the liver to spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio) as a measure of liver fat accumulation, with excess liver fat accumulation defined as an L/S ratio analysis using InBody770. The Nagelkerke R 2 test showed that the muscle mass/fat mass ratio (muscle/fat ratio) was the most suitable variable among anthropometric factors and body component indexes for estimating liver fat accumulation. The muscle/fat ratio was significantly correlated with the L/S ratio (ρ = 0.4386, P analysis showed that the muscle/fat ratio (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.73, P ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.10, P analysis, the cutoff value of the muscle/fat ratio for excess liver fat accumulation was 2.34. In patients with treatment-naïve T2DM, the muscle/fat ratio and ALT are useful for estimating the presence of excess liver fat accumulation in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Anticyclonic eddies increase accumulation of microplastic in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brach, Laurent; Deixonne, Patrick; Bernard, Marie France; Durand, Edmée; Desjean, Marie Christine; Perez, Emile; van Sebille, Erik; ter Halle, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    There are fundamental gaps in our understanding of the fates of microplastics in the ocean, which must be overcome if the severity of this pollution is to be fully assessed. The predominant pattern is high accumulation of microplastic in subtropical gyres. Using in situ measurements from the 7th

  7. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

  8. Preharvest Ultraviolet C Irradiation Increased the Level of Polyphenol Accumulation and Flavonoid Pathway Gene Expression in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Luo, Zisheng; Mimee, Benjamin; Veronneau, Pierre-Yves; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-22

    Preharvest ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation is an innovative approach for increasing the bioactive phytochemical content of strawberries to increase the disease resistance and nutritional value. This study investigated the changes in individual flavonoids in strawberry developed with three different cumulative doses of preharvest UV-C treatment (low, 9.6 kJ m -2 ; middle, 15 kJ m -2 ; and high , 29.4 kJ m -2 ). Significant accumulation (p radiation. The expression of the flavonoid pathway structural genes, i.e., FaCHS1, FaCHI, FaFHT, FaDFR, FaFLS, and FaFGT, was upregulated in the low- and middle-dose groups, while the early stage genes were not affected by the high dose. FaMYB1 was also relatively enhanced in the low- and middle-dose groups, while FaASR was upregulated in only the low-dose group. Hormetic preharvest UV-C dose ranges for enhancing the polyphenol content of strawberries were established for the first time.

  9. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Lao, Jeemeng [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Catena, Michela [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Verhertbruggen, Yves [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Herter, Thomas [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Yang, Fan [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Harholt, Jesper [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Ebert, Berit [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Ronald, Pamela C. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant Pathology and the Genome Center, University of California, Davis CA USA

    2015-01-14

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  10. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan; Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Gaitán-Solis, Eliana; Grusak, Michael A; Taylor, Nigel; Anderson, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indicates a potential application for iron biofortification in crop plants. Here, we have overexpressed AtVIT1 in the starchy root crop cassava using a patatin promoter. Under greenhouse conditions, iron levels in mature cassava storage roots showed 3-4 times higher values when compared with wild-type plants. Significantly, the expression of AtVIT1 showed a positive correlation with the increase in iron concentration of storage roots. Conversely, young leaves of AtVIT1 transgenic plants exhibit characteristics of iron deficiency such as interveinal chlorosis of leaves (yellowing) and lower iron concentration when compared with the wild type plants. Interestingly, the AtVIT1 transgenic plants showed 4 and 16 times higher values of iron concentration in the young stem and stem base tissues, respectively. AtVIT1 transgenic plants also showed 2-4 times higher values of iron content when compared with wild-type plants, with altered partitioning of iron between source and sink tissues. These results demonstrate vacuolar iron sequestration as a viable transgenic strategy to biofortify crops and to help eliminate micronutrient malnutrition in at-risk human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase in carbon accumulation in a boreal peatland following a period of wetter climate and long-term decrease in nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utstøl-Klein, Simon; Halvorsen, Rune; Ohlson, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Rates of peat growth and carbon (C) accumulation in a Sphagnum-dominated boreal peatland in south-east Norway were compared over two time periods each 17 yr long, that is, an earlier period from 1978 to 1995 and a recent period from 1995 to 2012. Our research was based on 109 peat cores. By using exactly the same study area and sampling protocols to obtain data for the two time periods, we were able to obtain a clear picture of the spatio-temporal patterns of peat accumulation. We show that peat growth and C accumulation were significantly higher in the recent than in the earlier time period. Interestingly, nitrogen (N) deposition was lower in the recent than in the earlier time period, while precipitation increased in the recent time period. Temperatures did not show any consistent trends over the time periods. Although our data do not allow assessment of the relative importance of declining N deposition vs increasing precipitation as drivers of peat accumulation, our results suggest that peatland C sequestration is not significantly inhibited by N pollution at current precipitation and N deposition levels. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Cross accumulative roll bonding—A novel mechanical technique for significant improvement of stir-cast Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Kamali; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Khorsand, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs—metal matrix with nanosized ceramic particles) can be of significance for automobile, aerospace, and numerous other applications. There are some problems in obtaining suitable mechanical properties of MMNCs, including weak bonding between reinforcement and matrix, non-uniformity of reinforcement nanoparticles and high porosity content. In this study, aluminum/alumina nanocomposite was fabricated by stircasting method. Subsequently, cross accumulative roll bonding (CARB) process was used as an effective method for refinement of microstructure and improvement of mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites during various CARB cycles were examined by the Archimedes method, X-ray defractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. The results showed that the microstructure of the nanocomposite after eight cycles of CARB had an excellent distribution of alumina nanoparticles in aluminum matrix without any remarkable porosity. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocomposite was 71 nm by employing eight cycles of CARB technique. Mechanical experiment also indicated that the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the nanocomposite increased as the number of CARB cycles increased. After eight CARB cycles, ultimate tensile strength and the elongation values reached 344 MPa and 6.4%, which were 3.13 and 3.05 times greater than those of as-cast nanocomposites, respectively

  13. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} (addition of CaCl{sub 2}) leads to increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights:

  14. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Bartels

    Full Text Available Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease.

  16. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  18. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. THE SMALL BUT SIGNIFICANT AND NONTRANSITORY INCREASE IN PRICES (SSNIP TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Niminet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Small but Significant Nontransitory Increase in Price Test was designed to define the relevant market by concepts of product, geographical area and time. This test, also called the ,,hypothetical monopolistic test” is the subject of many researches both economical and legal as it deals with economic concepts as well as with legally aspects.

  20. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N. V; Zebrakova, I. V.; Matsko, V. P.; Kislushko, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  1. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indi...

  2. Rapid surface accumulation of NMDA receptors increases glutamatergic excitation during status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, David E; Liu, Hantao; Niquet, Jerome; Wasterlain, Claude G

    2013-06-01

    After 1h of lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE), immunocytochemical labeling of NMDA receptor NR1 subunits reveals relocation of subunits from the interior to the cell surface of dentate gyrus granule cells and CA3 pyramidal cells. Simultaneously, an increase in NMDA-miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) as well as an increase in NMDA receptor-mediated tonic currents is observed in hippocampal slices after SE. Mean-variance analysis of NMDA-mEPSCs estimates that the number of functional postsynaptic NMDA receptors per synapse increases 38% during SE, and antagonism by ifenprodil suggests that an increase in the surface representation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors is responsible for the augmentation of both the phasic and tonic excitatory currents with SE. These results provide a potential mechanism for an enhancement of glutamatergic excitation that maintains SE and may contribute to excitotoxic injury during SE. Therapies that directly antagonize NMDA receptors may be a useful therapeutic strategy during refractory SE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Placental triglyceride accumulation in maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with increased lipase gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes can cause fetal macrosomia and increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood of the offspring. Although increased transplacental lipid transport could be involved, the impact of maternal type 1 diabetes on molecular mechanisms for lipid transport...... in placenta is largely unknown. To examine whether maternal type 1 diabetes affects placental lipid metabolism, we measured lipids and mRNA expression of lipase-encoding genes in placentas from women with type 1 diabetes (n = 27) and a control group (n = 21). The placental triglyceride (TG) concentration......RNA expression of lipoprotein lipase and lysosomal lipase were similar in women with diabetes and the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed EL protein in syncytiotrophoblasts facing the maternal blood and endothelial cells facing the fetal blood in placentas from both normal women and women with diabetes...

  4. Increased ethanol accumulation from glucose via reduction of ATP level in a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-05-15

    The production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation represents the largest scale application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial biotechnology. Increased worldwide demand for fuel bioethanol is anticipated over the next decade and will exceed 200 billion liters from further expansions. Our working hypothesis was that the drop in ATP level in S. cerevisiae cells during alcoholic fermentation should lead to an increase in ethanol production (yield and productivity) with a greater amount of the utilized glucose converted to ethanol. Our approach to achieve this goal is to decrease the intracellular ATP level via increasing the unspecific alkaline phosphatase activity. Intact and truncated versions of the S. cerevisiae PHO8 gene coding for vacuolar or cytosolic forms of alkaline phosphatase were fused with the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) promoter. The constructed expression cassettes used for transformation vectors also contained the dominant selective marker kanMX4 and S. cerevisiae δ-sequence to facilitate multicopy integration to the genome. Laboratory and industrial ethanol producing strains BY4742 and AS400 overexpressing vacuolar form of alkaline phosphatase were characterized by a slightly lowered intracellular ATP level and biomass accumulation and by an increase in ethanol productivity (13% and 7%) when compared to the parental strains. The strains expressing truncated cytosolic form of alkaline phosphatase showed a prolonged lag-phase, reduced biomass accumulation and a strong defect in ethanol production. Overexpression of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase leads to an increased ethanol yield in S. cerevisiae.

  5. Significance of FDG-PET in Identification of Diseases of the Appendix – Based on Experience of Two Cases Falsely Positive for FDG Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Ogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of the significance of F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET in the identification of diseases of the appendix is presented based on two cases falsely positive for FDG accumulation. Both cases were palpable for a tumor in the lower right abdominal region and a prominently enlarged appendix was depicted by CT. Although the patients underwent ileocecal resection based on a strong suspicion of appendiceal cancer rather than appendicitis since abnormal accumulation exhibiting maximum standard uptake values (SUVs of 7.27 and 17.11, respectively, was observed at the same site in FDG-PET examination and since there no malignant findings observed histologically, the patients were diagnosed with appendicitis. Although FDG specifically accumulates not only in malignant tumors, but also in diseases such as acute or chronic inflammation, abscesses and lymphadenitis, and identification based on SUVs has been reported to be used as a method of identification, the two cases reported here were both false-positive cases exhibiting high maximum SUVs. At the present time, although the significance of FDG-PET in the identification of diseases of the appendix is somewhat low and there are limitations on its application, various research is currently being conducted with the aim of improving diagnostic accuracy, and it is hoped that additional studies will be conducted in the future.

  6. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  7. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using 99m Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  8. NEW STRAIN PRODUCERS OF BIOBUTANOL. III. METHODS OF INCREASED BUTANOL ACCUMULATION FROM BIOMASS OF SWITCHGRASS Panicum virgatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova O. O.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to enlarge accumulation of butanol from switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass using strains-producers obtained from grounds and silts of Kyiv lakes. The objects of the study were strains of C. acetobutylicum ІМВ B-7407 (IFBG C6H, Clostridium acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5М and Clostridium tyrobutyricum IFBG C4B from the "Collections of microbial strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology" of the Public Institution "Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Gas chromatography was used to determine the alcohol concentration at the stage of solvent synthesis. To determine the effect of butanol precursors during cultivation, butyric, lactic and acetic acids were used. Optimization of processing parameters, which was based on the needs of cultures, allowed us to increase the yield by 20 and 50% for the initial and mutant strain respectively. Using synthetic precursors (such as lactic, butyric and acetic acid during cultivation increased total concentration of butanol by 1.7 times. To optimize the process, a study was carried out using acetone- butyl grains. Using of acetone-butyl grains in concentrations up to 60% does not affect the synthesis of butanol by C. acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5M. Increasing the concentration of grains led to decrease in accumulation of butanol. Almost double increase in accumulation of the target product (butanol was achieved using two-stage fermentation and/or precursors of synthesis. It was shown the possibility of using acetone-butyl grains in fermentation. As a result the mass fraction of the waste was reduced.

  9. Radioactive contamination of the significant fish species in fish-ponds and in natural waters with particular respect to the accumulation of Sr-90 Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, D.; Szentjobi, O.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of omnivorous fish species (Cyprinus carpio, Hypophtalmictys nobilis Richardson), of herbivorous fish species (Hypophtalmictys molitrix Valenciennes) and carnivorous fish species (Silurus glanis L., Esox Lucius L.) has been investigated. Orientative data have been obtained by analyzing samples originating from various sites. Though differences appeared between the analyzed samples, no incorporations of outstanding nature have been observed. In accordance with experiences described in literature, the isotope Sr-90 is accumulated in an increased degree in the skeleton of fish living in ponds. This is valid in all cases when the vital processes are regulated artificially by fishery methods. A particularly important factor is that the individual fish living in ponds are 2-3 or at most 4 years of age i.e. from the aspect of their ontogenesis their organism is in a strongly build-up phase. Sr-90 proved to be accumulated in a relatively greater amount in the organisms of herbivorous fish. (P.J.)

  10. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  11. Increase in accumulation of strontium-90 in the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation: analysis of the Techa River data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Shagina, Natalia B.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    The unique contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) in the 1950s by long-lived {sup 90}Sr allows investigation of the accumulation of bone-seeking elements in humans. This study is based on information compiled at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Chelyabinsk, Russia) over a long period of time. It includes the results of in vivo measurements of {sup 90}Sr-body burden with a whole body counter (WBC), data on personal medical examinations and residence and family histories. Data on 185 women from two Techa riverside villages Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak were selected. The settlements differ in terms of {sup 90}Sr diet intake (higher in Muslyumovo than in Brodokalmak) and ethnicity (residents were mainly Slavs in Brodokalmak and Turkic in Muslyumovo). Results of a total of 555 WBC measurements performed in 1974-1997 were available for the women studied; maximum measured values reached 40 kBq/body. The women from each settlement were subdivided into three groups according to their childbearing history: pregnancy and lactation occurred (1) during the period of maximal {sup 90}Sr intake (1950-1951); (2) after the period of maximal intake and (3) before this period or women who were childless. An increase was found in accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation (group 1) by a factor of 1.5-2 in comparison with non-pregnant, non-lactating women. This result was found in both Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak samples. An increase in accumulation of toxic elements in pregnant/lactating women is associated with increased radiation/toxic doses and risk for the women's health. (orig.)

  12. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  13. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  14. Blocking of leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid augments bacteremia and increases lethality in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian T; Lundgren, Jens D; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2005-01-01

    , blocking leukocyte entry to the central nervous system in experimental pneumococcal meningitis compromises the survival prognosis but does not affect the risk of brain damage or level of infection in this compartment. Conversely, poorer prognosis was associated with an increase in bacterial load in blood......The role of leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the evolution of the pathophysiological changes that occur in bacterial meningitis is unclear. Here, we investigate how leukocyte recruitment to the CSF, modulated by the leukocyte blocker fucoidin, affects the extent of brain......, suggesting that leukocyte blockage affects the host's ability to control systemic infection....

  15. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8 concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003–2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year−1 (R2 = 0.92. It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  16. Accumulation of methylglyoxal increases the advanced glycation end-product levels in DRG and contributes to lumbar disk herniation-induced persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Ruan, Yu-Ting; Huang, Zhu-Xi; Zhang, Su-Bo; Liu, Meng; Luo, Hai-Jie; Wu, Shao-Ling; Ma, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Lumbar disk herniation (LDH) with discogenic low back pain and sciatica is a common and complicated musculoskeletal disorder. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and there are no effective therapies for LDH-induced pain. In the present study, we found that the patients who suffered from LDH-induced pain had elevated plasma methylglyoxal (MG) levels. In rats, implantation of autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) to the left lumbar 5 spinal nerve root, which mimicked LDH, induced mechanical allodynia, increased MG level in plasma and dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and enhanced the excitability of small DRG neurons (DRG neurons ex vivo increased the number of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. Furthermore, inhibition of MG accumulation by aminoguanidine attenuated the enhanced excitability of small DRG neurons and the mechanical allodynia induced by NP implantation. In addition, NP implantation increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in DRG, and intrathecal injection of MG-derived AGEs induced the mechanical allodynia and DRG neuronal hyperactivity. Intrathecal injection of MG also significantly increased the expression of AGEs in DRG. Importantly, scavenging of MG by aminoguanidine also attenuated the increase in AGEs induced by NP implantation. These results suggested that LDH-induced MG accumulation contributed to persistent pain by increasing AGE levels. Thus generation of AGEs from MG may represent a target for treatment of LDH-induced pain. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study demonstrates that methylglyoxal accumulation via increasing advanced glycation end-product levels in dorsal root ganglion contributes to the persistent pain induced by lumbar disk herniation, which proposed potential targets for the treatment of lumbar disk herniation-induced persistent pain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [ 14 C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  19. Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS: The adj......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS......: The adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of at least one...... job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships....

  20. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  1. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  2. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Significant strain accumulation between the deformation front and landward out-of-sequence thrusts in accretionary wedge of SW Taiwan revealed by cGPS and SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.

  4. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  5. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  6. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  7. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  9. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  10. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  11. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  12. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  13. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  14. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Yang, Qiaoyun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhao, Yuxia [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Li, Ran [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Qiu, Xinghua, E-mail: xhqiu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Guang, E-mail: lig@tijmu.edu.cn [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  15. Nuclear accumulation of SHIP1 mutants derived from AML patients leads to increased proliferation of leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Ehm, Patrick; Rehbach, Christoph; Nelson, Nina; Täger, Maike; Modest, Kathrin; Jücker, Manfred

    2018-05-28

    The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1 acts as negative regulator of intracellular signaling in myeloid cells and is a tumor suppressor in myeloid leukemogenesis. After relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane SHIP1 terminates PI3-kinase mediated signaling processes. Furthermore, SHIP1 is also found in distinct puncta in the cell nucleus and nuclear SHIP1 has a pro-proliferative function. Here we report the identification of five nuclear export signals (NESs) which regulate together with the two known nuclear localization signals (NLSs) the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SHIP1. Mutation of NLSs reduced the nuclear import and mutation of NESs decreased the nuclear export of SHIP1 in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line UKE-1. Interestingly, four SHIP1 mutants (K210R, N508D, V684E, Q1153L) derived from AML patients showed a nuclear accumulation after expression in UKE-1 cells. In addition, overexpression of the AML patient-derived mutation N508D caused an increased proliferation rate of UKE-1 cells in comparison to wild type SHIP1. Furthermore, we identified serine and tyrosine phosphorylation as a molecular mechanism for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SHIP1 where tyrosine phosphorylation of distinct residues i.e. Y864, Y914, Y1021 reduces nuclear localization, whereas serine phosphorylation at S933 enhances nuclear localization of SHIP1. In summary, our data further implicate nuclear SHIP1 in cellular signaling and suggest that enhanced accumulation of SHIP1 mutants in the nucleus may be a contributory factor of abnormally high proliferation of AML cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  17. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...

  18. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer

  19. Obesity-driven prepartal hepatic lipid accumulation in dairy cows is associated with increased CD36 and SREBP-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, Radiša; Korićanac, Goran; Vujanac, Ivan; Djordjević, Ana; Pantelić, Marija; Romić, Snježana; Stanimirović, Zoran; Kirovski, Danijela

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that obesity in dairy cows enhanced expression of proteins involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Sixteen Holstein-Friesian close-up cows were divided into 2 equal groups based on their body condition score (BCS) as optimal (3.25≤BCS≤3.5) and high (4.0≤BCS≤4.25). Intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and liver biopsies were carried out at day 10 before calving. Blood samples were collected before (basal) and after glucose infusion, and glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were determined at each sample point. In addition, β-hydroxybutyrate and triglycerides levels were measured in the basal samples. The liver biopsies were analyzed for total lipid content and protein expression of insulin receptor beta (IRβ), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Basal glucose and insulin were higher in high-BCS cows, which coincided with higher circulating triglycerides and hepatic lipid content. Clearance rate and AUC for NEFA during GTT were higher in optimal-BCS cows. The development of insulin resistance and fatty liver in obese cows was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of the IRβ, CD36 and SREBP-1. These results suggest that increased expression of hepatic CD36 and SREBP-1 is relevant in the obesity-driven lipid accumulation in the liver of dairy cows during late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to TBT increases accumulation of lipids and alters fatty acid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, Gemma; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Porte, Cinta

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that organotin compounds affect lipid homeostasis in vertebrates, probably through interaction with RXR and/or PPARgamma receptors. Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), particularly to masculinization, and TBT has been recently shown to bind to molluscs RXR. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to TBT could affect lipid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis. For comparative purposes, the synthetic androgen methyl-testosterone (MT) was included in the study due to its masculinization effects, but its lack of binding to the RXR receptor. M. cornuarietis was exposed to different concentrations of TBT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) and MT (30, 300 ng/L) for 100 days. Females exposed to 500 ng/L TBT showed increased percentage of lipids and increased levels of fatty acids in the digestive gland/gonad complex (2- to 3-fold). In addition, fatty acid profiles were altered in both males and females exposed to 125 and 500 ng/L TBT. These effects were not observed in females exposed to MT. Overall, this work suggest that TBT acts as a potent inducer of lipid and fatty acid accumulation in M. cornuarietis as shown in vertebrate studies earlier, and that sex differences in sensitivity do exist.

  1. Increased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-(123I)-iodoamphetamine in two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.; Yasuda, T.; Higashi, Y.; Terao, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present two cases with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), which showed both increased and decreased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The increased accumulation of the tracer occurred before low density appeared on conventional computed tomography, suggesting that 123 I-IMP SPECT may be useful in pathophysiological study of MELAS. (orig.)

  2. The prognostic significance of accumulation of p53 protein in stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langendijk, J.A.; Thunnissen, F.B.J.M.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Jong, J.M.A. de; Velde, G.P.M. ten; Wouters, E.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study the prognostic significance of accumulation of nuclear p53 protein on survival and freedom from local progression was investigated. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections obtained by bronchoscopy or mediastinoscopy were used to examine the expression of nuclear p53 protein using immunohistochemistry. In 37 cases (57%), overexpression of the p53 protein was detected. No relation was found between p53 expression and other pretreatment variables. Response to radiotherapy was found in 11 p53-negative cases (65%) versus 10 p53-positive cases (42%). Freedom from local progression was significantly better in the p53-negative cases as compared with the p53-positive cases. The p53-negative cases who responded to radiotherapy showed an excellent freedom from local progression rate after 2 years of 100%, whereas all p53-positive cases without response to radiotherapy showed local progression within 24 months. Overall survival between p53-negative and -positive cases did not differ, however the disease-specific survival was found to be worse in the p53-positive cases as compared to the negative cases (median survival 8.4 vs. 14.4 months (P < 0.05)). No correlation was found between p53 expression and the frequency of distant metastases. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that p53 protein expression may be of prognostic value on freedom from local progression in non-small cell lung carcinoma

  3. A new strategy to simultaneous increase in the strength and ductility of AA2024 alloy via accumulative roll bonding (ARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, M.; Reihanian, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borhani, E., E-mail: e.borhani@semnan.ac.ir [Department of Nano Technology, Nano Materials Group, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-22

    Nano/ultrafine grained (NG/UFG) AA2024 alloy produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) showed high strength (420 MPa) and very limited elongation (about 1.3%). A new strategy via ARB was developed to improve elongation (about 10%) of AA2024 alloy with a relatively high strength (365 MPa). The present strategy produced a bimodal structure consisting of coarse and ultrafine elongated grains in comparison to the UFG alloy. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) revealed that after 4 ARB cycles, the fraction of high angle grain boundaries and mean misorientation angle of the boundaries in the bimodal grain structure were 61% and 27.34°, respectively, in comparison to that of annealed (54% and 24.96°) and UFG (79% and 34.27°) alloy. The crystallographic texture results indicated that, unlike the annealed AA2024 alloy, the intensity of Brass {011}<211> and S {123}<634> components remarkably increased in the UFG and bimodal alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations demonstrated that failure mode in bimodal alloy was ductile fracture with a combination of deep and shallow dimples.

  4. Urea increased nickel and copper accumulation in the leaves of Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. during short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezhda; Kumar, Adarsh

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, two fresh water plant species Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were subjected to separate and combined action of urea (2mМ) and metals (Ni and Cu, 10μM) to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these two submerged macrophytes during short-term experiments (48h). Both submerged macrophytes demonstrated high accumulative potential for Ni and Cu (average bioconcentration factors were 2505 for Ni and 3778 for Cu). The urea (2 mM) was not significantly toxic for studied plant species. Futhermore, urea worked as an additional source of nitrogen and stimulated some metabolic processes such as the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and activated some enzymes. Adding urea to the metals increased their accumulation in both macrophytes (on average by 35% for Ni and 15% for Cu). Combined action of urea and Ni did not have a significant effect on antioxidant response, but caused a sharp increase of urease activity (4 folds on an average) in both plants. The copper exerted a stronger toxic effect on both studied macrophytes compared to nickel. Adding urea to copper in some cases diminished the toxic action of this metal. Study concludes that the responses of E. densa and C. demersum to urea and metal action (separate and combined) were depended on the type of pollutant and the activity of antioxidant defence system. Therefore, the studied aquatic macrophytes found to be potential phytoremediators of water bodies, the addition of an organic nitrogen source in the form of urea in environmentally relevant concentration will increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  6. Transabdominal cerclage: the significance of dual pathology and increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Roy G; Topping, Joanne; Quenby, Siobhan M

    2005-10-01

    Transabdominal cerclage is a recognised treatment for cervical weakness with a history of recurrent mid-trimester loss and a failed elective vaginal suture. The emergence of dual pathology, such as antiphospholipid syndrome and bacterial vaginosis, is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-5.8). The first 40 cases are described where strict adherence to an investigation protocol and consistent treatment plan has been implemented.

  7. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  8. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  9. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  10. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  11. Combining modularity, conservation, and interactions of proteins significantly increases precision and coverage of protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sers Christine T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of newly sequenced genomes and genes is constantly increasing, elucidation of their function still is a laborious and time-consuming task. This has led to the development of a wide range of methods for predicting protein functions in silico. We report on a new method that predicts function based on a combination of information about protein interactions, orthology, and the conservation of protein networks in different species. Results We show that aggregation of these independent sources of evidence leads to a drastic increase in number and quality of predictions when compared to baselines and other methods reported in the literature. For instance, our method generates more than 12,000 novel protein functions for human with an estimated precision of ~76%, among which are 7,500 new functional annotations for 1,973 human proteins that previously had zero or only one function annotated. We also verified our predictions on a set of genes that play an important role in colorectal cancer (MLH1, PMS2, EPHB4 and could confirm more than 73% of them based on evidence in the literature. Conclusions The combination of different methods into a single, comprehensive prediction method infers thousands of protein functions for every species included in the analysis at varying, yet always high levels of precision and very good coverage.

  12. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Atkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and treated with modern COG protocols (n=80 to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5% were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P<0.004 for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P=0.7. Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P=0.0005, disease risk (P<0.0001, age (P=0.0001, and BMI z-score (P<0.0001 at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P=0.01. Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  13. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  14. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  15. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. New ways in enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Kislushko, P.; Znebrakova, I.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    Soil contamination with long-lived isotopes as a result of Chernobyl nuclear accident necessitates substantially of crop raising procedures. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. In particular application of Fisher's mineral mix in concentration of 100, 200, 300, g/m 2 to soil decreased the 137 Cs accumulation in green material of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) 1.1:1.3 and 2.2 times respectively and 1.2:1.1 and 1.1 times, respectively in green material of barley (Hordeum Vulgaris L.). The decrease of 90 Sr accumulation in green material of barley and lupine was similar. On the other hand chloroplasts isolated from showed higher activities of photochemical reactions and the light-dependent ATP enzyme. During the whole growing period of such plants the chlorophyll and protein concentration per wet unit mass were higher than those in control, therefore the high vital activity period in the former case was substantially extended. It has been also found that application of biologically active compounds and trace elements enhances photosynthetic and production activities of plants, reducing level radionuclide accumulation in the harvest. It is found that application of protectants and growth regulators to rye crops also reduces 137 Cs accumulation in green material in booting and earing phases. This finding suggests that this compounds activate the photosynthetic apparatus, reducing level radionuclide accumulation. (author)

  17. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  20. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  1. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  2. Increased accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α with reduced transcriptional activity mediates the antitumor effect of triptolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, a critical transcription factor to reduced O2 availability, has been demonstrated to be extensively involved in tumor survival, aggressive progression, drug resistance and angiogenesis. Thus it has been considered as a potential anticancer target. Triptolide is the main principle responsible for the biological activities of the Traditional Chinese Medicine tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Triptolide possesses great chemotherapy potential for cancer with its broad-spectrum anticancer, antiangiogenesis, and drug-resistance circumvention activities. Numerous biological molecules inhibited by triptolide have been viewed as its possible targets. However, the anticancer action mechanisms of triptolide remains to be further investigated. Here we used human ovarian SKOV-3 cancer cells as a model to probe the effect of triptolide on HIF-1α. Results Triptolide was observed to inhibit the proliferation of SKOV-3 cells, and meanwhile, to enhance the accumulation of HIF-1α protein in SKOV-3, A549 and DU145 cells under different conditions. Triptolide did not change the kinetics or nuclear localization of HIF-1α protein or the 26 S proteasome activity in SKOV-3 cells. However, triptolide was found to increase the levels of HIF-1α mRNA. Unexpectedly, the HIF-1α protein induced by triptolide appeared to lose its transcriptional activity, as evidenced by the decreased mRNA levels of its target genes including VEGF, BNIP3 and CAIX. The results were further strengthened by the lowered secretion of VEGF protein, the reduced sprout outgrowth from the rat aorta rings and the inhibitory expression of the hypoxia responsive element-driven luciferase reporter gene. Moreover, the silencing of HIF-1α partially prevented the cytotoxicity and apoptosis triggered by triptolide. Conclusions The potent induction of HIF-1α protein involved in its cytotoxicity, together with the suppression of HIF-1 transcriptional

  3. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels, supplement to: Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan (2015): Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels. Nature Communications, 6, 8714

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  4. SU-E-J-66: Significant Anatomical and Dosimetric Changes Observed with the Pharyngeal Constrictor During Head and Neck Radiotherapy Elicited From Daily Deformable Image Registration and Dose Accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasiri, A; Siddiqui, F; Liu, C; Kamal, M; Fraser, C; Chetty, I; Kim, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to the pharyngeal constrictor (PC) that occurs during head and neck radiotherapy (H&N RT). Methods: A cohort of 13 oro-pharyngeal cancer patients, who had daily CBCT’s for localization, was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT, PC was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PC thickness was measured at the C3 level. Delivered dose to PC was estimated by calculating daily doses on CBCT’s, and accumulating to corresponding planning CT images. For accumulation, a parameter-optimized B- spline-based deformable image registration algorithm (Elastix) was used, in conjunction with an energy-mass mapping dose transfer algorithm. Mean and maximum dose (Dmean, Dmax) to PC was determined and compared with corresponding planned quantities. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) volume increase (ΔV) and thickness increase (Δt) over the course of 35 total fractions were 54±33% (11.9±7.6 cc), and 63±39% (2.9±1.9 mm), respectively. The resultant cumulative mean dose increase from planned dose to PC (ΔDmean) was 1.4±1.3% (0.9±0.8 Gy), while the maximum dose increase (ΔDmax) was 0.0±1.6% (0.0±1.1 Gy). Patients with adaptive replanning (n=6) showed a smaller mean dose increase than those without (n=7); 0.5±0.2% (0.3±0.1 Gy) vs. 2.2±1.4% (1.4±0.9 Gy). There was a statistically significant (p<0.0001) strong correlation between ΔDmean and Δt (Pearson coefficient r=0.78), and a moderate-to-strong correlation (r=0.52) between ΔDmean and ΔV. Correlation between ΔDmean and weight loss ΔW (r=0.1), as well as ΔV and ΔW (r=0.2) were negligible. Conclusion: Patients were found to undergo considerable anatomical changes to pharyngeal constrictor during H&N RT, resulting in non-negligible dose deviations from intended dose. Results are indicative that pharyngeal constrictor thickness, measured at C3 level, is a good predictor for the dose change to

  5. SU-E-J-66: Significant Anatomical and Dosimetric Changes Observed with the Pharyngeal Constrictor During Head and Neck Radiotherapy Elicited From Daily Deformable Image Registration and Dose Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasiri, A; Siddiqui, F; Liu, C; Kamal, M; Fraser, C; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to the pharyngeal constrictor (PC) that occurs during head and neck radiotherapy (H&N RT). Methods: A cohort of 13 oro-pharyngeal cancer patients, who had daily CBCT’s for localization, was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT, PC was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PC thickness was measured at the C3 level. Delivered dose to PC was estimated by calculating daily doses on CBCT’s, and accumulating to corresponding planning CT images. For accumulation, a parameter-optimized B- spline-based deformable image registration algorithm (Elastix) was used, in conjunction with an energy-mass mapping dose transfer algorithm. Mean and maximum dose (Dmean, Dmax) to PC was determined and compared with corresponding planned quantities. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) volume increase (ΔV) and thickness increase (Δt) over the course of 35 total fractions were 54±33% (11.9±7.6 cc), and 63±39% (2.9±1.9 mm), respectively. The resultant cumulative mean dose increase from planned dose to PC (ΔDmean) was 1.4±1.3% (0.9±0.8 Gy), while the maximum dose increase (ΔDmax) was 0.0±1.6% (0.0±1.1 Gy). Patients with adaptive replanning (n=6) showed a smaller mean dose increase than those without (n=7); 0.5±0.2% (0.3±0.1 Gy) vs. 2.2±1.4% (1.4±0.9 Gy). There was a statistically significant (p<0.0001) strong correlation between ΔDmean and Δt (Pearson coefficient r=0.78), and a moderate-to-strong correlation (r=0.52) between ΔDmean and ΔV. Correlation between ΔDmean and weight loss ΔW (r=0.1), as well as ΔV and ΔW (r=0.2) were negligible. Conclusion: Patients were found to undergo considerable anatomical changes to pharyngeal constrictor during H&N RT, resulting in non-negligible dose deviations from intended dose. Results are indicative that pharyngeal constrictor thickness, measured at C3 level, is a good predictor for the dose change to

  6. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Nielsen, Jan M; Hellgren, Lars I

    2009-01-01

    Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via...... secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB) lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP); the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism...... remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression...

  7. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  8. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  9. UV or X-irradiation increases the cytoplasmic accumulation of rhodamine 123 in various cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitriu, I.E.; Beyer, T.D.; Gaipl, U.S.; Kalden, J.R.; Herrmann, M.; Roedel, F.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies indicated that ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters protect against UV-induced apoptosis. We investigated the effect of UVB and X-ray irradiation on the export function of these ABC transporters in primary lymphocytes and various cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: We used rhodamine accumulation assays in various human malignant cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Cells were irradiated with up to 960 mJ/cm 2 and up to 50 Gy of UVB and X-ray, respectively. Results: We demonstrated that UVB as well as X-ray irradiation inhibit the export function of the ABC transporters in a dose-dependent fashion. For PBL, this effect did not correlate with an apoptotic phenotype. In the case of the tumor cell lines, even though the irradiation-induced inhibition of membrane transporters was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure, only a minority of cells had lost their mitochondrial membrane potential during the observation period. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the inhibition of membrane transporters is not a general feature of apoptosis. Conclusion: Irradiation inhibits the export function of ABC transporters. Although some of the irradiated cells undergo apoptosis following irradiation, the inhibition is an unique feature accompanying irradiation and not a general hallmark of apoptotic cell death. The inhibition of drug export by irradiation may offer new potential for reverting multidrug resistance of cancer cells. (orig.)

  10. UV or X-irradiation increases the cytoplasmic accumulation of rhodamine 123 in various cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitriu, I.E.; Beyer, T.D.; Gaipl, U.S.; Kalden, J.R.; Herrmann, M. [Inst. for Clinical Immunology, Dept. of Medicine III, Friedrich Alexander Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Roedel, F. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: Previous studies indicated that ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters protect against UV-induced apoptosis. We investigated the effect of UVB and X-ray irradiation on the export function of these ABC transporters in primary lymphocytes and various cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: We used rhodamine accumulation assays in various human malignant cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Cells were irradiated with up to 960 mJ/cm{sup 2} and up to 50 Gy of UVB and X-ray, respectively. Results: We demonstrated that UVB as well as X-ray irradiation inhibit the export function of the ABC transporters in a dose-dependent fashion. For PBL, this effect did not correlate with an apoptotic phenotype. In the case of the tumor cell lines, even though the irradiation-induced inhibition of membrane transporters was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure, only a minority of cells had lost their mitochondrial membrane potential during the observation period. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the inhibition of membrane transporters is not a general feature of apoptosis. Conclusion: Irradiation inhibits the export function of ABC transporters. Although some of the irradiated cells undergo apoptosis following irradiation, the inhibition is an unique feature accompanying irradiation and not a general hallmark of apoptotic cell death. The inhibition of drug export by irradiation may offer new potential for reverting multidrug resistance of cancer cells. (orig.)

  11. RNAi-Mediated Downregulation of Inositol Pentakisphosphate Kinase (IPK1 in Wheat Grains Decreases Phytic Acid Levels and Increases Fe and Zn Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipla Aggarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of micronutrient bioavailability is crucial to address the malnutrition in the developing countries. Various approaches employed to address the micronutrient bioavailability are showing promising signs, especially in cereal crops. Phytic acid (PA is considered as a major antinutrient due to its ability to chelate important micronutrients and thereby restricting their bioavailability. Therefore, manipulating PA biosynthesis pathway has largely been explored to overcome the pleiotropic effect in different crop species. Recently, we reported that functional wheat inositol pentakisphosphate kinase (TaIPK1 is involved in PA biosynthesis, however, the functional roles of the IPK1 gene in wheat remains elusive. In this study, RNAi-mediated gene silencing was performed for IPK1 transcripts in hexaploid wheat. Four non-segregating RNAi lines of wheat were selected for detailed study (S3-D-6-1; S6-K-3-3; S6-K-6-10 and S16-D-9-5. Homozygous transgenic RNAi lines at T4 seeds with a decreased transcript of TaIPK1 showed 28–56% reduction of the PA. Silencing of IPK1 also resulted in increased free phosphate in mature grains. Although, no phenotypic changes in the spike was observed but, lowering of grain PA resulted in the reduced number of seeds per spikelet. The lowering of grain PA was also accompanied by a significant increase in iron (Fe and zinc (Zn content, thereby enhancing their molar ratios (Zn:PA and Fe:PA. Overall, this work suggests that IPK1 is a promising candidate for employing genome editing tools to address the mineral accumulation in wheat grains.

  12. Tobacco as a production platform for biofuel: overexpression of Arabidopsis DGAT and LEC2 genes increases accumulation and shifts the composition of lipids in green biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Brinker, Anita; Dixon, Joseph; Spitsin, Sergei; Flynn, John; Matyszczuk, Paulina; Andryszak, Karolina; Laurelli, Marilyn; Golovkin, Maxim; Koprowski, Hilary

    2010-04-01

    When grown for energy production instead for smoking, tobacco can generate a large amount of inexpensive biomass more efficiently than almost any other agricultural crop. Tobacco possesses potent oil biosynthesis machinery and can accumulate up to 40% of seed weight in oil. In this work, we explored two metabolic engineering approaches to enhance the oil content in tobacco green tissues for potential biofuel production. First, an Arabidopsis thaliana gene diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) coding for a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, was expressed in tobacco under the control of a strong ribulose-biphosphate carboxylase small subunit promoter. This modification led to up to a 20-fold increase in TAG accumulation in tobacco leaves and translated into an overall of about a twofold increase in extracted fatty acids (FA) up to 5.8% of dry biomass in Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin, and up to 6% in high-sugar tobacco variety NC-55. Modified tobacco plants also contained elevated amounts of phospholipids. This increase in lipids was accompanied by a shift in the FA composition favourable for their utilization as biodiesel. Second, we expressed in tobacco Arabidopsis gene LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2), a master regulator of seed maturation and seed oil storage under the control of an inducible Alc promoter. Stimulation of LEC2 expression in mature tobacco plants by acetaldehyde led to the accumulation of up to 6.8% per dry weight of total extracted FA. The obtained data reveal the potential of metabolically modified plant biomass for the production of biofuel.

  13. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  15. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  16. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  17. TGF-β1 Improves Biomechanical Strength by Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Without Increasing the Number of Tenogenic Lineage Cells in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hitoshi; Shukunami, Chisa; Tokunaga, Takuya; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    , whereas the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-13 significantly decreased at 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. TGF-β1 enhances formation of tough fibrous tissues at the healing site by inhibiting MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression to increase collagen accumulation but without the growth of tenogenic lineage cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 could be used for enhancing biomechanical strength after RC surgical repair.

  18. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis with Arundo donax Decreases Root Respiration and Increases Both Photosynthesis and Plant Biomass Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Munar, Antònia; Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume; Baraza, Elena; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Gulías, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis on plant growth is associated with the balance between costs and benefits. A feedback regulation loop has been described in which the higher carbohydrate cost to plants for AM symbiosis is compensated by increases in their photosynthetic rates. Nevertheless, plant carbon balance depends both on photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon consumption. The hypothesis behind this research was that the role of respiration in plant growth under AM symbiosis may be as important as that of photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested in Arundo donax L. plantlets inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. We tested the effects of AM inoculation on both photosynthetic capacity and in vivo leaf and root respiration. Additionally, analyses of the primary metabolism and ion content were performed in both leaves and roots. AM inoculation increased photosynthesis through increased CO 2 diffusion and electron transport in the chloroplast. Moreover, respiration decreased only in AM roots via the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) as measured by the oxygen isotope technique. This decline in the COP can be related to the reduced respiratory metabolism and substrates (sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) observed in roots. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in human hepatocytes and increases lipid accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jung Hwan; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jung; Choi, Hyeonjin; Choi, Yoonjeong; Seok, Jo Woon; Kim, Jae-woo

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (MGAT) is an enzyme that is involved in triglyceride synthesis by catalyzing the formation of diacylglycerol from monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoAs. Recently, we reported that MGAT1 has a critical role in hepatic TG accumulation and that its suppression ameliorates hepatic steatosis in a mouse model. However, the function of MGAT enzymes in hepatic lipid accumulation has not been investigated in humans. Unlike in rodents, MGAT3 as well as MGAT1 and MGAT2 are present in humans. In this study, we evaluated the differences between MGAT subtypes and their association with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a regulator of mouse MGAT1 expression. In human primary hepatocytes, basal expression of MGAT1 was lower than that of MGAT2 or MGAT3, but was strongly induced by PPARγ overexpression. A luciferase assay as well as an electromobility shift assay revealed that human MGAT1 promoter activity is driven by PPARγ by direct binding to at least two regions of the promoter in 293T and HepG2 cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of MGAT1 expression significantly attenuated lipid accumulation by PPARγ overexpression in HepG2 cells, as evidenced by oil-red-O staining. These results suggest that human MGAT1 has an important role in fatty liver formation as a target gene of PPARγ, and blocking MGAT1 activity could be an efficient therapeutic way to reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in humans. - Highlights: • PPARγ promotes MGAT1 expression in human primary hepatocytes. • PPARγ directly regulates MGAT1 promoter activity. • Human MGAT1 promoter has at least two PPARγ-binding elements. • Inhibition of MGAT1 expression attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in humans

  20. Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in human hepatocytes and increases lipid accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoo Jeong [Division of Metabolic Disease, Center for Biomedical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Jung; Choi, Hyeonjin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoonjeong; Seok, Jo Woon [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-woo, E-mail: japol13@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-08

    Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (MGAT) is an enzyme that is involved in triglyceride synthesis by catalyzing the formation of diacylglycerol from monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoAs. Recently, we reported that MGAT1 has a critical role in hepatic TG accumulation and that its suppression ameliorates hepatic steatosis in a mouse model. However, the function of MGAT enzymes in hepatic lipid accumulation has not been investigated in humans. Unlike in rodents, MGAT3 as well as MGAT1 and MGAT2 are present in humans. In this study, we evaluated the differences between MGAT subtypes and their association with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a regulator of mouse MGAT1 expression. In human primary hepatocytes, basal expression of MGAT1 was lower than that of MGAT2 or MGAT3, but was strongly induced by PPARγ overexpression. A luciferase assay as well as an electromobility shift assay revealed that human MGAT1 promoter activity is driven by PPARγ by direct binding to at least two regions of the promoter in 293T and HepG2 cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of MGAT1 expression significantly attenuated lipid accumulation by PPARγ overexpression in HepG2 cells, as evidenced by oil-red-O staining. These results suggest that human MGAT1 has an important role in fatty liver formation as a target gene of PPARγ, and blocking MGAT1 activity could be an efficient therapeutic way to reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in humans. - Highlights: • PPARγ promotes MGAT1 expression in human primary hepatocytes. • PPARγ directly regulates MGAT1 promoter activity. • Human MGAT1 promoter has at least two PPARγ-binding elements. • Inhibition of MGAT1 expression attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in humans.

  1. Irradiation induces increase of adhesion molecules and accumulation of β2-integrin-expressing cells in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handschel, Joerg; Prott, Franz-Josef; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Metze, Dieter; Meyer, Ulrich; Joos, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our investigation was to describe the dose- and time-dependent histomorphologic alterations of the irradiated tissue, the composition of the infiltrate, and the expression patterns of various adhesion molecules. Methods and Materials: We analyzed immunohistochemically alterations in oral mucosa in 13 head and neck cancer patients before radiotherapy and with 30 Gy and 60 Gy. All had oral mucosa irradiation, with a final dose of 60 Gy using conventional fractionation. Snap-frozen specimens were stained using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Histomorphology was studied in paraffin-embedded sections. In addition, we determined the clinical degree of oral mucositis. Results: Histomorphologic evaluation showed no vascular damage. Irradiation caused a steep increase of β 2 -integrin-bearing cells (p 1 -integrin-positive cells remained at low levels. Additionally we found an increase in the expression of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (p 2 is more involved than β 1 . Pharmaceuticals that block leukocyte adhesion to E-selectin or ICAM-1 may prevent radiation-mediated inflammation in oral mucosa

  2. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiangbo; Xu, Wenzhong; Ma, Mi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. ► Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. ► Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. ► A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2–10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2–3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  3. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiangbo [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Biomass-Energy Conversion, The Institute of Bioengineering and Technology, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 040100 (China); Xu, Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Ma, Mi, E-mail: mami@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2-10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2-3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  4. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  5. Thermo-induced modifications and selective accumulation of glucose-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles in vivo in rats - increasing the effectiveness of magnetic-assisted therapy - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traikov, L; Antonov, I; Gerou, A; Vesselinova, L; Hadjiolova, R; Raynov, J

    2015-09-01

    Ferro-Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe-MNP) have gained a lot of attention in biomedical and industrial applications due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and paramagnetic properties. The basic idea of our study is whether it is possible to use glucose-conjugate Fe-MNP (Glc-Fe-MNP) for targeting and more accurate focusing in order to increase the effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields induced hyperthermia in solid tumors. Tumors demonstrate high metabolic activity for glucose in comparison with other somatic cells.Increasing of accumulation of glucose conjugated (Glc)-Fe-MNP on tumor site and precision of radio frequency electro-magnetic field (RF-EMF) energy absorption in solid tumors, precede RF-EMF induced hyperthermia. Rat model for monitoring the early development of breast cancer. Twenty female Wistar rats (MU-line-6171) were divided into two groups of 10 rats that were either treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea to induce breast cancer and 10 with carrageenan to induce inflammation (control). Glc-Fe-MNP can offer a solution to increase hyperthermia effect to the desired areas in the body by accumulation and increasing local concentration due to high tissue metabolic assimilation. In this condition, it is considered that the magnetization of the nanoparticles is a single-giant magnetic moment, the sum of all the individual magnetic moments and is proportional to the concentration of Glc-Fe-MNP.

  6. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  7. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  8. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  9. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  10. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  11. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  12. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  13. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  14. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  15. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  16. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  17. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  18. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  19. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  20. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, V L; Judson, J G; She, P; Lang, C H; Maresca, K P; Joyal, J L; Lynch, C J

    2011-05-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting that these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia, there was a tendency for increased (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately twofold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA, and as it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest that olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity.

  1. Overexpression of rice glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 reduces intracellular arsenic accumulation and increases tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Verma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (Grxs are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice, the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops.

  2. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  3. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  4. Phosphorus application reduces aluminum toxicity in two Eucalyptus clones by increasing its accumulation in roots and decreasing its content in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weichao; Kang, Yachao; Hou, Wenjuan; Hu, Houzhen; Luo, Wenji; Wei, Jie; Wang, Linghui; Zhang, Boyu

    2018-01-01

    Under acidic conditions, aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important factor limiting plant productivity; however, the application of phosphorus (P) might alleviate the toxic effects of Al. In this study, seedlings of two vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'G9' and E. grandis × E. urophylla 'DH32-29'were subjected to six treatments (two levels of Al stress and three levels of P). Under excessive Al stress, root Al content was higher, whereas shoot and leaf Al contents were lower with P application than those without P application. Further, Al accumulation was higher in the roots, but lower in the shoots and leaves of G9 than in those of DH32-29. The secretion of organic acids was higher under Al stress than under no Al stress. Further, under Al stress, the roots of G9 secreted more organic acids than those of DH32-29. With an increase in P supply, Al-induced secretion of organic acids from roots decreased. Under Al stress, some enzymes, including PEPC, CS, and IDH, played important roles in organic acid biosynthesis and degradation. Thus, our results indicate that P can reduce Al toxicity via the fixation of elemental Al in roots and restriction of its transport to stems and leaves, although P application cannot promote the secretion of organic acid anions. Further, the higher Al-resistance of G9 might be attributed to the higher Al accumulation in and organic acid anion secretion from roots and the lower levels of Al in leaves.

  5. Phosphorus application reduces aluminum toxicity in two Eucalyptus clones by increasing its accumulation in roots and decreasing its content in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Teng

    Full Text Available Under acidic conditions, aluminum (Al toxicity is an important factor limiting plant productivity; however, the application of phosphorus (P might alleviate the toxic effects of Al. In this study, seedlings of two vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'G9' and E. grandis × E. urophylla 'DH32-29'were subjected to six treatments (two levels of Al stress and three levels of P. Under excessive Al stress, root Al content was higher, whereas shoot and leaf Al contents were lower with P application than those without P application. Further, Al accumulation was higher in the roots, but lower in the shoots and leaves of G9 than in those of DH32-29. The secretion of organic acids was higher under Al stress than under no Al stress. Further, under Al stress, the roots of G9 secreted more organic acids than those of DH32-29. With an increase in P supply, Al-induced secretion of organic acids from roots decreased. Under Al stress, some enzymes, including PEPC, CS, and IDH, played important roles in organic acid biosynthesis and degradation. Thus, our results indicate that P can reduce Al toxicity via the fixation of elemental Al in roots and restriction of its transport to stems and leaves, although P application cannot promote the secretion of organic acid anions. Further, the higher Al-resistance of G9 might be attributed to the higher Al accumulation in and organic acid anion secretion from roots and the lower levels of Al in leaves.

  6. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in female GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhance steatosis and inflammation in a model of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular injury resulting from increased lipid peroxidation products and oxidative stress is considered a potential mechanism driving the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitsis (NASH). To test the significance of lipid peroxidation and protein...

  7. Multiplying Forest Garden Systems with biochar based organic fertilization for high carbon accumulation, improved water storage, nutrient cycling, and increased food diversity and farm productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    On abandoned, erosion prone terraces in the middle hills of Nepal, 86 participating farmer families planted >25,000 mixed trees in 2015/16. Since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method, all trees were planted with farmer-made organic biochar-based fertilizer. Planting pits were mulched with rice straw and were pipe irrigated from newly established water retention ponds during the 7 months of the dry season. A peer control system of farmer triads ensured an efficient maintenance of the plantations. Tree survival rate was above 80% after one year compared to below 50% on average for countrywide forestation projects over the last 30 years. In between the young Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, nut and other trees, other secondary crops were cultivated such as ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils, all with organic biochar-based fertilizer and mulching. The objective of this forest garden project was to establish robust social-agronomic systems that can be multiplied from village to village for increasing soil fertility, protecting abandoned terraces from erosion, replenishing natural water resources, generating a stable income with climate-smart agriculture, as well as capturing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. The initial financing of the set-up of the forest garden systems (tree nursery, plantation, preparation of organic biochar based fertilizer, mulching materials, building of irrigation pits and pipe irrigation system, and general maintenance) was covered by carbon credits paid in advance by the international community in the form of a monthly carbon compensation subscription. All planted trees are GIS inventoried and the yearly biomass carbon uptake will be calculated as an average value of the first ten years of tree growth. The 25,000 mixed trees accumulated the equivalent of 350 t CO2 per year (10 years total C-accumulation divided by

  8. Skin Autofluorescence, as Marker of Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and of Cumulative Metabolic Stress, Is Not Increased in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Hettema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs in the skin are increased in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and are related to the presence of disease-related and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods. Skin autofluorescence, as a measure for the accumulation of AGEs, was assessed by measuring UV-A light excitation-emission matrices (AF-EEMS in 41 SSc patients and 41 age- and sex-matched controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-related risk factors were recorded. Results. Skin AF-EEMS did not differ between SSc patients and controls (1.68±0.58 a.u. versus 1.63±0.41 a.u., P=0.684. Skin AF-EEMS in SSc patients was associated with levels of CRP (r=0.44, P=0.004, Medsger's severity scale (r=0.45, P=0.006, and use of agents intervening in the renin-angiotensin system (r=0.33, P=0.027. When analysing SSc patients and controls together, in multivariate analysis, only age and use of agents intervening in the renin-angiotensin system were independently associated with AF-EEMS. Conclusion. These data demonstrate that skin AGEs are not increased in SSc patients.

  9. Bioactive components from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. increase glucose uptake in primary porcine myotube cultures and reduce fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun

    2013-01-01

    , kaempferol, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid increased GU significantly. FAc was significantly reduced in C. elegans, when treated with elderflower extracts, their fractions and the metabolites naringenin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-5″-acetylglycoside...... elegans. Bioassay guided chromatographic fractionations of extracts and fractions resulted in the identification of naringenin and 5-O- caffeoylquinic acid exhibiting a significant increase in GU. In addition, phenolic compounds related to those found in elderflowers were also tested, and among these...

  10. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  11. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  12. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  13. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  14. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators.

  15. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  16. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  19. System-level network analysis of nitrogen starvation and recovery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals potential new targets for increased lipid accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, T.; Recuenco-Muňoz, L.; Wienkoop, S.; Weckwerth, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 171 (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1754-6834 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chlamydomonas reinhardtii * lipid accumulation * nitrogen Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.044, year: 2014

  20. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  1. Inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 increases tendon healing and reduces muscle fibrosis and lipid accumulation after rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Nikhil R; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Saripalli, Anjali L; Davis, Max E; Harning, Julie A; Lynch, Evan B; Roche, Stuart M; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    The repair and restoration of function after chronic rotator cuff tears are often complicated by muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration of the diseased muscle. The inflammatory response has been implicated in the development of fatty degeneration after cuff injuries. Licofelone is a novel anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes, which play important roles in inducing inflammation after injuries. While previous studies have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective inhibitors of COX-2 (coxibs) may prevent the proper healing of muscles and tendons, studies about bone and cartilage have demonstrated that drugs that inhibit 5-LOX concurrently with COX-1 and COX-2 may enhance tissue regeneration. After the repair of a chronic rotator cuff tear in rats, licofelone would increase the load to failure of repaired tendons and increase the force production of muscle fibers. Controlled laboratory study. Rats underwent supraspinatus release followed by repair 28 days later. After repair, rats began a treatment regimen of either licofelone or a vehicle for 14 days, at which time animals were euthanized. Supraspinatus muscles and tendons were then subjected to contractile, mechanical, histological, and biochemical analyses. Compared with controls, licofelone-treated rats had a grossly apparent decrease in inflammation and increased fibrocartilage formation at the enthesis, along with a 62% increase in the maximum load to failure and a 51% increase in peak stress to failure. Licofelone resulted in a marked reduction in fibrosis and lipid content in supraspinatus muscles as well as reduced expression of several genes involved in fatty infiltration. Despite the decline in fibrosis and fat accumulation, muscle fiber specific force production was reduced by 23%. The postoperative treatment of cuff repair with licofelone may reduce fatty degeneration and enhance the development

  2. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  3. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  4. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  5. Forest gardening on abandoned terraces links local biomass carbon accumulation to international carbon markets, reverses land degradation, improves food diversity, and increases farmer income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    project to a carbon capture financing system. All planted trees are GIS inventoried and their yearly biomass carbon up-take is calculated on the base of the average ten-year carbon accumulation. The 25,000 mixed trees accumulate the equivalent of 350 t CO2 per year. At 35 US per t of CO2eq paid in advance by the international community in form of private carbon compensation subscriptions, all costs for the set-up of the forest gardens, their maintenance for three years plus a yearly prime could be paid. After this initial period of three years, the income from tree crops (fruits, nuts, medicine, essential oil, silk, perfume, honey, timber, animal fodder) exceeds by far the (catalyzer) carbon credits providing average crop incomes for the 25,000 trees including secondary mixed cropping of more than 150,000 USD per year. With new processed tree crop products, better-paid jobs are created, the local economy is fostered and the "lost generation" can start to return to their home villages. The objective of this pilot forest garden project was to establish a robust socio-agronomic system that can be multiplied from village to village, increasing soil fertility, protecting abandoned terraces from erosion, replenishing water resources, and generating stable incomes with climate-smart agriculture. The essential catalyst of the project was to link the global need to capture atmospheric carbon and to create negative emissions to slow down climate change with the local capacity to increase biomass growth and to sequester biomass carbon with new low-tech technology (biochar). The financial exchange between global CO2-emmitting communities with local CO2 capturing farmer communities could become a new motor to reverse land degradation, to reestablish ecosystem services, and to develop the rural socio-economy.

  6. A significant increase in the pepsinogen I/II ratio is a reliable biomarker for successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Osumi

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT, anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG, in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital. We evaluated the relationship between H. pylori eradication and percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios before and 3 months after treatment with CLEIA® (FUJIREBIO Inc, Tokyo, Japan. The gold standard of H. pylori eradication was defined as negative by the UBT performed 3 months after completion of eradication treatment. Cut-off values for percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios were set as +40, +25 and +10% when the serum PG I/II ratio before treatment was below 3.0, above 3.0 but below 5.0 and 5.0 or above, respectively.Serum PG I and PG II levels were measured in 562 patients with H. pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 433 patients studied (77.0%. The ratios of first, second, third-line and penicillin allergy eradication treatment were 73.8% (317/429, 88.3% (99/112, 75% (12/16 and 100% (5/5, respectively. An increasing percentage in the serum levels of the PG I/II ratios after treatment compared with the values before treatment clearly distinguished success from failure of eradication (108.2±57.2 vs. 6.8±30.7, p<0.05. Using the above cut-off values, the sensitivity, specificity and validity for determination of H. pylori were 93.1, 93.8 and 93.2%, respectively.In conclusion, the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios are useful as evaluation criteria for assessing the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.

  7. MdATG18a overexpression improves tolerance to nitrogen deficiency and regulates anthocyanin accumulation through increased autophagy in transgenic apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Jia, Xin; Huo, Liuqing; Che, Runmin; Gong, Xiaoqing; Wang, Ping; Ma, Fengwang

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is an essential factor for plant growth. Recycling and remobilization of N have strong impacts on crop yield and quality under N deficiency. Autophagy is a critical nutrient-recycling process that facilitates remobilization under starvation. We previously showed that an important AuTophaGy (ATG) protein from apple, MdATG18a, has a positive role in drought tolerance. In this study, we explored its biological role in response to low-N. Overexpression of MdATG18a in both Arabidopsis and apple improved tolerance to N-depletion and caused a greater accumulation of anthocyanin. The increased anthocyanin concentration in transgenic apple was possibly due to up-regulating flavonoid biosynthetic and regulatory genes (MdCHI, MdCHS, MdANS, MdPAL, MdUFGT, and MdMYB1) and higher soluble sugars concentration. MdATG18a overexpression enhanced starch degradation with up-regulating amylase gene (MdAM1) and up-regulated sugar metabolism related genes (MdSS1, MdHXKs, MdFK1, and MdNINVs). Furthermore, MdATG18a functioned in nitrate uptake and assimilation by up-regulating nitrate reductase MdNIA2 and 3 high-affinity nitrate transporters MdNRT2.1/2.4/2.5. MdATG18a overexpression also elevated other important MdATG genes expression and autophagosomes formation under N-depletion, which play key contributions to above changes. Together, these results demonstrate that overexpression of MdATG18a enhances tolerance to N-deficiencies and plays positive roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis through greater autophagic activity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Circulating aldosterone induces the apical accumulation of the proton pumping V-ATPase and increases proton secretion in clear cells in the caput epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jeremy W; Hill, Eric; Ruan, Ye Chun; Vedovelli, Luca; Păunescu, Teodor G; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

    2013-08-15

    Clear cells express the vacuolar proton-pumping H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and acidify the lumen of the epididymis, a process that is essential for male fertility. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the epididymis, and a previous study showed binding of aldosterone exclusively to epididymal clear cells (Hinton BT, Keefer DA. Steroid Biochem 23: 231-233, 1985). We examined here the role of aldosterone in the regulation of V-ATPase in the epididymis. RT-PCR showed expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor [MR; nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C member 2 (NR3C2)] and 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 (HSD11β2) mRNAs specifically in clear cells, isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from B1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mice. Tail vein injection of adult rats with aldosterone, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (cpt-cAMP) induced V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation and extension of V-ATPase-labeled microvilli in clear cells in the caput epididymis but not in the cauda. V-ATPase activity was measured in EGFP-expressing clear cells using the intracellular pH (pHi)-sensing dye seminaphthorhodafluor-5F-5-(and 6)-carboxylic acid, acetoxymethyl ester acetate (SNARF-5F). Aldosterone induced a rapid increase in the rate of Na(+)- and bicarbonate-independent pHi recovery following an NH4Cl-induced acid load in clear cells isolated from the caput but not the cauda. This effect was abolished by concanamycin A, spironolactone, and chelerythrine but not myristoylated-protein kinase inhibitor (mPKI) or mifepristone. Thus aldosterone increases V-ATPase-dependent proton secretion in clear cells in the caput epididymis via MR/NR3C2 and PKC activation. This study, therefore, identifies aldosterone as an active member of the RAAS for the regulation of luminal acidification in the proximal epididymis.

  9. Multidrug resistance in Botrytis cinerea associated with decreased accumulation of the azole fungicide oxpoconazole and increased transcription of the ABC transporter gene BcatrD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Sugiura, H.; Waard, De M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Azole-resistant mutants of Botrytis cinerea have a multidrug resistance phenotype since they exhibit cross-resistance to unrelated chemicals. These mutants also display resistance to the new azole fungicide oxpoconazole. Resistance to oxpoconazole is associated with decreased accumulation of the

  10. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiomyocyte Triglyceride Accumulation and Reduced Ventricular Function in Mice with Obesity Reflect Increased Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonarteriosclerotic cardiomyopathy is increasingly seen in obese patients. Seeking a rodent model, we studied cardiac histology, function, cardiomyocyte fatty acid uptake, and transporter gene expression in male C57BL/6J control mice and three obesity groups: similar mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and db/db and ob/ob mice. At sacrifice, all obesity groups had increased body and heart weights and fatty livers. By echocardiography, ejection fraction (EF and fractional shortening (FS of left ventricular diameter during systole were significantly reduced. The Vmax for saturable fatty acid uptake was increased and significantly correlated with cardiac triglycerides and insulin concentrations. Vmax also correlated with expression of genes for the cardiac fatty acid transporters Cd36 and Slc27a1. Genes for de novo fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Scd1 were also upregulated. Ten oxidative phosphorylation pathway genes were downregulated, suggesting that a decrease in cardiomyocyte ATP synthesis might explain the decreased contractile function in obese hearts.

  12. Galactic cosmic radiation leads to cognitive impairment and increased aβ plaque accumulation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Cherry

    Full Text Available Galactic Cosmic Radiation consisting of high-energy, high-charged (HZE particles poses a significant threat to future astronauts in deep space. Aside from cancer, concerns have been raised about late degenerative risks, including effects on the brain. In this study we examined the effects of (56Fe particle irradiation in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We demonstrated 6 months after exposure to 10 and 100 cGy (56Fe radiation at 1 GeV/µ, that APP/PS1 mice show decreased cognitive abilities measured by contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition tests. Furthermore, in male mice we saw acceleration of Aβ plaque pathology using Congo red and 6E10 staining, which was further confirmed by ELISA measures of Aβ isoforms. Increases were not due to higher levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP or increased cleavage as measured by levels of the β C-terminal fragment of APP. Additionally, we saw no change in microglial activation levels judging by CD68 and Iba-1 immunoreactivities in and around Aβ plaques or insulin degrading enzyme, which has been shown to degrade Aβ. However, immunohistochemical analysis of ICAM-1 showed evidence of endothelial activation after 100 cGy irradiation in male mice, suggesting possible alterations in Aβ trafficking through the blood brain barrier as a possible cause of plaque increase. Overall, our results show for the first time that HZE particle radiation can increase Aβ plaque pathology in an APP/PS1 mouse model of AD.

  13. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  14. Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: Results from an in vivo study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic fish oil consumption is associated with reduced postprandial lipaemia, but the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. We studied whether lipid absorption might be altered in rats fed fish oil. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed fish oil enriched chow (n = 6...... contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...... than in controls (area under the H-3-lipid time curve: 1041.3 versus 670.3 nmol oleic acid x min/mug DNA, P fish oil. The amount of non-absorbed H-3-lipid tended to be higher in the fish...

  15. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  16. Overexpression of the OsIMP Gene Increases the Accumulation of Inositol and Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Tobacco through Modulation of the Antioxidant Enzymes’ Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Xiang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l-myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice (Oryza sativa L. remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP. Multiple alignment results have displayed that this sequence has characteristic signature motifs and conserved enzyme active sites of the phosphatase super family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IMPase is most closely related to that of the wild rice Oryza brachyantha, while transcript analysis revealed that the expression of the OsIMP is significantly induced by cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Meanwhile, we cloned the 5’ flanking promoter sequence of the OsIMP gene and identified several important cis-acting elements, such as LTR (low-temperature responsiveness, TCA-element (salicylic acid responsiveness, ABRE-element (abscisic acid responsiveness, GARE-motif (gibberellin responsive, MBS (MYB Binding Site and other cis-acting elements related to defense and stress responsiveness. To further investigate the potential function of the OsIMP gene, we generated transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OsIMP gene and the cold tolerance test indicated that these transgenic tobacco plants exhibit improved cold tolerance. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants have a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, and a higher content of total chlorophyll as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD

  17. Overexpression of the OsIMP Gene Increases the Accumulation of Inositol and Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Tobacco through Modulation of the Antioxidant Enzymes' Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Xiang; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2017-07-20

    Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l- myo -inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP . Multiple alignment results have displayed that this sequence has characteristic signature motifs and conserved enzyme active sites of the phosphatase super family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IMPase is most closely related to that of the wild rice Oryza brachyantha , while transcript analysis revealed that the expression of the OsIMP is significantly induced by cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Meanwhile, we cloned the 5' flanking promoter sequence of the OsIMP gene and identified several important cis -acting elements, such as LTR (low-temperature responsiveness), TCA-element (salicylic acid responsiveness), ABRE-element (abscisic acid responsiveness), GARE-motif (gibberellin responsive), MBS (MYB Binding Site) and other cis -acting elements related to defense and stress responsiveness. To further investigate the potential function of the OsIMP gene, we generated transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OsIMP gene and the cold tolerance test indicated that these transgenic tobacco plants exhibit improved cold tolerance. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants have a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a higher content of total chlorophyll as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD

  18. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Tetanic stimulation leads to increased accumulation of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II via dendritic protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstein, Alan; Kreiman, Gabriel; Schuman, Erin M; Kennedy, Mary

    1999-01-01

    mRNA for the alpha-subunit of CaMKII is abundant in dendrites of neurons in the forebrain (Steward, 1997). Here we show that tetanic stimulation of the Schaffer collateral pathway causes an increase in the concentration of alpha-CaMKII in the dendrites of postsynaptic neurons. The increase is blocked by anisomycin and is detected by both quantitative immunoblot and semiquantitative immunocytochemistry. The increase in dendritic alpha-CaMKII can be measured 100-200 micrometer away from the neu...

  20. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates accumulate at the onset of intense exercise in man but are not essential for the increase in muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gibala, Martin J.; Howarth, Krista R.

    2006-01-01

    dichloroacetate (DCA) in an attempt to alter the level of TCAI. Five men performed strenuous leg kicking exercise (64+/-8 W) under noninfused control (CON) and DCA-supplemented conditions; biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after 5, 15, and 180 s of exercise. In CON, the total concentration...... seconds of exercise; however, this increase is not essential for the contraction-induced increase in mitochondrial respiration....

  1. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  2. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  4. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  5. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was 5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased expression and local accumulation of the Prion Protein, Alzheimer Aβ peptides, superoxide dismutase 1, and Nitric oxide synthases 1 & 2 in muscle in a rabbit model of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitel Claudine L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle disease associated with different etiologies has been shown to produce localized accumulations of amyloid and oxidative stress-related proteins that are more commonly associated with neurodegeneration in the brain. In this study we examined changes in muscle tissue in a classic model of diabetes and hyperglycemia in rabbits to determine if similar dysregulation of Alzheimer Aβ peptides, the prion protein (PrP, and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, as well as nitric oxide synthases is produced in muscle in diabetic animals. This wild-type rabbit model includes systemic physiological expression of human-like Alzheimer precursor proteins and Aβ peptides that are considered key in Alzheimer protein studies. Results Diabetes was produced in rabbits by injection of the toxic glucose analogue alloxan, which selectively enters pancreatic beta cells and irreversibly decreases insulin production, similar to streptozotocin. Quadriceps muscle from rabbits 16 wks after onset of diabetes and hyperglycemia were analyzed with biochemical and in situ methods. Immunoblots of whole muscle protein samples demonstrated increased PrP, SOD1, as well as neuronal and inducible Nitric oxide synthases (NOS1 and NOS2 in diabetic muscle. In contrast, we detected little change in Alzheimer Aβ precursor protein expression, or BACE1 and Presenilin 1 levels. However, Aβ peptides measured by ELISA increased several fold in diabetic muscle, suggesting a key role for Aβ cleavage in muscle similar to Alzheimer neurodegeneration in this diabetes model. Histological changes in diabetic muscle included localized accumulations of PrP, Aβ, NOS1 and 2, and SOD1, and evidence of increased central nuclei and cell infiltration. Conclusions The present study provides evidence that several classic amyloid and oxidative stress-related disease proteins coordinately increase in overall expression and form localized accumulations in diabetic muscle. The present study

  7. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of CPAP treatment. Methods to prevent OSA as well as treatment in its early stage may be recommended. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  9. Impact of Increased Thermokarst Activity on Polycyclic Aromatic Compound (PAC) Accumulation in Sediment of Lakes in the Hydrocarbon-Rich Uplands Adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, D.; Thienpont, J. R.; Blais, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    In ecologically sensitive, hydrocarbon-rich regions like the western Canadian Arctic, environmental monitoring of oil and gas development often focuses on both direct and unintentional consequences of increased exploration and extraction of hydrocarbon resources. However, proper assessments of impact from these activities could be confounded by natural petrogenic sources in permafrost-rich regions where increased thermokarst activity results in permafrost exposure and erosion of hydrocarbon-rich deposits. Using a paired-lake design in the tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, we examined 4 lakes with retrogressive thaw slump scars along their shores, and 4 nearby undisturbed reference lakes, focusing on polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) deposition and composition in the sediment. Total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized concentrations for parent and alkylated PACs were higher in surface sediments of slump-affected lakes than the reference lakes. This followed the pattern previously observed for persistent organic pollutants in these lakes where presence of thaw slumps on the lake shore was associated with lower TOC content in the water column, resulting in a smaller pool of available organic carbon, leading to higher PAC concentrations. Diagnostic ratios of specific PACs also suggested the sediment of slump-affected lakes had greater influence from petroleum-based PAC sources than their reference counterparts. This interpretation was corroborated by a principle components analysis of the metal content in the sediment. Slump-affected lakes were enriched in metals related to shale-based, Quaternary deposits of the Mackenzie Basin (e.g. Ca, Sr, Mg) when compared to reference lakes where these surficial materials were not exposed by thermokarst activity. Higher PAC concentrations and composition indicative of petrogenic sources observed in sediment of slump-affected lakes were best explained as a combination of low TOC availability and increased inputs of

  10. Development of an optimized tetracycline-inducible expression system to increase the accumulation of interleukin-10 in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortesi, Luisa; Rademacher, Thomas; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Schuster, Flora; Pezzotti, Mario; Schillberg, Stefan

    2012-07-11

    Plant cell suspension cultures can be used for the production of valuable pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. When the recombinant protein is secreted into the culture medium, restricting expression to a defined growth phase can improve both the quality and quantity of the recovered product by minimizing proteolytic activity. Temporal restriction is also useful for recombinant proteins whose constitutive expression affects cell growth and viability, such as viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10). We have developed a novel, tetracycline-inducible system suitable for tobacco BY-2 suspension cells which increases the yields of vIL-10. The new system is based on a binary vector that is easier to handle than conventional vectors, contains an enhanced inducible promoter and 5'-UTR to improve yields, and incorporates a constitutively-expressed visible marker gene to allow the rapid and straightforward selection of the most promising transformed clones. Stable transformation of BY-2 cells with this vector, without extensive optimization of the induction conditions, led to a 3.5 fold increase in vIL-10 levels compared to constitutive expression in the same host. We have developed an effective and straightforward molecular farming platform technology that improves both the quality and the quantity of recombinant proteins produced in plant cells, particularly those whose constitutive expression has a negative impact on plant growth and development. Although we tested the platform using vIL-10 produced in BY-2 cells, it can be applied to other host/product combinations and is also useful for basic research requiring strictly controlled transgene expression.

  11. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  12. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  13. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Creatinine Increases During an Acute Heart Failure Admission in Patients With and Without Residual Congestion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the PROTECT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; Cleland, John G; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cursack, Guillermo C; Milo, Olga; Teerlink, John R; Givertz, Michael M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Dittrich, Howard C; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Voors, Adriaan A; Davison, Beth A

    2018-05-01

    The importance of a serum creatinine increase, traditionally considered worsening renal function (WRF), during admission for acute heart failure has been recently debated, with data suggesting an interaction between congestion and creatinine changes. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed the association of WRF with length of hospital stay, 30-day death or cardiovascular/renal readmission and 90-day mortality in the PROTECT study (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Daily creatinine changes from baseline were categorized as WRF (an increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more) or not. Daily congestion scores were computed by summing scores for orthopnea, edema, and jugular venous pressure. Of the 2033 total patients randomized, 1537 patients had both available at study day 14. Length of hospital stay was longer and 30-day cardiovascular/renal readmission or death more common in patients with WRF. However, these were driven by significant associations in patients with concomitant congestion at the time of assessment of renal function. The mean difference in length of hospital stay because of WRF was 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) more days ( P =0.0019), and the hazard ratio for WRF on 30-day death or heart failure hospitalization was 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.09) times higher ( P =0.0205), in significantly congested than nonsignificantly congested patients. A similar trend was observed with 90-day mortality although not statistically significant. In patients admitted for acute heart failure, WRF defined as a creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL was associated with longer length of hospital stay, and worse 30- and 90-day outcomes. However, effects were largely driven by patients who had residual congestion at the time of renal function assessment. URL: https

  16. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  17. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake, accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radioisotopes by marine organisms in the Izmir area. Part of a coordinated programme on the fate and significance of foreign substances in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.

    1976-12-01

    Radiotracer-aided studies were made of the concentrations of trace metals such as copper, manganese, zinc, iron, lead, cobalt, chromium, mercury and cadmium in marine organisms particularly Tapes decussatus in different localities in Izmir Bay. The results demonstrate the marine coastal pollution problems in a developing country where industrialisation has overtaken traditional fisheries. Metals are taken directly from solution in sea water or through feed chains or by absorption through the gills. In Izmir Bay there were found unusually high concentration of toxic elements in edible shellfish (Tapes decussatus) - maximum values in ug/g on a dry weight basis: Fe - 353, Zn - 211, Pb - 21, Mn - 13, Co - 10, Cu - 7, Hg - 20 (wct weight). The concentration of metals in the animals of Cakalburnu was lower than that of Deniz Bostanli and Tuzla. The concentration of copper, manganese, lead and zinc were lower in winter than in other seasons. Considerable seasonal differences are probably the results of changes in environmental temperature and productivity. A decrease in size of the animals tends to be associated with the higher mean concentration of manganese, zinc, lead and cobalt. Copper was found to accumulate mostly in digestive glands, gills and palps; manganese in gills and palps, body fluids and digestive glands; zinc in body fluids, digestive glands, gills and palps; iron in digestive glands gills and palps; lead in body fluids, shells, muscles, gills and palps; cobalt in shells and body fluids; mercury in digestive glands, gills, palps and muscles

  19. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  20. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  1. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  2. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  3. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  4. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (Pphytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  5. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  8. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  9. Retrieving a common accumulation record from Greenland ice cores for the past 1800 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine K.; Ditlevsen, Peter D.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander

    2006-01-01

    In the accumulation zone of the Greenland ice sheet the annual accumulation rate may be determined through identification of the annual cycle in the isotopic climate signal and other parameters that exhibit seasonal variations. On an annual basis the accumulation rate in different Greenland ice...... cores is highly variable, and the degree of correlation between accumulation series from different ice cores is low. However, when using multiyear averages of the different accumulation records, the correlation increases significantly. A statistical model has been developed to estimate the common...

  10. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  11. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  12. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  13. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    V was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity.

  14. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    .007). Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overexpression of an exotic thermotolerant β-glucosidase in trichoderma reesei and its significant increase in cellulolytic activity and saccharification of barley straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashtban Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichoderma reesei is a widely used industrial strain for cellulase production, but its low yield of β-glucosidase has prevented its industrial value. In the hydrolysis process of cellulolytic residues by T. reesei, a disaccharide known as cellobiose is produced and accumulates, which inhibits further cellulases production. This problem can be solved by adding β-glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose to glucose for fermentation. It is, therefore, of high vvalue to construct T. reesei strains which can produce sufficient β-glucosidase and other hydrolytic enzymes, especially when those enzymes are capable of tolerating extreme conditions such as high temperature and acidic or alkali pH. Results We successfully engineered a thermostable β-glucosidase gene from the fungus Periconia sp. into the genome of T. reesei QM9414 strain. The engineered T. reesei strain showed about 10.5-fold (23.9 IU/mg higher β-glucosidase activity compared to the parent strain (2.2 IU/mg after 24 h of incubation. The transformants also showed very high total cellulase activity (about 39.0 FPU/mg at 24 h of incubation whereas the parent strain almost did not show any total cellulase activity at 24 h of incubation. The recombinant β-glucosidase showed to be thermotolerant and remains fully active after two-hour incubation at temperatures as high as 60°C. Additionally, it showed to be active at a wide pH range and maintains about 88% of its maximal activity after four-hour incubation at 25°C in a pH range from 3.0 to 9.0. Enzymatic hydrolysis assay using untreated, NaOH, or Organosolv pretreated barley straw as well as microcrystalline cellulose showed that the transformed T. reesei strains released more reducing sugars compared to the parental strain. Conclusions The recombinant T. reesei overexpressing Periconia sp. β-glucosidase in this study showed higher β-glucosidase and total cellulase activities within a shorter incubation

  16. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  17. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  20. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  2. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  3. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  4. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2005 and 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-06-25

    China's forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China's forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China's forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(15) g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr(-1) (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr(-1); 1 Tg = 10(12) g). Our findings suggest that China's forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050.

  5. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  6. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. I. Influence of sample deposition conditions in oligonucleotide analysis to achieve significant increases in both sensitivity and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-11-01

    Spraying of oligonucleotide-matrix solutions through a stainless steel (ss) sieve (38 microm, 450 mesh) leads to the formation, on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sample holder, of uniformly distributed microcrystals, well separated from each other. When the resulting sample holder surface is irradiated by laser, abundant molecular species form, with a clear increase in both intensity and resolution with respect to values obtained by 'Dried Droplet', 'Double Layer', and 'Sandwich' deposition methods. In addition, unlike the usual situation, the sample is perfectly homogeneous, and identical spectra are obtained by irradiating different areas. On one hand, the data indicate that this method is highly effective for oligonucleotide MALDI analysis, and on the other, that it can be validly employed for fully automated MALDI procedures.

  8. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  9. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  14. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  15. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jianling; Hu Zhengyi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui

    2010-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg -1 ) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg -1 ). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.

  16. Accumulation of hepatic Hsp70 and plasma cortisol in Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatic isoforms Hsp70, Hsp74 and Hsp76 were identified and quantified from copper exposures. Long-term DDT exposure did not result in significant induction of hepatic Hsp70. An increase in plasma cortisol concentration was associated with a decrease in heat shock protein accumulation after cadmium exposure, ...

  17. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  18. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, Laurel K.; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R.; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. - Highlights: • Leaf accumulation of PPCP/EDCs is related on plant transpiration. • Cationic and neutral PPCP/EDCs have similar leaf and root accumulation. • Anionic PPCP/EDCs have greater root accumulation and lesser leaf accumulation. • PPCP/EDCs are extensively metabolized in plant tissue and hydroponic solution. - High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation

  19. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Boron accumulation by Lemna minor L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Gu, Wancong; Dai, Zheng; Li, Jia; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Qian

    2018-06-12

    Excess boron (B) is toxic to aquatic organisms and humans. Boron is often present in water with high salinity. To evaluate the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) for removing B from water under salt stress, we cultured duckweed in water with 2 mg/L of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM for 4 days. The results show that with increasing salinity, the capacity of L. minor to accumulate B initially decreased and then increased. L. minor used different mechanisms to accumulate boron at lower and higher levels of salt stress. The growth and chlorophyll synthesis of L. minor were significantly inhibited when the concentration of NaCl reached 100 mM. Our results suggest that L. minor is suitable for the accumulation of B when NaCl salinity is below 100 mM.

  1. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Ling; Hu, Zheng-Yi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia, Xu; Wu, Cong-Yang-Hui

    2010-02-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg(-1)) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  3. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Declerck, Stephane; Dupre de Boulois, Herve

    2010-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Declerck, Stephane [Universite catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Laboratoire de Mycologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dupre de Boulois, Herve, E-mail: herve.dupre@uclouvain.b [Universite catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Laboratoire de Mycologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  6. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  7. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  8. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  9. Temporal variation of accumulation rates on a natural salt marsh in the 20th century determined by 137Cs chronologies – the impact of sea level rise and increased inundation frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Svinth, Steffen; Pejrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Salt marshes are potentially threatened by sea level rise if sediment supply is unable to balance the rising sea. A rapid sea level rise is one of the pronounced effects of global warming and global sea level is at present rising at an elevated rate of about 3.4 mm y-1 on average. This increasing...... in sediment deposition is significant and gives reason for concern as it may be the first sign of a sedimentation deficiency which could be threatening this and other salt marshes in the case of a rapidly rising sea level. Our work demonstrates that the assumption of a constant relationship between salt marsh...... with salt marsh accretion is most probably not valid in the present case study and it may well be that this is also the case for many other salt marshes, especially if sea level continues to rise rapidly as indicated by some climate change scenarios....

  10. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  12. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  13. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  14. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  16. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which may result in mixed infections of humans and exacerbation of the clinical course of Lyme disease cases on the studied area.

  17. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhainsa, K.C.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  18. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  19. Accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Keslev, D.; Kerteva, A.; Novakova, E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors responsible for the accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some plant organisms, characteristic for fishes in Bulgarian fresh-water reservoirs and in Black Seawater, were examined. The investigated samples were taken during spring, summer and autumn-winter seasons 1967/1968. Each sample burnt to ashes at 450 0 C was examined for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content as well as stable isotopes of calcuim and potassium. Accumulation factors for strontium 90 and cesium 137 were significantly higher in freshwater hydrobionts than in seawater hydrobionts. This could be explained by variations in the concentration of stable isotopes of calcium and potassium from freshwater reservoirs and from seawater. Potassium and calcium concentrations were relatively constant in seawater while in freshwater they were significantly variable. Accumulation factors for these radionuclides increased according to the amount of rain and the altitude above sea level. Strontium 90 was deposited mostly in fins, less in scales and least in the meat of fishes; cesium 137 was mainly deposited in the meat and less in the other parts of fishes. The highest accumulation factors for strontium 90 were determined in fishes and for cesium 137 in plant organisms. The most convenient plant and fish species for tracing radioactive contamination of freshwater reservoirs and in the Black Sea were indicated. (A.B.)

  20. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McDonald

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males. Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90, but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140. Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25% increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  1. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  2. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  3. Numerical simulations of significant orographic precipitation in Madeira island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Flavio Tiago; Ducrocq, Véronique; Salgado, Rui; Costa, Maria João

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution simulations of high precipitation events with the MESO-NH model are presented, and also used to verify that increasing horizontal resolution in zones of complex orography, such as in Madeira island, improve the simulation of the spatial distribution and total precipitation. The simulations succeeded in reproducing the general structure of the cloudy systems over the ocean in the four periods considered of significant accumulated precipitation. The accumulated precipitation over the Madeira was better represented with the 0.5 km horizontal resolution and occurred under four distinct synoptic situations. Different spatial patterns of the rainfall distribution over the Madeira have been identified.

  4. Late endosomal cholesterol accumulation leads to impaired intra-endosomal trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Sobo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2-3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation.

  5. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  6. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  7. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  8. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  9. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  10. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  11. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  12. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägeli, Mirjam; Fasshauer, Mario; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Fendel, Angela; Brandi, Giovanna; Stover, John F

    2014-07-02

    Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0.75 g/ kg/ d up to 5 days) increased plasma and brain glutamine and alanine levels. This was not associated with elevated glutamate or signs of potential glutamate-mediated cerebral injury. The increased nitrogen load should be considered in patients with renal and hepatic dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02130674. Registered 5 April 2014.

  13. FTY720-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) electrospun scaffold significantly increases microvessel density over 7 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57b16/J mice: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D T; Chhabra, P; Langman, L; Botchwey, E A; Brayman, K L

    2011-11-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds could improve islet transplant success by physically mimicking the shape of extracellular matrix and by acting as a drug-delivery vehicle. Scaffolds implanted in alternate transplant sites must be prevascularized or very quickly vascularized following transplantation to prevent hypoxia-induced islet necrosis. The local release of the S1P prodrug FTY720 induces diameter enlargement and increases in length density. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate length and diameter differences between diabetic and nondiabetic animals implanted with FTY720-containing electrospun scaffolds using intravital imaging of dorsal skinfold window chambers. Electrospun mats of randomly oriented fibers we created from polymer solutions of PLAGA (50:50 LA:GA) with and without FTY720 loaded at a ratio of 1:200 (FTY720:PLAGA by wt). The implanted fiber mats were 4 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 mm thick. Increases in length density and vessel diameter were assessed by automated analysis of images over 7 days in RAVE, a Matlab program. Image analysis of repeated measures of microvessel metrics demonstrated a significant increase in the length density from day 0 to day 7 in the moderately diabetic animals of this preliminary study (P < .05). Furthermore, significant differences in length density at day 0 and day 3 were found between recently STZ-induced moderately diabetic and nondiabetic animals in response to FTY720 local release (P < .05, Student t test). Driving the islet revascularization process using local release of factors, such as FTY720, from biodegradable polymers makes an attractive system for the improvement of islet transplant success. Preliminary study results suggest that a recently induced moderately diabetic state may potentiate the mechanism by which local release of FTY720 from polymer fibers increases length density of microvessels. Therefore, local release of S1P receptor-targeted drugs is under further investigation for improvement of

  14. Asthma and gender impact accumulation of T cell subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Stephen P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "Th2 hypothesis for asthma" asserts that an increased ratio of Th2:Th1 cytokine production plays an important pathogenic role in asthma. Although widely embraced, the hypothesis has been challenged by various empirical observations and has been described as overly simplistic. We sought to establish whether CD3+CD28-mediated and antigen-independent accumulation of type 1 and type 2 T cells differs significantly between nonasthmatic and asthmatic populations. Methods An ex vivo system was used to characterize the regulation of IFN-γ-producing (type 1 and IL-13-producing (type 2 T cell accumulation in response to CD3+CD28 and IL-2 stimulation by flow cytometry. Results IL-13-producing T cells increased in greater numbers in response to antigen-independent stimulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes from female atopic asthmatic subjects compared with male asthmatics and both male and female atopic non-asthmatic subjects. IFN-γ+ T cells increased in greater numbers in response to either antigen-independent or CD3+CD28-mediated stimulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes from atopic asthmatic subjects compared to non-asthmatic subjects, regardless of gender. Conclusions We demonstrate that T cells from asthmatics are programmed for increased accumulation of both type 2 and type 1 T cells. Gender had a profound effect on the regulation of type 2 T cells, thus providing a mechanism for the higher frequency of adult asthma in females.

  15. Studies on the hepatosplenic volume and the accumulation rate of 99mTc Sn colloid in patients with liver cirrhosis by using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shizou; Mimura, Hisashi; Noda, Takuo; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Takakura, Norio; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Awai, Sachio; Hiraki, Yoshio; Orita, Kunzo

    1988-01-01

    The method using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for measurement of the hepatosplenic volume and the accumulation rate of 99m Tc Sn colloid was studied, and applied to patients with liver cirrhosis. The hepatosplenic volume calculated by this method was well correlated with that by computed tomography (r = 0.938). The accumulation rate obtained by this method was almost equal to that by whole body scintigraphy. In liver cirrhosis (Child B and C group) the liver volume was atrophic and the splenic volume hypertrophic. The liver accumulation rate was decreased corresponding with the degree of liver cirrhosis, but the accumulation rate per volume was decreased in Child B and C. The splenic accumulation rate was increased in Child B and C, but the accumulation rate per volume was not significant between control group and liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatosplenic volume and accumulation rate by SPECT is useful to evaluate the hepatosplenic function. (author)

  16. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  17. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  18. Accumulation and phytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Sinha, Saion K; White, Jason C

    2012-04-01

    The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini biomass, transpiration, and element content was determined. The pH of bulk and NP solutions prior to plant growth frequently differed. Nanoparticle Cu solution pH was significantly higher than bulk Cu, whereas for Ag and C, the NPs had significantly lower pH. Plants were unaffected by Au, regardless of particle size or concentration. NP Ag reduced plant biomass and transpiration by 49-91% compared to equivalent bulk Ag. NP Si at 750 mg/L reduced plant growth and transpiration by 30-51% relative to bulk Si. Bulk and NP Cu were phytotoxic but much of the effect was alleviated by humic acid. The shoot Ag and Cu content did not differ based on particle size or concentration. The accumulation of bulk Au was greater than the NP, but humic acid increased the accumulation of NP and bulk Au by 5.6-fold and 80%, respectively. The uptake of NP Si was 5.6-6.5-fold greater than observed with the bulk element. These findings show that the NPs may have unique phytotoxicity or accumulation patterns and that solution properties can significantly impact particle fate and effects.

  19. Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Maher, William A.; Kyd, Jennelle

    2004-01-01

    An extensive study on Se accumulation in a population of Anadara trapezia from a marine lake is reported. The effects of organism mass, gender, reproductive cycle, and season on Se accumulation and tissue distribution were investigated. Analyses showed that gender and reproductive cycle had no significant effect on Se accumulation. A. trapezia showed a strong positive correlation between Se burden and tissue mass. Constant Se concentrations were observed within individual populations but varied spatially with sediment Se concentrations. Se concentrations in tissues decreased from gills > gonad/intestine > mantle > muscle > foot, which remained constant over 12 months, however, significantly lower concentrations were observed in the summer compared to winter. A. trapezia is a good biomonitor for Se, as gender and size do not effect concentration, however, season of collection must be reported if changes in Se bioavailability are to be identified in short term studies, or during intersite comparisons. - Capsule: The marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is a good bioindicator for marine selenium contamination

  20. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  1. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  2. Interaction between sulfur and lead in toxicity, iron plaque formation and lead accumulation in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junxing; Liu, Zhiyan; Wan, Xiaoming; Zheng, Guodi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Lin; Wang, Xuedong; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Guo, Qingjun; Xu, Ruixiang; Zhou, Guangdong; Peters, Marc; Zhu, Guangxu; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Human activities have resulted in lead and sulfur accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on iron plaque formation and Pb accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two Pb levels (0 and 600 mg kg(-1)), combined with four S concentrations (0, 30, 60, and 120 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that S supply significantly decreased Pb accumulation in straw and grains of rice. This result may be attributed to the enhancement of Fe plaque formation, decrease of Pb availability in soil, and increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rice leaves. Moderate S supply (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased Fe plaque formation on the root surface and in the rhizosphere, whereas excessive S supply (60 and 120 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased the amounts of iron plaque on the root surface. Sulfur supply significantly enhanced the GSH contents in leaves of rice plants under Pb treatment. With excessive S application, the rice root acted as a more effective barrier to Pb accumulation compared with iron plaque. Excessive S supply may result in a higher monosulfide toxicity and decreased iron plaque formation on the root surface during flooded conditions. However, excessive S supply could effectively decrease Pb availability in soils and reduce Pb accumulation in rice plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; De, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of 14 C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety. (orig.) [de

  4. Mechanism of liver lipid accumulation in X-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyar, A S; De, A K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-03-01

    The incorporation, both in vivo and in vitro, of /sup 14/C-acetate into hepatic lipids, notably the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions, is greatly reduced following whole-body irradiation and is indicative of significantly reduced lipogenesis. Irradiation results in a several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, by the liver in vitro as well as in the whole animal, during the phase of active hepatic lipid accumulation. Small increases in lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose, immediately following irradiation and up to 24 hours, and the attendant marked fall in adipose lipids are suggestive of increased mobilization of peripheral lipids during the early period. However, in view of the fact that maximum lipid accumulations occurs very much later, inflow of extra-hepatic lipid into liver does not appear to be of major etiological significance. There is three-fold experimental evidence in support of an impairment of trigylceride transport from liver being primarily responsible for the build-up of liver lipids: (I) Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia is totally absent in the irradiated rat during the period when liver lipids increase significantly; (II) the rate of disappearance of radioactivity from pre-labeled hepatic lipids is considerably lower in the irradiated rats; and (III) the irradiated rats show decrease in lipoproteins of liver cell-sap and of serum, the latter being more marked and a lowered synthesis of the lipoproteins, as assessed by labeling of the protein moiety.

  5. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L -1 ) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  6. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  7. Cadmium accumulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs is modulated by dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnison, B. Kent; Meinelt, Thomas; Playle, Richard; Pietrock, Michael; Wienke, Andreas; Steinberg, Christian E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing the accumulation of cadmium (Cd 2+ ) into zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. The accumulation of 109 Cd was affected by: (1) concentration, (2) time, (3) presence of dissolved organic material (DOM), (4) different origin of DOM and (5) different parts of fish eggs. Over a 5-h exposure, zebrafish eggs showed a steady increase in Cd-accumulation. DOM-concentrations over 15 ppm carbon (C) decreased Cd-uptake significantly. Both samples of DOM, brown water marsh (LM) and a eutrophic pond (SP), at 16.9 ppm C, reduced the Cd-accumulation in the chorion, perivitelline liquid and the embryo. Cd was mainly accumulated in the egg's outer shell chorion (61%) and only small amounts passed through the chorion into the perivitelline liquid (38%) and embryo (1%). In the presence of LM-DOM, the accumulation of Cd into the egg components was decreased by 43% (chorion), 52% (perivitelline liquid) and 52% (embryo), respectively, compared with the control group. Similarly, the presence of SP-DOM reduced the Cd-accumulation by 29% (chorion), 61% (perivitelline liquid) and 60% (embryo), respectively, compared with the controls. DOM-concentration should be taken into consideration when determining ecotoxicological effects of Cd on fish populations

  8. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  9. Radon in houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn and its daughters in three solar energy houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation are reported. Theoretical calculations of the radon contribution from the stone magazines seem to be in good agreement with the measured values. The survey indicated that this method for heat accumulation could give a significant increase in the indoor radon concentration if the radium concentration of the stone material is high. The theoretical considerations suggest that a radium concentration of 1 pCi/g of the stone material could give an increment of the radon concentration in the indoor air of about 1 pCi/l. during the heating season in a house with air volume of 250 m 3 and a 10 5 -kg stone magazine. (author)

  10. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  11. Effects of NAA on the uptake and accumulation of calcium in chinese cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Ying; Cao Jiashu; Jiang Youtiao; Zeng Guangwen

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of plant growth regulator in polar transport of Ca 2+ in Chinese cabbage was studied using hydroponics system with 45 Ca radioisotope. Treatment of NAA either by foliage spray or root-feeding increased the uptake of 45 Ca by root, raising the 45 Ca accumulation in stems, which was remarkably higher than that of control, especially in root-fed plants. NAA treatment also increased the folio uptake of applied 45 Ca and thus the accumulation of 45 Ca in the leaves. This was more significant when NAA was applied to inner leaves. The same results was obtained in the experiment of 45 Ca radioautography with the whole plants

  12. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  13. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  14. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  15. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg -1 ) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg -1 ), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg -1 in carrot and 32 mg kg -1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  16. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  17. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Zhenchuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Xiaoshan, E-mail: zhangxsh@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zhangwei, E-mail: wangzhw@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ci Zhijia [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: > Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. > Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. > Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. > Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  18. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Zhenchuan; Zhang Xiaoshan; Wang Zhangwei; Ci Zhijia

    2011-01-01

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: → Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. → Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. → Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. → Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  19. The evaluation of the bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    The bone marrow distribution of Ga-67 citrate may be influenced by various elements in serum. In order to make these points clear, 1,955 whole body images were reviewed on the relationship between the accumulation of bone marrow and laboratory examination data of each patients. Increasing accumulation in the bone marrow was determined as positive when the bones of lower extremities were deposited on the images, because these bones was not visualized in normal gallium image. Laboratory data of 20 patients without having bone marrow accumulation was used as control. The positive findings of bone marrow accumulation was observed in 38 patients (2%) including 23 malignancies and 15 benign disease. The malignant tumor infiltration to the bone marrow was demonstrated by bone marrow aspiration biopsy in 2 out of 7 patients with bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67. Seven out of 15 patients with benign disease were collagen disease such as aortitis syndrome or SLE. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in the patients with positive findings in comparison with control. These results suggest that the lower level of serum iron and anemia may cause increasing bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate. (author).

  20. The evaluation of the bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1989-01-01

    The bone marrow distribution of Ga-67 citrate may be influenced by various elements in serum. In order to make these points clear, 1,955 whole body images were reviewed on the relationship between the accumulation of bone marrow and laboratory examination data of each patients. Increasing accumulation in the bone marrow was determined as positive when the bones of lower extremities were deposited on the images, because these bones was not visualized in normal gallium image. Laboratory data of 20 patients without having bone marrow accumulation was used as control. The positive findings of bone marrow accumulation was observed in 38 patients (2%) including 23 malignancies and 15 benign disease. The malignant tumor infiltration to the bone marrow was demonstrated by bone marrow aspiration biopsy in 2 out of 7 patients with bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67. Seven out of 15 patients with benign disease were collagen disease such as aortitis syndrome or SLE. The values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in the patients with positive findings in comparison with control. These results suggest that the lower level of serum iron and anemia may cause increasing bone marrow accumulation of Ga-67 citrate. (author)

  1. Influência de doses crescentes de chumbo sobre o teor e o conteúdo de nutrientes e Pb em mudas de ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. Influence of increasing lead levels on nutrient and Pb content and accumulation in ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Nogueira de Paiva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da aplicação de chumbo sobre o teor e o conteúdo de nutrientes e Pb na raiz, no caule e nas folhas de mudas de ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. foi estudado em um experimento realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras. As mudas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Clark e submetidas a doses crescentes de Pb: 0, 48, 96, 192 e 288 mimol/l. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, e após 60 dias de exposição ao metal pesado foram feitas avaliações do teor e do conteúdo de macro, micronutrientes e chumbo na matéria seca de raiz, caule e folha. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de chumbo aumentou o teor de P e praticamente não afetou os teores de S, Ca e Mg nas mudas. De modo geral os teores de Cu, Fe e Mn sofreram redução, o teor de Zn não foi afetado, enquanto o conteúdo de macro e de micronutrientes sofreu redução. O teor de Pb na matéria seca de raiz, caule e folha aumentou com as doses aplicadas, principalmente na raiz, e se mostrou pouco móvel nas plantas analisadas.The effect of lead application on nutrient and Pb content and accumulation in ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. seedlings was studied in an experiment conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras. The seedlings were cultivated in Clark nutrient solution and submitted to increasing Pb levels: 0, 48, 96, 192 and 288 mumol/l. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design and after 60 days of exposure to the heavy metals, evaluations of macro and micronutrient and lead content and accumulation in the root, stem and leaf dry matter were made. The results showed that lead application increased P content and practically did not affect S, Ca and Mg contents. Cu, Fe and Mn contents, in general, presented a reduction; Zn content was not affected while macro

  2. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  3. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bonnail-Miguel, E. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, 11,510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity.

  4. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Bonnail-Miguel, E.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity

  5. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  6. Early polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation correlates with the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoettle, R.J.; Kochanek, P.M.; Magargee, M.J.; Uhl, M.W.; Nemoto, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema, we quantitatively assessed the time course and magnitude of PMN accumulation and its relationship to cerebral edema formation after cerebral trauma in 78 rats. 111 In-labeled PMN accumulation was measured in 26 rats in the first 8 h after right hemispheric percussive cerebral trauma or a sham control condition. 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte accumulation was measured simultaneously in 22 rats to assess the contribution of expansion of blood volume to early posttraumatic PMN accumulation. Edema formation [right-left (R-L) hemispheric difference in percent brain water], R-L hemispheric labeled-PMN accumulation, and blood volume index-adjusted PMN accumulation were measured between 0-2 h and 4-8 h posttrauma. PMN accumulation was elevated markedly in the first 2 h posttrauma compared with values in sham controls (13.45 +/- 2.53 vs -0.03 +/- 0.31, p less than 0.01) but not when adjusted for blood volume index (BVI), suggesting that PMN accumulation in the first 2 h posttrauma was due to expansion of blood volume. Between 4 and 8 h posttrauma, however, both total (2.56 +/- 0.82 vs -0.29 +/- 0.52) and BVI-adjusted (8.78 +/- 3.97 vs -0.48 +/- 0.79) PMN accumulation were elevated (p less than 0.05) compared with sham. Brain edema and total PMN accumulation were significantly correlated at both 2 h and 8 h posttrauma (r2 = 0.77, p less than 0.001, and r2 = 0.69, p less than 0.002, respectively), but a significant correlation between edema and BVI-adjusted PMN accumulation was observed only at 8 h posttrauma (r2 = 0.96, p less than 0.001). These data show that PMN accumulation after traumatic brain injury occurs with an initial phase explained by an increase in blood volume in the first 2 h posttrauma followed by a subsequent acute inflammatory phase

  7. Hydro-pneumatic accumulators for vehicles kinetic energy storage: Influence of gas compressibility and thermal losses on storage capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puddu, Pierpaolo; Paderi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this work the differences between the thermodynamic behaviour of real and ideal gases are analysed to determine their influence on the processes of compression and expansion of a gas-charged accumulator. The behaviour of real gas has a significant influence on the size of accumulators used for Kinetic Energy Recovery of vehicles. In particular, it is underscored that the accumulator's design, based on ideal gas behaviour, provides undersized accumulators and therefore makes impossible the complete energy recovery for Hydraulic Energy Storage Systems (HES). The analysis of the thermodynamic properties of gases has shown that the main differences between ideal and real behaviour are due to gas compressibility. A mathematical model of a gas-charged accumulator is developed in order to analyse its real behaviour in presence of irreversible heat transfer and viscous losses. The simulation process of charging and discharging of a hydro-pneumatic accumulator, makes it clear that hydrodynamic and thermal losses are responsible for the characteristic hysteresis cycle on the p–V diagram. Different gases are tested as charged fluid of a hydro-pneumatic accumulator to simulate cyclic processes of charge and discharge. Results show different characteristics in terms of volumetric gas properties, thermal time-constant and thermal efficiency of the accumulator. - Highlights: • A dynamic model of a gas charged accumulator was developed. • Gas compressibility significantly influences the size of high-pressure accumulators. • A hysteresis loop is indicative of the thermal energy losses. • Loss increases with increasing the period of the cyclic process. • Thermal time constant is different from compression to expansion

  8. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  9. Observation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals and Accumulations in Surface Flow Constructed Wetland (SFCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntud Sirianuntapiboon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tropical emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia sp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata were used to observe nutrients (total phosphorus: TP and total nitrogen: TN removal efficiencies of surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The system was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1, 3 and 5 days and the average atmospheric temperature of 29.1 ± 4.9oC. The seafood industrial wastewater was employed as the influent. The high biomass production plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata could generate the high oxidative environment. Amount of N and P accumulations in plant tissue were increased with the increase of plant biomass production. The system did not show any significantly different on N and P accumulations among the tested-emergent plant species. But the amount of accumulated-N and P were increased with the increase of HRT. N accumulations in plant tissue, effluent, sediment and media of the system with the tested-emergent plant species under HRT of 1-5 days were in the range of 2.17-43.80%, 7.91-27.75%, 19.62-36.86% and 14.39-31.88%, respectively. Also, P accumulations were 0.79-17.01%, 20.35-28.37%, 40.96-56.27% and 9.09-20.47%, respectively.

  10. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  11. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  12. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  14. Significant reduction of peripheral blood interleukin-35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells, which are negatively correlated with an increase in the plasma IL-17 and cTnI level, in viral myocarditis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ouyang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral myocarditis (VMC has become an increasingly common heart disease that endangers human health. In the present study, the plasma interleukin-35 (IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients were detected to investigate the significance of changes in these parameters in the plasma of VMC patients and their association with the disease. Material and methods: ELISA was performed to detect the plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in 40 VMC patients and in 20 healthy individuals. Moreover, the plasma IL-17 levels in the VMC patients and in the healthy individuals were detected using an ELISA, and the cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI levels were detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to compare the differences in the groups. Results : Plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in acute phase VMC patients was lower than that in the healthy control group and the convalescent phase VMC patients. Additionally, the plasma IL-35 level in the VMC patients exhibited a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. The percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells also showed a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. Conclusions : The plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients was reduced, and the amount of the decrease was associated with the severity of the disease. These results suggest that IL-35 and CD4 + EBI3 + T might play important roles in the progression of VMC and could be used as indictors of the disease.

  15. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  16. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1。

  17. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  18. Fructan accumulation and transcription of candidate genes during cold acclimation in three varieties of Poa pratensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Poa pratensis, a type species for the grass family (Poaceae), is an important cool season grass that accumulates fructans as a polysaccharide reserve. We studied fructan contents and expression of candidate fructan metabolism genes during cold acclimation in three varieties of P. pratensis adapted...... to different environments: Northern Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Fructan content increased significantly during cold acclimation and varieties showed significant differences in the level of fructan accumulation. cDNA sequences of putative fructosyltransferase (FT), fructan exohydrolase (FEH), and cold...... acclimation protein (CAP) genes were identified and cloned. In agreement with a function in fructan biosynthesis, transcription of a putative sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (Pp6-SFT) gene was induced during cold acclimation and fructan accumulation in all three P. pratensis varieties. Transcription...

  19. Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanping; Li Fangbai; Luo Chunling; Liu Xinming; Wang Shihua; Liu Tongxu; Li Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of two silica (Si) sols on the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in contaminated soil to rice. Results showed that the foliar application of Si sols significantly increased the dry weight of grains (without husk) and shoots in rice grown in Cd contaminated soil, whereas the Cd concentration in the grains and shoots decreased obviously. The total accumulation of Cd in rice grains also decreased with the application of both of the Si sols, but no significant effect was found on the Cd accumulation in the shoots. For the optimal effect, Si-sol-B should be foliar applied at the tillering-stage during rice growth. The mechanism of Si foliar application to alleviate the toxicity and accumulation of Cd in grains of rice may be related to the probable Cd sequestration in the shoot cell walls

  20. Cobalt accumulation and circulation by blackgum trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) trees accumulate far greater concentrations of cobalt in mature foliage than do other species on the same site (363 ppM in ash of blackgum, compared with about 3 ppM by mockernut hickory and about 1 ppM by red maple, tulip tree, and white oak). Cobalt concentrations in dormant woody tissues of blackgum also significantly exceed those in the other four species. Inoculation of six blackgums with 60 Co revealed that cobalt remains mobile in the trees for at least 3 years. Foliar concentrations of stable cobalt increase uniformly until senescence. In late August, foliage accounts for only 9 percent of total tree weight but 57 percent of total tree cobalt. Losses of cobalt from trees occur almost entirely by leaf abscission, and the loss rates of weight and cobalt from decomposing litter are similar. Retention of cobalt in the biologically active soil layers perpetuates zones of cobalt concentration created by this species in woodlands

  1. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ∼185+-155 μm, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers

  3. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  4. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  5. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  6. Plume residence and toxic material accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Holpuch, R.

    1975-01-01

    Increased growth rates and 137 Cs concentrations in plume resident trout are thought to be the result of increased metabolism, food consumption, and activity caused by exposure to increased water temperature and flow in thermal discharges. These exposure conditions could contribute to increased accumulation of biologically active, toxic substances by primary forage and predator fish species in the Great Lakes. Uptake and retention of various toxic substances by predators depend on concentrations in forage species (trophic transfer), ambient water, and point source effluents (direct uptake). Contaminants of immediate concern in Great Lakes systems (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons) accumulate in adipose tissue, and body concentrations have been correlated with total lipid content in fish. In addition to direct toxic effects on fish, many lipophilic contaminants are known to cause severe human health problems when ingested at concentrations commonly found in Lake Michigan salmonids. Although power plants may or may not be the direct source of a toxic substance, the thermal discharge environment may contribute to the accumulation of toxic substances in fish and the transfer of these materials to man

  7. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  8. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, enhances HIF-1α accumulation via cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Kyung Jin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inducible enzyme in inflammation and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis through increase of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in a number of neoplasms, including colorectal carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated some mechanistic aspects of DFX-induced hypoxia-driven COX-2 expression. Desferrioxamine (DFX), an iron chelator, is known to upregulate inflammatory mediators. DFX induced the expression of COX-2 and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in dose-dependent manners, but hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein but not increase of COX-2 expression. DFX-induced increase of COX-2 expression and HIF-1α protein level was attenuated by addition of ferric citrate. This result suggested that the iron chelating function of DFX was important to induce the increase of COX-2 and HIF-1α protein. PD98059 significantly inhibited the induction of COX-2 protein and accumulation of HIF-1α, suggesting that DFX-induced increase of HIF-1α and COX-2 protein was mediated, at least in part, through the ERK signaling pathway. In addition, pretreatment with NS-398 to inhibit COX-2 activity also effectively suppressed DFX-induced HIF-1α accumulation in human colon cancer cells, providing the evidence that COX-2 plays as a regulator of HIF-1α accumulation in DFX-treated colon cancer cells. Together, our findings suggest that iron metabolism may regulate stabilization of HIF-1α protein by modulating cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

  9. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  10. Characterization of ultra-fine grained aluminum produced by accumulative back extrusion (ABE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alihosseini, H.; Faraji, G.; Dizaji, A.F.; Dehghani, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructural evolutions and microhardness of AA1050 subjected to one, two and three passes of accumulative back extrusion (ABE) were investigated. The microstructural evolutions were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that applying three passes of accumulative back extrusion led to significant grain refinement. The initial grain size of 47 μm was refined to the grains of 500 nm after three passes of ABE. Increasing the number of passes resulted in more decrease in grain size, better microstructure homogeneity and increase in the microhardness. The cross-section of ABEed specimen consisted of two different zones: (i) shear deformation zone, and (ii) normal deformation zone. The microhardness measurements indicated that the hardness increased from the initial value of 31 Hv to 67 Hv, verifying the significant microstructural refinement via accumulative back extrusion. - Highlights: ► A significant grain refinement can be achieved in AA1050, Al alloy by applying ABE. ► Microstructural homogeneity of ABEed samples increased by increasing the number of ABE cycles. ► A substantial increase in the hardness, from 31 Hv to 67 Hv, was recorded.

  11. Investigation of the gallium-67 citrate hilar accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yuji

    1987-01-01

    To study the 67 Ga hilar accumulation, author quantitatively analyzed 67 Ga scintigrams of patients having no chest disease and normal chest roentgenograms. Relationship between hilar accumulation and smoking was quantitatively and experimentally studied. The conclusions were as follows: 1. There was significant relationship between smoking and 67 Ga hilar accumulation but there was no significant relationship between aging and the hilar accumulation. 2. The 67 Ga uptake of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was higher than that of control group on microautoradiogram. The histological finding of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was sinus histiocytosis. 3. Activated histiocytosis of hilar lymphatic sinus by some factors including smoking seemed to be responsible for 67 Ga hilar accumulation, of which mechanism was unknown. (author)

  12. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  13. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  14. Environmentally responsive genome-wide accumulation of de novo Arabidopsis thaliana mutations and epimutations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2014-10-14

    Evolution is fueled by phenotypic diversity, which is in turn due to underlying heritable genetic (and potentially epigenetic) variation. While environmental factors are well known to influence the accumulation of novel variation in microorganisms and human cancer cells, the extent to which the natural environment influences the accumulation of novel variation in plants is relatively unknown. Here we use whole-genome and whole-methylome sequencing to test if a specific environmental stress (high-salinity soil) changes the frequency and molecular profile of accumulated mutations and epimutations (changes in cytosine methylation status) in mutation accumulation (MA) lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana. We first show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼100% more mutations, and that these mutations exhibit a distinctive molecular mutational spectrum (specific increases in relative frequency of transversion and insertion/deletion [indel] mutations). We next show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼45% more differentially methylated cytosine positions (DMPs) at CG sites (CG-DMPs) than controls, and also show that while many (∼75%) of these CG-DMPs are inherited, some can be lost in subsequent generations. Finally, we show that stress-associated CG-DMPs arise more frequently in genic than in nongenic regions of the genome. We suggest that commonly encountered natural environmental stresses can accelerate the accumulation and change the profiles of novel inherited variants in plants. Our findings are significant because stress exposure is common among plants in the wild, and they suggest that environmental factors may significantly alter the rates and patterns of incidence of the inherited novel variants that fuel plant evolution.

  15. Environmentally responsive genome-wide accumulation of de novo Arabidopsis thaliana mutations and epimutations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Belfield, Eric J.; Mott, Richard; Hurst, Laurence D.; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution is fueled by phenotypic diversity, which is in turn due to underlying heritable genetic (and potentially epigenetic) variation. While environmental factors are well known to influence the accumulation of novel variation in microorganisms and human cancer cells, the extent to which the natural environment influences the accumulation of novel variation in plants is relatively unknown. Here we use whole-genome and whole-methylome sequencing to test if a specific environmental stress (high-salinity soil) changes the frequency and molecular profile of accumulated mutations and epimutations (changes in cytosine methylation status) in mutation accumulation (MA) lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana. We first show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼100% more mutations, and that these mutations exhibit a distinctive molecular mutational spectrum (specific increases in relative frequency of transversion and insertion/deletion [indel] mutations). We next show that stressed lineages accumulate ∼45% more differentially methylated cytosine positions (DMPs) at CG sites (CG-DMPs) than controls, and also show that while many (∼75%) of these CG-DMPs are inherited, some can be lost in subsequent generations. Finally, we show that stress-associated CG-DMPs arise more frequently in genic than in nongenic regions of the genome. We suggest that commonly encountered natural environmental stresses can accelerate the accumulation and change the profiles of novel inherited variants in plants. Our findings are significant because stress exposure is common among plants in the wild, and they suggest that environmental factors may significantly alter the rates and patterns of incidence of the inherited novel variants that fuel plant evolution.

  16. The effects of dietary phosphorus and vitamin D3 on the cadmium accumulation in the tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruki, Fukiko; Wung, Houi-Ling; Moriuchi, Sachiko; Hosoya, Norimasa

    1979-01-01

    The effects of dietary Ca and vitamin D 3 on the Cd accumulation in the liver and the kidney were observed and discussed in relation with the responses to the intestinal Ca transport and vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP). 1. Ca transport in rat duodenum was significantly increased by vitamin D 3 , especially in rats raised on low P diet. However, this effect was reduced in Cd-exposed rats. 2. 45 Ca binding activity of the smaller CaBP (PIII), which was found predominantly in the duodenum and jejunum was increased by low P diet. However, in Cd-exposed rats, 45 Ca binding activity was suppressed significantly. On the other hand, the larger CaBP (PII) found mainly in jejunum and ileum showed a good response to vitamin D 3 , too, but not influenced by dietary P and Cd levels as the smaller CaBP. 3. Renal Cd accumulation was influenced by neither dietary P nor vitamin D 3 . However, hepatic Cd accumulation was significantly decreased in vitamin D 3 repleted rat, although it was not influenced by dietary P. These results suggest that dietary P modulates the inhibitory effect of Cd on intestinal vitamin D-stimulated Ca transport, presumably through the inhibition of Ca binding to the smaller CaBP (PIII). But Cd accumulation in the liver was decreased in vitamin D repleted groups, presumably, vitamin D dependent CaBP acts as the barrier in the Cd-exposed rats. (author)

  17. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  18. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  19. Optimized inorganic carbon regime for enhanced growth and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Egan J; Gardner, Robert D; Pedersen, Todd; Peyton, Brent M; Cooksey, Keith E; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale algal biofuel production has been limited, among other factors, by the availability of inorganic carbon in the culture medium at concentrations higher than achievable with atmospheric CO2. Life cycle analyses have concluded that costs associated with supplying CO2 to algal cultures are significant contributors to the overall energy consumption. A two-phase optimal growth and lipid accumulation scenario is presented, which (1) enhances the growth rate and (2) the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation rate in the oleaginous Chlorophyte Chlorella vulgaris strain UTEX 395, by growing the organism in the presence of low concentrations of NaHCO3 (5 mM) and controlling the pH of the system with a periodic gas sparge of 5 % CO2 (v/v). Once cultures reached the desired cell densities, which can be "fine-tuned" based on initial nutrient concentrations, cultures were switched to a lipid accumulation metabolism through the addition of 50 mM NaHCO3. This two-phase approach increased the specific growth rate of C. vulgaris by 69 % compared to cultures sparged continuously with 5 % CO2 (v/v); further, biomass productivity (g L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 27 %. Total biodiesel potential [assessed as total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced] was increased from 53.3 to 61 % (FAME biomass(-1)) under the optimized conditions; biodiesel productivity (g FAME L(-1) day(-1)) was increased by 7.7 %. A bicarbonate salt screen revealed that American Chemical Society (ACS) and industrial grade NaHCO3 induced the highest TAG accumulation (% w/w), whereas Na2CO3 did not induce significant TAG accumulation. NH4HCO3 had a negative effect on cell health presumably due to ammonia toxicity. The raw, unrefined form of trona, NaHCO3∙Na2CO3 (sodium sesquicarbonate) induced TAG accumulation, albeit to a slightly lower extent than the more refined forms of sodium bicarbonate. The strategic addition of sodium bicarbonate was found to enhance growth and lipid accumulation rates in

  20. Disponibilidade de fósforo em dois latossolos argilosos e seu acúmulo em plantas de soja, em função do aumento do pH Phosphorus availability in two clayey oxisols and its accumulation in soybean as a function of the increase in pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Viviani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O melhor aproveitamento do P, tanto o aplicado no cultivo quanto o residual do solo, em razão do uso de calcário em solos argilosos cultivados e adubados por muitos anos, pode ser viável. Objetivando avaliar o efeito do aumento do pH do solo e da aplicação de adubo fosfatado e calcário na semeadura sobre a disponibilidade de P e o seu acúmulo em plantas de soja, realizaram-se dois experimentos em Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico-LVD e Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico-LVDf, argilosos, com elevados níveis de fertilidade. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, num fatorial 4x2x2: quatro níveis de pH, duas doses de P e duas de calcário, com quatro repetições. Cultivaram-se plantas de soja em vaso até a floração. Avaliaram-se o peso da massa seca, teor e acúmulo de P na parte aérea; teor de P e P remanescente no solo. A disponibilidade de P nos solos aumentou com a elevação do pH. Para o LVdf, houve interação entre pH e doses de P, os teores de P no solo aumentaram com o pH e com a aplicação de P. Para o LVD, houve interação entre pH e doses de calcário. O P remanescente foi reduzido pelo aumento do pH em ambos os solos. Nos dois experimentos, com o aumento do pH do solo houve incremento na produção de massa seca e de P acumulado. Em solos argilosos e com alto teor de P, a elevação do pH aumenta a disponibilidade de P, proporcionando maior produção de massa seca de soja.The best P employment, both applied in the culture as the P soil residual, is possible, due limestone use in clayey soils cultivated and fertilized for many years. Aiming at evaluating the pH increase in the soil and the effect of the application of phosphated fertilizer and lime on the sowing on the P availability and its accumulation in soybean plants, two experiments in oxisols, Haplortox (one LVD and the other LVDf, with high fertility levels, were carried out. The experimental design was random blocks, in a 4x2x2 factorial, being four

  1. The Tolerance and Accumulation of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus (maxim.) Benth., an Energy Plant Species, to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Huang, Yongjie; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. is a metallophyte suitable for the phytoremediation of mine wastes. The tolerance and accumulation of M. sacchariflorus to cadmium was studied by pot experiments. The results showed that O2·- generation rate, plasma membrane permeability and MDA content of M. sacchariflorus leaves increased with increasing Cd concentrations in soil, but significant effect was only observed when Cd concentrations were ≥50 mg·kg(-1). SOD and POD activities increased initially but decreased later on, whereas CAT activity only increased significantly at higher Cd concentrations, 50-100 mg·kg(-1). The content of photosynthetic pigment and growth of M. sacchariflorus were both not significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≤25 mg·kg(-1). In contrast, both parameters were significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≥50 mg·kg(-1). M. sacchariflorus could accumulate much Cd, but most of the Cd assimilated was retained in the belowground part, suggesting that M. sacchariflorus has poor ability to translocate Cd to the aboveground part. Our results suggested that although M. sacchariflorus was not a hyper-accumulator, it has a strong capacity to tolerate and stabilize the Cd. Therefore, M. sacchariflorus has a certain potential in the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soils.

  2. Carbon accumulation and storage capacity in mangrove sediments three decades after deforestation within a eutrophic bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A; Machado, W; Gutiérrez, D; Borges, A C; Patchineelam, S R; Sanders, C J

    2018-01-01

    A dated sediment core from an eutrophic mangrove area presented non-significant differences in carbon accumulation rates before (55.7±10.2gm -2 yr -1 ) and after three decades of deforestation (59.7±7.2gm -2 yr -1 ). Although eutrophication effects appear to compensate the loss of mangrove organic matter input, the results in this work show a threefold lower carbon accumulation than the global averages estimated for mangrove sediments. The effects of increasing eutrophication and enhanced sediment dry bulk density observed after deforestation (~30% higher) did not result in higher carbon stocks. Moreover, the lower TOC:OP (mangrove deforestation losses on carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  4. [Experimental investigations of 211Am accumulation by macrophytes of the Yenisei River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Zotina, T A

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in which 241Am was added to water samples containing macrophytes of the Yenisei River, and the radionuclide absorption rates and concentration factors were determined for the plants. It has been shown that the water moss (Fontinalis antipyretica) has a higher capacity to accumulate 241Am than the Canadian pondweed (Elodea canadensis) does. The laboratory experiments revealed that the capacity of dead biomass of the Canadian pondweed to accumulate 241Am is twice higher than that of living biomass. In contrast, no significant increase in 241Am accumulation by dead biomass of the water moss has been recorded. The transuranic element 241Am was firmly fixed by the plant biomass and was not released into water in the course of long-duration experiments.

  5. Significant increase of Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficient in Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bi; Yang, Yaodong; Gao, Kun; Wang, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (abbreviated as BTZ-0.5BCT) is a piezoelectric ceramic with a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 (˜620 pC N-1) and has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates to replace PZT-based materials (200-710 pC N-1). However, its Curie temperature TC is relatively low (93 °C) limiting its application. In this letter, we found a temperature dependent Raman spectrum in BTZ-0.5BCT nanofibers (NFs), demonstrating a diffused tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition at 300 °C. This means that the TC of the NFs is nearly 207 °C higher than that of the normal bulk material. The increased TC is considered to be associated with the size effect of BTZ-0.5BCT nanoceramic subunits and the nanoporous nature of the fiber, resulting in discontinuous physical properties. The variation of the ferro/piezoelectricity over the fiber surface is attributed to the polycrystalline structure. The d33 (173.32 pm V-1) is improved in terms of the decreased Q factor result in an increase in d33 of 236.54 pm V-1 after polarization. With a high TC and a very large d33, BTZ-0.5BCT NFs are capable of providing electromechanical behavior used in moderate temperatures.

  6. Guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression is increased following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but guanylins do not play a significant role in body weight regulation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cachon, María L; Pedersen, Søren L; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether intestinal expression of guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A) and guanylate cyclase activator 2B (GUCA2B) genes is regulated in obese humans following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to evaluate the corresponding guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) peptides...... for potentially contributing to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB. METHODS: Enteroendocrine cells were harvested peri- and post-RYGB, and GUCA2A/GUCA2B mRNA expression was compared. GN, UGN and their prohormones (proGN, proUGN) were administered subcutaneously in normal-weight mice to evaluate effects...... on food intake. GN and UGN, as well as their prohormones, were evaluated for effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat pancreatic islets and perfused rat pancreas. RESULTS: GUCA2A and GUCA2B mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in enteroendocrine cells after RYGB. Peripheral...

  7. Cadmium accumulation and elimination in tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after sub-chronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Jee, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2004-01-01

    Cd accumulation and elimination in tissue of olive flounder. - Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation and elimination of cadmium (Cd) in tissues (gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle) of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 μg l -1 ) of Cd. Cd exposure resulted in an increased Cd accumulation in tissues of flounder with exposure periods and concentration, and Cd accumulation in gill and liver increased linearly with the exposure time. At 20 days of Cd exposure, the order of Cd accumulation in organs was gill > intestine > liver > kidney > muscle and after 30 days of exposure, those were intestine > gill > liver > kidney > muscle. An inverse relationship was observed between the accumulation factor (AF) and the exposure level, but AF showed an increase with exposure time. During the depuration periods, Cd concentration in the gill, intestine and liver decreased immediately following the end of the exposure periods. No significant difference was found Cd in concentration in the kidney and muscle during depuration periods. The order of Cd elimination rate in organs were decreased intestine > liver > gill during depuration periods

  8. Accumulation of nitrogen and organic matter during primary succession of Leymus arenarius dunes on the volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansdottir, G.; Aradottir, A. L.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-05-01

    The volcanic island of Surtsey has been a natural laboratory where the primary succession of flora and fauna has been monitored, since it emerged from the N-Atlantic Ocean in 1963. We quantified the accumulation rates of nitrogen (N) and soil organic matter (SOM) in a 37 year long chronosequence of Leymus arenarius dunes in order to illuminate the spatiotemporal patterns in their build-up in primary succession. The Leymus dune area, volume and height grew exponentially over time. Aboveground plant biomass, cover or number of shoots per unit area did not change significantly with time, but root biomass accumulated with time, giving a root-shoot ratio of 19. The dunes accumulated on average 6.6 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was 3.5 times more than is received annually by atmospheric deposition. The extensive root system of Leymus seems to effectively retain and accumulate large part of the annual N deposition, not only deposition directly on the dunes but also from the adjacent unvegetated areas. SOM per unit area increased exponentially with dune age, but the accumulation of roots, aboveground biomass and SOM was more strongly linked to soil N than time: 1 g m-2 increase in soil N led on the average to 6 kg C m-2 increase in biomass and SOM. The Leymus dunes, where most of the N has been accumulated, will therefore probably act as hot-spots for further primary succession of flora and fauna on the tephra sands of Surtsey.

  9. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  10. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  11. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  12. Nutrient accumulation models in the banana (Musa AAA Simmonds cv Williams plant under nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Torres Bazurto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research determined the effect of four nitrogen (N doses on the nutritional behavior of (N, potassium (K, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, respectively, in banana Williams, during five plant development stages and two productive cycles. The treatments were as follows: 1 absolute control, 2 0 N, 3 161 kg N ha-1, 4 321.8 kg N ha-1 and 5 483 kg N ha-1, respectively. A multivariate approach of the differences among cycles was used to adjust the models and eliminate their individual effect, with a randomized complete block design with repeated measurements over time. There were significant differences among plant development stages, with an increase in nutrient accumulation in the banana plant, there were no differences among treatments or blocks, nor in the interaction block by treatment, but the dose of 321.8 kg of N, exhibited a fructification increase in terms of N accumulation, harvest was exceeded by the dose of 483 kg of nitrogen, Ca and Mg, were the other nutrients, which showed effect at the dose of 483 kg of N but increasing only to harvest. It was concluded that high doses of nitrogen showed a trend to increase nutrient accumulation during the development of the banana plant, but especially until fructification, with the exception of Ca and Mg, which achieved the greatest accumulation in harvest.

  13. Cadmium Accumulation and Its Toxicity in Brittle Culm 1 (bc1, a Fragile Rice Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-sheng SHAO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation and toxicity in rice plants were characterized and identified by using brittle culm 1 (bc1, a fragile rice mutant and its wild type (Shuangkezao, an indica rice as materials by hydroponics. The low Cd level didn't obviously affect the growth parameters in both rice genotypes, but under high Cd levels (1.0 and 5.0 μmol/L, the growth of both rice plants were substantially inhibited. Moreover, bc1 tended to suffer more seriously from Cd toxicity than Shuangkezao. Cd accumulation in both rice plants increased with the increase of Cd levels. There was a significant difference in Cd accumulation between the two rice genotypes with constantly higher Cd concentration in bc1, which also accumulated more Cd at 0, 0.1, and 1.0 μmol/L Cd levels. The same case was found in the two rice plants grown on Cd-contaminated soil. This suggested that cell wall might play an important role in Cd accumulation in rice plants by the physiological mechanisms. The malondialdehyde (MDA content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities in rice plants were affected differently under Cd treatments, and which implied that POD might play the main role in detoxifying active oxygen free radical. A significant difference in antioxidative system between the two rice genotypes was found with constantly higher MDA content, SOD and POD activities in bc1. In summary, bc1 accumulated more Cd and appeared to be more sensitive to Cd stress compared with its wild type.

  14. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Gaurav; Majumdar, Abha; Lall, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C.; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis. PMID:27382234

  16. Wpływ niektórych detergentów na przyrost biomasy Solanum lycopersicum i Scenedesmus quadricauda oraz na akumulację składników mineralnych u tych roślin [The effect of some detergents on the increase in biomass and the accumulation of mineral components in Solanum lycopersicum and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Gumiński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on water cultures of tomato seedlings and Scenedesmus quadricauda colonies have shown that low doses of the detergents stimulate the growth of these plants. An intensified accumulation of N, P, Ca, Mg, Fe and a reduced accumulation of K-ions have been observed.

  17. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  18. Flow field induced particle accumulation inside droplets in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Michael; Moskopp, Michael; Seemann, Ralf

    2015-07-07

    Particle concentration is a basic operation needed to perform washing steps or to improve subsequent analysis in many (bio)-chemical assays. In this article we present field free, hydrodynamic accumulation of particles and cells in droplets flowing within rectangular micro-channels. Depending on droplet velocity, particles either accumulate at the rear of the droplet or are dispersed over the entire droplet cross-section. We show that the observed particle accumulation behavior can be understood by a coupling of particle sedimentation to the internal flow field of the droplet. The changing accumulation patterns are explained by a qualitative change of the internal flow field. The topological change of the internal flow field, however, is explained by the evolution of the droplet shape with increasing droplet velocity altering the friction with the channel walls. In addition, we demonstrate that accumulated particles can be concentrated, removing excess dispersed phase by splitting the droplet at a simple channel junction.

  19. The contribution of bnnrt1 and bnnrt2 to nitrate accumulation varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... stronger ability to assimilate absorbed nitrate in SYM than the low accumulator, HGQGC. Key words: ... studied the mechanism of nitrate accumulation in plant ..... Elevated carbon dioxide increases nitrate uptake and nitrate.

  20. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  1. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Chuang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the 228 Th/ 228 Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  3. Unrecorded capital flows and accumulation of foreign assets: the case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the magnitude of unrecorded capital flows and the resulting unrecorded accumulation of foreign assets for Croatia, over the period between 2000 and 2007. The problem of unrecorded capital outflows, often labeled as capital flight, has gained significance in the present global financial and economic crises, because of increasing capital scarcity in many emerging markets and transition economies including Croatia. The findings reveal relatively large amounts of unrecorded foreign asset accumulation over the observed period. A large portion of this accumulation relates to cumulative amounts of net errors and omissions term, which is interpreted as unrecorded capital flow. There are reasons to believe that this net errors and omissions item in Croatia possibly partly represents the unrecorded accumulation of foreign cash from foreign tourist spending, and/or partly results from overstated tourism income in the official statistics.However, even after excluding this item from the calculation of capital flight, the remaining unrecorded accumulation of foreign assets over the period is still substantial. Consequently, if these unrecorded flows are taken into account, Croatia’s net international investment position is improved.

  4. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  5. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  6. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  7. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  8. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report...... were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  10. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  11. Hyperthyroidism evokes myocardial ceramide accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikłosz, Agnieszka; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Chabowski, Adrian; Rogowski, Filip; Kurek, Krzysztof; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3) at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excised. We have demonstrated that prolonged, in vivo, T3 treatment increased the content of sphinganine (SFA), sphingosine (SFO), ceramide (CER) and sphingomyelin (SM), but decreased the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cardiac muscle. Accordingly, the changes in sphingolipids content were accompanied by a lesser activity of neutral sphingomyelinase and without significant changes in ceramidases activity. Hyperthyroidism also induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with subsequently increased expression of mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), carnityne palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α). We conclude that prolonged T3 treatment increases sphingolipids metabolism which is reflected by higher concentration of SFA and CER in heart muscle. Furthermore, hyperthyroidism-induced increase in heart sphingomyelin (SM) concentration might be one of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of CER at relatively low level by its conversion to SM together with decreased S1P content. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  13. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  14. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate reduces calcium accumulation in rat brain endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain cells expend large amounts of energy sequestering calcium (Ca2+, while loss of Ca2+ compartmentalization leads to cell damage or death. Upon cell entry, glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P, a parent substrate to several metabolic major pathways, including glycolysis. In several tissues, G6P alters the ability of the endoplasmic reticulum to sequester Ca2+. This led to the hypothesis that G6P regulates Ca2+ accumulation by acting as an endogenous ligand for sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA. Whole brain ER microsomes were pooled from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using radio-isotopic assays, 45Ca2+ accumulation was quantified following incubation with increasing amounts of G6P, in the presence or absence of thapsigargin, a potent SERCA inhibitor. To qualitatively assess SERCA activity, the simultaneous release of inorganic phosphate (Pi coupled with Ca2+ accumulation was quantified. Addition of G6P significantly and decreased Ca2+ accumulation in a dose-dependent fashion (1-10 mM. The reduction in Ca2+ accumulation was not significantly different that seen with addition of thapsigargin. Addition of glucose-1-phosphate or fructose-6-phosphate, or other glucose metabolic pathway intermediates, had no effect on Ca2+ accumulation. Further, the release of Pi was markedly decreased, indicating G6P-mediated SERCA inhibition as the responsible mechanism for reduced Ca2+ uptake. Simultaneous addition of thapsigargin and G6P did decrease inorganic phosphate in comparison to either treatment alone, which suggests that the two treatments have different mechanisms of action. Therefore, G6P may be a novel, endogenous regulator of SERCA activity. Additionally, pathological conditions observed during disease states that disrupt glucose homeostasis, may be attributable to Ca2+ dystasis caused by altered G6P regulation of SERCA activity

  16. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  17. The Effects of Gouge Accumulation on High Speed Rock Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbery, M. R.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.; Saber, O.

    2016-12-01

    Previous experiments demonstrate that a significant reduction in the coefficient of sliding friction typically occurs as sliding velocity approaches seismic slip rates and that weakening may reflect flash heating of surface contacts. Experiments also show differences in the weakening behavior of bare rock and gouge-lined surfaces across different rock types. We conducted high-speed velocity-step (VS) experiments on ground surfaces of granite (Westerly) and quartzite (Sioux) using a double-direct shear (DDS) configuration, with a sliding area of 75cm2, to investigate the effects of gouge generation and accumulation on frictional weakening behavior. Sliding surface temperatures were measured using a high-speed infrared camera. Experiments were conducted at 7-9 MPa normal stress and achieved VS from 1 mm/s up to 1 m/s at high acceleration (100g) over a small distance ( 2 mm), and with sustained high-speed sliding for 30 mm. Successive experiments were run without disassembling the blocks or disturbing the sliding surfaces to generate and accumulate gouge for cumulative displacements up to 0.5 m. Locally high temperatures were observed correlating to corrugated structures within the gouge. For VS tests on bare granite, we observed an abrupt decrease in the coefficient of friction from 0.7 at quasi-static slip rates to 0.5 at m/s slip rates, and a typical weakening distance, dc, of 3 mm. This observation is consistent with rotary shear experiments conducted at similar displacements, accelerations, and sliding velocities. With the accumulation of gouge along the sliding surface, dc progressively increases to 2 cm. In contrast, VS tests on bare quartzite produce an abrupt increase in friction, from 0.65 to 0.7 within 1 mm of slip, followed by gradual weakening for the duration of high-speed sliding. With the accumulation of quartz gouge, similar behavior is observed, but with a slightly greater magnitude of strengthening. The results for quartzite are unlike those

  18. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shujuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Wang, Kelin, E-mail: kelin@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Pan, Fujing [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Shan [Changsha university, Changsha 410003 (China); Shu, Shiyan [Changjiang Project Supervision & Consultancy Co. Ltd, Wuhan 430010 (China); Changjiang Ecology (Hubei) Technology Development LLC, Wuhan 430010 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P < 0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10 g·kg{sup −1} in grassland to 73.92 g·kg{sup −1} in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. - Highlights: • Vegetation restoration is conducive to soil carbon sequestration in karst areas. • The factors controlling SOC accumulation differed along vegetation succession. • The interaction effect among significant factors became more and more prominent along succession.

  19. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  20. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  1. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  2. Significantly increased lifetime of recent microchannel-plate photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britting, Alexander; Eyrich, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Albert; Uhlig, Fred [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-channel plate photo multipliers (MCP-PMT) are the favored sensors for the DIRC detectors (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light) of the PANDA experiment. The main reasons for this are their usability in high magnetic fields of up to 2 T, a time resolution of better than σ = 50 ps and a rate capability high enough to withstand a detected photon rate of about 200 kHz cm{sup -2} at the MCP-PMTs surface, which is anticipated at the average luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in PANDA. Moreover, for the reconstruction of the Cherenkov angle using the planned optics for the barrel DIRC a spatial resolution of about 5 mm at the focal plane is needed. Until recently the major drawback of MCP-PMTs was their limited lifetime which was by far not sufficient to stand the integrated anode charge, which is ∼ 5 C/cm{sup 2} for the Barrel-DIRC and even more for the Disc-DIRC. However, the latest MCP prototype devices show a hugh step forward in this respect. The results of these lifetime measurements are presented. The achieved values are meanwhile close to the PANDA requirements for the Barrel-DIRC.

  3. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  4. Shifts in Summertime Precipitation Accumulation Distributions over the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villalobos, C.; Neelin, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation accumulations, i.e., the amount of precipitation integrated over the course of an event, is a variable with both important physical and societal implications. Previous observational studies show that accumulation distributions have a characteristic shape, with an approximately power law decrease at first, followed by a sharp decrease at a characteristic large event cutoff scale. This cutoff scale is important as it limits the biggest accumulation events. Stochastic prototypes show that the resulting distributions, and importantly the large event cutoff scale, can be understood as a result of the interplay between moisture loss by precipitation and changes in moisture sinks/sources due to fluctuations in moisture divergence over the course of a precipitation event. The strength of this fluctuating moisture sink/source term is expected to increase under global warming, with both theory and climate model simulations predicting a concomitant increase in the large event cutoff scale. This cutoff scale increase has important consequences as it implies an approximately exponential increase for the largest accumulation events. Given its importance, in this study we characterize and track changes in the distribution of precipitation events accumulations over the contiguous US. Accumulation distributions are calculated using hourly precipitation data from 1700 stations, covering the 1974-2013 period over May-October. The resulting distributions largely follow the aforementioned shape, with individual cutoff scales depending on the local climate. An increase in the large event cutoff scale over this period is observed over several regions over the US, most notably over the eastern third of the US. In agreement with the increase in the cutoff, almost exponential increases in the highest accumulation percentiles occur over these regions, with increases in the 99.9 percentile in the Northeast of 70% for example. The relationship to changes in daily precipitation

  5. Beam accumulation with the SIS electron cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Groening, L.; Blasche, K.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Winkler, T.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    An electron cooling system has started operation in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS which is used to increase the intensity for highly charged ions. Fast transverse cooling of the hot ion beam after horizontal multiturn injection allows beam accumulation at the injection energy. After optimization of the accumulation process an intensity increase in a synchrotron pulse by more than one order of magnitude has been achieved. For highly charged ions the maximum number of particles has been increased from 1x10 8 to 1x10 9 . For lighter ions intensity limitations have been encountered which are caused by the high phase space density of the cooled ion beam. Momentum spreads in the 10 -4 range and emittances well below 10 π mm mrad have been demonstrated. Recombination losses both in the residual gas and with the free cooler electrons determine the maximum intensity for highly charged ions. Systematic measurements of the recombination rates have been performed providing data for an optimum choice of the charge state. Strong enhancement of the recombination rate with free electrons compared to theoretical calculations of radiative electron capture have been observed

  6. Endogenously generated plasmin at the vascular wall injury site amplifies lysine binding site-dependent plasminogen accumulation in microthrombi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzoska

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hemostasis; however, it remains unclear how and when the system is triggered to induce thrombolysis. Using intra-vital confocal fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the process of plasminogen binding to laser-induced platelet-rich microthrombi generated in the mesenteric vein of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. The accumulation of GFP-expressing platelets as well as exogenously infused Alexa Fluor 568-labeled Glu-plasminogen (Glu-plg on the injured vessel wall was assessed by measuring the increase in the corresponding fluorescence intensities. Glu-plg accumulated in a time-dependent manner in the center of the microthrombus, where phosphatidylserine is exposed on platelet surfaces and fibrin formation takes place. The rates of binding of Glu-plg in the presence of ε-aminocaproic acid and carboxypeptidase B, as well as the rates of binding of mini-plasminogen lacking kringle domains 1-4 and lysine binding sites, were significantly lower than that of Glu-plg alone, suggesting that the binding was dependent on lysine binding sites. Furthermore, aprotinin significantly suppressed the accumulation of Glu-plg, suggesting that endogenously generated plasmin activity is a prerequisite for the accumulation. In spite of the endogenous generation of plasmin and accumulation of Glu-plg in the center of microthrombi, the microthrombi did not change in size during the 2-hour observation period. When human tissue plasminogen activator was administered intravenously, Glu-plg further accumulated and the microthrombi were lysed. Glu-plg appeared to accumulate in the center of microthrombi in the early phase of microthrombus formation, and plasmin activity and lysine binding sites were required for this accumulation.

  7. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  8. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  9. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  10. Tobacco randomly inserted tt8 differenly enhance light signals and flavonoid accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sompornpailin, K.; Kanthang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The individual lines of tobacco over-expressing TT8, a bHLH gene, were constructed and cultured under tissue culture condition radiating with photosynthetically activation radiation (PAR) or PAR+UVA. They were compared to wild type (WT). Leaf of treated plants was extracted and analyzed for flavonoid accumulations using a spectrophotometer. The extract of TT8 plants significantly contained flavone, flavonol and anthocyanin level, higher than the WT extract did. The petal extracts of mature transgenic under PAR had a similar absorbance profile of each substance, but these extracts had higher flavonoid contents than the leaf extracts did. All flavonoid subgroups and p-coumaric acid biosynthesis were significantly enhanced after the additional UVA radiation to plant. This UVA condition slightly stimulated an accumulation of these substances in normal plant. Some transgenic greatly increased flavonoid accumulation in responding to PAR+UVA, but the others were slightly different compared to WT. The distinct insertion site is directly affected TT8 gene expression. Transgenic seeds had a dark brown color more than WT seed, which indicated high content of polymer flavonoids (proanthocyanins). This over-expressing TT8 in transgenic tobacco may directly or indirectly enhance the signal transductions of PAR and UVA and raise up flavonoid accumulation. (author)

  11. Correlation between calcium and phosphate levels to calculus accumulation on coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahaya, Cindy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a disease that happened because of blood flow being blocked by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a process of hardening of the arteries which characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the intimal layer of vascular wall, by lipid deposit. Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease caused by microorganism and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus leading to tooth loss. Many studies use saliva as a valuable source for clinically information, as an asset for early diagnosis, prognostic and reviewer for pascatherapy status. Dental calculus had happened as a consequence of saliva supersaturation by calcium and phosphate. Salivary flow rate and its composition influence the formation of calculus. Increasing salivary calcium levels is characteristic of periodontitis patients. An important hipotesis in Cardiology is chronic infections contribute in atherosclerosis. Objective: To analyse the correlation between calcium and phosphate levels in saliva to calculus accumulation on CHD patients. Result: Correlation analysis between salivary calcium levels with calculus accumulation in patients with CHD and non-CHD showed no significant p value, p=0.59 and p=0.518. Correlation analysis between salivary phosphate levels and calculus accumulation showed no significant p value, p=0.836 for CHD patients and p=0.484 for non-CHD patients. Conclusion: There are no correlation between calcium levels and phosphate levels with calculus accumulation in CHD patients. Further research need to be done.

  12. Effects of age on muscarinic agonist-induced contraction an IP accumulation in airway smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills-Karp, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age on carbachol-stimulated force development and [ 3 H]inositol phosphate production was studied in tracheal rings from guinea pigs aged 1 month and 25 months of age. The pD 2 for the contractile response to carbachol was significantly reduced in tracheal tissues from old animals as compared to that of the young tissues, respectively. In contrast, inositol phosphate formation was not altered with increasing age when stimulated by carbachol or NaF, a direct activator of G proteins. Carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation was inhibited by treatment with 1μg/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that IP1 accumulation is coupled to a pertussis-toxin-sensitive protein. The pD 2 values for contraction were significantly different from the pD 2 values for IP1 accumulation, in both young and old tissues, respectively. These data suggest that IP1 accumulation is not responsible for the decreased contractile ability in tracheal smooth muscle during aging

  13. Effects of age on muscarinic agonist-induced contraction an IP accumulation in airway smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills-Karp, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age on carbachol-stimulated force development and ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production was studied in tracheal rings from guinea pigs aged 1 month and 25 months of age. The pD{sub 2} for the contractile response to carbachol was significantly reduced in tracheal tissues from old animals as compared to that of the young tissues, respectively. In contrast, inositol phosphate formation was not altered with increasing age when stimulated by carbachol or NaF, a direct activator of G proteins. Carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation was inhibited by treatment with 1{mu}g/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that IP1 accumulation is coupled to a pertussis-toxin-sensitive protein. The pD{sub 2} values for contraction were significantly different from the pD{sub 2} values for IP1 accumulation, in both young and old tissues, respectively. These data suggest that IP1 accumulation is not responsible for the decreased contractile ability in tracheal smooth muscle during aging.

  14. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is required. By studying mineral accumulation in different organs within genetically diverse members of the same species, it may be possible to identify variable traits that modulate seed mineral concentration. We utilized two ecotypes (A17 and DZA315.16 of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, to study dry mass and mineral accumulation in the leaves, pod walls, and seeds during reproductive development. The pod wall dry mass was significantly different between the two ecotypes beginning at 12 days after pollination, whereas there was no significant difference in the average dry mass of individual seeds between the two ecotypes at any time point. There were also no significant differences in leaf dry mass between ecotypes; however, we observed expansion of A17 leaves during the first 21 days of pod development, while DZA315.16 leaves did not display a significant increase in leaf area. Mineral profiling of the leaves, pod walls, and seeds highlighted differences in accumulation patterns among minerals within each tissue as well as genotypic differences with respect to individual minerals. Because there were differences in the average seed number per pod, the total seed mineral content per pod was generally higher in A17 than DZA315.16. In addition, mineral partitioning to the seeds tended to be higher in A17 pods. These data revealed that mineral retention within leaves and/or pod walls might attenuate mineral accumulation within the seeds. As a result, strategies to increase seed mineral content should include approaches that will enhance export from these tissues.

  15. Salinity-dependent nickel accumulation and oxidative stress responses in the euryhaline killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of nickel (Ni) toxicity in marine fish remain unclear, although evidence from freshwater (FW) fish suggests that Ni can act as a pro-oxidant. This study investigated the oxidative stress effects of Ni on the euryhaline killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) as a function of salinity. Killifish were exposed to sublethal levels (5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) of waterborne Ni for 96 h in FW (0 ppt) and 100 % saltwater (SW) (35 ppt). In general, SW was protective against both Ni accumulation and indicators of oxidative stress [protein carbonyl formation and catalase (CAT) activity]. This effect was most pronounced at the highest Ni exposure level. For example, FW intestine showed increased Ni accumulation relative to SW intestine at 20 mg Ni L(-1), and this was accompanied by significantly greater protein carbonylation and CAT activity in this tissue. There were exceptions, however, in that although liver of FW killifish at the highest exposure concentration showed greater Ni accumulation relative to SW liver, levels of CAT activity were greatly decreased. This may relate to tissue- and salinity-specific differences in oxidative stress responses. The results of the present study suggest (1) that there was Ni-induced oxidative stress in killifish, (2) that the effects of salinity depend on differences in the physiology of the fish in FW versus SW, and (3) that increased levels of cations (sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) and anions (SO4 and Cl) in SW are likely protective against Ni accumulation in tissues exposed to the aquatic environment.

  16. Hyperthyroidism Evokes Myocardial Ceramide Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid hormones (THs are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3 at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excised. Results: We have demonstrated that prolonged, in vivo, T3 treatment increased the content of sphinganine (SFA, sphingosine (SFO, ceramide (CER and sphingomyelin (SM, but decreased the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P in cardiac muscle. Accordingly, the changes in sphingolipids content were accompanied by a lesser activity of neutral sphingomyelinase and without significant changes in ceramidases activity. Hyperthyroidism also induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK with subsequently increased expression of mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD, carnityne palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α. Conclusions: We conclude that prolonged T3 treatment increases sphingolipids metabolism which is reflected by higher concentration of SFA and CER in heart muscle. Furthermore, hyperthyroidism-induced increase in heart sphingomyelin (SM concentration might be one of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of CER at relatively low level by its conversion to SM together with decreased S1P content.

  17. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 20 0 C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  18. Adipocyte and leptin accumulation in tumor-induced thymic involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alejandro; Lopez, Elena; Carrio, Roberto; Lopez, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is an important defense mechanism against pathogens and developing tumor cells. The thymus is the main lymphoid organ involved in the formation of the cell-mediated immune response by the maturation and differentiation of lymphocytes that travel from the bone marrow, through the lymphatic ducts, to become T lymphocytes. Thymic involution has been associated with aging; however, other factors such as obesity, viral infection and tumor development have been shown to increase the rate of shrinkage of this organ. The heavy infiltration of adipocyte fat cells has been reported in the involuted thymuses of aged mice. In the present study, the possible accumulation of such cells in the thymus during tumorigenesis was examined by immunohistochemistry. A significant number of adipocytes around and infiltrating the thymuses of tumor-bearing mice was observed. Leptin is a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine that enhances thymopoiesis and modulates T cell immune responses. The levels of leptin and adiponectin, another adipocytokine that has anti-inflammatory properties, were examined by western blot analysis. While no changes were observed in the amounts of adiponectin present in the thymuses of the normal and tumor-bearing mice, significantly higher levels of leptin were detected in the thymocytes of the tumor-bearing mice. This correlated with an increase in the expression of certain cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The co-culture of thymocytes isolated from normal mice with ex vivo isolated adipocytes from tumor-bearing mice yielded similar results. Our findings suggest that the infiltration and accumulation of adipocytes in the thymuses of tumor-bearing mice play an important role in their altered morphology and functions.

  19. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  20. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on accumulation of catechins in tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of UV-B irradiation time on accumulation of foliar catechins in two tea cultivars was investigated. Low influence rate and short term irradiation of UV-B stimulated accumulation of major tea catechins, resulting in an increase in level of total catechins. Excessive irradiation of UV-B supressed the accumulation of tea ...

  1. Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maserti, B.E.; Ferrillo, V.; Avdis, O.; Nesti, U.; Di Garbo, A.; Catsiki, A.; Maestrini, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica

  2. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  3. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total