Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D
Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.
Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.
This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.
Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.
Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki
Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the
Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.
Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be
Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory
Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi
Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the
Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.
Background/Objectives To evaluate the associations of sensory impairments with the 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. Previous work has primarily focused on the relationship between a single sensory system and cognition. Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, WI community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up exams have been conducted every 5 years. Setting General community Participants EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998–2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age = 66.7 years) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Measurements Cognitive impairment was a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) of > 25 decibel Hearing Level in either ear. Visual impairment was Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk [Hearing: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 1.11, 3.26; Vision: HR = 2.05, 95% C.I. = 1.24, 3.38; Olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% C.I. = 2.45, 6.26]. However, 85% with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Conclusion The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system suggesting sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. PMID:27611845
Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia
Walvoort, S.J.; Wester, A.J.; Doorakkers, M.C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.
BACKGROUND: It is evident from the dsm-iv-tr that alcohol-related impairment is extremely difficult to classify accurately. As a result, cognitive deficits can easily be overlooked. The dsm-5, however, incorporates a new category, namely 'neurocognitive disorders', which may lead to significant
Dillon, Carol; Serrano, Cecilia M; Castro, Diego; Leguizamón, Patricio Perez; Heisecke, Silvina L; Taragano, Fernando E
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct 'MBI' and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI) and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
Segboer, Christine L.; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Gevorgyan, Artur; Hellings, Peter W.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Fokkens, Wytske J.
In contrast to the well-known significant impairment of quality of life (QoL) in allergic rhinitis (AR), the degree of impairment in QoL in non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) remained unknown for a long time, due to a lack of a validated questionnaire to assess QoL in the NAR patient group. In this study a
Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A
This study examined the construct validity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychologic distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across 2 samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically "meets" criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (n = 152) was composed of individuals receiving psychiatric treatment, whereas sample 2 (n = 151) was composed of both psychiatric patients (46%) and individuals from the community. Narcissistic personality disorder was linked to ratings of depression, anxiety, and several measures of impairment both concurrently and at 6-month follow-up. However, the relations between NPD and psychologic distress were (a) small, especially in concurrent measurements, and (b) largely mediated by impaired functioning. Narcissistic personality disorder was most strongly related to causing pain and suffering to others, and this relationship was significant even when other Cluster B personality disorders were controlled. These findings suggest that NPD is a maladaptive personality style which primarily causes dysfunction and distress in interpersonal domains. The behavior of narcissistic individuals ultimately leads to problems and distress for the narcissistic individuals and for those with whom they interact.
...; medication used to allay the side effects of certain treatments; radiation treatment or chemotherapy for cancer patients; corrective surgery for spinal impairments; electroencephalograms and brain scans related... examinations, optician services (unrelated to a disabling visual impairment) and dental examinations. (6...
Nov 9, 2012 ... related impairments in hearing-impaired children. Venkadesan ..... referenced vision, fixed support; (4) eyes open, sway-referenced support; (5) eyes ..... Canada: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research;. 1997. 29.
Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0704 TITLE: Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility Impairment...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing ...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. METHODS: 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N; measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. RESULTS: Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%. In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 1.010-1.097, p = 0.015, Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR = 1.247, 95% CI = 1.024-1.517, p = 0.028, and vocabulary (OR = 0.960, 95% CI = 0.936-0.984, p = 0.001, while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed.
Armstrong, Kristan; Williams, Lisa E; Heckers, Stephan
Patients with schizophrenia have widespread cognitive impairments, with selective deficits in relational memory. We previously reported a differential relational memory deficit in schizophrenia using the Associative Inference Paradigm (AIP), a task suggested by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative to examine relational memory. However, the AIP had limited feasibility for testing in schizophrenia because of high attrition of schizophrenia patients during training. Here we developed and tested a revised version of the AIP to improve feasibility. 30 healthy control and 37 schizophrenia subjects received 3 study-test sessions on 3 sets of paired associates: H-F1 (house paired with face), H-F2 (same house paired with new face), and F3-F4 (two novel faces). After training, subjects were tested on the trained, noninferential Face-Face pairs (F3-F4) and novel, inferential Face-Face pairs (F1-F2), constructed from the faces of the trained House-Face pairs. Schizophrenia patients were significantly more impaired on the inferential F1-F2 pairs than the noninferential F3-F4 pairs, providing evidence for a differential relational memory deficit. Only 8% of schizophrenia patients were excluded from testing because of poor training performance. The revised AIP confirmed the previous finding of a relational memory deficit in a larger and more representative sample of schizophrenia patients.
Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Gill, Pashyca C; Fear, Nicola T
Since the start of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, the numbers of young service personnel who have sustained a combat-related visual impairment have increased. This cross-sectional study examined the mental well-being of ex-servicemen (aged 22-55 years) with a visual impairment and determined if the mental health of those with a combat-related visual impairment differed from those whose visual impairment is not combat-related. Male ex-service personnel with a visual impairment completed a telephone interview assessing the presence of depressive symptomatology, probable anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and alcohol misuse. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 77 participants were included in the study, reflecting a response rate of 76.2%. Of those with complete data (n=74), 20 ex-servicemen had a combat-related visual impairment. Among ex-service personnel with a combat-related visual impairment, 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) screened positive for a probable depression, 25.0% (95% CI 6.0 to 44.0) for probable anxiety and 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable depression and probable PTSD differed among those with a non-combat-related visual impairment, namely 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) and 16.7% (95% CI 6.8 to 26.7), respectively. Probable anxiety was 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) among non-combat-related visually impaired ex-service personnel. 45.0% (95% CI 23.2 to 66.8) of combat-related visually impaired personnel reported hazardous drinking, compared with 20.4% (95% CI 9.7 to 31.2) of those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Mental health problems were prevalent among visually impaired younger ex-servicemen. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems among ex-servicemen with a combat-related visual impairment compared with those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Dillon, Carol; Tartaglini, María Florencia; Stefani, Dorina; Salgado, Pablo; Taragano, Fernando E; Allegri, Ricardo F
Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late life; many of them have cognitive impairment and sometimes it is difficult to differentiate them from dementia. This research aimed to investigate subtypes of geriatric depression associated with cognitive impairment, searched for differential variables and tried to propose a study model. A hundred and eighteen depressive patients and forty normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery, scales to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms and daily life activities (DLA). Depressive patients were classified in groups by SCAN 2.1: Major Depression Disorder (MDD) (n: 31), Dysthymia Disorder (DD) (n: 31), Subsyndromal Depression Disorder (SSD) (n: 29), Depression due to Dementia (n: 27) (DdD). Neuropsychological significant differences (pdepressive groups, demonstrating distinctive cognitive profiles. Moreover, significant differences (pdepression. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were significant variables that helped to differentiate depressive groups. Significant correlations between BDI and Neuropsychological tests were found in MDD and DD groups. Depressive symptoms and its relation with neuropsychological variables, MMSE, cognitive profiles, DLA and age of onset of depression should be taken into consideration for the study of subtypes of geriatric depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shang, Xueliang; Shang, Yingchun; Fu, Jingxuan; Zhang, Tao
The aim of this study was to examine if nicotine was able to improve cognition deficits in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control, stress, and stress with nicotine treatment. The animal model was established by combining chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and isolated feeding. Mice were exposed to CUMS continued for 28 days, while nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) was also administrated for 28 days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. The anxiety and behavioral despair were analyzed using the forced swim test (FST) and open-field test (OFT). Spatial cognition was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following behavioral assessment, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP) were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both synaptic and Notch1 proteins were measured by Western. Nicotine increased stressed mouse's sucrose consumption. The MWM test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in stressed animals were remarkably affected relative to controls, whereas nicotine partially rescued cognitive functions. Additionally, nicotine considerably alleviated the level of anxiety and the degree of behavioral despair in stressed mice. It effectively mitigated the depression-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and DEP were significantly inhibited in stressed mice. Moreover, nicotine enhanced the expression of synaptic and Notch1 proteins in stressed animals. The results suggest that nicotine ameliorates the depression-like symptoms and improves the hippocampal synaptic plasticity closely associated with activating transmembrane ion channel receptors and Notch signaling components. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na
Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089
Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M
Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p 0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have
Thoma, Patrizia; Hennecke, Marie; Mandok, Tobias; Wähner, Alfred; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg; Daum, Irene
The study aimed to investigate the pattern of proverb comprehension impairment and its relationship to proverb familiarity and executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. To assess the specificity of the impairment pattern to schizophrenia, alcohol-dependent patients were included as a psychiatric comparison group, as deficits of executive function and theory of mind as well as dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, which have been related to proverb comprehension difficulties, are common in both disorders. Twenty-four schizophrenia patients, 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 34 healthy controls were administered a multiple-choice proverb interpretation task incorporating ratings of subjective familiarity and measures of executive function. Schizophrenia patients chose the correct abstract and meaningful interpretations less frequently and instead chose the incorrect concrete (both meaningless and meaningful) proverb interpretations more often than alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients also chose more abstract-meaningless response alternatives and were impaired in all executive domains. Impaired divided attention was most consistently associated with proverb interpretation deficits in both patient groups. Taken together, schizophrenia patients showed a specific pattern of proverb comprehension impairments related to executive dysfunction and symptoms. The comparison with the alcohol-dependent subgroup suggests that a more comprehensive and severe impairment of complex higher-order cognitive functions including executive behavioural control and non-literal language comprehension might be associated with frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia as compared to alcohol use disorder.
Yamada, Keiko; Takeda, Takashi
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance. Total protein, animal protein, and plant protein intake were examined, and the proportion of dietary plant protein was calculated for each participant. We divided athletes into two groups: those without PMS-related impairment of athletic performance (n = 117) and those with PMS-related performance impairment (n = 18). A t-test was used to compare mean values and multivariable adjusted mean values between groups; adjustment variables were energy intake, body mass index, and daily training duration. Total protein intake was not significantly different between the groups. However, athletes whose performance was affected by PMS reported higher intake of animal protein (mean 50.6 g) than athletes whose performance was unaffected by PMS (mean 34.9 g). Plant protein intake was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (mean 25.4 g) than among athletes without impairment (mean 26.9 g). The proportion of dietary plant protein was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (39.3%) than those without impairment (45.9%). A low proportion of dietary plant protein may cause PMS-related athletic impairment among athletes.
...; antidepressant medication for mental disorders; medication used to allay the side effects of certain treatments...; electroencephalograms and brain scans related to a disabling epileptic condition; tests to determine the efficacy of... physical examinations, optician services (unrelated to a disabling visual impairment) and dental...
...; antidepressant medication for mental disorders; medication used to allay the side effects of certain treatments...; electroencephalograms and brain scans related to a disabling epileptic condition; tests to determine the efficacy of... physical examinations, optician services (unrelated to a disabling visual impairment) and dental...
Kalafatakis, F; Bekiaridis-Moschou, D; Gkioka, Eirini; Tsolaki, Magda
control group the second measurement was better than the first and the third even better than both previous ones. All differences were statistically significant. The reduction of the performance in the task after using the MP was even higher for the age group of 60-80 years old in comparison with younger age groups, as well as for the individuals with MCI in comparison to healthy participants. Age was significantly negative correlated with performance in the task, while gender showed no significant correlation. MP use has a significant negative impact on working memory performance of human participants. The effect is apparent even for a 5 minute use of the MP. Working memory deficits are greater not only for the 60 years old and above participants but also for individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment. These results are in agreement with previous studies on animals as well as humans on the effects of MP use on the brain. It is argued that low sensitivity of some of the cognitive tasks used until now and the lack of a validated tool in the form of a cognitive task may account for some of the variability in the literature so far. It is suggested that the experimental paradigm that was used in this study for an increased sensitivity measurement of cognitive function and working memory processes in particular may be used for the display of the effects of MP use on cognitive function and for the development of other tasks sensitive to it. Overall, it is concluded that the development of certain restrictions on MP use is necessary for the protection of the brain health of the users.
Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding ...
Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.
Michelle B Bales
Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between the development of extremity fracture and visual impairment in adults. Material and Method: This study included 56 patients (patient group aged 18 years or older who had extremity fractures due to a fall. The control group (n=42 was selected from visitors who had regular medical check-ups at our hospital. Each participant underwent a full ophthalmologic examination. Mean age was compared by Student’s t test. The other variables were compared by chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of subjects with visual impairment was significantly higher in the patients group (78.6% than in the control group (38.1% (p<0.05. The prevalence of treatable eye diseases such as cataract and refractive errors were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05 for both. Twenty-eight patients (50% in the patient group and 8 subjects in the control group had visual acuities lower than 0.5 (p<0.05. Discussion: We have found that the prevalence of visual impairment was significantly higher in adults with extremity fractures due to falls than in the control group. Hence, we believe that regular ophthalmological examination in adults, providing regular use of eyeglasses in patients with refractive errors, and timely treatment of treatable eye diseases such as cataract could decrease the extremity fractures from falls in adults. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 250-2
Haegele, Justin A; Famelia, Ruri; Lee, Jihyun
Research suggests that physical activity and sedentary behaviors can impact one's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, little is known about the impact that these behaviors can have on the HRQoL of those with visual impairments. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with HRQoL among a sample of adults with visual impairments. Individuals with visual impairments were invited via email to complete three questionnaires: (a) the international physical activity questionnaire-short form, (b) the Rasch-revised versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument with the Level of Independence subscale, and (c) a demographic questionnaire. Eighty participants (M age = 47.5) provided usable surveys for analyses. The results demonstrated that physical activity significantly predicted HRQoL (F(2,79) = 3.508, p = .035, R 2 Adjusted =.060), yet, sedentary behavior did not (F(2,79) = 1.546, p = .220, R 2 = .039, R 2 Adjusted =.014). Gender differences were uncovered regarding the relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of physical activity in influencing the HRQoL of adults with visual impairments. This study supports the need for additional intervention research to promote physical activity for those with visual impairments. Implications for Rehabilitations Adults with visual impairments tend to report lower health-related quality of life than peers without visual impairments. Regular participation in leisure-time physical activity, and restricted sedentary time, have been demonstrated to positively influence health-related quality of life for adults without disabilities. In this study, physical activity shows promise as an effective means of improving health-related quality of life for adults with visual impairments.
Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.
Yamada, Marina; Chiba, Tomohiro; Sasabe, Jumpei; Terashita, Kenzo; Aiso, Sadakazu; Matsuoka, Masaaki
Humanin (HN) and its derivatives, such as Colivelin (CLN), suppress neuronal death induced by insults related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by activating STAT3 in vitro. They also ameliorate functional memory impairment of mice induced by anticholinergic drugs or soluble toxic amyloid-beta (Abeta) in vivo when either is directly administered into the cerebral ventricle or intraperitoneally injected. However, the mechanism underlying the in vivo effect remains uncharacterized. In addition, from the standpoint of clinical application, drug delivery methods that are less invasive and specific to the central nervous system (CNS) should be developed. In this study, we show that intranasally (i.n.) administered CLN can be successfully transferred to CNS via the olfactory bulb. Using several behavioral tests, we have demonstrated that i.n. administered CLN ameliorates memory impairment of AD models in a dose-responsive manner. Attenuation of AD-related memory impairment by HN derivatives such as CLN appears to be correlated with an increase in STAT3 phosphorylation levels in the septohippocampal region, suggesting that anti-AD activities of HN derivatives may be mediated by activation of STAT3 in vivo as they are in vitro. We further demonstrate that CLN treatment inhibits an Abeta induced decrease in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the medial septum. Combined with the finding that HN derivatives upregulate mRNA expression of neuronal ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in vitro, it is assumed that CLN may ameliorate memory impairment of AD models by supporting cholinergic neurotransmission, which is at least partly mediated by STAT3-mediated transcriptional upregulation of ChAT and VAChT.
Scott-Marshall, Heather K; Tompa, Emile; Wang, Ying; Liao, Qing
Recent estimates indicate that at least one in five activity-limiting injuries occurs at work. Of individuals who suffer these injuries approximately 10% experience some degree of functional impairment. We were interested in investigating long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent impairment from work injury and to examine whether work disability is a significant explanatory factor. We used a retrospective matched cohort methodology to examine differences in mortality rates between individuals with permanent impairment from a work injury and a group of non-injured controls over a 19-year period. We used a sample of impaired workers to investigate the impact of work disability on mortality risk using percentage of earnings recovery after injury as the key proxy measure. All analyses were stratified by sex. Permanent impairment from a work injury was predictive of premature mortality in both male and female claimants, though the risk was slightly higher among women. Work disability was a key explanatory factor in the rate of death among impaired workers, the effects being more pronounced in men. We also found that higher impairment level was associated with mortality in men but not in women. The study demonstrates the impact of permanent work-related impairment on longevity and identifies work disability as an important determinant of mortality risk. Given the disconnect between impairment ratings derived from standard diagnostic tools and labour-market activity after accident, more research is needed on the specific factors that contribute to work disability, particularly those related to psycho-social health and well-being.
Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin
Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…
Chou, Chiu-Fang; Cotch, Mary Frances; Vitale, Susan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Friedman, David S.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Saaddine, Jinan B.
Background Visual impairment is a common health-related disability in the U.S. The association between clinical measurements of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in data from a national survey has not been reported. Purpose To examine common eye conditions and other correlates associated with visual impairment in the U.S. Methods Data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 5222 Americans aged ≥40 years were analyzed in 2012 for visual impairment (presenting distance visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye), and visual impairment not due to refractive error (distance visual acuity worse than 20/40 after refraction). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were assessed from retinal fundus images; glaucoma was assessed from two successive frequency-doubling tests and a cup-to-disc ratio measurement. Results Prevalence of visual impairment and of visual impairment not due to refractive error was 7.5% (95% CI=6.9%, 8.1%) and 2.0% (1.7%, 2.3%), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment not due to refractive error was significantly higher among people with AMD (2.2%) compared to those without AMD (0.8%), or with DR (3.5%) compared to those without DR (1.2%). Independent predictive factors of visual impairment not due to refractive error were AMD (OR=4.52, 95% CI=2.50, 8.17); increasing age (OR=1.09 per year, 95% CI=1.06, 1.13); and less than a high school education (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.18, 7.55). Conclusions Visual impairment is a public health problem in the U.S. Visual impairment in two thirds of adults could be eliminated with refractive correction. Screening of the older population may identify adults at increased risk of visual impairment due to eye diseases. PMID:23790986
Aras, Ivana; Stevanović, Ranko; Vlahović, Sanja; Stevanović, Siniša; Kolarić, Branko; Kondić, Ljiljana
Hearing impairment and specific language disorder are two entities that seriously affect language acquisition in children and reduce their communication skills. These children require specific treatment and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder). Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child's impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers' scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children, who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role. The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL
І. O. Pasichna
Full Text Available Aim: the main objective of this study was to investigate bowels impairment due to treatment with antibiotics, its incidence and clinical peculiarities; to evaluate its role in appearance of in irritable bowel syndrome. Material and Methods. We studied 110 patients (33 males and 77 females, age range 16-83 years, who received treatment with antibiotic. We evaluated the function of the intestine before treatment with antibiotic, then in 1 week, 3 months after treatment finish (1, 2, 3, 4 visits respectively. Control group included 20 healthy persons, who haven't had antibiotics administered during recent two years. Results. We revealed that the signs of bowel function impairment took place at the first visit in 18.2% of patients, at the second visit – in 60.0% of patients, at the third visit – in 45.5% of patients and at the fourth visit – in 41.1% of patients. At the second, third and fourth visits the signs of bowels function impairment were observed reliably more often then at the first visit (before antibiotic administration, p<0.001. At the second visit the signs bowels function disorders were the most prominent: abdominal pain – in 44.5%, distention – in 46.4%, diarrhea – in 29.1%, constipation – in 18.2%, presence of both (diarrhea and periodically constipation manifestations – in 2.7%; and extraintestinal manifestations (depression. depressed mood, sorrow, apathy, decreased stamina, sleep disturbances – in 29.1% of patients. Clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome occured in 6 months of observation in 32.2% of patients. Conclusions. The signs of bowel function impairment were observed in 60.0% of patients after finishing treatment with antibiotic. This incidence is much higher than in control group (р<0.001. Bowel disorders mostly manifested as the changes in quantity and consistency of feaces, pain, abdominal distention and extraintestinal manifestations. In 32.2% of patients clinical manifestations of
Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T
Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.
Hawken, Emily R; Harkness, Kate L; Lazowski, Lauren K; Summers, David; Khoja, Nida; Gregory, James Gardner; Milev, Roumen
Bipolar disorder is associated with significant deficits in the decoding of others' mental states in comparison to healthy participants. However, differences in theory of mind decoding ability among patients in manic, depressed, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder is currently unknown. Fifty-nine patients with bipolar I or II disorder (13 manic, 25 depressed, 20 euthymic) completed the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Task (Eyes task) and the Animals Task developed to control for non-mentalistic response demands of the Eyes Task. Patients also completed self-report and clinician-rated measures of depression, mania, and anxiety symptoms. Patients in the manic phase were significantly less accurate than those in the depressed and euthymic phases at decoding mental states in the Eyes task, and this effect was strongest for eyes of a positive or neutral valence. Further Eyes task performance was negatively correlated with the symptoms of language/thought disorder, pressured speech, and disorganized thoughts and appearance. These effects held when controlling for accuracy on the Animals task, response times, and relevant demographic and clinical covariates. Results suggest that the state of mania, and particularly psychotic symptoms that may overlap with the schizophrenia spectrum, are most strongly related to social cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galarza, C R; Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, L A; del Río, M; Vasvari, F; Limansky, R; Farías, J; Tessler, J; Cámera, M I
It has been hypothesized that as large arteries become more rigid with age, the pattern of hypertension changes from diastolic to systolic. Thus, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) may lose its ability to reflect the increase in vascular resistance with age. To assess this, we studied the age-related changes in blood pressure pattern and its steady-state and pulsatile determinants. We performed an epidemiological analysis based on a national survey of 10,462 subjects from Argentina. A hemodynamic analysis (impedance cardiography) was then carried out in 636 consecutive hypertensive patients (age, 25 to 74 years). Whereas the rate of increment in the prevalence of mild to moderate hypertension (MMH) reached a plateau after the sixth decade, isolated and borderline systolic forms of hypertension began a steep and sustained rise. Among patients with MMH, DBP remained stable from the third to the seventh decade, whereas SBP maintained a sustained increase. Despite similar DBP, the systemic vascular resistance index increased 47% (P<.01) and the cardiac index decreased 27% (P<.01), whereas the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure, an index of arterial compliance, decreased 45% (P<.01). However, there were no significant differences between older patients with MMH and those with isolated systolic hypertension in the level of SBP, vascular resistance, stroke volume, and cardiac index. Compared with age-matched normotensive control subjects, the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure was much more reduced in isolated systolic hypertension (48%) than in MMH (30%). In summary, the present study, carried out in a large sample of hypertensive subjects with a wide age range, showed a simultaneous impairment in vascular resistance and arterial compliance associated with aging in different patterns of hypertension. The magnitude of these changes, with opposite effects on DBP but additive effects on SBP, suggests that a hemodynamic mechanism could determine the transition in the
Quaney, Barbara M; He, Jianghua; Timberlake, George; Dodd, Kevin; Carr, Caitlin
Unilateral middle cerebral artery infarction has been reported to impair bilateral hand grasp. Individuals (5 males and 5 females; age 33-86 years) with chronic unilateral middle cerebral artery stroke (4 right lesions and 6 left lesions) repeatedly lifted a 260-g object. Participants were then trained to lift the object using visuomotor feedback via an oscilloscope that displayed their actual grip force (GF) and a target GF, which roughly matched the physical properties of the object. The subjects failed to accurately modulate the predictive GF when relying on somatosensory information from the previous lifts. Instead, for all the lifts, they programmed excessive GF equivalent to the force used for the first lift. The predictive GF was lowered for lifts following the removal of the visual feedback. The mean difference in predictive GF between the lifts before and after visual training was significant (4.35 +/- 0.027 N; P feedforward fingertip force generation is impaired in the ipsilesional hand when lifting a novel object with precision grip. Reacquisition of the motor forces for the grasp of objects is possible after stroke. Potentially, retraining grasp control for the ipsilesional hand may translate to improved function and motor learning within the contralesional hand.
Janelsins, Michelle C.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Ahles, Tim A.; Morrow, Gary R.
This review summarizes the current literature on cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) with a focus on prevalence, mechanisms, and possible interventions for CRCI in those who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for non-central nervous system tumors and is primarily focused on breast cancer. CRCI is characterized as deficits in areas of cognition including memory, attention, concentration, and executive function. Development of CRCI can impair quality of life and impact treatment decisions. CRCI is highly prevalent; these problems can be detected in up to 30% of patients prior to chemotherapy; up to 75% of patients report some form of CRCI during treatment, and CRCI is still present in up to 35% of patients many years following completion of treatment. While the trajectory of CRCI is becoming better understood, the mechanisms underlying the development of CRCI are still obscure; however, host characteristics, immune dysfunction, neural toxicity, and genetics may play key roles in the development and trajectory of CRCI. Intervention research is limited, though strategies to maintain function are being studied with promising preliminary findings. This review highlights key research being conducted in these areas, both in patient populations and in animals, which will ultimately result in better understanding and effective treatments for CRCI. PMID:24716504
Mamczarz, Jacek; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.
Galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, protects guinea pigs against the acute toxicity and lethality of organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including soman. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a single exposure of guinea pigs to 1xLD50 soman triggers cognitive impairments that can be counteracted by galantamine. Thus, animals were injected intramuscularly with saline (0.5 ml/kg) or galantamine (8 mg/kg) and 30 min later injected subcutaneously with soman (26.3 µg/kg) or saline. Cognitive performance was analyzed in the Morris water maze (MWM) four days or three months after the soman challenge. Fifty percent of the saline-injected animals that were challenged with soman survived with mild-to-moderate signs of acute toxicity that subsided within a few hours. These animals showed no learning impairment and no memory retention deficit, when training in the MWM started four days post-soman challenge. In contrast, animals presented significant learning impairment when testing started three months post-challenge. Though the magnitude of the impairment correlated with the severity of the acute toxicity, animals that presented no or only mild signs of toxicity were also learning impaired. All guinea pigs that were treated with galantamine survived the soman challenge with no signs of acute toxicity and learned the MWM task as control animals, regardless of when testing began. Galantamine also prevented memory extinction in both saline-and soman-challenged animals. In conclusion, learning impairment develops months after a single exposure to 1xLD50 soman, and galantamine prevents both the acute toxicity and the delayed cognitive deficits triggered by this OP poison. PMID:21784098
Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.
Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar
The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.
Sierwald, Ira; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Reissmann, Daniel R
Esthetics is an important part of quality of life and a frequent reason for orthodontic treatment demand. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether esthetic impairments, related to overjet and overbite, can be assessed with an established oral health-related quality of life instrument. Data from 1968 participants (age: 16-90 years; 69.8% female) from three German surveys were analyzed. Esthetic impairments of oral health-related quality of life were measured with four questions of the Oral Health Impact profile (OHIP), which comprise esthetic aspects of oral health-related quality of life. Higher values represent greater esthetic impairment (sum score: 0-16). Overbite and overjet values were categorized (≤ - 1 mm, 0-1 mm, 2-3 mm, 4-5 mm, ≥ 6 mm). The specific impact of each category on esthetic impairment, in relation to the reference category (2-3 mm), was calculated in linear regression analyses. The type of relationship and the specific impact of overbite and overjet were evaluated in regression analyses with fractional polynomials. Overbite ranged from - 5 to 15 mm (mean: 3.2 mm) and overjet from - 7 to 19 mm (mean: 3.1 mm). Both an increase and a decrease in overjet, in relation to the reference category, resulted in more esthetic-related oral health-related quality of life impairments. However, in this model, only the effect for increased overjet was statistically significant (4-5 mm: + 0.4 OHIP points; ≥ 6 mm: + 0.9 OHIP points). In the regression analysis with fractional polynomials, both an increase and a decrease in overjet resulted in more esthetic impairments, characterized by a U-shaped relationship. No association could be verified for overbite. A substantial increase or decrease of overjet from the reference values is associated with esthetic impairments of oral health-related quality of life, whereas the extent of overbite seems to have no impact on esthetics.
Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M
To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.
Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: 1 compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band (P(theta versus power in alpha band (P(alpha (P(theta/P(alpha in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and 2 for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI.
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.
Westermann, Rainer; Hager, Willi
Two psychological experiments--Anderson and Shanteau (1970), Berkowitz and LePage (1967)--are reanalyzed to present the problem of the relative importance of low Type 1 error probability and high power when answering a research question by testing several statistical hypotheses. (Author/PN)
Plessen, U; Postzich, M; Wilkmann, M
Psychiatric interest in relatives of patients was concentrated in the past on their pathogenetic and etiological influence on mental illness. The medical paradigma of mental illness did not account for relatives affliction in psychic disturbance of their family member. Against this a community care oriented approach involves relatives into psychiatric care, particularly under the aspects of coping strategies and rehabilitative sources. Practicability and effects of this approach were explored in expert-guided relative groups at the Psychiatric Hospital Gütersloh (FRG). Results indicated that relatives are concerned with a series of problems. Participating in relative groups facilitates coping with these problems. Expert-guided and relative centered groups were found helpful, discharging and encouraging for relatives.
Rostkowska, Elżbieta; Maśnik, Elżbieta
The im of the study is to compare the tactile sensitivity threshold (TST) of the blind children who practice swimming and those who do not practice any sports with the TST of healthy people of similar age. TST was measured on the pad of he index finger of the dominant hand using an aesthesiometer. Lower TST was found in blind girls compared to healthy girls as well as lower TST in blind girls who practice swimming compared to the blind girls who do not practice ane sports. A significant lower...
Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the long-term consequences of prolonged work-related stress in terms of cognitive functioning one year after initial professional care seeking. We tested a group of patients with work-related stress with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at two occasions, one year apart. At both time points, we compared the performance of patients with healthy controls matched pairwise on sex, age and length of education. This paper presents the results from the one-year follow-up. When adjusting for practice effects, patients improved on measures of prospective memory and processing speed. However, patients continued to perform worse than controls on all tests, though only half of the comparisons reached statistical significance. The effect sizes of the differences between the two groups at one-year follow-up were small to medium. In conclusion, former patients with prolonged work-related stress improved, but they continued to perform worse than controls after one year. In the acute phase, the largest impairments were related to executive function and mental speed but at follow-up memory impairments also became apparent.
Costa, Silvana Daher; de Sandes-Freitas, Tainá Veras; Jacinto, Camilla Neves; Martiniano, Lorena Vasconcelos Mesquita; Amaral, Yago Sucupira; Paes, Fernando José Villar Nogueira; Sales, Maria Luiza de Mattos Brito Oliveira; Esmeraldo, Ronaldo de Matos; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco
This study aimed to evaluate renal function before, during, and after the course of tuberculosis (TB) disease in kidney transplant recipients, and assess the risk factors for non-recovery of baseline renal function. We performed a retrospective, single-center cohort study, including all patients with confirmed or presumed TB diagnosis after kidney transplant (n=34, 2.1%). Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) adjusted for deaths and graft losses. A significant increase was seen in serum Cr during TB disease and treatment: 1.5 mg/dL at baseline (Cr base ), 1.7 mg/dL at diagnosis (Ppotential causes for this outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc
Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Microdeletion of the Azoospermia Factor (AZF regions in Y chromosome is a well-known genetic cause of male infertility resulting from spermatogenetic impairment. However, the partial deletions of AZFc region related to spermatogenetic impairment are controversial. In this study, we characterized partial deletion of AZFc region in Korean patients with spermatogenetic impairment and assessed whether the DAZ and CDY1 contributes to the phenotype in patients with gr/gr deletions. Total of 377 patients with azoo-/oligozoospermia and 217 controls were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, analysis of DAZ-CDY1 sequence family variants (SFVs, and quantitative fluorescent (QF-PCR. Of the 377 men with impaired spermatogenesis, 59 cases (15.6% had partial AZFc deletions, including 32 gr/gr (8.5%, 22 b2/b3 (5.8%, four b1/b3 (1.1% and one b3/b4 (0.3% deletion. In comparison, 14 of 217 normozoospermic controls (6.5% had partial AZFc deletions, including five gr/gr (2.3% and nine b2/b3 (4.1% deletions. The frequency of gr/gr deletions was significantly higher in the azoo-/oligozoospermic group than in the normozoospermic control group (p = 0.003; OR = 3.933; 95% CI = 1.509-10.250. Concerning Y haplogroup, we observed no significant differences in the frequency of gr/gr deletions between the case and the control groups in the YAP+ lineages, while gr/gr deletion were significantly higher in azoo-/oligozoospermia than normozoospermia in the YAP- lineage (p = 0.004; OR = 6.341; 95% CI = 1.472-27.312. Our data suggested that gr/gr deletion is associated with impaired spermatogenesis in Koreans with YAP- lineage, regardless of the gr/gr subtypes.
Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.
Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia
Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bickart, Kevin C; Brickhouse, Michael; Negreira, Alyson; Sapolsky, Daisy
Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) often exhibit prominent, early and progressive impairments in social behaviour. We developed the Social Impairment Rating Scale (SIRS), rated by a clinician after a structured interview, which grades the types and severity of social behavioural symptoms in seven domains. In 20 FTD patients, we used the SIRS to study the anatomic basis of social impairments. In support of hypotheses generated from a prior study of healthy adults, we found that the relative magnitude of brain atrophy in three partially dissociable corticolimbic networks anchored in the amygdala predicted the severity of distinct social impairments measured using the SIRS. Patients with the greatest atrophy in a mesolimbic, reward-related (affiliation) network exhibited the most severe socioemotional detachment, whereas patients with the greatest atrophy in an interoceptive, pain-related (aversion) network exhibited the most severe lack of social apprehension. Patients with the greatest atrophy in a perceptual network exhibited the most severe lack of awareness or understanding of others’ social and emotional behaviour. Our findings underscore observations that FTD is associated with heterogeneous social symptoms that can be understood in a refined manner by measuring impairments in component processes subserved by dissociable neural networks. Furthermore, these findings support the validity of the SIRS as an instrument to measure the social symptoms of patients with FTD. Ultimately, we hope it will be useful as a longitudinal outcome measure in natural history studies and in clinical trials of putative interventions to improve social functioning. PMID:24133285
Quensel, S; McArdle, P; Brinkley, A; Wiegersma, A; Blom, M; Fitzgerald, M; Johnson, R; Kolte, B; Michels, [No Value; Pierolini, A; Pos, R; Stoeckel, [No Value
This study reports the results of a comparative survey with representative samples of 3,386 school attending youths, most of whom were 15 years of age and residing in five European cities. We found significant but low correlations between the type of family structure (intact family, model family,
must respond within five seconds” [ EPF 2010]. A major source of architecturally significant requirements is the set of business goals that led to the...Projects for Competitive Advantage, Center for Business Practices, 1999. [ EPF 2010] Eclipse Process Framework Project. Concept: Architecturally
Kruckeberg, Dean; Paluszek, John L.
Contends that the 1998 Summer Conference of the National Communication Association, and the massive formative research in preparation for it, were seminal in examining current public-relations practice and education, in advocating education norms for the future, and in contributing to a much-needed ecumenism among the diverse public-relations…
Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C
Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Püregger, E; Walla, P; Deecke, L; Dal-Bianco, P
We recorded changes of brain activity from 10 MCI patients and 10 controls related to shallow (nonsemantic) and deep (semantic) word encoding using a whole-head MEG. During the following recognition tasks, all participants had to recognize the previously encoded words, which were presented again together with new words. In both groups recognition performance significantly varied as a function of depth of processing. No significant differences were found between the groups. Reaction times related to correctly classified new words (correct rejections) and incorrectly classified repetitions (misses) of MCI patients showed a strong tendency toward prolongation compared to controls, although no statistically significant differences occurred. Strikingly, in patients the neurophysiological data associated with nonsemantic and semantic word encoding differed significantly between 250 and 450 ms after stimulus onset mainly over left frontal and left temporal sensors. They showed higher electrophysiological activation during shallow encoding as compared to deep encoding. No such significant differences were found in controls. The present results might reflect a dysfunction with respect to shallow encoding of visually presented verbal information. It is interpreted that additional neural activation is needed to compensate for neurodegeneration. This finding is suggested to be an additional tool for MCI diagnosis.
Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend
-specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. METHODS:: Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. RESULTS:: Four of 17...... found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand...... (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ=0.46, P...
Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung
The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs
Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine
The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.
Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J
The stimulus-response pattern of the skin conductance response (SCR) was used as a model of the Orienting Reflex (OR) to assess the P1, N1, P2, N2 and late positive complex (LPC/P300) components of the ERP in a simple habituation paradigm, in which a single series of 12 innocuous tones were presented at a very long interstimulus interval (2 min). To maintain their waking state during this boring task, participants were instructed to alternately close or open their eyes to each stimulus. None of the baseline-to-peak ERP measures showed trials effects comparable with the marked habituation over trials shown by the SCRs. Principal Components Analysis was used to decompose the ERP, yielding factors identified as the N1, N2, P3a, P3b and Novelty P3 components. An additional factor represented later eye-movement activity. No trial effects were apparent for the N1, N2, P3a or P3b components. The Novelty P3 showed marked response decrement over trials. These results are discussed in relation to current conceptualisations of the OR.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related desynchronization (ERD in EEG is known to appear during motor imagery, and is thought to reflect cortical processing for motor preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the modulation of ERD with motor impairment in ALS patients. ERD during hand motor imagery was obtained from 8 ALS patients with a variety of motor impairments. ERD was also obtained from age-matched 11 healthy control subjects with the same motor task. The magnitude and frequency of ERD were compared between groups for characterization of ALS specific changes. Results The ERD of ALS patients were significantly smaller than those of control subjects. Bulbar function and ERD were negatively correlated in ALS patients. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD. Conclusions ALS patients with worsened bulbar scales may show smaller ERD. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD.
Morris, Ken A; Gold, Paul E
Epinephrine enhances memory in young adult rats, in part, by increasing blood glucose levels needed to modulate memory. In old rats, epinephrine is deficient at raising blood glucose levels and thus is only moderately effective at enhancing memory. In contrast, systemic glucose injections improve memory in old rats, with resulting memory performance equal to that of young rats. The diminished response of glucose to training in old rats may blunt downstream neurochemical and molecular mechanisms needed to upregulate memory processes. In the first experiment, young adult and old rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance task with immediate post-training injections of aCSF or glucose into the dorsal hippocampus. Old rats had significant memory impairments compared to young rats 7 days after training. Intrahippocampal injections of glucose reversed age-related deficits, improving memory scores in old rats to values seen in young rats. A second experiment examined age-related changes in activation of the transcription factor CREB, which is widely implicated in memory formation and may act downstream of hormonal and metabolic signals. Activation was assessed in response to training with systemic injections of epinephrine and glucose at doses known to enhance memory. Young adult and old rats were trained on inhibitory avoidance with immediate post-training systemic injections of saline, epinephrine, or glucose. After training, old rats had significant impairments in CREB phosphorylation in area CA1 and the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus, and in the basolateral and lateral amygdala. Epinephrine and glucose attenuated age-related deficits in CREB phosphorylation, but were more effective in the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Together, these results support the view that age-related changes in blood glucose responses to epinephrine contribute to memory impairments, which may be related to alterations in regional patterns of CREB phosphorylation. Copyright
Full Text Available The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis.From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists. Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation.Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately.This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.
Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan
Visual attention can be guided by past experience of regularities in our visual environment. In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental learning of repeated distractor configurations speeds up search times compared to random search arrays. Concomitantly, fewer fixations and more direct scan paths indicate more efficient visual exploration in repeated search arrays. In previous work, we found that simulating a central scotoma in healthy observers eliminated this search facilitation. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who suffer from impaired foveal vision. AMD patients performed visual search using only their more severely impaired eye (n = 13) as well as under binocular viewing (n = 16). Normal-sighted controls developed a significant contextual cueing effect. In comparison, patients showed only a small nonsignificant advantage for repeated displays when searching with their worse eye. When searching binocularly, they profited from contextual cues, but still less than controls. Number of fixations and scan pattern ratios showed a comparable pattern as search times. Moreover, contextual cueing was significantly correlated with acuity in monocular search. Thus, foveal vision loss may lead to impaired guidance of attention by contextual memory cues.
Christensen, Alan J.; And Others
Examined the joint effects of private body consciousness (PBC) and degree of illness-related physical impairment on treatment regimen adherence in a sample of 52 hemodialysis patients. Predicted the effect of PBC on adherence would vary as a function of patients' level of illness-related physical impairment. Results are discussed in terms of…
Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis
BACKGROUND: Changes in health-related behaviour may be a key mechanism linking impaired sleep to poor health, but evidence on this is limited. In this study, we analysed observational data to determine whether onset of impaired sleep is followed by changes in health-related behaviours. METHODS: W...
Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha
The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.
Brandão, Sara Fontes Coutinho Mesquita
Goodwill treatment has been facing considerable changes in terms of regulation. More recently, IAS 36 (2004) develops the subject of impairment of assets, stating that goodwill should be subject to impairment tests on an annual basis. In the IFRS context, the present research study aims at investigating how goodwill impairment is driven by relative firm performance in Europe, using Germany evidence. More precisely, the paper focuses on two distinct analyses: comparing differenc...
Sufrinko, Alicia; Pearce, Kelly; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Johnson, Eric; Collins, Michael; Kontos, Anthony P
Researchers have reported that sleep duration is positively related to baseline neurocognitive performance. However, researchers have yet to examine the effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on postconcussion impairments. To compare neurocognitive impairment and symptoms of athletes with preinjury sleep difficulties to those without after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The sample included 348 adolescent and adult athletes (age, mean ± SD, 17.43 ± 2.34 years) with a diagnosed SRC. The sample was divided into 2 groups: (1) 34 (10%) participants with preinjury sleep difficulties (sleeping less as well as having trouble falling asleep; SLEEP SX) and (2) 231 (66%) participants without preinjury sleep difficulties (CONTROL). The remaining 84 (24%) participants with minimal sleep difficulties (1 symptom) were excluded. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at baseline and 3 postinjury intervals (2, 5-7, and 10-14 days after injury). A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance with Bonferroni correction, controlling for baseline non-sleep-related symptoms, were conducted to compare postinjury neurocognitive performance between groups. Follow-up exploratory t tests examined between-group differences at each time interval. A series of analyses of variance were used to examine total PCSS score, sleep-related, and non-sleep-related symptoms across time intervals between groups. Groups differed significantly in PCSS scores across postinjury intervals for reaction time (P SLEEP SX group performing worse than controls at 5-7 days (mean ± SD, 0.70 ± 0.32 [SLEEP SX], 0.60 ± 0.14 [CONTROL]) and 10-14 days (0.61 ± 0.17 [SLEEP SX]; 0.57 ± 0.10 [CONTROL]) after injury. Groups also differed significantly on verbal memory performance (P = .04), with the SLEEP SX (68.21 ± 18.64) group performing worse than the CONTROL group (76.76 ± 14
Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; Devos, Hannes; Verheyden, Geert; Baten, Guido; Kiekens, Carlotte; Feys, Hilde; De Weerdt, Willy
Visual inattention is a major cause of road accidents and is a problem commonly experienced after stroke. This study investigated the effects of 2 training programs on performance in the Useful Field of View (UFOV), a validated test of driving-related visual attention skills. Data from 69 first-ever, moderately impaired stroke survivors who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine the effects of simulator training on driving after stroke were analyzed. In addition to regular interventions at a rehabilitation center, participants received 15 hours of either simulator-based driving-related training or non-computer-based cognitive training over 5 weeks. Total percentage reduction in UFOV and performance in divided and selective attention and speed of processing subtests were documented at 6 to 9 weeks (pretraining), 11 to 15 weeks (posttraining), and 6 months post stroke (follow-up). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed neither group effects nor significant interaction effects of group with time in the UFOV total score and the 3 subtests. However, there were significant within-group improvements from pre- through posttraining to follow-up for all the UFOV parameters. Post-hoc GEE analysis revealed that most improvement in both groups occurred from pre- to posttraining. Both training programs significantly improved visual attention skills of moderately impaired stroke survivors after 15 hours of training and retention of benefit lasted up to 6 months after stroke. Neither of the training programs was better than the other.
Buckman, Jennifer F; Bates, Marsha E; Cisler, Ron A
Mechanisms of behavioral change that support positive addiction treatment outcomes in individuals with co-occurring alcohol-use disorders and cognitive impairment remain largely unknown. This article combines person- and variable-centered approaches to examine the interrelated influence of cognitive impairment and social support on stability of and changes in drinking behaviors of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) outpatients and aftercare clients (N = 1,726) during the first year after their entry into treatment. Latent class analysis identified homogeneous groups of clients based on the nature and extent of social support for abstinence or drinking at treatment entry. Cognitive impairment and drinking outcomes were compared across latent classes, and the interaction between impairment and social support on drinking outcomes was examined using mixture probit regression. Three independent social support classes (frequent positive, limited positive, and negative) were identified. In the outpatient sample, the frequent positive support class had greater cognitive impairment at treatment entry versus other classes, and extent of impairment significantly predicted improved drinking outcomes in this class. In the aftercare sample, the frequent positive and negative support classes had heightened impairment, yet cognitive impairment significantly predicted relatively poorer drinking outcomes in the negative support class only. Cognitive impairment may increase the influence of the social network on the drinking outcomes of persons receiving treatment for alcohol-use disorders, but more research is needed to understand client characteristics that determine whether this influence is more likely to be manifest as increased salience of helping agents or of hindering agents in the social network.
Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR in gray and white matter and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study (ASPS-Fam aged 38 to 86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, white matter hyperintensities, and normal appearing white matter. Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and normal appearing white matter correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions and cortex volume.Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia.
Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Huang Haibo; Wu Yan; He Haoming
Objective: To explore the degree of insulin resistance and β-cell secretory function impairment in close (1st degree) relations of patients with type 2 diabetes (DMII). Methods: Serum true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels at fasting and after oral 75g glucose loading were determined in: 1) patients with DM 2, n=65 2)relations of DM 2 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), n=34 3) relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), n=66 and 4) controls, n=48. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β cell secretory indices were calculated from the data. Results: Fasting serum PI levels were significantly higher in DM 2 patients, relations with IGT and NGT than those in the controls (t=2.38, t=2.16, t=1.95, P 1 C percentages were significantly higher in DM 2 patients and IGT, NGT groups than those in controls (t=3.67, t=2.45, t=1.97, P 1 C percentage, fasting TI and IRI levels. Conclusion: Insulin resistance was already obvious in those relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance and β-cell secretory function impairment was also present. Early intervention in these subjects might be beneficial. (authors)
Friedman, Rick A; Van Laer, Lut; Huentelman, Matthew J
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is the most prevalent sensory impairment in the elderly. ARHI is a complex disease caused by an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Here we describe the results of the first whole genome association study for ARHI. The stud...
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc
Objective: To examine the relation of caregiver ratings of psychiatric symptom-induced impairment with number and severity of symptoms and informant agreement in consecutive child psychiatry outpatient referrals. Methods: Parents and teachers completed a broadband "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale with disorder-specific impairment for 636…
Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan
Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (pexercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post pexercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning. © 2013.
Park, Hye Won; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha
To investigate the gender-specific associations between perceived vision impairment and symptoms of depression. We used the data from the 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging database of 7448 individuals aged 45 years and older. Questionnaires assessing depression symptoms and perceived visual impairment at near, distance, and in general were administered. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate if visual impairment could lead to depression, adjusting for the potential confounders of age, socioeconomic status (household income, education level, marital status, and employment status), and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity level) after gender stratification. Perceived general and near vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78 and 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-4.04 and 1.78-3.63). Perceived general and distance vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in females (OR = 2.16 and 2.08; 95% CI, 1.67-2.79 and 1.61-2.69). General sight with near vision impairment in males and general sight with distance vision impairment in females could be stronger predictors of depression than other vision impairment combinations (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.6461; p = 0.0425 in males; AUROC, 0.6270; p = 0.0318 in females). Conclusion Gender differences were found in the characteristics of visual impairment on symptoms of depression. Ophthalmologists should be aware that near vision impairment in males and distance vision impairment in females have an adjunctive effect that might contribute to symptoms of depression.
The objectives of this study are to (1) expand upon the work that was initiated in the first two Electric Power Research Institute studies relative to longevity and life extension considerations of safety-related concrete components in light-water reactor (LWR) facilities and (2) provide background that will logically lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based materials and components. These objectives are consistent with Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program goals: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects that, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and, thereby, impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems that will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects before loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear
Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.
Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Nordlund, Arto; Ellbin, Susanne; Ljung, Thomas; Glise, Kristina; Währborg, Peter; Sjörs, Anna; Wallin, Anders
Cognitive impairment is one of the most pronounced symptoms reported by patients with stress-related mental health problems. Impairments related to executive function and to some extent speed and attention are therefore common in patients with stress-related burnout/exhaustion. In this paper we present a follow-up of cognitive performance in patients with stress-related exhaustion several years after they initially sought medical care. Thirty patients and 27 healthy controls, mean age 49 years (SD 6.5) and 55 years (SD 6.7) respectively, were included, all of whom had undergone baseline measurements of neuropsychological functioning. The mean follow-up time was three years. Half of the patients still reported mental health problems at follow-up and over time no major changes in cognitive performance were noted. The patients still performed significantly poorer than controls with regard to cognitive functions, mainly related to speed, attention and memory function. Long-lasting impairment of cognitive functions related to speed, attention and memory function noted in patients with stress-related exhaustion should be acknowledged and taken into consideration during treatment and when discussing a return to work. Follow-up periods longer than three years are needed to explore the persistence of the cognitive impairment. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Redel, P; Bublak, P; Sorg, C; Kurz, A; Förstl, H; Müller, H J; Schneider, W X; Perneczky, R; Finke, K
Visual selective attention was assessed with a partial-report task in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls. Based on Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" (TVA), two parameters were derived: top-down control of attentional selection, representing task-related attentional weighting for prioritizing relevant visual objects, and spatial distribution of attentional weights across the left and the right hemifield. Compared with controls, MCI patients showed significantly reduced top-down controlled selection, which was further deteriorated in AD subjects. Moreover, attentional weighting was significantly unbalanced across hemifields in MCI and tended to be more lateralized in AD. Across MCI and AD patients, carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) displayed a leftward spatial bias, which was the more pronounced the younger the ApoE4-positive patients and the earlier disease onset. These results indicate that impaired top-down control may be linked to early dysfunction of fronto-parietal networks. An early temporo-parietal interhemispheric asymmetry might cause a pathological spatial bias which is associated with ApoE4 genotype and may therefore function as early cognitive marker of upcoming AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas.
Full Text Available Although Methotrexate (MTX is an effective drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, the toxicity remains a significant problem. In this prospective study, fifty-four patients with ALL were enrolled. 3 g or 5 g MTX/m2 was administered over 24 hours. Serum MTX concentrations were determined in 24, 48, and 96 hours after MTX infusion. Serum creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearance rate (CCR were determined before and 24 and 48 hours after MTX infusion. A total of 173 courses of MTX infusion were administered. The serum creatinine concentrations did not change much after MTX infusion while the CCR was gradually decreased. MTX clearance status was independently related to CCR decrease, with the risk of 8.07 to develop renal impairment in patients with delayed MTX elimination. Serum creatinine concentration, serum creatinine ratio, CCR, and CCR ratio at 24 hours were all related to MTX elimination delay. Patients with serum creatinine level >35.0 μmol/L, creatinine ratio >1.129, or CCR <100.0 mL/min were more likely to undergo MTX elimination delay. In conclusion, MTX could induce transient renal impairment and compromised renal function will delay MTX clearance. The serum creatinine concentration and the ratio and CCR are useful tools for evaluating MTX elimination status.
Kristian Hill, S; Buchholz, Alison; Amsbaugh, Hayley; Reilly, James L; Rubin, Leah H; Gold, James M; Keefe, Richard S E; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A
Working memory impairment is well established in psychotic disorders. However, the relative magnitude, diagnostic specificity, familiality pattern, and degree of independence from generalized cognitive deficits across psychotic disorders remain unclear. Participants from the Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study included probands with schizophrenia (N=289), psychotic bipolar disorder (N=227), schizoaffective disorder (N=165), their first-degree relatives (N=315, N=259, N=193, respectively), and healthy controls (N=289). All were administered the WMS-III Spatial Span working memory test and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) battery. All proband groups displayed significant deficits for both forward and backward span compared to controls. However, after covarying for generalized cognitive impairments (BACS composite), all proband groups showed a 74% or greater effect size reduction with only schizoaffective probands showing residual backward span deficits compared to controls. Significant familiality was seen in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees. In relatives, both forward and backward span deficits were again attenuated after covarying BACS scores and residual backward span deficits were seen in relatives of schizophrenia patients. Overall, both probands and relatives showed a similar pattern of robust working memory deficits that were largely attenuated when controlling for generalized cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara
Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Although previous studies have shown detrimental effects of visual impairment on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), they were primarily conducted on elderly individuals with visual impairment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if HRQOL is impaired in young college students with visual impairment and to explore the relationships between HRQOL and other factors. It was hypothesized that visual impairment is not influential enough to lower the HRQOL of young people due to their better physical fitness and more flexible mentality. A total of 21 college students (mean age = 25 years old) with varying degrees of visual impairment completed the short form (SF)-36 health survey and questionnaires on daily physical activities. Subjects were grouped depending on the type of visual impairment: blind (n = 11) or severely impaired (n = 10). In addition, grip strength and single-leg standing balance were assessed. No between-group differences were found in the SF-36 scores. However, compared to the general Japanese standards (50.0 ± 10.0), the Vitality scores of the blind group were lower (41.9 ± 7.2, p = 0.004) and the Physical Function scores of the severely impaired group were higher (55.3 ± 2.4, p = 0.001). In addition, a negative correlation was found between standing balance (variability of foot center of pressure) and the Physical Component Summary score of the SF-36 (r(2) = 0.35, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that even among young people severe visual impairment leads to reductions in some components of HRQOL.
Fogel, Gary B; Lamers, Susanna L; Levine, Andrew J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; McGrath, Michael S; Shapshak, Paul; Singer, Elyse J
Over 50% of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are expected to be over age 50 by 2015. The pathogenic effects of HIV, particularly in cases of long-term infection, may intersect with those of age-related illnesses and prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). One potential outcome is an increased prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in older HIV+ individuals, as well as an altered presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). In this study, we employed stepwise regression to examine 24 features sometimes associated with HAND in 40 older (55-73 years of age) and 30 younger (32-50 years of age) HIV+, cART-treated participants without significant central nervous system confounds. The features most effective in generating a true assessment of the likelihood of HAND diagnosis differed between older and younger cohorts, with the younger cohort containing features associated with drug abuse that were correlated to HAND and the older cohort containing features that were associated with lipid disorders mildly associated with HAND. As the HIV-infected population grows and the demographics of the epidemic change, it is increasingly important to re-evaluate features associated with neurocognitive impairment. Here, we have identified features, routinely collected in primary care settings, that provide more accurate diagnostic value than a neurocognitive screening measure among younger and older HIV individuals.
Full Text Available Background. LRRK2 S1647T has been identified as a polymorphic risk variant for Parkinson’s disease (PD in Chinese individuals. As LRRK2 is the most common genetic cause for PD, it has drawn great interest regarding whether cognitive impairments in PD are related with LRRK2. Purpose. This study aimed to explore the effects of LRRK2 S1647T polymorphism on cognitive function in PD. Method. 90 PD patients were randomly recruited. They underwent a series of clinical evaluations and genetic testing for the LRRK2 S1647T polymorphism. Global intellect and five cognitive domains (language fluency, visuospatial function, attention, memory, and executive function were compared between S1647T carriers and noncarriers. Results. No differences in motor features were found between two groups, but the executive function evaluation showed that Stroop word colour test time (SWCT-TIME scores were lower in LRRK2 S1647T carriers than in noncarriers (P=0.017. However, multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the correlation between S1647T polymorphism and SWCT-TIME scores did not reach significant level (P=0.051. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that cognitive impairments are not correlated with different LRRK2 S1647T polymorphisms in Chinese PD individuals.
STANTON, A.W.B.; MELLOR, R.H.; COOK, G.J.; SVENSSON, W.E.; PETERS, A.M.; LEVICK, J.R.; MORTIMER, P.S.
Background: In arm lymphedema secondary to axillary surgery and radiotherapy (breast cancer-related lymphedema), the swelling is largely epifascial and lymph flow per unit epifascial volume is impaired. The subfascial muscle compartment is not measurably swollen despite the iatrogenic damage to its axillary drainage pathway, but this could be due to its low compliance. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that subfascial lymph drainage too is impaired.
Lee, J; Park, E; Lee, A; Chang, W H; Kim, D-S; Kim, Y-H
Brain connectivity analysis has been widely used to investigate brain plasticity and recovery-related indicators of patients with stroke. However, results remain controversial because of interindividual variability of initial impairment and subsequent recovery of function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in network plasticity and motor recovery-related indicators according to initial severity. We divided participants (16 males and 14 females, aged 54.2 ± 12.0 years) into groups of different severity by Fugl-Mayer Assessment score, i.e. moderate (50-84), severe (20-49) and extremely severe (impairment groups. Longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset. The differences in network plasticity and recovery-related indicators between groups were investigated using network distance and graph measurements. As the level of impairment increased, the network balance was more disrupted. Network balance, interhemispheric connectivity and network efficiency were recovered at 3 months only in the moderate impairment group. However, this was not the case in the extremely severe impairment group. A single connection strength between the ipsilesional primary motor cortex and ventral premotor cortex was implicated in the recovery of motor function for the extremely severe impairment group. The connections of the ipsilesional primary motor cortex-ventral premotor cortex were positively associated with motor recovery as the patients were more severely impaired. Differences in plasticity and recovery-related indicators of motor networks were noted according to impairment severity. Our results may suggest meaningful implications for recovery prediction and treatment strategies in future stroke research. © 2017 EAN.
Garand, Linda; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Conner, Kyaien O.; Dew, Mary Amanda
Health care professionals use diagnostic labels to classify individuals for both treatment and research purposes. Despite their clear benefits, diagnostic labels also serve as cues that activate stigma and stereotypes. Stigma associated with the diagnostic labels of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can have a significant and negative impact on interpersonal relationships, interactions with the health care community, attitudes about service utilization, and participation in clinical research. The impact of stigma also extends to the family caregivers of individuals bearing such labels. In this article, we use examples from our investigations of individuals with dementia or MCI and their family caregivers to examine the impact of labeling and stigma on clinical research participation. We also discuss how stigma can affect numerous aspects of the nursing research process. Strategies are presented for addressing stigma-related barriers to participation in clinical research on dementia and MCI. PMID:20077972
Pratama, A. R.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Riyadi
The student with visual impairment, total blind category depends on the sense of touch and hearing in obtaining information. In fact, the two senses can receive information less than 20%. Thus, students with visual impairment of the total blind categories in the learning process must have difficulty, including learning mathematics. This study aims to describe the problem-solving process of the student with visual impairment, total blind category on mathematical literacy issues based on Polya phase. This research using test method similar problems mathematical literacy in PISA and in-depth interviews. The subject of this study was a student with visual impairment, total blind category. Based on the result of the research, problem-solving related to mathematical literacy based on Polya phase is quite good. In the phase of understanding the problem, the student read about twice by brushing the text and assisted with information through hearing three times. The student with visual impairment in problem-solving based on the Polya phase, devising a plan by summoning knowledge and experience gained previously. At the phase of carrying out the plan, students with visual impairment implement the plan in accordance with pre-made. In the looking back phase, students with visual impairment need to check the answers three times but have not been able to find a way.
Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence
Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Belfer, Inna; Dai, Feng; Kehlet, Henrik
Persistent postoperative pain is a well-established clinical problem with potential severe personal and socioeconomic implications. The prevalence of persistent pain varies across surgery types. Severe persistent pain and related impairment occur in 5% to 10% of patients after groin hernia repair....... The substantial interindividual variability in pain-related phenotypes within each surgery type cannot be explained by environmental factors alone, suggesting that genetic variation may play a role. We investigated the contribution of COMT and GCH1 to persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP)-related functional...... moderate-to-severe pain-related activity impairment 6 months postoperatively as measured by Activity Assessment Scale (≥8.3). Patients with the G allele of COMT SNP rs6269 and C allele of COMT SNP rs4633 had less impairment (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively); in addition, the COMT haplotype GCG...
Correani, Alessia; Humphreys, Glyn W
The attentional blink, a measure of the temporal dynamics of visual processing, has been documented to be more pronounced following brain lesions that are associated with visual neglect. This suggests that, in addition to their spatial bias in attention, neglect patients may have a prolonged dwell time for attention. Here the attentional dwell time was examined in patients with damage focused on either posterior parietal or frontal cortices. In three experiments, we show that there is an abnormally pronounced attentional dwell time, which does not differ in patients with posterior parietal and with frontal lobe lesions, and this is associated with a measure of selective attention but not with measures of spatial bias in selection. These data occurred both when we attempted to match patients and controls for overall differences in performance and when a single set stimulus exposure was used across participants. In Experiments 1 and 2, requiring report of colour-form conjunctions, there was evidence that the patients were also impaired at temporal binding, showing errors in feature combination across stimuli and in reporting in the correct temporal order. In Experiment 3, requiring only the report of features but introducing task switching led to similar results. The data suggest that damage to a frontoparietal network can compromise temporal selection of visual stimuli; however, this is not necessarily related to a deficit in hemispatial visual attention but it is to impaired target selection. We discuss the implications for understanding visual selection.
Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.
Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069
Friedman, Rick A.; Van Laer, Lut; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Sheth, Sonal S.; Van Eyken, Els; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Halperin, Rebecca F.; Thorburn, Ashley Q.; Thys, Sofie; Bonneux, Sarah; Fransen, Erik; Huyghe, Jeroen; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Cremers, Cor W.R.J.; Kremer, Hannie; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Stephens, Dafydd; Orzan, Eva; Pfister, Markus; Bille, Michael; Parving, Agnete; Sorri, Martti; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Makmura, Linna; Ohmen, Jeffrey D.; Linthicum, Frederick H.; Fayad, Jose N.; Pearson, John V.; Craig, David W.; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Van Camp, Guy
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is the most prevalent sensory impairment in the elderly. ARHI is a complex disease caused by an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Here we describe the results of the first whole genome association study for ARHI. The study was performed using 846 cases and 846 controls selected from 3434 individuals collected by eight centers in six European countries. DNA pools for cases and controls were allelotyped on the Affymetrix 500K GeneChip® for each center separately. The 252 top-ranked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a non-Finnish European sample group (1332 samples) and the 177 top-ranked SNPs from a Finnish sample group (360 samples) were confirmed using individual genotyping. Subsequently, the 23 most interesting SNPs were individually genotyped in an independent European replication group (138 samples). This resulted in the identification of a highly significant and replicated SNP located in GRM7, the gene encoding metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7. Also in the Finnish sample group, two GRM7 SNPs were significant, albeit in a different region of the gene. As the Finnish are genetically distinct from the rest of the European population, this may be due to allelic heterogeneity. We performed histochemical studies in human and mouse and showed that mGluR7 is expressed in hair cells and in spiral ganglion cells of the inner ear. Together these data indicate that common alleles of GRM7 contribute to an individual's risk of developing ARHI, possibly through a mechanism of altered susceptibility to glutamate excitotoxicity. PMID:19047183
van Kooten, Jojanneke A M C; van Litsenburg, Raphaёle R L; Yoder, Whitney R; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Terwee, Caroline B
Sleep problems are common in adolescents and have a negative impact on daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of well-validated adolescent sleep questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks are well-validated instruments developed for and tested in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate their structural validity in adolescents. Test and retest data were collected for the Dutch-Flemish V1.0 PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (27) and Sleep-Related Impairment (16 items) item banks from 1046 adolescents (11-19 years). Cross-validation methods, Confirmatory (CFA), and Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were used. Fit indices and factor loadings were used to improve the models. The final models were assessed for model fit using retest data. The one-factor Sleep Disturbance (CFI = 0.795, TLI = 0.778, RMSEA = 0.117) and Sleep-Related Impairment (CFI = 0.897, TLI = 0.882, RMSEA = 0.156) models could not be replicated in adolescents. Cross-validation resulted in a final Sleep Disturbance model of 23 and a Sleep-Related Impairment model of 11 items. Retest data CFA showed adequate fit for the Sleep-Related Impairment-11 (CFI = 0.981, TLI = 0.976, RMSEA = 0.116). The Sleep Disturbance-23 model fit indices stayed below the recommended values (CFI = 0.895, TLI = 0.885, RMSEA = 0.105). While the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance-23 for adolescents and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment-11 for adolescents provide a framework to assess adolescent sleep, additional research is needed to replicate these findings in a larger and more diverse sample.
Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Tong, Taishan; Pei, Chunqin; Chen, Jun; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Fuquan; Cheng, Zaohuo
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy can cause adverse effects such as chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). In this prospective study, the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture therapy in relieving CRCI and its impact on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty patients were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group with 40 patients in each group. The treatment group was treated at the following acupuncture points: Baihui (DU20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Shenting (DU24), Zusanli (ST36), Taixi (K13), Dazhong (K14), and Juegu (GB39). Cognitive function was assessed using the functional assessment of cancer treatment cognition test (FACT-COG, version 3), the auditory-verbal learning test (AVLT), the verbal fluency test (VFT), the symbol digit modality test (SDMT), the clock-drawing test (CDT), and the trail-making test part B (TMT-B). In addition, blood serum levels of BDNF were measured before and after treatment. Correlations between change in BDNF levels and cognitive function were also analyzed. RESULTS CRCI was ameliorated in the acupuncture treatment group, with scores on FACT-COG, AVLT-recognition and CDT assessments all significantly increased (Pacupuncture treatment were significantly higher than before treatment ([i]t[/i]=3.242, [i]P[/i]Acupuncture therapy is effective in the treatment of CRCI in breast cancer patients through a mechanism that may be related to an increase of BDNF.
Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter
Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ben-Sheetrit, Joseph; Tasker, Hanan; Avnat, Lee; Golubchik, Pavel; Weizman, Abraham; Manor, Iris
The aim of the study is to evaluate attentional impairment in different age groups with ADHD. In all, 58 children, 73 adolescents, and 104 adults with ADHD were evaluated using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Subjects with comorbidities or psychotropic treatment were not included. Considering Response Time Variability (RTV), adults were 10.6 and 4.0 times more likely to be severely impaired (standard score impaired (standard scoreimpaired participants were adults. Age predicted impairment in Attention Performance Index (API), RTV, and d', but not Omissions or Commissions. Past treatment with stimulants predicted less impairment in d', past diagnosis predicted less impairment in RTV, and each predicted less impairment in Omissions and API. Adults had more attentional impairment than children and adolescents. Past diagnosis and treatment were associated with less ADHD-related attentional impairment.
Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…
Kramer, S.E.; Allessie, G.H.; Dondorp, A.W.; Zekveld, A.A.; Kapteyn, T.S.
This paper addresses the development and effectiveness of a home education program. The program, designed for hearing-impaired elders and their significant others (SO), deals with communication strategies and speech reading. Participants were randomly assigned to a training group (hearing aid
Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E
Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wild, Katherine V.; Mattek, Nora; Maxwell, Shoshana A.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Jimison, Holly B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.
Background This study examines differences in computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in subgroups of older adults, and changes in those measures following exposure to a systematic training program and subsequent computer use. Methods Participants were volunteers in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes Study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology. Participants were administered two questionnaires prior to training and again one year later, related to computer self-efficacy and anxiety. Continuous recording of computer use was also assessed for a subset of participants. Results Baseline comparisons by gender, age, education, living arrangement, and computer proficiency, but not cognitive status, yielded significant differences in confidence and anxiety related to specific aspects of computer use. At one-year follow-up, participants reported less anxiety and greater confidence. However, the benefits of training and exposure varied by group and task. Comparisons based on cognitive status showed that the cognitively intact participants benefited more from training and/or experience with computers than did participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), who after one year continued to report less confidence and more anxiety regarding certain aspects of computer use. Conclusion After one year of consistent computer use, cognitively intact participants in this study reported reduced levels of anxiety and increased self-confidence in their ability to perform specific computer tasks. Participants with MCI at baseline were less likely to demonstrate increased efficacy or confidence than their cognitively intact counterparts. PMID:23102124
Jacobson, Gary P; McCaslin, Devin L; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G
Falls in elderly patients are associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare system. The development of falls risk assessment programs have represented a method of responding to what is known about injurious falls. The multidimensional assessments involve the comparison against normative data of a patient's performance on metrics known to influence the likelihood of future falls. The factors assessed usually include falls and medication history, measures of mentation, depression, orthostatic hypotension, simple or choice reaction time, gait stability, postural stability, and the integrity of the patient's vision, somesthetic, and vestibular senses. This investigation was conducted to measure the proportion of patients referred for falls risk assessment who have evidence of vestibular system impairment. Qualitative, retrospective review of data collected from 2003 to 2007. The cohort was 185 consecutive patients referred for multidimensional assessments of falls risk. Patients underwent quantitative assessments of peripheral and central vestibular system function consisting of electro- or videonystagmography (i.e., ENG/VNG), and sinusoidal harmonic acceleration testing. Results of these tests were compared to normative data. We found that 73% of the sample who underwent vestibular system assessment had quantitative evidence of either peripheral or central vestibular system impairment. Our results suggest that quantitative assessments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex should be conducted on patients who are evaluated for falls risk. These examinations should include at least caloric testing and, where available, rotational testing.
Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka
Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.
Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J
The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.
Nampoory, Mangalathillam R N; Johny, Kaivilayil V; Costandy, Jamal N; Nair, Madhavan P; Said, Tarek; Homoud, Hani; Al-Muzairai, Ibrahim; Samhan, Mohmoud; Al-Moussawi, Mustafa
We prospectively analyzed the impact of post-transplant infections on the renal function in 532 stable renal transplant recipients (M=340; F=192) over a period of 5 years. Their age ranged from 3-75 years (40+14 years). During the follow-up period, 52 patients expired and 64 lost on followup. We defined renal impairment (RI) as a persistent rise in serum creatinine above 20% from baseline value. 495 episodes of RI occurred in 269 recipients. This included 180-36% episodes of acute rejection, 53-10.7% Cyclosporine toxicity, 236-47.7% infection related renal impairment [IRRI] and 26-5.3% others. The severity of renal failure is less in IRRI (100+90.2) than that of acute rejection (166+127.1), but was more than that in cyclosporine toxicity (50+42.2). Sites of infection in IRRI were urinary (33%), respiratory (26.3%), septicemia (15.7%) and others (25.4%). Episode of IRRI occurred more frequently in LURD (159-67.4%) compared to LRD-RTR (50-21.2%). Occurrence of IRRI is more significantly higher in patients on triple drug immunosuppression (IS) (34.3%) than those on two drug IS (13.2%) (P=orEcoli (23.1%), Pseudomonas (11.1%), Salmonella (8.8%), Klebsiella (8.8%) and Staphylococai (8.3%) were the major organisms producing IRRI. IRRI is frequent (27.8%) during the first six months. Present study denotes that IRRI is a major cause of acute failure in RTR.
Full Text Available Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo and aged (22-24 mo mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator (all P<0.05. However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05. The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1(+/- knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1(+/- hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance.
Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Sarver, Dustin E; Parisi, Kathryn E; Bugan, Antal
Relational intimacy is hypothesized to underlie the association between female sexual functioning and various sexual outcomes, and married women and women with sexual dysfunction have been generally absent from prior studies investigating these associations, thus restricting generalizability. To investigate whether relational intimacy mediates sexual outcomes (sexual satisfaction, coital frequency, and sexual distress) in a sample of married women with and without impaired sexual functioning presenting in clinical settings. Using a cross-sectional design, 64 heterosexual married women with (n = 44) and without (n = 20) impaired sexual functioning completed a battery of validated measurements assessing relational intimacy, sexual dysfunction, sexual frequency, satisfaction, and distress. Intimacy measurements were combined using latent factor scores before analysis. Bias-corrected mediation models of the indirect effect were used to test mediation effects. Moderated mediation models examined whether indirect effects were influenced by age and marital duration. Patients completed the Female Sexual Function Index, the Couple's Satisfaction Index, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and the Miller Social Intimacy Test. Mediation models showed that impaired sexual functioning is associated with all sexual outcomes directly and indirectly through relational intimacy. Results were predominantly independent of age and marital duration. Findings have important treatment implications for modifying interventions to focus on enhancing relational intimacy to improve the sexual functioning of women with impaired sexual functioning. The importance of the role relational intimacy plays in broad sexual outcomes of women with impaired sexual functioning is supported in clinically referred and married women. Latent factor scores to improve estimation of study constructs and the use of contemporary mediation analysis also are
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of factors influencing life satisfaction of teenagers raised in families as well as those raised in orphanages. Both groups are studied with regard to their self-attitude, self-confidence and relationships with significant adults. Sample: 96 teenagers aged between 14 and 16 years (46 of them live in or- phanages. Methods: Self-attitude methodology by S.R. Pantileev, Trust questionnaire by T.P. Skripkina, Child-parent relationships questionnaire by O.A. Karabanova and P.V. Troyanskaya, Life Satisfaction scale by E. Diner. The research proved the level of trust in orphanage-raised teenagers to be considerably lower than that of family-raised teenagers. The way teenagers see their relationships with significant adults also turned out to be fairly different in case of orphanage-raised groups due to their caregivers' authoritarian attitude towards them and lack of empathy and communication. The study also shows that the level of life satisfaction in the orphanage group is significantly below the average and substantially lower than in the group from family-raised teenagers. Positive self-attitude, person’s approval of his/ her intellectual capacities, as well as the caregiver's understanding of his pupil's features, are predictors of life satisfaction in the group of teenagers from orphanages. Concerning the family-raised teenagers, much more factors are involved in maintaining their subjective well-being.
In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…
Flapper, B.C.; Van Den Heuvel, M.
Speech-language-impairment (SLI) as well as behavioral-dysfunction and school-type might influence health-related-quality-of-life. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study in 124 children aged 5-8 years with SLI, in 4 special education (SE) and 7 mainstream ambulatory care (AC) schools, and 35
Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; Wong, Jennifer S; Fraser, Julia E; McIlroy, William E
Individuals with stroke fall more often than age-matched controls. Although many focus on the multifactorial nature of falls, the fundamental problem is likely the ability for an individual to generate reactions to recover from a loss of balance. Stepping reactions to recover balance are particularly important to balance recovery, and individuals with stroke have difficulty executing these responses to prevent a fall following a loss of balance. The purpose of this study is to determine if characteristics of balance recovery steps are related to falls during inpatient stroke rehabilitation. We conducted a retrospective review of individuals with stroke attending inpatient rehabilitation (n = 136). Details of falls experienced during inpatient rehabilitation were obtained from incident reports, nursing notes, and patient interviews. Stepping reactions were evoked using a "release-from-lean" postural perturbation. Poisson regression was used to determine characteristics of stepping reactions that were related to increased fall frequency relative to length of stay. In all, 20 individuals experienced 29 falls during inpatient rehabilitation. The characteristics of stepping reactions significantly related to increased fall rates were increased frequency of external assistance to prevent a fall to the floor, increased frequency of no-step responses, increased frequency of step responses with inadequate foot clearance, and delayed time to initiate stepping responses. Impaired control of balance recovery steps is related to increased fall rates during inpatient stroke rehabilitation. This study informs the specific features of stepping reactions that can be targeted with physiotherapy intervention during inpatient rehabilitation to improve dynamic stability control and potentially prevent falls.
Li, Yanbo; Shang, Suhang; Fei, Yulang; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Yu; Dang, Liangjun; Liu, Jie; Ma, Louyan; Wei, Meng; Qu, Qiumin
Type 2 diabetes and obesity, which are frequently comorbid, have been associated with cognitive impairment. We aim to examine the potential modulating effect between obesity and diabetes on cognitive impairment. We recruited 865 adults (aged ≥55years) lived in a village of Xi'an in China from October 2014 to March 2015. All participants underwent biomedical and neuropsychological assessment. Relations of diabetes and abdominal obesity to cognitive impairment were examined in multiple regression models. A total of 155 participants (17.9%) presented with the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Diabetes or obesity alone wasn't significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Interaction analysis showed a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and diabetes on cognitive impairment. Stratified multivariate analysis revealed that the association between diabetes and cognitive impairment was positive in participants with abdominal obesity (OR 2.436, 95% CI 1.345-4.411, p=0.003, in diabetics with high WC, and OR 2.348, 95% CI 1.373-4.014, p=0.002, in diabetics with high WHR), but negative in those without abdominal obesity. Type 2 diabetes interacts with abdominal obesity to be associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment by more than two times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Paul; Bressler, Neil; Doan, Quan V; Dolan, Chantal; Ferreira, Alberto; Osborne, Aaron; Rochtchina, Elena; Danese, Mark; Colman, Shoshana; Wong, Tien Y
Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, such as ranibizumab, have significantly improved the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This study used patient-level simulation modelling to estimate the number of individuals in Australia who would have been likely to avoid legal blindness or visual impairment due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration over a 2-year period as a result of intravitreal ranibizumab injections. The modelling approach used existing data for the incidence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Australia and outcomes from ranibizumab trials. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as visual acuity in the better-seeing eye of worse than 6/60 or 6/12, respectively. In 2010, 14,634 individuals in Australia were estimated to develop neovascular age-related macular degeneration who would be eligible for ranibizumab therapy. Without treatment, 2246 individuals would become legally blind over 2 years. Monthly 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab would reduce incident blindness by 72% (95% simulation interval, 70-74%). Ranibizumab given as needed would reduce incident blindness by 68% (64-71%). Without treatment, 4846 individuals would become visually impaired over 2 years; this proportion would be reduced by 37% (34-39%) with monthly intravitreal ranibizumab, and by 28% (23-33%) with ranibizumab given as needed. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, given either monthly or as needed, can substantially lower the number of cases of blindness and visual impairment over 2 years after the diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Psarakis, Michael; Greene, David; Moresi, Mark; Baker, Michael; Stubbs, Peter; Brodie, Matthew; Lord, Stephen; Hoang, Phu
Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Twelve participants with Multiple Sclerosis and twelve healthy age-matched participants were assessed. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait and individual footprint data were used to investigate group differences. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to divide each footprint into three phases (contact, mid-stance, propulsive) and calculate the heel-to-toe progression during the stance phase of gait. Compared to healthy controls, people with Multiple Sclerosis spent relatively less time in contact phase (7.8% vs 25.1%) and more time in the mid stance phase of gait (57.3% vs 33.7%). Inter-limb differences were observed in people with Multiple Sclerosis between the affected and non-affected sides for contact (7.8% vs 15.3%) and mid stance (57.3% and 47.1%) phases. Differences in heel-to-toe progression remained significant after adjusting for walking speed and were correlated with walking distance and ankle range of motion. Impaired heel-to-toe progression was related to poor ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Heel-to-toe progression provided a sensitive measure for assessing gait impairments that were not detectable using standard spatiotemporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert
To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is related to functional impairment and physical disability in older persons. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Fourteen thousand eight hundred eighteen adult NHANES III participants aged 18 and older. The presence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and functional impairment and disability were examined in 4,504 adults aged 60 and older. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimpedance analysis measurements and expressed as skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/body mass x 100). Subjects were considered to have a normal SMI if their SMI was greater than -one standard deviation above the sex-specific mean for young adults (aged 18-39). Class I sarcopenia was considered present in subjects whose SMI was within -one to -two standard deviations of young adult values, and class II sarcopenia was present in subjects whose SMI was below -two standard deviations of young adult values. The prevalence of class I and class II sarcopenia increased from the third to sixth decades but remained relatively constant thereafter. The prevalence of class I (59% vs 45%) and class II (10% vs 7%) sarcopenia was greater in the older (> or = 60 years) women than in the older men (P normal SMI, respectively. Some of the associations between class II sarcopenia and functional impairment remained significant after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, health behaviors, and comorbidity. Reduced relative skeletal muscle mass in older Americans is a common occurrence that is significantly and independently associated with functional impairment and disability, particularly in older women. These observations provide strong support for the prevailing view that sarcopenia may be an important and potentially reversible cause of
Ketonen, L.; Kieburtz, K.D.; Zetteimaier, A.; Simon, J.H.; Kido, D.K.
MR findings have been reported on the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) demential complex, but the findings are late relative to clinical signs. This paper reports on a new MR finding observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related cognitive impairment studied early in the disease process. Fifty-two patients had a total of 86 MR images. Al images were obtained with a 1.5-T system (protondensity, spin-echo, TR/TE = 2,000/30 [repetition time/echo time, msec]). High-signal lesions were seen in the region of the splenium of the corpus callosum and in the crura of the fornices. The lesions demonstrated no contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA. Pathologic examination was performed in four patients. The fornix-subcallosal abnormality may have relevance to the memory dysfunction in patients with HIV-related cognitive impairment
Hill, Linda L; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara
As our elderly population increases in proportion with respect to the rest of society, age-related driving impairments are increasing in importance as a public health concern. In this context, health professionals play an important role in identifying impaired drivers. This situation is complicated for two reasons: discussion of driving cessation is a sensitive topic for both health professionals and the elderly, and physicians have limited familiarity with the current American Medical Association (AMA) screening guidelines or mandated reporting laws. To assess curriculum that trains health professionals to increase their awareness, screening, management, and reporting of age-related driving impairments. Between 2009 and September 2011, 47 trainings were delivered to 1202 health professionals. The majority of trainings were seminars or lectures lasting 1h; all were conducted in southern California. The training curriculum was divided into four sections: introduction and background; screening and interpretation; managing outcomes and reporting; and referrals and resources. Videos addressed broaching the topic with patients and counseling on driving cessation. The curriculum was delivered by physicians with the support of public health-trained program staff. Pre- and post-testing was done with 641 of the participants; the majority were physicians. Post-training, participants' confidence in ability to screen increased to 72% and intent to screen increased to 55%. Fully 92% stated they had developed a better understanding of California's mandated reporting laws. Similarly, 92% said they had developed a better understanding of the medical conditions and medications that may impair older adults' ability to drive safely. Furthermore, 91% said mandated-reporting laws helped protect the safety of patients and others, and 59% said it was easier to discuss and justify driving cessation with patients. In-person training of health professionals on age-related driving
Title: Balance-related excercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children. Objectives of the Thesis: The goal of this thesis is to test the possibilitiy of implementation of selected balance- related excercise in visually impaired children. Method: The testing pool consisted of six pupils attending the Special school for Visually Impaired Children between 14 and 15 years of age. Over the period of ten weeks, selected exercise geared towards the cross-cou...
Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A
Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Health self-evaluation, as a subjective measure, is related to person’s well-being because it encapsulates physical and emotional health evaluation. It has been concluded that subjective health is, for most of people, number one trait of quality of living that is connected to health. Individual is to decide which aspects of objective situation are important for their satisfaction in life. In other words, way in which a person will perceive and react to an objective situation depends on their personal traits. Aim of this research was to examine the differences in relation to gender and health state of visually impaired older persons of that live in institutional accommodation, by self-evaluation. Respondents sample was comprised of 40 visually impaired older persons, both genders (13 male and 27 female that live in nursing home “Dom penzionera” in Tuzla. Research has been conducted by interview, using questionnaire “Quality of life of adult persons with motoric disabilities in territory of Vojvodina” (Susnjevic, 2015. Because of the structure of questions in questionnaire, it was possible to apply it on visually impaired persons as well. Data acquired had been processed with descriptive statistics, hi-squre and t – test, in order to determine if there were differences in relation to gender and selfevaluation of physical and social functioning. Results of the research have shown that although means have proven that there are differences in acquired results between respondents of male and female gender, results of t-test have shown that those differences are not statistically significant. Presence of any kind of damage, and visual impairment as well can influence person’s psychological and physical integrity.
Park, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Yun Seo; Jung, A-Reum; Chung, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Hyang Woon
Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions. The authors assessed whether the extent of altered efficiency was influenced by seizure control status and whether the degree of altered efficiency was associated with the severity of memory impairment. Alterations in the efficiency were observed primarily near the subcortical region ipsilateral to the seizure focus in TLE patients. The extent of regional involvement was greater in patients with poor seizure control: it reached the frontal, temporal, occipital, and insular cortices in TLE patients with poor seizure control, whereas it was limited to the limbic and parietal cortices in TLE patients with good seizure control. Furthermore, TLE patients with poor seizure control experienced more severe memory impairment, and this was associated with lower efficiency in the brain regions with altered efficiency. These findings indicate that the distribution of disrupted brain functional integration is clinically relevant, as it is associated with seizure control status and comorbid memory impairment.
Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.
Wagenaar, M; van Aarem, A; Huygen, P; Pieke-Dahl, S; Kimberling, W; Cremers, C
To evaluate hearing impairment in 2 common genetic subtypes of Usher syndrome, USH1B and USH2A. Cross-sectional analysis of hearing threshold related to age in patients with genotypes determined by linkage and mutation analysis. Otolaryngology department, university referral center. Nineteen patients with USH1B and 27 with USH2A were examined. All participants were living in the Netherlands and Belgium. Pure tone audiometry of the best ear at last visit. The patients with USH1B had residual hearing without age dependence, with minimum thresholds of 80, 95, and 120 dB at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 to 2 kHz, respectively. Mean thresholds of patients with USH2A were about 45 to 55 dB better than these minimum values. Distinctive audiographic features of patients with USH2A were maximum hearing thresholds of 70, 80, and 100 dB at 0.25, 0.5, and 1 kHz, respectively, only at younger than 40 years. Progression of hearing impairment in USH2A was 0.7 dB/y on average for 0.25 to 4 kHz and could not be explained by presbyacusis alone. The USH1B and USH2A can be easily distinguished by hearing impairment at younger than 40 years at the low frequencies. Hearing impairment in our patients with USH2A could be characterized as progressive.
Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea
We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…
Yamazaki, Daisuke; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru
Age-related memory impairment （AMI） is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understandingthe molecular mechanisms underlying AMI is important not only from a scientific viewpoint but also for thedevelopment of therapeutics that may eventually lead to developing drugs to combat memory loss. AMI has beengenerally considered to be an overall or nonspecifi c decay of memory processes that results from dysfunction ofneural networks. However, extensive behavioral genetic characterization of AMI w...
Hendry, Gordon J; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Watt, Gordon F; Woodburn, Jim; McColl, John H; Sturrock, Roger D
Background: Foot problems such as synovitis, growth disturbance and deformity are considered common in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and have been previously reported in over 90% of cases. The medical management of JIA appears to have improved recently however little is known about the impact of new regimes on localised joints such as in the foot. This pilot study aimed to investigate the prevalence of foot related impairments and disability, and survey the medical and podiatric managem...
Hosp, Simona; Csapo, Robert; Heinrich, Dieter; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner
Maintaining balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities, particularly in older adults to prevent falls and associated injuries. Kinesiology tape has gained great popularity in sports and is frequently used as a tool for performance enhancement. However, there is little research investigating its influence on balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kinesiology tape on dynamic balance, postural stability and knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy, older adults. Twelve physically active, healthy men aged 63-77 years performed the test on two separate days, with and without Kinesiology tape at the knee joint (prospective intervention with cross-over design). Dynamic balance during an obstacle-crossing task, postural stability in a single-leg stance test, and knee joint position sense as a measure of proprioception were examined before and after 30 min of downhill walking on a treadmill. The influences of taping condition and physical activity on all parameters were statistically tested using factorial ANOVAs. Factorial ANOVA revealed significant time × taping condition interaction effects on all performance parameters (p postural stability and knee proprioception differed between the two taping conditions. The deterioration of performance was always greater when no tape was used. This study demonstrated that physical exercise significantly deteriorated dynamic balance, postural stability and knee proprioception in older men. These effects can be attenuated through the usage of Kinesiology tape. By preventing exercise-related impairments of balance, Kinesiology tape might help reduce the risk of sports-associated falls and associated injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casellas, F; Aparici, A; Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, P
Chronic conditions impair perception of well-being. Malabsorption of lactose is the most frequent form of malabsorption and manifests as lactose intolerance. There is a lack of information regarding their impact on self-perception of health. The objective of this study is to determine the subjective impact of self-reported lactose intolerance or objective lactose malabsorption on patient health by using a patient-reported outcome to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and modification of lactose-containing food diet. A 3-year prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in patients referred for a lactose hydrogen breath test. Patients were asked about their subjective opinion relative to their lactose tolerance and completed a validated, specific questionnaire to determine symptoms of intolerance during habitual consumption of dairy. A 50-g lactose breath test was then performed. Patients were grouped as absorbers vs malabsorbers and tolerant vs intolerants. A total of 580 patients were included (median age 30 years, 419 female). Overall, 324 patients (56%) considered themselves lactose intolerant and that perception was associated with avoidance of dairy consumption (55% vs only 9% of self-defined tolerants). Self-perception of intolerance was associated with lower HRQOL scores (median, 60 vs 70, Plactose objective malabsorption was not clearly associated with dairy avoidance (41% of malabsorbers avoided dairy vs 31% of absorbers). However, HRQOL scores were also significantly lower in malabsorbers than in absorbers (60 vs 70 respectively, Plactose intolerance affects the decision to avoid dairy even more than objective malabsorption. However, both self-perception of lactose intolerance and objective lactose malabsorption are associated with poorer perceived quality of life.
Vega, Jennifer N; Dumas, Julie; Newhouse, Paul
Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of cancer treatment. Current longitudinal studies, primarily in women with breast cancer, suggest that up to 35%-60% of patients exhibit persistent CRCI (pCRCI) following completion of chemotherapy. Complaints of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are also commonly reported by women during and following the menopause transition in non-cancer patients. Although the majority of evidence for cognitive difficulties in cancer patients and survivors is attributed to chemotherapy, there is growing evidence to suggest that menopausal status can also influence cognitive function in cancer patients. Given that menopausal status may be contributing to pCRCI, we compared a group of primarily post-menopausal women with pCRCI to two groups of post-menopausal women: women who endorse menopause-associated SCD (maSCD+) and women who do not (maSCD-) to explore the similarities/differences between maSCD and pCRCI and the potential role of menopause in pCRCI. pCRCI participants report more severe SCD symptoms than women after natural menopause, despite being on average 2.5-years post-chemotherapy, supporting previous findings that CRCI can persist for months to years after completing treatment. pCRCI participants not only endorsed greater SCD, but also exhibited objective performance differences. In addition, pCRCI participants endorsed significantly greater menopausal symptoms compared to either maSCD group. Results were not related to menopausal status prior to chemotherapy or current endocrine therapy use. These results suggest that while menopausal symptoms may contribute to SCD experienced by cancer patients after chemotherapy, they do not fully account for pCRCI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chenivesse, Cécile; Similowski, Thomas; Bautin, Nathalie; Fournier, Clément; Robin, Sophie; Wallaert, Benoît; Perez, Thierry
Patients with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) report severe symptom-related suffering and often complain from insufficient medical attention. However, quality of life data in this context are scarce. We aimed at assessing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HVS patients. Twenty-one HVS patients with extensive cardiorespiratory workup including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) filled in the generic SF-36 questionnaire and the results were compared to French normal values. Correlations between SF36 dimensions and clinical and functional data were established. All SF-36 scores were markedly decreased in HVS patients compared to healthy subjects: Physical Functioning: 44 ± 24, Social Functioning: 57 ± 27, Role Physical: 21 ± 32, Role Emotional: 48 ± 42, Mental Health: 51 ± 27, Vitality: 34 ± 20, Body Pain: 41 ± 21, General Health: 42 ± 21. These figures were all significantly lower in the HVS patients respective to the normal reference population. They were also lower than corresponding values published in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). "Vitality" and "Physical Functioning" scores were correlated with Nijmegen score (r = -0.594, p = 0.047) and peak respiratory frequency during CPET (r = -0.644, p = 0.019). The SF-36 Social Functioning score was correlated with the ventilatory threshold (r = 0.629, p = 0.034), peak V'E/V'CO2 (ventilation/CO2 production) (r = 0.650, p = 0.016) and peak PaCO2 (r = -0.664, p = 0.027). In conclusion, this study shows that HRQoL can be severely impaired in patients with HVS, which is one more reason to take this condition seriously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 30% Severe Impairment – 0.16 - 0.30% Speech, memory, coordination, attention, reaction time, balance significantly impaired All driving-related skills dangerously impaired Judgement and decision making dangerously impaired Blackouts (amnesia) Vomiting and other signs ...
For a report on the stress experiences of parents with hearing-impaired children in Germany, 317 parents completed a survey on how their families communicate and socialize, among other issues. The report focuses on how contacts with other parents and with hearing-impaired adults affect stress experiences, in the context of the child's hearing status and the means of communication. Parents who frequently meet with other parents show evidence of a warm, accepting, trusting relationship with their child. Parents who have many contacts with hearing-impaired adults show evidence of a strong sense of competence in regard to their child's upbringing. The findings confirm the implication found in most reports describing empirical studies. Social support is to be regarded as a cornerstone of psychosocial intervention and has to play as great a role as possible in institutional programs.
Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J
Our understanding of proprioceptive deficits in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its potential contribution to impaired motor function is still limited. To gain more insight into these issues, we evaluated accuracy and precision of joint position sense over a range of flexion-extension angles of the wrist of the affected and unaffected sides in 25 chronic CRPS patients and in 50 healthy controls. The results revealed proprioceptive impairment at both the patients' affected and unaffected sides, characterized predominantly by overestimation of wrist extension angles. Precision of the position estimates was more prominently reduced at the affected side. Importantly, group differences in proprioceptive performance were observed not only for tests at identical percentages of each individual's range of wrist motion but also when controls were tested at wrist angles that corresponded to those of the patient's affected side. More severe motor impairment of the affected side was associated with poorer proprioceptive performance. Based on additional sensory tests, variations in proprioceptive performance over the range of wrist angles, and comparisons between active and passive displacements, the disturbances of proprioceptive performance most likely resulted from altered processing of afferent (and not efferent) information and its subsequent interpretation in the context of a distorted "body schema." The present results point at a significant role for impaired central processing of proprioceptive information in the motor dysfunction of CRPS and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at identification of proprioceptive impairments and their restoration may promote the recovery of motor function in CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu
Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p Chronic alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.
Lewis, John M; Fontrier, Toinette H; Coley, J Lynn
Hyperventilation caused by physical and/or psychological stress may lead to significant respiratory alkalosis and an elevated systemic pH. The alkalotic pH may in turn suppress the normal renal release of phosphate into the urine, thereby interrupting the endogenous production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). This could cause a shortfall in its normal production, leading to a variety of adverse consequences. It might partially explain the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness, a treatable disease characterized by severe hyperventilation secondary to the hypoxia of high altitude exposure. Milder degrees of hyperventilation due to different forms of stress may produce other conditions which share characteristics with acute mountain sickness. One of these may be the fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic painful disorder for which no satisfactory treatment exists. Should fibromyalgia and acute mountain sickness have a common etiology, may they also share a common form of treatment? Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alwin, Jenny; Persson, Jan; Krevers, Barbro
The aim of this study was to examine relatives' perception of an assistive technology intervention aimed at persons with dementia (PwDs) and their relatives, and to examine whether, and how, experiences of the intervention process differed between relatives valuing the intervention to be of high, and relatives perceiving it to be of low significance. A total of 47 relatives of PwDs within the Swedish Technology and Dementia project were interviewed telephonically using a modified version of the Patient perspective on Care and Rehabilitation process instrument. A total of 46 participants were divided into two groups depending on whether they valued the intervention to be of great significance (GS group; N = 33) or of some/no significance (SNS group; N = 13). Several aspects of the intervention were perceived as highly important, e.g. being shown consideration and respect, and having somewhere to turn. The results indicate that relatives in the GS group perceived certain aspects of the intervention process as highly fulfilled to a larger extent than did relatives in the SNS group. This study illustrates how process evaluations can be used to increase the understanding and to identify improvement aspects of interventions. Process evaluation is a good method for understanding how interventions can be improved - a keystone for quality work. Based on relatives' ratings, a high fulfilment of the AT intervention process was associated with the perception of a significant outcome of the intervention.
Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei; Zhang, Weibin; Ruan, Jian; Liu, Chunhui; Zhang, Ruxin
Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity. Observations from experimental rodent models indicate that recovery of cholinergic function can improve memory and other cognitive functions via acetylcholine-mediated GABAergic inhibition enhancement, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated anti-inflammation, glial activation inhibition and neurovascular protection. The loss of cholinergic innervation of various brain structures may provide a common link between tinnitus seen in presbycusis-related tinnitus and age-related cognitive impairment. We hypothesize a key component of the condition is the withdrawal of cholinergic input to a subtype of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurogliaform cells. Cholinergic denervation might not only cause the degeneration of NPY neurogliaform cells, but may also result in decreased AChR activation in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. This, in turn, would lead to reduced GABA release and inhibitory regulation of neural networks. Reduced nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation due to the loss of nicotinic innervation might lead to the transformation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators, lowering the buffering of extracellular potassium and glutamate metabolism. Further research will provide evidence for the recovery of cholinergic function with the use of cholinergic input enhancement alone or in combination with other rehabilitative interventions to reestablish inhibitory regulation mechanisms of
Full Text Available Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity. Observations from experimental rodent models indicate that recovery of cholinergic function can improve memory and other cognitive functions via acetylcholine-mediated GABAergic inhibition enhancement, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation, glial activation inhibition and neurovascular protection. The loss of cholinergic innervation of various brain structures may provide a common link between tinnitus seen in presbycusis-related tinnitus and age-related cognitive impairment. We hypothesize a key component of the condition is the withdrawal of cholinergic input to a subtype of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, neuropeptide Y (NPY neurogliaform cells. Cholinergic denervation might not only cause the degeneration of NPY neurogliaform cells, but may also result in decreased AChR activation in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. This, in turn, would lead to reduced GABA release and inhibitory regulation of neural networks. Reduced nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation due to the loss of nicotinic innervation might lead to the transformation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators, lowering the buffering of extracellular potassium and glutamate metabolism. Further research will provide evidence for the recovery of cholinergic function with the use of cholinergic input enhancement alone or in combination with other rehabilitative interventions to reestablish inhibitory regulation
Sasai, Taeko; Matsuura, Masato; Inoue, Yuichi
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slowing have been reported as common findings of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and α-synucleinopathies. The objective of this study is to clarify the relation between MCI and physiological markers in iRBD. Cross-sectional study. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center. Thirty-one patients with iRBD including 17 younger patients with iRBD (younger than 70 y) and 17 control patients for the younger patients with iRBD. N/A. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and n-polysomnogram (PSG) were conducted of all participants. In patients with iRBD, the factors associated with MCI were explored among parameters of REM sleep without atonia (RWA), score of Sniffin' Sticks Test (threshold-discrimination-identification [TDI] score), RBD morbidity, and RBD severity evaluated with the Japanese version of the RBD questionnaire (RBDQ-JP). The younger iRBD group showed significantly lower alpha power during wake and lower MoCA score than the age-matched control group. MCI was detected in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%) on MoCA in this group. Among patients wtih iRBD, the MoCA score negatively correlated with age, proportion of slow wave sleep, TDI score, and EEG spectral power. Multiple regression analysis provided the following equation: MoCA score = 50.871-0.116*age -5.307*log (δ power during REM sleep) + 0.086*TDI score (R² = 0.598, P sleep), and 0.357 for TDI score (F = 9.900, P sleep and olfactory dysfunction, was revealed to be associated with cognitive decline in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.
Janine T Hidding
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the developed world. As a result of breast cancer treatment, many patients suffer from serious complaints in their arm and shoulder, leading to limitations in activities of daily living and participation. In this systematic literature review we present an overview of the adverse effects of the integrated breast cancer treatment related to impairment in functions and structures in the upper extremity and upper body and limitations in daily activities. Patients at highest risk were defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane from 2000 to October 2012, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Included were studies with patients with stage I-III breast cancer, treated with surgery and additional treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. The following health outcomes were extracted: reduced joint mobility, reduced muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and limitations in daily activities. Outcomes were divided in within the first 12 months and >12 months post-operatively. Patients treated with ALND are at the highest risk of developing impairments of the arm and shoulder. Reduced ROM and muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and decreased degree of activities in daily living were reported most frequently in relation to ALND. Lumpectomy was related to a decline in the level of activities of daily living. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were the main risk factors for pain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with ALND require special attention to detect and consequently address impairments in the arm and shoulder. Patients with pain should be monitored carefully, because pain limits the degree of daily activities. Future research has to describe a complete overview of the medical treatment and analyze outcome in relation to the treatment. Utilization of uniform validated measurement
Hidding, Janine T; Beurskens, Carien H G; van der Wees, Philip J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the developed world. As a result of breast cancer treatment, many patients suffer from serious complaints in their arm and shoulder, leading to limitations in activities of daily living and participation. In this systematic literature review we present an overview of the adverse effects of the integrated breast cancer treatment related to impairment in functions and structures in the upper extremity and upper body and limitations in daily activities. Patients at highest risk were defined. We conducted a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane from 2000 to October 2012, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Included were studies with patients with stage I-III breast cancer, treated with surgery and additional treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy). The following health outcomes were extracted: reduced joint mobility, reduced muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and limitations in daily activities. Outcomes were divided in within the first 12 months and >12 months post-operatively. Patients treated with ALND are at the highest risk of developing impairments of the arm and shoulder. Reduced ROM and muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and decreased degree of activities in daily living were reported most frequently in relation to ALND. Lumpectomy was related to a decline in the level of activities of daily living. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were the main risk factors for pain. Patients treated with ALND require special attention to detect and consequently address impairments in the arm and shoulder. Patients with pain should be monitored carefully, because pain limits the degree of daily activities. Future research has to describe a complete overview of the medical treatment and analyze outcome in relation to the treatment. Utilization of uniform validated measurement instruments has to be encouraged.
Strauss, Gregory P; Visser, Katherine Frost; Keller, William R; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W
Anhedonia (i.e., diminished capacity to experience pleasure) has traditionally been viewed as a core symptom of schizophrenia (SZ). However, modern laboratory-based studies suggest that this definition may be incorrect, as hedonic capacity may be intact. Alternative conceptualizations have proposed that anhedonia may reflect an impairment in generating mental representations of affective value that are needed to guide decision-making and initiate motivated behavior. The current study evaluated this hypothesis in 42 outpatients with SZ and 19 healthy controls (CN) who completed two tasks: (a) an emotional experience task that required them to indicate how positive, negative, and calm/excited they felt in response to a single emotional or neutral photograph; (b) a relative value judgment task where they selected which of 2 photographs they preferred. Results indicated that SZ and CN reported similar levels of positive emotion and arousal in response to emotional and neutral stimuli; however, SZ reported higher negative affect for neutral and pleasant stimuli than CN. In the relative value judgment task, CN displayed clear preference for stimuli differing in valence; however, SZ showed less distinct preferences for positive over neutral stimuli. Findings suggest that although in-the-moment experiences of positive emotion to singular stimuli may be intact in SZ, the ability to make relative value judgments that are needed to guide decision-making is impaired. Original conceptualizations of anhedonia as a diminished capacity for pleasure in SZ may be inaccurate; anhedonia may more accurately reflect a deficit in relative value judgment that results from impaired value representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC is a promising neuromarker for cognitive decline in aging population, based on its ability to reveal functional differences associated with cognitive impairment across individuals, and because rs-fMRI may be less taxing for participants than task-based fMRI or neuropsychological tests. Here, we employ an approach that uses rs-FC to predict the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (11 items; ADAS11 scores, which measure overall cognitive functioning, in novel individuals. We applied this technique, connectome-based predictive modeling, to a heterogeneous sample of 59 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, including normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and AD subjects. First, we built linear regression models to predict ADAS11 scores from rs-FC measured with Pearson's r correlation. The positive network model tested with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV significantly predicted individual differences in cognitive function from rs-FC. In a second analysis, we considered other functional connectivity features, accordance and discordance, which disentangle the correlation and anticorrelation components of activity timecourses between brain areas. Using partial least square regression and LOOCV, we again built models to successfully predict ADAS11 scores in novel individuals. Our study provides promising evidence that rs-FC can reveal cognitive impairment in an aging population, although more development is needed for clinical application.
Boehm, Dana; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard; Finkeldey, Florence; John, Swen Malte; Dwinger, Christine; Werfel, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Breuer, Kristine
Occupational hand eczema is one of the most frequent occupational diseases. Few data about the prevalence of mental comorbidities are available. Objectives. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms, the impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their correlates in patients with occupational hand eczema. A test battery consisting of the German versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) as a specific instrument and the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) as a generic instrument for HRQoL was applied in 122 patients. The severity of hand eczema was assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). Twenty per cent of patients had a positive anxiety score, and 14% had a positive depression score. Higher anxiety levels, a greater impairment in the SF-36 mental component summary score and a higher DLQI category score for symptoms and feelings was detected in females than in males. The OHSI correlated with the impairment in HRQoL, and an association of severe hand eczema with symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in males. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in our study population of patients with occupational hand eczema. Preventive measures should consider the psychosocial implications of occupational hand eczema. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Whittamore, Kathy H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Harwood, Rowan H
To identify patient and caregiver characteristics associated with caregiver dissatisfaction with hospital care of cognitively impaired elderly adults. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. An 1,800-bed general hospital in England providing the only emergency medical services in its area. Cognitively impaired individuals aged 65 and older randomly assigned to a specialist unit or standard geriatric or internal medical wards (N = 600) and related caregivers (N = 488). Patient and caregiver health status was measured at baseline, including delirium, cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms, activities of daily living, and caregiver strain. Caregiver satisfaction with quality of care was ascertained after hospital discharge or death. Four hundred sixty-two caregivers completed satisfaction questionnaires. Regardless of assignment, 54% of caregivers were dissatisfied with some aspects of care, but overall 87% were satisfied with care. The main areas of dissatisfaction were communication, discharge planning, and medical management. Dissatisfaction was associated with high levels of patient behavioral and psychological symptoms on admission, caregiver strain and poor psychological well-being at admission, a diagnosis of delirium, and the relationship between the caregiver and the patient. There was less dissatisfaction from caregivers of patients managed on the specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit than those on standard wards, after controlling for multiple factors. Dissatisfaction was associated with patient behavioral and psychological symptoms and caregiver strain but was not immutable to efforts to improve care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Reine, Ieva; Palmer, Edward; Sonnander, Karin
The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences in wellbeing, as related to work status, among working-age people with severe impairments. This study is based on register and survey data for a sample of 7298 persons, drawn from the entire Swedish population of 15,515 working-age people 16-64 years old who, at the end of 2010, received Sweden's unique personal assistance allowance, an allowance paid from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA) to persons with severe impairments, enabling them to pay for assistants to support them in the functions of daily life. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of relations between six measures of wellbeing, work status (not working, irregular work and regular work) and gender, together with key confounders. Of the persons surveyed, 21% responded that they had regular work. Gender differences were found for all confounders, except for age. They were mostly in favour of men, which could reflect the general pattern in the labour market at large. Our results indicated there are substantial differences between non-working, irregularly working and working persons for several wellbeing aspects. This study analyses the contributions to wellbeing of work participation among working-age people with severe impairments, with a focus on gender differences. The analysis shows that work is an important determinant of the six measures of wellbeing examined, where the relationship between work participation and wellbeing is especially strong for peoples' perceived standard of living. This major finding holds for both genders; however, the data show gender imbalance, in that compared with women, there was a larger percentage of men with severe impairments who have regular work. Future research should focus on finer distinctions between the types of work and the value added of personal assistants in the work context. Measures of general health not available for this study are needed to filter out a clearer
Alice Aita Cacilhas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este
Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M
Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.
Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C
Many falls in older people occur while walking, however the mechanisms responsible for gait instability are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a plausible model describing the relationships between impaired sensorimotor function, fear of falling and gait patterns in older people. Temporo-spatial gait parameters and acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis were obtained from 100 community-dwelling older people aged between 75 and 93 years while walking on an irregular walkway. A theoretical model was developed to explain the relationships between these variables, assuming that head stability is a primary output of the postural control system when walking. This model was then tested using structural equation modeling, a statistical technique which enables the testing of a set of regression equations simultaneously. The structural equation model indicated that: (i) reduced step length has a significant direct and indirect association with reduced head stability; (ii) impaired sensorimotor function is significantly associated with reduced head stability, but this effect is largely indirect, mediated by reduced step length, and; (iii) fear of falling is significantly associated with reduced step length, but has little direct influence on head stability. These findings provide useful insights into the possible mechanisms underlying gait characteristics and risk of falling in older people. Particularly important is the indication that fear-related step length shortening may be maladaptive.
Wang, Gang; Chen, Ling; Pan, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jiechun; Wang, Liqun; Wang, Weijie; Cheng, Ruochuan; Wu, Fan; Feng, Xiaoqing; Yu, Yingcong; Zhang, Han-Ting; O'Donnell, James M; Xu, Ying
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in red wine, has wide spectrum of pharmacological properties including antioxidative and antiaging activities. Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) are known to involve cognitive impairment, neuroinflammatory and apoptotic processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of cAMP and/or cGMP activities can improve memory performance and decrease the neuroinflammation and apoptosis. However, it remains unknown whether the memory enhancing effect of resveratrol on AD associated cognitive disorders is related to the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) subtypes and subsequent increases in intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP activities. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairment and the participation of PDE4 subtypes related cAMP or cGMP signaling. Mice microinfused with Aβ1-42 into bilateral CA1 subregions displayed learning and memory impairment, as evidenced by reduced memory acquisition and retrieval in the water maze and retention in the passive avoidance tasks; it was also significant that neuroinflammatory and pro-apoptotic factors were increased in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Aβ1-42-treated mice also increased in PDE4A, 4B and 4D expression, and decreased in PKA level. However, PKA inhibitor H89, but not PKG inhibitor KT5823, prevented resveratrol's effects on these parameters. Resveratrol also reversed Aβ1-42-induced decreases in phosphorylated cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-apoptotic factor BCl-2 expression, which were reversed by H89. These findings suggest that resveratrol reversing Aβ-induced learning and memory disorder may involve the regulation of neuronal inflammation and apoptosis via PDE4 subtypes related cAMP-CREB-BDNF signaling.
Villatte, Matthieu; Monestès, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baqué, Esteve; Loas, Gwenolé
Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia, one of the frequent features of schizophrenia, in the development of deficits in reversing the I-YOU relation (i.e., adopting the perspective of another). A task consisting of attributing a belief to another or to the self was employed with 30 non-clinical participants with a high level of social anhedonia and with 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In comparison to two control groups, both experimental groups showed significant poorer performance when adopting the perspective of another. These results constitute important indications to target specific relational repertoires when attempting to remediate impairments in mental states attribution linked to schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, respectively. Blood serum omega-3 fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. The BACS composite score was significantly correlated with blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels. In addition, a daily dose of antipsychotic medication was negatively and significantly correlated with the blood DHA level and with the BACS composite score. Step-wise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the SFS score was significantly associated with the BACS composite score. Our results indicate that reduced blood omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cognitive impairment, which then impacts social functioning outcomes in schizophrenia.
Flamendorf, Jason; Agrón, Elvira; Wong, Wai T; Thompson, Darby; Wiley, Henry E; Doss, E Lauren; Al-Holou, Shaza; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Cukras, Catherine
We investigate whether ocular and person-based characteristics were associated with dark adaptation (DA). Cross-sectional, single-center, observational study. One hundred sixteen participants older than 50 years of age with a range of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity. Participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) testing, ophthalmoscopic examination, and multimodal imaging. Presence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) was assessed by masked grading of fundus images and was confirmed with optical coherence tomography. Eyes also were graded for AMD features (drusen, pigmentary changes, late AMD) to generate person-based AMD severity groups. One eye was designated the study eye for DA testing. Nonparametric statistical testing was performed on all comparisons. The primary outcome of this study was the rod intercept time (RIT), which is defined as the time for a participant's visual sensitivity to recover to a stimulus intensity of 5×10(-3) cd/m(2) (a decrease of 3 log units), or until a maximum test duration of 40 minutes was reached. A total of 116 study eyes from 116 participants (mean age, 75.4±9.4 years; 58% female) were analyzed. Increased RIT was associated significantly with increasing AMD severity, increasing age (r = 0.34; P = 0.0002), decreasing BCVA (r = -0.54; P < 0.0001), pseudophakia (P = 0.03), and decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness (r = -0.27; P = 0.003). Study eyes with RPD (15/116 [13%]) had a significantly greater mean RIT compared with eyes without RPD in any AMD severity group (P < 0.02 for all comparisons), with 80% reaching the DA test ceiling. Impairments in DA increased with age, worse visual acuity, presence of RPD, AMD severity, and decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness. Analysis of covariance found the multivariate model that best fit the data included age, AMD group, and presence of RPD (R(2) = 0.56), with the presence of RPD conferring the largest parameter estimate. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of
Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J
Social anxiety appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to using cannabis to cope in social situations and to avoiding social situations if marijuana is unavailable. Yet, the relative impact of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety relative to use to cope with negative affect more broadly has yet to be examined. The present study used the Marijuana to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) to examine the incremental validity of using cannabis use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if cannabis is unavailable (MCSAS-Avoid) in a community-recruited sample of 123 (34.1% female) current cannabis users. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, other cannabis use motives, and cannabis expectancies, MCSAS-Cope remained significantly positively related to cannabis use frequency and cannabis-related problems. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, and experiential avoidance, MCSAS-Avoid remained significantly related to cannabis problems but not frequency. The present findings suggest that cannabis use to manage social forms of anxiety may be important to understanding cannabis use behaviors. The current findings identify cognitive/motivational factors implicated in more frequent cannabis use and in cannabis-related impairment, which may be essential to inform efforts to further refine prevention and treatment efforts. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Full Text Available Exploratory, the paper presents and discusses the response of children with visual impairment on the illustrated children’s book, analyzing how to establish relationships and dialogue between text and image support in the book from the perspective of non- visual , mainly in concerns the cognitive feature and the specific conditions of visual impairment . This study is justified by the importance that access to different languages ( image and text , added to the literary function of fictional narrative can provide the Bantam player, as well as access to imaging and its meaning to the reader , there is still the possibility include children with visual impairment in the literary universe in a field whose intricate set of languages provides the reader with a multiplicity of meanings that can take children’s reader to find new ways to relate to the world . The method used here , interview - conversation ( SARAMAGO , 2001 , questions blind and low vision between 10 and 14 years Londrinense Institute of Education and Work for the Blind of Londrina / PR on the relationship between image and text children during reading two illustrated works adapted : forgotten Adelia Adelia and dreamy, both selected by the diversity of graphical features ( smooth textures , flocked , granular , etc. used in the translation of images for relief . The aim is to compare two aspects equivalences and differences between reading narratives that rely on graphics to convey its essential message and that can easily be understood only by the text in order to verify that an integration or fragmentation of languages that exist on integrating image text - in the context of visual impairment . Results indicate that the experience of reading is complexed in each book , unique to each turn of the page and predominantly verbal. However, typologies act as effective parameter for understanding the various relationships between image and text observed during the interview and awaken
Preller, Katrin H; Hulka, Lea M; Vonmoos, Matthias; Jenni, Daniela; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Dziobek, Isabel; Quednow, Boris B
Chronic cocaine users consistently display neurochemical and functional alterations in brain areas involved in social cognition (e.g. medial and orbitofrontal cortex). Although social functioning plays a crucial role in the development and treatment of drug dependence, studies investigating social cognition in cocaine users are lacking. Therefore, we investigated mental perspective taking ('theory of mind') and emotional and cognitive empathy in recreational (RCU) and dependent (DCU) cocaine users. Furthermore, we related these measures to real-life indicators of social functioning. One-hundred cocaine users (69 RCU, 31 DCU) and 68 stimulant-naïve healthy controls were tested with the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The Social Network Questionnaire was conducted to assess social network size. Furthermore, participants provided information on committed criminal offenses. RCU and DCU showed less emotional empathy compared to controls (MET), whereas cognitive empathy was not impaired (MET, RMET). Additionally, DCU made more errors in mental perspective taking (MASC). Notably, cocaine users committed more criminal offenses and displayed a smaller social network and higher cocaine use was correlated with less social contacts. Diminished mental perspective taking was tentatively correlated with more intense cocaine use as well. Finally, younger age of onset of cocaine use was associated with more pronounced empathy impairment. In conclusion, social cognition impairments in cocaine users were related to real-life social functioning and should therefore be considered in therapy and prevention strategies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Yu, Bing; Guo, Qiyong [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Fan, Guoguang [The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Liu, Na [Greater China Region of Philips, Shanghai (China)
We wanted to investigate the usefulness of event-related (ER) functional MRI (fMRI) for the assessment of cortical visual impairment in infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). FMRI data were collected from 24 infants who suffered from PVL and from 12 age-matched normal controls. Slow ER fMRI was performed using a 3.0T MR scanner while visual stimuli were being presented. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2), the SPM toolbox MarsBar was used to analyze the region of interest data, and the time to peak (TTP) of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs) was estimated for the surviving voxels. The number of activated voxels and the TTP values of HRFs were compared. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to compare visual impairment evaluated by using Teller Acuity Cards (TAC) with the number of activated voxels in the occipital lobes in all patients. In all 12 control infants, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was negative and the maximum response was located in the anterior and superior part of the calcarine fissure, and this might correspond to the anterior region of the primary visual cortex (PVC). In contrast, for the 24 cases of PVL, there were no activated pixels in the PVC in four subjects, small and weak activations in six subjects, deviated activations in seven subjects and both small and deviated activations in three subjects. The number of active voxels in the occipital lobe was significantly correlated with the TAC-evaluated visual impairment (p < 0.001). The mean TTP of the HRFs was significantly delayed in the cases of PVL as compared with that of the normal controls. Determining the characteristics of both the BOLD response and the ER fMRI activation may play an important role in the cortical visual assessment of infants with PVL.
Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.
We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA
Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir
Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K
Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R
To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content
Full Text Available Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss ¬¬displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise.
Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B
) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive......The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS...
Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B
The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS......) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive...
Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence
Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...
Mariana F. Aurich
Full Text Available Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway in the rotenone model of PD. Also, a concomitant impairment in REM sleep was inflicted with the introduction of two periods (24 or 48 h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. Rotenone promoted a remarkable olfactory impairment in both social and non-social odors, with a notable modulation induced by 24 h of REMSD for the non-social odor. Results: Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a strong association between the density of nigral TH-ir neurons and the olfactory discrimination capacity for both odorant stimuli. Specifically, the rotenone-induced decrease of these neurons tends to elicit reductions in the olfactory discrimination ability. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the participation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system mainly in the olfactory discrimination of a non-social odor, probably through the main olfactory pathway. Such involvement may have produce relevant impact in the preclinical abnormalities found in PD patients.
Brandstatt, Kelly L; Voss, Joel L
Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.
Crespo, Iris; Santos, Alicia; Valassi, Elena; Pires, Patricia; Webb, Susan M; Resmini, Eugenia
Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p decision-making strategy compared to controls, choosing a lower number of the safer cards (p memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors.
Kelly L Brandstatt
Full Text Available Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.
Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others’ pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs. The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups. Robust picture × group interactions were observed for N2 and P3. The painful pictures elicited larger N2 and P3 amplitudes than the non-painful pictures did only in the HC group but not in the IAD group. The results of this study suggest that both of the early automatic and of the later cognitive processes of pain empathy may be impaired in IADs. This study provides psychophysical evidence of empathy deficits in association with IAD. Further studies combining multidimensional measurements of empathy are needed to confirm these findings.
Schmid, R; Eschen, A; Rüegger-Frey, B; Martin, M
There is growing evidence that individuals with cognitive impairment and dementia require systematic assessment of needs for the selection of optimal treatments. Currently no valid instrument is applicable for illness-related need assessment in this growing population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new instrument ("Bedürfnisinventar bei Gedächtnisstörungen", BIG-65) that systematically assesses illness-related needs. The development was based on an adequate theoretical framework and standardised procedural guidelines and validated to an appropriate sample of individuals attending a Swiss memory clinic (n = 83). The BIG-65 provides a comprehensive range of biopsychosocial and environmental needs items and offers a dementia-friendly structure for the assessment of illness-related needs. The BIG-65 has high face validity and very high test-retest reliability (rtt = 0,916). On average 3.5 (SD = 3.7) unmet needs were assessed. Most frequently mentioned needs were: "forget less" (50%), "better concentration" (23.2%), "information on illness" (20.7%), "information on treatments" (17.1%), "less worry", "less irritable", "improve mood", "improve orientation" (13.4% each). Needs profiles differed between patients with preclinical (subjective cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment) and clinical (dementia) diagnosis. The BIG-65 reliably assesses illness-related needs in individuals with moderate dementia. With decreasing cognitive functions or an MMSE cognitive impairment and dementia pursue individual strategies to stabilize their quality of life level. In addition to the assessment of objective illness symptoms the selection of optimal treatments may profit from a systematic needs assessment to optimally support patients in their individual quality of life strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.
Linn, Kyaw; Fay, Alexander; Meddles, Katherine; Isbell, Sara; Lin, Phyo Nay; Thair, Cho; Heaps, Jodi; Paul, Robert; Mar, Soe Soe
We determined the effect of perinatally acquired HIV on neurocognition in Myanmar children treated with antiretroviral therapy by comparison to demographically matched seronegative children. Myanmar has one of the highest HIV-1 prevalence rates in Southeast Asia. Studies from other resource-poor countries have shown that HIV-infected children differ in socioeconomic, nutritional and caregiver status compared to normal controls. Some vertically infected orphans in Myanmar reside separately from HIV-uninfected children in separate orphanages, thus the demographic variables of interest are naturally controlled. This study provides a unique evaluation of the neurocognitive effects of HIV in children, with control over key demographic variables. We hypothesized that HIV-infected orphans would perform significantly worse on cognitive indices compared with HIV-negative orphans. A battery of cognitive tests sensitive to HIV-associated impairments in children was administered to 28 perinatally acquired HIV-positive children and 31 HIV-negative children from two orphanages in Myanmar; 21 children from each cohort underwent testing at baseline and again after 12 months. Baseline comparison of the two groups indicated that the HIV-infected children performed poorly across all tests, with significant group differences in executive function, visuospatial reasoning, fine motor dexterity, and visual motor integration. On subsequent testing, both cohorts of children showed improvements across multiple domains, with no significant effect of age at treatment initiation. Our results demonstrate a strong effect of HIV infection on specific neurocognitive deficits in vertically infected children. Understanding viral and host determinants and timing and choice of antiretroviral therapy on cognition will be critical to preventing cognitive impairment of children with HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robbins, Reuben N; Brown, Henry; Ehlers, Andries; Joska, John A; Thomas, Kevin G F; Burgess, Rhonda; Byrd, Desiree; Morgello, Susan
Neurocognitive Impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV-infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. However, screening for it is not routine and NCI often goes undiagnosed. Screening for NCI in HIV disease faces numerous challenges, such as limited screening tests, the need for specialized equipment and apparatuses, and highly trained personnel to administer, score and interpret screening tests. To address these challenges, we developed a novel smartphone-based screening tool, NeuroScreen , to detect HIV-related NCI that includes an easy-to-use graphical user interface with ten highly automated neuropsychological tests. To examine NeuroScreen's : 1) acceptability among patients and different potential users; 2) test construct and criterion validity; and 3) sensitivity and specificity to detect NCI. Fifty HIV+ individuals were administered a gold-standard neuropsychological test battery, designed to detect HIV-related NCI, and NeuroScreen . HIV+ test participants and eight potential provider-users of NeuroScreen were asked about its acceptability. There was a high level of acceptability of NeuroScreen by patients and potential provider-users. Moderate to high correlations between individual NeuroScreen tests and paper-and-pencil tests assessing the same cognitive domains were observed. NeuroScreen also demonstrated high sensitivity to detect NCI. NeuroScreen, a highly automated, easy-to-use smartphone-based screening test to detect NCI among HIV patients and usable by a range of healthcare personnel could help make routine screening for HIV-related NCI feasible. While NeuroScreen demonstrated robust psychometric properties and acceptability, further testing with larger and less neurocognitively impaired samples is warranted.
Kato, Yuichiro; Endo, Hiroshi; Kizuka, Tomohiro
The effects of mental fatigue on the availability of cognitive resources and associated response-related processes were examined using event-related brain potentials. Subjects performed a Go/NoGo task for 60 min. Reaction time, number of errors, and mental fatigue scores all significantly increased with time spent on the task. The NoGo-P3 amplitude significantly decreased with time on task, but the Go-P3 amplitude was not modulated. The amplitude of error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) also decreased with time on task. These results indicate that mental fatigue attenuates resource allocation and error monitoring for NoGo stimuli. The Go- and NoGo-P3 latencies both increased with time on task, indicative of a delay in stimulus evaluation time due to mental fatigue. NoGo-N2 latency increased with time on task, but NoGo-N2 amplitude was not modulated. The amplitude of response-locked lateralized readiness potential (LRP) significantly decreased with time on task. Mental fatigue appears to slows down the time course of response inhibition, and impairs the intensity of response execution.
Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A
Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mekawy, H.M.S.; Elkhouly, W.A.; Tawfik, S.S.
Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1 oxyl) is a naturally occurring substance that counteracts the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues and has been reported to permeate the biological membranes. In this study, tempol with dose of 18 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks has been shown to be effective in preventing several of the adverse consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation that underlie radiation damage. Adult rats were exposed to a total dose of 6 Gy gamma rays to determine the protective role of tempol on the biochemistry of the injured kidney because gamma rays displayed significant augmentation in renal oxidative modifications markers.The results indicated that plasma renal function tests; urea (Ur), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA) and sodium (Na), and plasma renal tubular injury markers; γ -glutamyltransferase ( γ -GT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were increased significantly in gamma rays group. In addition, the renal oxidative stress parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and protein carbonyl (PC), were increased significantly, and reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly in gamma rays group. Moreover, the levels of renal antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were decreased significantly, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was in creased significantly in gamma rays group.The antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates gamma rays-induced biochemical alterations and dysfunction of kidney.Tempol, at levels within tolerable nutritional strategy, reduced the oxidative modification-related renal impairment induced by gamma radiation in rats.
Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.
Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665
Righi, Stefania; Galli, Luca; Paganini, Marco; Bertini, Elisabetta; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Piacentini, Silvia
Huntington's disease (HD) primarily affects striatum and prefrontal dopaminergic circuits which are fundamental neural correlates of the timekeeping mechanism. The few studies on HD mainly investigated motor timing performance in second durations. The present work explored time perception in early-to-moderate symptomatic HD patients for seconds and milliseconds with the aim to clarify which component of the scalar expectancy theory (SET) is mainly responsible for HD timing defect. Eleven HD patients were compared to 11 controls employing two separate temporal bisection tasks in second and millisecond ranges. Our results revealed the same time perception deficits for seconds and milliseconds in HD patients. Time perception impairment in early-to-moderate stages of Huntington's disease is related to memory deficits. Furthermore, both the non-systematical defect of temporal sensitivity and the main impairment of timing performance in the extreme value of the psychophysical curves suggested an HD deficit in the memory component of the SET. This result was further confirmed by the significant correlations between time perception performance and long-term memory test scores. Our findings added important preliminary data for both a deeper comprehension of HD time-keeping deficits and possible implications on neuro-rehabilitation practices.
Vladimir Araujo de Silva
Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.
Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui
Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living
Full Text Available This paper presents a system for an interactive multimodal environment able (i to train the listening comprehension in various populations of pupils, both Italian and immigrants, having different disabilities and (ii to assess speech production and discrimination. The proposed system is the result of a research project focused on pupils with sensorial, neuropsychological, and relational impairments. The project involves innovative technological systems that the users (speech terabits psychologists and preprimary and primary schools teachers could adopt for training and assessment of language and speech. Because the system is used in a real scenario (the Italian schools are often affected by poor funding for education and teachers without informatics skills, the guidelines adopted are low-cost technology; usability; customizable system; robustness.
Mazina, Varvara; Gerdts, Jennifer; Trinh, Sandy; Ankenman, Katy; Ward, Tracey; Dennis, Megan Y; Girirajan, Santhosh; Eichler, Evan E; Bernier, Raphael
Epidemiological data have suggested maternal infection and fever to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Animal studies show that gestational infections perturb fetal brain development and result in offspring with the core features of autism and have demonstrated that behavioral effects of maternal immune activation are dependent on genetic susceptibility. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of ASD-associated copy number variants (CNVs) and prenatal maternal infection on clinical severity of ASD within a dataset of prenatal history and complete genetic and phenotypic findings. We analyzed data from the Simons Simplex Collection sample including 1971 children with a diagnosis of ASD aged 4 to 18 years who underwent array comparative genomic hybridization screening. Information on infection and febrile episodes during pregnancy was collected through parent interview. ASD severity was clinically measured through parent-reported interview and questionnaires. We found significant interactive effects between the presence of CNVs and maternal infection during pregnancy on autistic symptomatology, such that individuals with CNVs and history of maternal infection demonstrated increased rates of social communicative impairments and repetitive/restricted behaviors. In contrast, no significant interactions were found between presence of CNVs and prenatal infections on cognitive and adaptive functioning of individuals with ASD. Our findings support a gene-environment interaction model of autism impairment, in that individuals with ASD-associated CNVs are more susceptible to the effects of maternal infection and febrile episodes in pregnancy on behavioral outcomes and suggest that these effects are specific to ASD rather than to global neurodevelopment.
Nicola, Kristy; Watter, Pauline
Children with specific language impairment often present with multiple comorbidities, which may adversely affect both participation in play and academic performance, potentially impacting a child's health-related quality of life. This study 1) explored the suitability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for use with a typically developing Australian control group, and 2) compared the health-related quality of life between a control group and Australian children with severe specific language impairment. Health-related quality of life data collected as part of a broader study of 43 children with severe specific language impairment (males = 35, age range 5-16, mean age = 8.79+/- 2.92) enrolled at a special school were used to explore previously unreported findings. Typically developing gender and age matched (+/- 3 months) peers were recruited from local schools. The PedsQL™ child self-report and proxy-report were individually or interviewer-administered to the control group as required, and then compared to the group with specific language impairment. The PedsQL™ was reliable and feasible for use with the control group (N = 43, males = 35, age range = 5-16 years, mean age = 8.74+/- 2.94 years). Control group performance was as expected as per the manual. Parents of the control group scored their children significantly higher than did the children themselves on all scales except the emotional functioning scale. Both the control group children and their parents scored themselves significantly higher on all scales, compared to children with severe specific language impairment and their parents. The PedsQL™ was suitable for use with the control group. Further, the recruitment of a control group provided additional clarity on the extent a severe specific language impairment impacts on an Australian child's perceived health-related quality of life, compared to the manual cut
Stuckenschneider, Tim; Askew, Christopher David; Rüdiger, Stefanie; Cristina Polidori, Maria; Abeln, Vera; Vogt, Tobias; Krome, Andreas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Lawlor, Brian; Schneider, Stefan
By 2030, about 74 million people will be diagnosed with dementia, and many more will experience subjective (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As physical inactivity has been identified to be a strong modifiable risk factor for dementia, exercise and physical activity (PA) may be important parameters to predict the progression from MCI to dementia, but might also represent disease trajectory modifying strategies for SCI and MCI. A better understanding of the relationship between activity, fitness, and cognitive function across the spectrum of MCI and SCI would provide an insight into the potential utility of PA and fitness as early markers, and treatment targets to prevent cognitive decline. 121 participants were stratified into three groups, late MCI (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and SCI based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Cognitive function assessments also included the Trail Making Test A+B, and a verbal fluency test. PA levels were evaluated with an interviewer-administered questionnaire (LAPAQ) and an activity monitor. An incremental exercise test was performed to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and to determine exercise capacity relative to population normative data. ANCOVA revealed that LMCI subjects had the lowest PA levels (LAPAQ, p = 0.018; activity monitor, p = 0.041), and the lowest exercise capacity in relation to normative values (p = 0.041). Moreover, a modest correlation between MoCA and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.25; p cognitive impairment PA and exercise capacity might present a marker for the risk of further cognitive decline. This finding warrants further investigation using longitudinal cohort studies.
Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.
Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β=−1.07, pmemory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β=−1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602
Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano Iii, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L
A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β = -1.07, p memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum.
Stinson, Jennifer M; Collins, Robert L; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pacheco, Vitor; LeMaire, Ashley; Benge, Jared
The psychosocial toll of caring for an individual with dementia is an important, if understudied, concept. For practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the relation between patient characteristics and different facets of caregiver burden is important for guiding treatment and prevention efforts. The current study analyzed the dimensions of caregiver burden and the relation between caregiver burden and results of neuropsychological testing. Participants included 243 dyads of caregivers and Veterans referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Caregivers completed the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) to assess caregiver burden. Patients completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring the domains of attention/processing speed, memory, language, and executive functioning. A principal components analysis of the ZBI revealed a three-factor structure: psychosocial burden, dependency burden, and guilt. Correlations with neuropsychological test performance by Veteran patients suggested that test performance in the memory, attention, processing speed, executive functioning, and emotional functioning domains were solely related to the caregiver dependency burden factor of the ZBI. Additional analyses suggested severity of dementia and number of tests in the impaired range further influenced reported caregiver burden. The current study is one of the few studies examining caregiver burden in relation to neuropsychological functioning in a mixed clinical sample and has important implications for clinical practice.
It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs
Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho
To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P age-related macular degeneration (P age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.
Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Background In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. Methods & Procedures This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Outcomes & Results Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Conclusions & Implications Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children
van de Graaf, Elizabeth S; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Klaver, Caroline C W; Simonsz, Huibert J
Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case-control study aimed to measure loss of utility in patients with amblyopia with recent decrease of vision in their better eye. As these patients are rare, the sample was supplemented by patients with bilateral age-related macular degeneration with similar decrease of vision. From our out-patient department, two groups of patients with recent deterioration to bilateral visual acuity less than Snellen 0.5 (bilateral visual impairment, BVI) were recruited, with either persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMB + AMD), or with bilateral age-related macular degeneration (BAMD). To measure utility, the time trade-off method and the standard gamble method were applied through interviews. Correlations were sought between utility values and visual acuity, age and Visual Function Questionnaire-25 scores. Seventeen AMB + AMD patients (mean age 72.9 years), and 63 BAMD patients (mean age 79.6 years) were included in the study. Among AMB + AMD, 80 % were willing to trade lifetime in exchange for cure. The overall mean time trade-off utility was 0.925. Among BAMD, 75 % were willing to trade, utility was 0.917. Among AMB + AMD, 38 % accepted risk of death in exchange for cure, overall mean standard gamble utility was 0.999. Among BAMD, 49 % accepted risk of death, utility was 0.998. Utility was not related to visual acuity but it was to age (p = 0.02). Elderly patients with BVI, caused by persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or by bilateral AMD, had an approximately 8 % loss of TTO utility. Notably, the 8 % loss in elderly with BVI differs little from the 3.7 % loss we found previously in 35-year-old persons with unilateral
Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.
Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui
Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.
Full Text Available For granular assemblages of strong particles, an increase in the relative density usually leads to a significant increase in shear strength, which is evident as a peak strength, accompanied by significant dilation as the peak strength is attained. This paper describes an experimental study of shearing in assemblages of weak particles, where particle breakage offsets dilation for all but the lowest of confining stresses. In such materials, prone to particle breakage, the shear strengths of loose and dense assemblages rapidly converge to similar values as confining stress increases, and any benefit of greater relative density is lost. This is attributed to the densification effect associated with the loading under a high stress prior to shearing, which is characterised by widespread particle breakage and the formation of smaller particles to occupy space between coarser ones. Interestingly, under both low and high stresses, there was a tendency for greater particle breakage in the loose samples, as a result of both shearing and compression. This result suggests that, despite the denser assemblage having its particles more rigidly constrained and less able to rearrange to avoid direct loading, the influence of greater load-spreading capacity afforded by an increased number of particle contacts in a denser sample, is more dominant in controlling breakage.
Yamashita, Junkoh; Ohtsuka, Sinichi; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Gi, Hidefuku; Ha, Young-Soo; Handa, Hajime
One hundred and sixteen cases of brain metastases of lung cancer were retrospectively analysed with special reference to the relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy. The median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastases was 1.2 months in 27 cases without treatment, 2.5 months in 51 cases treated by surgery alone, 4.2 months in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy alone and 6.5 months in 7 cases treated by surgery and radiotherapy. The survival rate in patients treated by radiotherapy was significantly better than in those not treated by radiotherapy. However, the effect of surgery was not significant in prolongation of survival time. On the other hand, the rate of improvement in neurological symptoms assessed at one month after the initiation of treatment was 80.9% in 47 cases treated by surgery and 19.4 % in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy. The result suggested that surgery is superior to radiotherapy in alleviating neurological symptoms. It is important to understand the nature of effect of each treatment. A better result will be anticipated by proper selection or combination of these treatments. (author)
Full Text Available In 1990, Okuda et al. reported the first isolation and characterization of oenothein B, a unique ellagitannin dimer with a macrocyclic structure, from the Oenothera erythrosepala leaves. Since then, a variety of macrocyclic analogs, including trimeric–heptameric oligomers have been isolated from various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae. Among notable in vitro and in vivo biological activities reported for oenothein B are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. Oenothein B and related oligomers, and/or plant extracts containing them have thus attracted increasing interest as promising targets for the development of chemopreventive agents of life-related diseases associated with oxygen stress in human health. In order to better understand the significance of this type of ellagitannin in medicinal plants, this review summarizes (1 the structural characteristics of oenothein B and related dimers; (2 the oxidative metabolites of oenothein B up to heptameric oligomers; (3 the distribution of oenotheins and other macrocyclic analogs in the plant kingdom; and (4 the pharmacological activities hitherto documented for oenothein B, including those recently found by our laboratory.
Full Text Available Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD. We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A, which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01 were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP in the non-amyloidogenic pathway
Mihelčić, Matej; Šimić, Goran; Babić Leko, Mirjana; Lavrač, Nada; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav
Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A), which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, it could be
Roberts, Rosebud O.; Roberts, Lewis A.; Geda, Yonas E.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; O’Connor, Helen M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.
High caloric intake has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Total caloric intake is determined by the calories derived from macronutrients. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between percent of daily energy (calories) from macronutrients and incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Participants were a population-based prospective cohort of elderly persons who were followed over a median 3.7 years (interquartile range, 2.5–3.9) of follow-up. At baseline and every 15 months, participants (median age, 79.5 years) were evaluated using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, a neurological evaluation, and neuropsychological testing for a diagnosis of MCI, normal cognition, or dementia. Participants also completed a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline; total daily caloric and macronutrient intakes were calculated using an established database. The percent of total daily energy from protein (% protein), carbohydrate (% carbohydrate), and total fat (% fat) was computed. Among 937 subjects who were cognitively normal at baseline, 200 developed incident MCI or dementia. The risk of MCI or dementia (hazard ratio [HR], [95% confidence interval]) was elevated in subjects with high % carbohydrate (upper quartile: 1.89 [1.17–3.06]; P for trend=0.004), but was reduced in subjects with high % fat (upper quartile: 0.56 [0.34–0.91]; P for trend=0.03), and high % protein (upper quartile 0.79 [0.52 – 1.20]; P for trend=0.03) in the fully adjusted models. A dietary pattern with relatively high caloric intake from carbohydrates and low caloric intake from fat and proteins may increase the risk of MCI or dementia in elderly persons. PMID:22810099
Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Andersen, Ken Kjøller
BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental impairment that affects approximately 6% of children in primary school age. Children with DCD are characterized by impaired postural control. It has yet to be determined what effect peripheral and central neuromuscular...... control has on their balance control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms to impaired postural control in children with DCD using the rambling-trembling decomposition of the center of pressure (CoP). METHOD: Nine children with DCD (9.0±0.5years, 7 boys, 2 girls...... with fixed support surface. In ML direction children with DCD had a lower relative contribution of rambling to total sway (p=0.013). CONCLUSION: This study showed that impaired postural control in children with DCD is associated with less efficient supraspinal control represented by increased rambling...
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G
What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.
Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Haagerup, Annette; Børglum, Anders D.
or all are still inconclusive. Following genome-wide scans on multiple phenotypes, we previously suggested that chromosome 3q13.12-q21.2 harbours an allergy locus. OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate loci in the Danish population, two additional independent sets of sib-pair families were fine-scale mapped......BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have closely related phenotypes and often occur with atopy. They show strong familial and intra-individual clustering, suggesting overlapping disease aetiology. Various loci and candidate genes have been suggested to underlie allergy. Many...... in candidate regions showing maximum likelihood scores (MLS) > or =1.5 in the genome-wide scans. RESULTS: Twenty eight microsatellite markers in a denser map on chromosome 3q were analysed in 236 allergy sib-pair families including 125 sib pairs with rhinitis. We report significant evidence for linkage...
Araceli Sanchez-Maes, Sophia
Plate tectonics requires the bending of strong plates at subduction zones, which is difficult to achieve without a secondary weakening mechanism. Two classes of weakening mechanisms have been proposed for the generation of ongoing plate tectonics, distinguished by whether or not they require water. Here we show that the energy budget of global subduction zones offers a simple yet decisive test on their relative significance. Theoretical studies of mantle convection suggest bending dissipation to occupy only 10-20 % of total dissipation in the mantle, and our results indicate that the hydrous mechanism in the shallow part of plates is essential to satisfy the requirement. Thus, surface oceans are required for the long-term operation of plate tectonics on terrestrial worlds. Establishing this necessary and observable condition for sustained plate tectonics carries important implications for planetary habitability at large.
Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William
The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self......-regulation of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....
A.J. Leendertse (Anne); E.A. van Dijk (Elisabeth); P.A. de Smet (Peter); T.C.G. Egberts (Toine); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)
textabstractBackground: Medication errors and renal impairment contribute to severe adverse drug events, which may lead to hospital admission. Objective: To determine whether medication errors and renal impairment contribute to hospital admission and examine these errors for strategies to prevent
López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Dzuali, Fiatsogbe; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa
Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can experience deficits in working memory. In the present study, we investigated working memory in persons with MCI and cognitively healthy older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed an n-back working memory task with baseline (0-back), low load (1-back), and high load (2-back) working memory conditions. MCI participants' performance was less accurate than that of healthy older adults in both the 1-back and 2-back conditions, and reaction times were longer in MCI than control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. ERP analyses revealed delayed P200 and N200 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes in MCI relative to control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. Deterioration in working memory performance concomitant with marked electrophysiological alterations suggests that persons with MCI exhibit deficits in several cognitive processes that include early attention, stimulus discrimination and classification, and updating and manipulation of information held in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Grunwald, Thomas; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Kurthen, Martin; Rankin, Katherine P; Jokeit, Hennric
Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with reduced amygdala responsiveness to fearful faces. However, the effect of unilateral MTLE on empathy-related brain responses in extra-amygdalar regions has not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured empathy-related brain responses to dynamic fearful faces in 34 patients with unilateral MTLE (18 right sided), in an epilepsy (extra-MTLE; n = 16) and in a healthy control group (n = 30). The primary finding was that right MTLE (RMTLE) was associated with decreased activity predominantly in the right amygdala and also in bilateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) but normal activity in the right anterior insula. The results of the extra-MTLE group demonstrate that these reduced amygdala and PAG responses go beyond the attenuation caused by antiepileptic and antidepressant medication. These findings clearly indicate that RMTLE affects the function of mesial temporal and midbrain structures that mediate basic interoceptive input necessary for the emotional awareness of empathic experiences of fear. Together with the decreased empathic concern found in the RMTLE group, this study provides neurobehavioral evidence that patients with RMTLE are at increased risk for reduced empathy towards others' internal states and sheds new light on the nature of social-cognitive impairments frequently accompanying MTLE.
Susan M Andersen
Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.
Andersen, Susan M; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N; Xu, Joy H
We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF-THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel's early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.
Li, Yuan; Chen, YiRong; Zhang, Wei; Huang, XiaoGang; Li, WenHui; Ru, XiaoRui; Meng, Min; Xi, Xinsheng; Huang, Gang; Shi, BaoGuang; Liu, Gang; Li, WeiHua; Xu, Hui
To investigate the composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and their clinical significance. A total of 49 melamine-related urinary calculi were included from 49 children (age 4-82 months, mean 22). The qualitative analysis of stone composition was determined using Fourier transform infrared. The quantitative analysis of the stone computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, stone uric acid level, and stone calcium level were measured using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that 41 (84%) of the 49 stones contained uric acid and 25 (51%) contained calcium compounds. The data from the qualitative and quantitative analysis were available for 15 stones because of sample consumption in the detection process (Fourier transform infrared, atomic absorption spectrum, and high-performance liquid chromatography). A negative correlation was observed between stone uric acid level and stone calcium level (n = 15, r = -0.629, P = .009). A positive correlation was observed between the stone calcium level and stone CT attenuation value (n = 25, r = 0.855, P = .000). Compared with the ≤1-year-age group and the 1-2-year-age group, the stone calcium level in the >2-year-age group was significantly greater (27.51% ± 12.65% vs 1.60% ± 1.68% or 10.12% ± 8.69%, P = .000 and P = .003, respectively). Compared with the alkalization-alone group, the stone calcium level in the nonalkalization-alone group was significant greater (19.83% ± 7.48% vs 1.25% ± 1.43%, n = 19, P = .000). The stones from children >2 years old were not amenable to medical treatment because they contained greater levels of calcium, which can be demonstrated by the radiologic "positive stone image" or stone CT attenuation value. We believe that surgical invention will be the best choice for such patients if extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Molina, Juan L; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Balda, Mara; Alemán, Gabriela González; Florenzano, Néstor V; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Conesa, Horacio A; Escobar, Javier I; Zwir, Igor; Cloninger, C Robert; de Erausquin, Gabriel A
Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Ten-year outcome data was available for ~40% of the index cases. Patients with schizophrenia had higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence (ST), and lower reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-directedness (SD). Unaffected relatives had higher ST and lower CO and SD. Parkinsonism reliably predicted RD, CO, and SD after correcting for age and sex. The average duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was over 5 years. Further, SD was anticorrelated with DUP and antipsychotic dosing at follow-up. Baseline DUP was related to antipsychotic dose-years. Further, 'explosive/borderline', 'methodical/obsessive', and 'disorganized/schizotypal' personality profiles were associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Parkinsonism predicts core personality features and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia. Our study suggests that RD, CO, and SD are endophenotypes of the disease that may, in part, be mediated by dopaminergic function. Further, SD is an important determinant of treatment course and outcome.
Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E
The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.
Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.
Han, Rui; Tang, Zhe; Ma, Lina
To investigate the prevalence and related factors of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older residents in Beijing, China. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 2017 older individuals aged ≥ 60 years from Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging were included in this study. Information on demographic characteristics, life style, chronic disease and geriatric syndromes was collected. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.6% in community-dwelling older residents in Beijing. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in women than it was in men and in rural areas than it was in urban areas, and increased with age. Logistic regression showed that older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.496-3.033, P cognitive impairment. The prevalence of cognitive impairment among the older adults in Beijing was high. More attention should be paid to the identification of and intervention for factors influencing cognitive impairment, and health education should be carried out to improve the quality of life of the older adults.
Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A
Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, but the time that a brain injury occurs during development has not been rigorously studied when quantifying motor impairments. This study investigated the impact of timing of brain injury on the magnitude and distribution of weakness in the paretic arm of individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. A total of 24 individuals with hemiparesis were divided into time periods of injury before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), or after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). They, along with 8 typically developing peers, participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks using a multiple-degree-of-freedom load cell to quantify torques in 10 directions. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group and task on a calculated relative weakness ratio between arms. There was a significant effect of both time of injury group (P < .001) and joint torque direction (P < .001) on the relative weakness of the paretic arm. Distal joints were more affected compared with proximal joints, especially in the POST-natal group. The distribution of weakness provides evidence for the relative preservation of ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways to the paretic limb in those individuals injured earlier, whereas those who sustained later injury may rely more on indirect ipsilateral corticobulbospinal projections during the generation of torques with the paretic arm.
Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J.; Dewald, Julius P.A.
Background Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, but the time that a brain injury occurs during development has not been rigorously studied when quantifying motor impairments. Objective This study investigated the impact of timing of brain injury on magnitude and distribution of weakness in the paretic arm of individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. Methods Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into time periods of injury before birth (PRE-natal, n=8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n=8) or after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n=8). They, along with 8 typically developing peers, participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks using a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell to quantify torques in 10 directions. A mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group and task on a calculated relative weakness ratio between arms. Results There was a significant effect of both time of injury group (p<0.001) and joint torque direction (p<0.001) on the relative weakness of the paretic arm. Distal joints were more affected compared to proximal joints, especially in the POST-natal group. Conclusions The distribution of weakness provides evidence for the relative preservation of ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways to the paretic limb in those individuals injured earlier, while those who sustained later injury may rely more on indirect ipsilateral cortico-bulbospinal projections during the generation of torques with the paretic arm. PMID:24009182
Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid
Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important
Kato, Hisayuki; Yui, Takehiro; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Urano, Makoto; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Yamamoto, Naoki
The focus of human papilloma virus (HPV), particulary HPV 16 is on the role of carcinogenic and prognostic factors on oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC). However, it remains unclear why patients with HPV-positive tumors have better outcomes than those with HPV-negative tumors. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway. Clinical studies showed that intratumoural TS level was related to the response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with several types of cancer such as gastroenterological and head and neck cancers. We investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and TS expression in the patients with OSCC and evaluated the prognostic implications according to the HPV status and TS expression. We evaluated for high-risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 58) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on archival biopsies from 54 patients with OSCC. Immunohistochemical assessments for TS were also performed. HPV was positive in 22 (40.7%) of 54 samples. Of these positive cases, 21 (95%) carried HPV 16 and only 1 (5%) HPV58 sequences. TS was overexpressed in 25 (46.3%) of 54 samples. Of these, 19 (76.0%) had an HPV-negative status and 21 (84.0%) were heavy smokers. TS overexpression was associated with the patients with HPV-negative tumors (P=0.02) and heavy smokers (p=0.012). Univariate analysis revealed that HPV positive status (77.3% vs. 29.0%; p=0.006) significantly improved overall survival. Conversely, no remarkable prognostic difference was observed on immunohistochemical analysis of TS expression. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that early T stage (T1-2), early N stage (N0-1), and positive HPV status were significantly independent predictors for superior overall survival. Our studies suggested that positive HPV status was most strongly associated with a favorable prognosis in the patients with OSCC. TS expression has an unusual aspect
During the last two decades of the 20th century, nuclear power contribution increased slowly in the world. This trend was mainly determined by the commissioning of new nuclear power plants, NPP, in the non-developed countries, except for Japan and South Korea. Almost all the forecasts offered the image of the stagnant nuclear power business. Sweden, Germany, Holland and Belgium Governments made clear the intention to stop the production of electricity based on fission. Recently, despite the negative effects on nuclear power of the terrorism events of September 11, 2001, the predictions related to the nuclear power future become much more optimistic. USA, Japan, South Korea and Canada made clear that new NPPs will offer their significant electricity contribution several decades, even after years 2020-2030. Moreover, several old NPP from USA obtained the license for an additional 20 years period of operation. The analysis indicated that most of the existing NPP in USA may increase the level of the maximum global power defined by the initial design. In the European Union the situation is much more complicated. About 35% of the electricity is based now on fission. Several countries, like Sweden and Germany, maintain the position of phasing out the NPPs, as soon as the licensed life-time is over. Finland decided to build a new power plant. France is very favorable to nuclear power, but does not need more energy. In the UK several very old NPP will be shut down, and companies like BNFL and British Energy intend to build new NPP, based on Westinghouse or AECL-Canada advanced reactors. Switzerland and Spain are favorable to the future use of nuclear power. In the eastern part of Europe, almost all the countries intend to base their electricity production on coal, fission, hydro and gas, nuclear contribution being significant. The most impressive increases of nuclear power output are related to Asia; in China, from 2.2 Gwe in 1999, to 18.7 Gwe in 2020, reference case, or 10
Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.
Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P=0.005. Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P=0.02. This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND.
Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel
Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.
Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.
Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC
Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B
The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.
Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.
Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)
The level and distribution of residual stresses in heavy section weldments and the factors affecting their relaxation with post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed; residual stresses are also considered in relation to the deposition of austenitic strip cladding and repair welding. A brief survey is made of currently available methods of measuring surface and sub-surface residual stresses in heavy section weldments; the effects of compressive residual stresses on the detection and sizing of planar defects are similarly considered. Available fracture mechanics methodologies with the capability of evaluation defect significance in the presence of residual and other secondary stresses are reviewed in some detail. On-going experimental investigations of the effects of residual stresses on structural integrity are also described. Following a general discussion, the desirability of internationally agreed Codes and Methods for assessing defects in the presence of residual and other self-limiting stresses is pointed out. It is argued that before such agreement could be achieved, however, further work is necessary, and a number of recommendations are given. (author)
Full Text Available Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL, was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture.
Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H
In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Blencowe, Hannah; Vos, Theo; Bahalim, Adil; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Niermeyer, Susan; Ellis, Matthew; Robertson, Nicola J.; Cousens, Simon; Lawn, Joy E.
Background: Intrapartum hypoxic events (“birth asphyxia”) may result in stillbirth, neonatal or postneonatal mortality, and impairment. Systematic morbidity estimates for the burden of impairment outcomes are currently limited. Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following an intrapartum hypoxic event is a strong predictor of long-term impairment. Methods: Linear regression modeling was conducted on data identified through systematic reviews to estimate NE incidence and time trends for 184 countries. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the risk of NE by sex of the newborn, neonatal case fatality rate, and impairment risk. A compartmental model estimated postneonatal survivors of NE, depending on access to care, and then the proportion of survivors with impairment. Separate modeling for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD2010) study estimated disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) attributed to intrapartum-related events. Results: In 2010, 1.15 million babies (uncertainty range: 0.89–1.60 million; 8.5 cases per 1,000 live births) were estimated to have developed NE associated with intrapartum events, with 96% born in low- and middle-income countries, as compared with 1.60 million in 1990 (11.7 cases per 1,000 live births). An estimated 287,000 (181,000–440,000) neonates with NE died in 2010; 233,000 (163,000–342,000) survived with moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment; and 181,000 (82,000–319,000) had mild impairment. In GBD2010, intrapartum-related conditions comprised 50.2 million DALYs (2.4% of total) and 6.1 million YLDs. Conclusion: Intrapartum-related conditions are a large global burden, mostly due to high mortality in low-income countries. Universal coverage of obstetric care and neonatal resuscitation would prevent most of these deaths and disabilities. Rates of impairment are highest in middle-income countries where neonatal intensive care was more recently
Engelbert, R. H.; Gulmans, V. A.; Uiterwaal, C. S.; Helders, P. J.
To examine the perceived competence of children with different types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and to investigate the possible relationships between their perceived competence and impairment parameters. Cross-sectional study. National referral center (hospital) for the treatment of children
David A Wolk
Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.
Serpa, R.F.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Jesus, E.F.O. de [University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carmo, M.G.T. do [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Nutrition Institute, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, M.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, L.C. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, S. [University of Campinas State, Civil Engineering Department, SP (Brazil); Martinez, A.M.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Histology and Embryology, RJ (Brazil)
In order to evaluate the elemental concentration as a function of learning and memory deficiency, six different structures of the brain were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). To evaluate the cognitive processes, the animals were tested in an adaptation of the Morris water maze. After the test, the animals were divided into two groups: cognitively healthy (control group) and cognitively impaired. The measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. The following elements were identified: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. K concentration was higher in all regions of the brain studied for control group than the cognitively impaired group. Moreover, the control group presented higher levels for P and Fe in the entorhinal cortex, in the temporal cortex (only P), in the hypothalamus and in the thalamus, than the cognitively impaired group. Br concentration in the animals which presented cognitive impairment was three times larger in the hypothalamus and thalamus, twice larger in temporal cortex and higher in visual cortex than the cognitively healthy group. Cu was more remarkable in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from the animals with cognitive impairment than the control group. We observed that the cognitively impaired group presented highest concentrations of Br and Cu in certain areas than the control group, on the other hand, this group presented highest levels of K for all brain areas studied.
Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend; Kehlet, Henrik
Persistent postoperative pain is an acknowledged entity that reduces daily activities. Evaluation of the post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is often measured using traditional pain scales without in-depth questions on pain impairment. Thus, the purpose was to create a procedure-specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. Four of 17 questions were redundant. The remaining 13 questions from low to intensive activity described functional impairment following persistent pain from thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). No evidence for differential item functioning for gender, age or differences between open or VATS, were found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ = 0.46, P impairment questionnaire measured 2 qualitatively different pain dimensions although highly correlated (γ = 0.76). This study presents method, results and validation of a new unidimensional scale measuring procedure specific functional impairment due to PTPS following open surgery and VATS. Procedure specific tools such as this could provide important outcomes measures for future trials on persistent postsurgical pain states allowing better assessment of interventions (250).
Serpa, R.F.B.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T.; Carmo, M.G.T. do; Rocha, M.S.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Moreira, S.; Martinez, A.M.B.
In order to evaluate the elemental concentration as a function of learning and memory deficiency, six different structures of the brain were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). To evaluate the cognitive processes, the animals were tested in an adaptation of the Morris water maze. After the test, the animals were divided into two groups: cognitively healthy (control group) and cognitively impaired. The measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. The following elements were identified: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. K concentration was higher in all regions of the brain studied for control group than the cognitively impaired group. Moreover, the control group presented higher levels for P and Fe in the entorhinal cortex, in the temporal cortex (only P), in the hypothalamus and in the thalamus, than the cognitively impaired group. Br concentration in the animals which presented cognitive impairment was three times larger in the hypothalamus and thalamus, twice larger in temporal cortex and higher in visual cortex than the cognitively healthy group. Cu was more remarkable in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from the animals with cognitive impairment than the control group. We observed that the cognitively impaired group presented highest concentrations of Br and Cu in certain areas than the control group, on the other hand, this group presented highest levels of K for all brain areas studied
van Hooff, Johanna C.; Sargeant, Elizabeth; Foster, Jonathan K.; Schmand, Ben A.
The central aim of this study was to evaluate the value of reaction time (RT) measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) for the assessment of simulated memory impairment. In two identical experiments (N = 24), healthy volunteers carried out an adapted version of the Amsterdam Short-Term Memory
Reed, Vicki A.; Brammall, Helen
This article describes the systematic and detailed processes undertaken to modify a research methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. The original methodology had been used previously with normally achieving adolescents and speech pathologists to obtain their opinions about the relative importance of selected communication skills…
Philip L S M Gordts
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determination of the in vivo significance of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 dysfunction on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis development in absence of its main ligand apoE. METHODS AND RESULTS: LRP1 knock-in mice carrying an inactivating mutation in the NPxYxxL motif were crossed with apoE-deficient mice. In the absence of apoE, relative to LRP1 wild-type animals, LRP1 mutated mice showed an increased clearance of postprandial lipids despite a compromised LRP1 endocytosis rate and inefficient insulin-mediated translocation of the receptor to the plasma membrane, likely due to inefficient slow recycling of the mutated receptor. Postprandial lipoprotein improvement was explained by increased hepatic clearance of triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins and accompanied by a compensatory 1.6-fold upregulation of LDLR expression in hepatocytes. One year-old apoE-deficient mice having the dysfunctional LRP1 revealed a 3-fold decrease in spontaneous atherosclerosis development and a 2-fold reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the NPxYxxL motif in LRP1 is important for insulin-mediated translocation and slow perinuclear endosomal recycling. These LRP1 impairments correlated with reduced atherogenesis and cholesterol levels in apoE-deficient mice, likely via compensatory LDLR upregulation.
El-Ansary Afaf K
Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.
Eskildsen, Anita; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Kristensen, Simon Bang; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments as well as sleep disturbances. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in the longitudinal development in cognitive impairments in a group of patients with prolonged work-related stress (N = 60) during a period of 12 months following initial professional care-seeking. Objective cognitive impairments (neuropsychological tests) were measured on two occasions - at initial professional care-seeking and at 12-month follow-up. Questionnaires on perceived stress, sleep disturbances, and cognitive complaints were completed seven times during the 12 months which facilitated multilevel analysis with segregation of within-person (change) and between-person (baseline level) components of the time-varying predictors (perceived stress and sleep disturbances). Change in perceived stress was associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the period of 12 months and to a lesser extent the change in performance on neuropsychological tests of processing speed from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Change in sleep disturbances was also associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the 12 months but not with change on neuropsychological test performance. Although the mechanism behind the improvement in cognitive impairments in patients with work-related stress should be further explored in future studies, the results could suggest that improvement in cognitive impairments is partly mediated by decreasing levels of perceived stress and, to a lesser extent, decreasing levels of sleep disturbances. Lay summary This study examines the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in respect to the development of cognitive impairments (e.g. memory and concentration) in a group of patients with work-related stress. We found that change in
Miranda, B.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether self-perceived memory impairment is associated with the severity of white matter changes (WMC) and is related to cognitive impairment. METHODS: Data were drawn from the multinational Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS), which investigates the impact of WMC....... A question about self-perceived memory impairment was used as a measure for presence of memory complaints. Cognitive performance was analysed test-by-test and in three main domains: memory, executive functions and speed/motor control. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used as a measure of depressive...... symptoms. RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-eight subjects were included in this study. No association was found between memory complaints and the severity of WMC. Subjects with memory complaints (n = 399) had a higher GDS score [t((637)) = -7.15; pcognitive tests...
Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set
Jill M Stapleton
Full Text Available Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry in 10 young (23±4 years and 10 older (58±5 years females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1, 325 (Ex2 and 400 (Ex3 W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity. Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52 and recovery (p=0.42, differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04 and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008, however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24. Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%. Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002 relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ. In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05. We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat.
Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.
Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A
We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Transcranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McLinden, Mike; Ravenscroft, John; Douglas, Graeme; Hewett, Rachel; Cobb, Rory
Introduction: The unique challenges to learning and participation in education associated with visual impairment are well documented in the literature, as is the importance of addressing these challenges through ensuring practitioners who support them are equipped with appropriate knowledge, understanding, and skills. We use a bioecological…
Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid
The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...
Candel Pau, Júlia; Castillo Salinas, Félix; Perapoch López, Josep; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio; Sánchez García, Olga; Llurba Olivé, Elisa
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and prematurity have been associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and also with cardiovascular foetal programming. However, there are few studies on the impact of placenta-related IUGR on perinatal outcomes and cardiovascular biomarkers in pre-term infants. To determine differences in neonatal morbidity, mortality and cord blood biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction between pre-term placenta-related IUGR and non-IUGR new-borns, and to analyse their relationship with the severity of IUGR according to foetal Doppler evaluation. Prospective cohort study: pre-term infants with placenta-related IUGR and matched pre-term infants without IUGR. A Doppler scan was performed, and placenta-IUGR was classified according to severity. Comparative analysis of perinatal outcomes, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and cord blood levels of biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction was performed. IUGR new-borns present lower weight, length, head circumference, and Apgar score at birth, as well as increased neonatal and cardiovascular dysfunction biomarker levels, compared with pre-term new-borns without IUGR. These differences increase with the severity of IUGR determined by prenatal umbilical artery Doppler scan. Placenta-related-IUGR pre-term infants, irrespective of gestational age, present increased neonatal morbidity and mortality that is significantly proportional to the severity of IUGR. Placental impairment and severity also determine levels of cardiovascular dysfunction biomarkers at birth. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
Binaural pitch stimuli, created by introducing an interaural phase difference over a narrow band of otherwise diotic white noise, produce an immediate tonal sensation with a pitch close to the centre of the phase-shifted band. In Santurette and Dau [Hear. Res. 223(1-2):29-47, 2007], it was shown...... that the salience of binaural pitch was affected by hearing impairment. Specifically, for subjects with a sensorineural impairment, binaural pitch perception was weaker than the normal-hearing average but the pitch sensation was immediately present. In contrast, no binaural pitch sensation at all was found...... for the (only) two subjects with damage at central stages. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether such a sharp distinction between levels of impairment can be made using binaural pitch stimuli. A pitch detection test was performed by three groups of subjects with: 1) normal hearing; 2) a cochlear...
Shin, Eun-Joo; Chung, Yoon Hee; Le, Hoang-Lan Thi; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Nam, Yunsung; Wie, Myung Bok; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun
Background: We demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice, a genetic model of aging. Since down-regulation of melatonin due to aging is well documented, we used this genetic model to determine whether the antioxidant property of melatonin affects memory impairment. Methods: First, we examined the effects of melatonin on hippocampal oxidative parameters and the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio and memory dysfunction of klotho mutant mice. Second, we investigated whether a specific melatonin receptor is involved in the melatonin-mediated pharmacological response by application with melatonin receptor antagonists. Third, we examined phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, Nrf2 DNA binding activity, and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) mRNA expression. Finally, we examined effects of the ERK inhibitor SL327 in response to antioxidant efficacy and memory enhancement mediated by melatonin. Results: Treatment with melatonin resulted in significant attenuations of oxidative damage, a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio, and a significant amelioration of memory impairment in this aging model. These effects of melatonin were significantly counteracted by the selective MT2 receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. Importantly, 4-P-PDOT or SL327 also counteracted melatonin-mediated attenuation in response to the decreases in phospho-ERK expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 DNA-binding activity, and GCL mRNA expression in the hippocampi of klotho mutant mice. SL327 also counteracted the up-regulation of the GSH/GSSG ratio and the memory enhancement mediated by melatonin in klotho mutant mice. Conclusions: Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress and the associated memory impairment induced by klotho deficiency via signaling interaction between the MT2 receptor and ERK- and Nrf2-related antioxidant potential. PMID
Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel
to a mutual agreement on the level of clinical significance. However, to what degree does the panel agree?Purpose To compare the agreement between different health care professionals who have evaluated the clinical significance of DRPs.Materials and methods DRPs were identified in 30 comprehensive medicines...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... clinically significant. Agreement was analysed using Kappa statistics. A Kappa value of 0.8 to 1.0 indicated nearly perfect agreement between ratings of the Panel members.Results The Panel rated 45 percent of the total 162 DRPs as of moderate clinical significance. However, the overall kappa score was 0...
Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.
There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...
Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars
In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....
Lattanzi, Jill B; Giuliano, Susan; Meehan, Caitlin; Sander, Beth; Wootten, Rachel; Zimmerman, Amanda
Evidence points to the efficacy of physical and occupational therapy intervention for the management of impairments and functional limitations related to the treatment of breast cancer. However, few studies give voice to the women participating in the physical rehabilitation programs intended to ameliorate their deficits. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the experience of physical rehabilitation as well as to identify recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of the client undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments. A phenomenological design was chosen and included a purposive sample of women (n = 10) undergoing physical rehabilitation for impairments related to breast cancer treatment. Data included semistructured interviews and artifact examination. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted at a setting of the participants' choice. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. Data analysis was cyclical and ongoing and involved all six researchers in analyzing and triangulating all pieces of data. Member checks and a peer review were conducted to confirm relevance and validity. Five themes emerged: 1) challenges with obtaining referrals, 2) challenges with patient education, 3) improvements in functional impairments, 4) emotional support, and 5) benefits of a specialized clinic environment. Consideration of the five themes led to four recommendations for physical and occupational therapist practice from the perspective of the client: 1) advocate for presurgical therapy consultations, 2) be competent in the management of all impairments and functional limitations associated with breast cancer treatment, 3) be aware of the emotional support the therapist has the capacity to provide or not provide, and 4) as much as possible, create an inviting, nonclinical environment.
Sasao, Hisataka; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Wakabayashi, Takeru; Nakahara, Norifumi; Doi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki
Despite the diagnostic efficacy of stress myocardial perfusion imaging, the correlation between the actual perfusion tracer activity and diseased state of a coronary artery has not been studied in detail. We estimated exercise-related perfusion augmentation in relation to disease states of a coronary artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients by a newly developed quantitative technetium (Tc)-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial imaging technique. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin tomographic imaging with an exercise-rest protocol was performed in 26 stable coronary patients and in 8 age-matched controls. Percent increase (%IR) in myocardial count during symptom-limited submaximal exercise-stress was calculated in 16 non-infarcted polar map segments and in each coronary territory by a subtraction technique with corrections for physical decay and injected tracer doses, and the results were compared with those of angiographically quantified coronary diameter stenosis (%DS). Percent IR and peak heart rate during exercise showed a positive linear correlation both in coronary territories with significant stenosis (%DS≥75%) and in control or non-stenotic (%DS<75%) territories. The regression line in stenotic regions was, however, significantly (p<0.01) shifted downward compared to that in non-stenotic regions. Percent IR in stenotic regions showed a significant inverse correlation with %DS. Coronary stenosis of 75% or more was identified by a %IR cutoff value of 40% with 77% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and an accuracy of 72%. In coronary territories with a %DS of less than 75%, %IR in diabetic patients was significantly lower (46±15%) than that in non-diabetic patients (61±25%). Thus, blunted exercise-related augmentation of myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin correlates with the severity of coronary narrowing and diabetic state. (author)
Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S
To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. 99 children aged 10-15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI-the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower -22.10 (CI 95% -24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=-11.8, BA LOA: lower -39.60 (CI 95% -42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S
Aims To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. Methods 99 children aged 10–15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI—the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Results Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower −22.10 (CI 95% −24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=−11.8, BA LOA: lower −39.60 (CI 95% −42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Conclusions Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1994 there was a horrific genocide in Rwanda following years of tension, resulting in the murder of at least 800,000 people. Although many people were injured in addition to those killed, no attempt has been made to assess the lasting burden of physical injuries related to these events. The aim of this study was to estimate the current burden of musculoskeletal impairment (MSI attributable to the 1994 war and related violence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national cross-sectional survey of MSI was conducted in Rwanda. 105 clusters of 80 people were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Enumerated people answered a seven-question screening test to assess whether they might have an MSI. Those who were classed as potential cases in the screening test were examined and interviewed by a physiotherapist, using a standard protocol that recorded the site, nature, cause, and severity of the MSI. People with MSI due to trauma were asked whether this trauma occurred during the 1990-1994 war or during the episodes that preceded or followed this war. Out of 8,368 people enumerated, 6,757 were available for screening and examination (80.8%. 352 people were diagnosed with an MSI (prevalence=5.2%, 95% CI=4.5-5.9%. 106 cases of MSI (30.6% were classified as resulting from trauma, based on self-report and the physiotherapist's assessment. Of these, 14 people (13.2% reported that their trauma-related MSI occurred during the 1990-1994 war, and a further 7 (6.6% that their trauma-related MSI occurred during the violent episodes that preceded and followed the war, giving an overall prevalence of trauma-related MSI related to the 1990-1994 war of 0.3% (95% CI=0.2-0.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decade on, the overall prevalence of MSI was relatively high in Rwanda but few cases appeared to be the result of the 1994 war or related violence.
Shebani, Zubaida; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
Language and action systems of the human brain are functionally interwoven. Speaking about actions and understanding action-related speech sparks the motor system of the human brain and, conversely, motor system activation has an influence on the comprehension of action words and sentences. Although previous research has shown that motor systems become active when we understand language, a major question still remains whether these motor system activations are necessary for processing action words. We here report that rhythmic movements of either the hands or the feet lead to a differential impairment of working memory for concordant arm- and leg-related action words, with hand/arm movements predominantly impairing working memory for words used to speak about arm actions and foot/leg movements primarily impairing leg-related word memory. The resulting cross-over double dissociation demonstrates that body part specific and meaning-related processing resources in specific cortical motor systems are shared between overt movements and working memory for action-related words, thus documenting a genuine motor locus of semantic meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Srl.
Linde, L.; Sørensen, J.; Ostergaard, M.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing joint pain, loss of function and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL in RA patients is associated with several risk factors; in this paper the evidence relating to the most important risk factors is reviewed....... Modern medical therapy has improved HRQoL in RA patients, while demographic factors (female sex and older age), low socioeconomic status (in terms of education and position in the work force) and the presence of comorbid conditions appear to be associated with poorer HRQoL Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/3...
Sellamuthu S Gounder
Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.
Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Donker, AM; Stehouwer, CDA
Objective: In patients with essential hypertension, defects in both the metabolic and vascular actions of insulin have been described. Impaired microvascular function, a well-established abnormality in essential hypertension, may explain part of these defects. In the present study we investigated
Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others
Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)
Dreschler, W. A.; Plomp, R.
Twenty-one sensorineurally hearing-impaired adolescents were studied with an extensive battery of tone-perception, phoneme-perception, and speech-perception tests. Tests on loudness perception, frequency selectivity, and temporal resolution at the test frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz were
Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.
To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…
Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas
Objective: This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method: Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old.…
Zebehazy, Kim T.; Smith, Thomas J.
From an early age, children with visual impairments can be at a disadvantage for developing social skills. Since vision plays a role in the early development of social behaviors and of social cognition, the lack of visual cues could lead to difficulties in initiating and maintaining social interactions. The study presented here investigated…
... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...
Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.
Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A
Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Rosner, Mitchell H.; Edeani, Amaka; Yanagita, Motoko; Glezerman, Ilya G.
Paraprotein–related kidney disease represents a complex group of diseases caused by an abnormal paraprotein secreted by a clone of B cells. The disease manifestations range from tubulopathies, such as the Fanconi syndrome, to a spectrum of glomerular diseases that can present with varying degrees of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. Diagnosis of these diseases can be challenging because of the wide range of manifestations as well as the relatively common finding of a serum paraprotein, especially in elderly patients. Thus, renal biopsy along with detailed hematologic workup is essential to link the presence of the paraprotein to the associated renal disease. Recent advances in treatment with more effective and targeted chemotherapies, as well as stem cell transplantation, have improved the renal and overall prognosis for many of these disorders. PMID:27526705
Alexander, John C; Mabry, Rodney H
The authors evaluate journals based on their relative contributions to top-level finance research in a recent period. Journals are ranked according to the number of citations found in articles published in the Journal of Finance, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, and Review of Financial Studies. The analysis controls for both the average number of articles and average number of words published annually in each cited journal. The authors identify t...
Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V
The accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline lens is used to explore the age-related changes in ocular power and spherical aberration. The additional parameter m in the GRIN lens model allows decoupling of the axial and radial GRIN profiles, and is used to stabilise the age-related change in ocular power. Data for age-related changes in ocular geometry and lens parameter P in the axial GRIN profile were taken from published experimental data. In our age-dependent eye model, the ocular refractive power shows behaviour similar to the previously unexplained "lens paradox". Furthermore, ocular spherical aberration agrees with the data average, in contrast to the proposed "spherical aberration paradox". The additional flexibility afforded by parameter m , which controls the ratio of the axial and radial GRIN profile exponents, has allowed us to study the restructuring of the lens GRIN medium with age, resulting in a new interpretation of the origin of the power and spherical aberration paradoxes. Our findings also contradict the conceptual idea that the ageing eye is similar to the accommodating eye.
Song, Shuang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Man, Qing-Qing; Pang, Shao-Jie; Li, Yue-Qi; Ren, Biao; Zhang, Jian
Early diagnosis of neural changes causing cognitive impairment is critical for development of preventive therapies for dementia. Biomarkers currently characterized cannot be extensively applied due to the invasive sampling of cerebrospinal fluid. The other imaging approaches are either expensive or require a high technique. Phospholipids (PLs), which are basic constituents of neurons, might be a key variable in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Changes in plasma PL provide the possibility for development of novel biomarkers with minimal invasion and high patient acceptance. In this work, a HILIC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS system was introduced for untargeted profiling of plasma PLs to investigate the relationship between changes of plasma PL profiles and cognitive impairment. A total of 272 types of PL molecular structures were characterized in human plasma and quantified through the internal standard method. Univariate analysis shows 29 PLs were significantly different between the control (n = 41) and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n = 41). Multivariate analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA) was conducted based on these 29 potential PL biomarkers. Both univariate and multivariate analyses show abnormality of PL metabolism in the CI group, and the downregulation of ethanolamine plasmalogen (pPE) supply, especially those with PUFAs, in the circulation system should be strongly associated with neurodegeneration. A discriminative model was established with satisfied fit (R2) and prediction (Q2) abilities, and the classification test showed better recognition of the CI group than the control group indicating that this model of PL biomarkers could be used as indicators for screening of CI. Graphical abstract Characterization of potential plasma biomarkers related to cognitive impairment by untargeted profiling of phospholipids.
Cornec, Divi; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Mariette, Xavier; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Perdriger, Aleth; Puéchal, Xavier; Le Guern, Véronique; Sibilia, Jean; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Chiche, Laurent; Hachulla, Eric; Yves Hatron, Pierre; Goeb, Vincent; Hayem, Gilles; Morel, Jacques; Zarnitsky, Charles; Dubost, Jean Jacques; Saliou, Philippe; Pers, Jacques Olivier; Seror, Raphaèle; Saraux, Alain
To identify the principal determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) impairment in patients with active primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) participating in a large therapeutic trial, Tolerance and Efficacy of Rituximab in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (TEARS). At the inclusion visit for the TEARS trial, 120 patients with active primary SS completed the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36), a validated HRQOL assessment tool. Univariate then multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess associations linking SF-36 physical and mental components to demographic data, patient-reported outcomes (symptom intensity assessments for dryness, pain, and fatigue, including the European League Against Rheumatism [EULAR] Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index [ESSPRI]), objective measures of dryness and autoimmunity, and physician evaluation of systemic activity (using the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index [ESSDAI]). SF-36 scores indicated marked HRQOL impairments in our population with active primary SS. Approximately one-third of the patients had low, moderate, and high systemic activity according to the ESSDAI. ESSPRI and ESSDAI scores were moderately but significantly correlated. The factors most strongly associated with HRQOL impairment were patient-reported symptoms, best assessed using the ESSPRI, with pain and ocular dryness intensity showing independent associations with HRQOL. Conversely, systemic activity level was not associated with HRQOL impairment in multivariate analyses, even in the patient subset with ESSDAI values indicating moderate-to-high systemic activity. The cardinal symptoms of primary SS (dryness, pain, and fatigue, best assessed using the ESSPRI) are stronger predictors of HRQOL impairment than systemic involvement (assessed by the ESSDAI) and should be used as end points in future therapeutic trials focusing on patients' well-being. New consensual and data-driven response criteria are needed for primary SS
Kluger, Nicolas; Matikainen, Niina; Sintonen, Harri; Ranki, Annamari; Roine, Risto P; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla
Patients with Addison's disease (AD) on conventional replacement therapy have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It is possible that lower hydrocortisone (HC) doses recommended by current guidelines could restore HRQoL. We compared HRQoL in AD patients treated according to current HC recommendations to that of the age- and gender-standardized general population. We assessed HRQoL in a cross-sectional setting with the 15D instrument in a Finnish AD cohort (n = 107) and compared the results with those of a large sample of general population (n = 5671). We examined possible predictors of HRQoL in AD. Within the patient group, HRQoL was also assessed by SF-36. Mean HC dose was 22 mg/d, corresponding to 12 ± 4 mg/m2. HRQoL was impaired in AD compared with the general population (15D score; 0·853 vs 0·918, P < 0·001). Within single 15D dimensions, discomfort and symptoms, vitality and sexual activity were most affected. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that Patient's Association membership (P = 0·02), female gender (P < 0·01), presence of other autoimmune or inflammatory comorbidity (P < 0·02), lower education (P < 0·02) and longer disease duration (P < 0·05) independently predicted impaired HRQoL, whereas replacement regimens, autoimmune-related comorbidities, total number of comorbidities or level of healthcare follow-up did not. In AD, HRQoL was impaired also as assessed by SF-36. HRQoL is significantly impaired in AD compared with the general population despite use of recommended HC doses. Patient's Association membership was the most significant predictor of impaired HRQoL. This finding should be explored in more detail in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems
Granfeldt Østgård, Lene Sofie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Sengeløv, Henrik
PURPOSE: Secondary and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (sAML and tAML, respectively) remain therapeutic challenges. Still, it is unclear whether their inferior outcome compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) varies as a result of previous hematologic disease or can be explained...... leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasia) versus de novo AML. Limited to intensive therapy patients, we compared chance of complete remission by logistic regression analysis and used a pseudo-value approach to compare relative risk (RR) of death at 90 days, 1 year, and 3 years, overall and stratified...... myeloid disorder or prior cytotoxic exposure was associated with decreased complete remission rates and inferior survival (3-year adjusted RR for MDS-sAML, non-MDS-sAML, and tAML: RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32; RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.34; and RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32, respectively) compared...
Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Wolf, Peter
There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Several of the described triggers have in common that they imply complex visuomotor coordination and decision-making; they are today regarded as variations of one principle, i.e. praxis induction (PI). This focused review considers PI from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. We reviewed a series of published articles and case reports on PI in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Findings of both induction and inhibition by the same stimuli suggest widening the reflex epilepsy concept into a broader one of epilepsies with exogenous modification of ictogenesis. PI is closely related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability and hyperconnectivity of the entire network of visuomotor coordination seem to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the musculature active in the precipitating task. The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from PI support the concept of JME as a system disorder of the brain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M
Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji
In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.
Full Text Available Xing Yao,1,* Xiang Wang,1,* Zishu Wang,2,* Licheng Dai,1 Guolei Zhang,1 Qiang Yan,1 Weimin Zhou11Huzhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang Huzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, Bengbu Medical College, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers was also evaluated.Methods: We detected the expression status of three EMT-related proteins, ie, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, by immunohistochemistry in consecutive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma specimens from 96 patients.Results: The frequency of loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 43.8%, 37.5% and 57.3%, respectively. Altered expression of EMT markers was associated with aggressive tumor behavior, including lymph node metastasis, undifferentiated-type histology, advanced tumor stage, venous invasion, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, loss of E-cadherin was retained as an independent prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EMT process is associated with tumor progression and a poor outcome in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and inhibition of EMT might offer novel promising molecular targets for the treatment of affected patients.Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, expression, prognosis, immunohistochemistry
Szozda, R.; Schneiberg, P.
The authors propose the principles how to calculate a proportional health impairment due to myocardial infarction. The proposals are based on own experience, literature and regulations. It is suggested that the following should be taken into account for the calculation purposes: case history, resting electrocardiogram, postexercise electrocardiogram, results of Holter's examination, chest X-ray including evaluation of the heart silhouette and UCG. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.
What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which proc...
Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A
Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In Part I of this series, it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury affects joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). Individuals with hemiparesis and 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity was concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may use relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways.
Full Text Available Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.
Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan
Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.
Full Text Available Globalization of production and increasing competition spurs greater business use of innovative information systems. As globalization extends its reach over cities and regions, the positions of those places within the emerging global paradigms of regional economies is changing. Only those regions and cities that can mobilize assets for local advantage would succeed. This research examines the implications of location for electronic commerce (EC role in firm operations through the lens of managerial perceptions of EC systems, EC activities, agglomeration economies, firm-specific features and outputs relative to industry. The input-based view and industrial development frameworks provide the theoretical underpinning for this research. Fully completed instruments from 106 firms in Singapore and Lagos financial services sector, respectively, are the basis of our analysis. Our findings reveal varying results between industries across the two cities, supporting our propositions. Firms with well-configured EC systems are more likely to experience efficiency in EC activities and outputs, given conducive operational conditions. However, firm-specific features were not linked to output, a finding inconsistent with prior studies. Finally, EC business models that focus on operational efficiency strongly complement the historically relevant location variable in industrial operations. These findings provide basis for recommendations to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.
Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron
This paper investigates the impact of diﬀerent types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the eﬀect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative eﬀect on plant performance in general, while the eﬀect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that ﬂow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that ﬂow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inﬂow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inﬂows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative eﬀect on plant...
Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Suk; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Min; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk
To assess the effect of hydration status on renal medullary attenuation and to evaluate the incidence of dense renal medulla, as seen on unenhanced CT. We prospectively studied unenhanced CT scans of 12 healthy volunteers. Obtained done after 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration and after oral intake of 2L of water. BUN/Cr, urine specific gravity, urine osmole and hematocrit were evaluated after 10 hours of dehydration. CT images were reviewed for the presence of dense renal medulla and differential attenuation of dense renal and isodense medulla and cortex at the same level. The density changes of renal medulla after hydration were evaluated. and CT findings were compared with the results of biochemical studies. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 200 consecutive patients for evaluation of the incidence of dense renal medulla. In 8 of 12 volunteers, dense renal medulla was seen on CT scan after dehydration. Mean attenuation was 71.3±10.42HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 68.6±13.54HU after 15 hours, and 34.5±11.47HU after hydration. No significant attenuation differences were detected between 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration, but significantly lower attenuation values were noted after hydration. For isodense medulla, the mean attenuation value was 35.7±7.9HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 39.58±9.66HU after 15 hours, and 36.58±7.77HU after hydration. The mean attenuation values of cortex were 35.9±5.95HU after 10 hours of dehydration. 37.58±5.95HU after 15 hours, and 37.08±9.75HU after hydration. With regard not only to duration of dehydration, but also ti hydration, no differences in attenuation values were noted for renal cortex or isodense renal medulla. However, higher density was noted in dense renal medulla than in isodense medulla or cortex for the same duration of dehydration. After hydration, complete resolution was seen at five of eight sites and incomplete resolution at three of eight sites. There was no correlation
Smith, Andrew H; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y; Fish, Frank A; Kannankeril, Prince J
Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and an increased risk of postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias after congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. The data were prospectively collected, including a review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical records. Within 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (range 0.0 to 426), the median weight was 6.0 kg (range 0.7 to 108), and the cohort was 45% female. The overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n = 69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n = 58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n = 58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 6.0, p = 0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Andrew H.; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y.; Fish, Frank A.; Kannankeril, Prince J.
Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients following congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and increased risk for postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias following congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. Data was prospectively collected, including review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical record. Over 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (0.0–426), weight was 6.0 kg (0.7–108), and the cohort was 45% female. Overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n=85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n=69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n=58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n=58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age less than 1 month, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, RACHS-1 score greater than 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.3–6.0], p=0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period following congenital heart surgery. PMID:21890079
Forster, Sarah E; Zirnheld, Patrick; Shekhar, Anantha; Steinhauer, Stuart R; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P
Signals carried by the mesencephalic dopamine system and conveyed to anterior cingulate cortex are critically implicated in probabilistic reward learning and performance monitoring. A common evaluative mechanism purportedly subserves both functions, giving rise to homologous medial frontal negativities in feedback- and response-locked event-related brain potentials (the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), respectively), reflecting dopamine-dependent prediction error signals to unexpectedly negative events. Consistent with this model, the dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, attenuates the ERN, but effects on FRN have not yet been evaluated. ERN and FRN were recorded during a temporal interval learning task (TILT) following randomized, double-blind administration of haloperidol (3 mg; n = 18), diphenhydramine (an active control for haloperidol; 25 mg; n = 20), or placebo (n = 21) to healthy controls. Centroparietal positivities, the Pe and feedback-locked P300, were also measured and correlations between ERP measures and behavioral indices of learning, overall accuracy, and post-error compensatory behavior were evaluated. We hypothesized that haloperidol would reduce ERN and FRN, but that ERN would uniquely track automatic, error-related performance adjustments, while FRN would be associated with learning and overall accuracy. As predicted, ERN was reduced by haloperidol and in those exhibiting less adaptive post-error performance; however, these effects were limited to ERNs following fast timing errors. In contrast, the FRN was not affected by drug condition, although increased FRN amplitude was associated with improved accuracy. Significant drug effects on centroparietal positivities were also absent. Our results support a functional and neurobiological dissociation between the ERN and FRN.
Earlier research by the author revealed that material encoded incidentally in a speeded affective classification task and related to the demands of a divergent problem tends to be recalled worse in participants who solved the problem prior to encoding than in participants in the control, no-problem condition. The aim of the present experiment was to replicate this effect with a new, size-comparison orienting task, and to test for possible mechanisms of impaired recall. Participants either solved a problem before the orienting task or not, and classified each item in this task either once or three times. There was a reliable effect of impaired recall of problem-related items in the repetition condition, but not in the no-repetition condition. Solving the problem did not influence repetition priming for these items. These results support an account that attributes the impaired recall to inhibitory processes at learning and speak against a proactive interference explanation. However, they can be also accommodated by an account that refers to inefficient context cues and competitor interference at retrieval.
Michaela Celeste Pascoe
Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFA. However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviours after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioural effects of PUFA supplementation over a six-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute haemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined six weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviours, acute motor impairment and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behaviour.
Pellicano, Clelia; Kane, Robert L; Gallo, Antonio; Xiaobai, Li; Stern, Susan K; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N; Evangelou, Iordanis E; Ohayon, Joan M; Ehrmantraut, Mary; Cantor, Fredric K; Bagnato, Francesca
Cognitive impairment (CI) is an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) disability. A complex biological interplay between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) disease likely sustains CI. This study aims to address this issue by exploring the association between the extent of normal WM and GM disease and CI. Cognitive function of 24 MS patients and 24 healthy volunteers (HVs) was studied using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) battery. WM focal lesions and normal appearing WM (NAWM) volume in patients, cortical thickness (CTh) and deep GM structure volumes in both patients and HVs were measured by high field strength (3.0-Tesla; 3T) imaging. An analysis of covariance showed that patients performed worse than HVs on Code Substitution Delayed Memory (P = .04) and Procedural Reaction Time (P = .05) indicative of reduced performance in memory, cognitive flexibility, and processing speed. A summary score (Index of Cognitive Efficiency) indicating global test battery performance was also lower for the patient group (P = .04). Significant associations, as determined by the Spearman rank correlation tests, were noted between each of these 3 cognitive scores and measures of NAWM volume [CDD-TP1(r = .609; P = .0035), PRO-TP1 (r = .456; P = .029) and ICE (r = .489; P = .0129)], CTh (r = .5; P ≤ .05) and volume of subcortical normal appearing GM (NAGM) structures (r = .4; P≤ .04), but not WM lesions. Both NAWM and NAGM volumes are related to CI in MS. The results highlight once again the urgent need to develop pharmacological strategies protecting patients from widespread neurodegeneration as possible preventive strategies of CI development. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.
CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.
Short, Steve; Short, Gretchen; Strack, Donald; Anloague, Philip; Brewster, Brian
Athletes experiencing hip, groin, and low back pain often exhibit similar clinical characteristics. Individuals with hip, groin and low back pain may have the presence of multiple concurrent pathoanatomical diagnoses. Regardless, similar regional characteristics and dysfunction may contribute to the patient's chief complaint, potentially creating a sub-group of individuals that may be defined by lumbopelvic and hip mobility limitations, motor control impairments, and other shared clinical findings. The purpose of this case series is to describe the conservative management of elite athletes, within the identified aforementioned sub-group, that emphasized regional manual therapy interventions, and therapeutic exercise designed to improve lumbopelvic and hip mobility, stability and motor control. Five elite athletes were clinically diagnosed by a physical therapist with primary pathologies including adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) with acetabular labral lesion and acute, mechanical low back pain (LBP). Similar subjective, objective findings and overall clinical profiles were identified among all subjects. Common findings aside from the chief complaint included, but were not limited to, decreased hip range of motion (ROM), impaired lumbopelvic motor control and strength, lumbar hypomobility in at least one segment, and a positive hip flexion-adduction-internal rotation (FADIR) special test. A three-phase impairment-based physical therapy program was implemented to resolve the primary complaints and return the subjects to their desired level of function. Acute phase rehabilitation consisted of manual therapy and fundamental motor control exercises. Progression to the sub-acute and terminal phases was based on improved subjective pain reports and progress with functional impairments. As the subjects progress through the rehabilitation phases, the delivery of physical therapy interventions were defined by decreased manual therapies
Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne
Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…
Goettsch, W.; Garssen, J.; Loveren, H. van; Gruijl, F.R. de
Our laboratory has demonstrated in preliminary experiments that UVB exposure using the Kromayer lamp can induce increased numbers of Trichinella spiralis larvae in carcasses of infected Wistar rats, without affecting specific antibody titers to this parasite. In this study, orally T.spiralis-infected Wistar rats were exposed to subery-thermal doses of UVB radiation using FS40 lamps during different time periods before or after infection. A significant increase in the number of T. spiralis larvae was found in the carcasses of rats that were UVB irradiated daily for 7 consecutive days in the second week after infection. Additionally, increased numbers of larvae were also detected histologically in the tongue of rats that were exposed the first and the second week after infection. Lymphocyte stimulation assays using mesenteral lymph node cells indicated that UVB exposure also impaired the specific lymphocyte response to T. spiralis. Moreover, DTH responses to T. spiralis were severely impaired in rats that were UVB irradiated daily for 7 consecutive days in the second week after infection. Thus, these data combined with the data of the Kromayer study indicate that exposure of rats to FS40 irradiation following oral infection with T. spiralis leads to increased numbers of larvae in systemic sites and impaired T-cell immunity to the parasite. (Author)
Shih, Y-H; Tsai, S-F; Huang, S-H; Chiang, Y-T; Hughes, M W; Wu, S-Y; Lee, C-W; Yang, T-T; Kuo, Y-M
Hypertension is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Several studies using spontaneous hypertensive rats to study the effect of hypertension on memory performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis have reached inconsistent conclusions. The contradictory findings may be related to the genetic variability of spontaneous hypertensive rats due to the conventional breeding practices. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of hypertension on hippocampal structure and function in isogenic mice. Hypertension was induced by the '2 kidneys, 1 clip' method (2K1C) which constricted one of the two renal arteries. The blood pressures of 2K1C mice were higher than the sham group on post-operation day 7 and remained high up to day 28. Mice with 2K1C-induced hypertension had impaired long-term, but not short-term, memory. Dendritic complexity of CA1 neurons and hippocampal neurogenesis were reduced by 2K1C-induced hypertension on post-operation day 28. Furthermore, 2K1C decreased the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, while blood vessel density and activation status of astrocytes and microglia were not affected. In conclusion, hypertension impairs hippocampus-associated long-term memory, dendritic arborization and neurogenesis, which may be caused by down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang Liyuan; Chen Liesong; Sun Rui; Ji Shengjun; Ding Yanyan; Wu Jia; Tian Ye
Cranial radiation therapy can induce cognitive decline. Impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis are thought to be a paramountly important mechanism underlying radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. In the mature nervous system, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. It has been demonstrated that NHEJ deficiencies are associated with impaired neurogenesis. In our study, rats were randomly divided into five groups to be irradiated by single doses of 0 (control), 0 (anesthesia control), 2, 10, and 20 Gy, respectively. The cognitive function of the irradiated rats was measured by open field, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Real-time PCR was also used to detect the expression level of DNA DSB repair-related genes involved in the NHEJ pathway, such as XRCC4, XRCC5 and XRCC6, in the hippocampus. The influence of different radiation doses on cognitive function in rats was investigated. From the results of the behavior tests, we found that rats receiving 20 Gy irradiation revealed poorer learning and memory, while no significant loss of learning and memory existed in rats receiving irradiation from 0-10 Gy. The real-time PCR and Western blot results showed no significant difference in the expression level of DNA repair-related genes between the 10 and 20 Gy groups, which may help to explain the behavioral results, id est (i.e.) DNA damage caused by 0-10 Gy exposure was appropriately repaired, however, damage induced by 20 Gy exceeded the body's maximum DSB repair ability. Ionizing radiation-induced cognitive impairments depend on the radiation dose, and more directly on the body's own ability to repair DNA DSBs via the NHEJ pathway. (author)
Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic ...
Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan
Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1,2 Mohammad Najafi,2 Massoud Houshmand,3 Mohammad Farhadi1 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Biochemistry Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Abstract: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. Keywords: age-related hearing impairment (ARHI, presbycusis, biomarker, treatment
Prat, Chantel S; Stocco, Andrea; Neuhaus, Emily; Kleinhans, Natalia M
Research on the biological basis of autism spectrum disorder has yielded a list of brain abnormalities that are arguably as diverse as the set of behavioral symptoms that characterize the disorder. Among these are patterns of abnormal cortical connectivity and abnormal basal ganglia development. In attempts to integrate the existing literature, the current paper tests the hypothesis that impairments in the basal ganglia's function to flexibly select and route task-relevant neural signals to the prefrontal cortex underpins patterns of abnormal synchronization between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical processing centers observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested this hypothesis using a Dynamic Causal Modeling analysis of neuroimaging data collected from 16 individuals with ASD (mean age=25.3 years; 6 female) and 17 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls (mean age=25.6, 6 female), who performed a Go/No-Go test of executive functioning. Consistent with the hypothesis tested, a random-effects Bayesian model selection procedure determined that a model of network connectivity in which basal ganglia activation modulated connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other key cortical processing centers best fit the data of both neurotypicals and individuals with ASD. Follow-up analyses suggested that the largest group differences were observed for modulation of connectivity between prefrontal cortex and the sensory input region in the occipital lobe [t(31)=2.03, p=0.025]. Specifically, basal ganglia activation was associated with a small decrease in synchronization between the occipital region and prefrontal cortical regions in controls; however, in individuals with ASD, basal ganglia activation resulted in increased synchronization between the occipital region and the prefrontal cortex. We propose that this increased synchronization may reflect a failure in basal ganglia signal gating mechanisms, resulting in a non-selective copying
Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S
To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.
Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas
This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old. Conflict behavior was coded and analyzed with a validated system. Post-conflict non-affiliative behavior (aggression and withdrawal) displays, and the links between the displays and reconciliation (i.e., former opponents exchange friendly behavioral shortly after conflict termination) was examined. Group comparisons revealed boys with LI displayed aggression in a smaller share of conflicts, but exhibited [Symbol: see text]active' withdrawal (left the room), in a larger conflict share. Boys with TL overcame aggression (more common TL behavior) and after reconciled, to a greater extent than the boys with LI after active withdrawal (more common LI behavior). Also, after reciprocal or only verbal aggression, boys with LI reconciled to a lesser extent than boys with TL. The boys with LI demonstrated difficulties confronting conflict management, as well as concluding emotionally heightened and aggressive behavioral turns.
Hanish, Alyson E; Lin-Dyken, Deborah C; Han, Joan C
The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has self-reported health measures available for both pediatric and adult populations, but no pediatric measures are available currently in the sleep domains. The purpose of this observational study was to perform preliminary validation studies on age-appropriate, self-reported sleep measures in healthy adolescents. This study examined 25 healthy adolescents' self-reported daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and sleep patterns. Healthy adolescents completed a physical exam at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD), had no chronic medical conditions, and were not taking any chronic medications. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (v. 1.0; 8a), and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment (v. 1.0; 8b) questionnaires were completed, and sleep patterns were assessed using actigraphy. Total scores on the three sleep questionnaires were correlated (all Spearman's r > .70, p psychometrically sound sleep questionnaires. Findings suggest the potential research and clinical utility of adult versions of PROMIS sleep measures in adolescents. Future studies should include larger, more diverse samples and explore additional psychometric properties of PROMIS sleep measures to provide age-appropriate, validated, and reliable measures of sleep in adolescents.
Salthouse, Timothy A; Mandell, Arielle R
Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TOTs across different types of materials, and additional analyses suggested that these relations between age and TOT frequency were not attributable to the use of different response criteria or to different amounts of knowledge. Because statistical control of a measure of episodic memory had little effect on the relation between age and TOT frequency, age-related increases in TOTs and age-related decreases in episodic memory appear to be at least partially independent phenomena.
Bakopoulou, Ioanna; Dockrell, Julie E
Children with language impairments often experience difficulties with their socio-emotional functioning and poorly developed prosocial behaviour. However, the nature of the association between language impairment and difficulties with socio-emotional functioning remains unclear. The social cognition skills of a group of primary-aged children (6-11 years old) with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) were examined in relation to their teachers' ratings of socio-emotional functioning. Forty-two children with SLI were individually matched with 42 children for chronological age and non-verbal cognitive ability, and 42 children for receptive language ability. The children all attended mainstream primary schools or one Language Unit. Four aspects of social cognition were directly assessed: emotion identification, emotion labelling, inferring the causes of emotions, and knowledge of conflict resolution strategies. The children's socio-emotional functioning was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a standardised measure, completed by their teachers. Associations between children's performance on tasks of social cognition and children's socio-emotional functioning were explored. Significant group differences were found for all social cognition tasks. The SLI group was rated to experience significantly more problems with socio-emotional functioning by their teachers than both control groups, indicating problems with all aspects of socio-emotional functioning. Social cognition and prosocial behaviour, but not language ability, predicted teacher-rated behavioural, emotional and social difficulties for the SLI group. The results challenge current understanding of socio-emotional functioning in children with SLI by pointing to the crucial role of social cognition and prosocial behaviour. Factors other than expressive and receptive language play a role in the socio-emotional functioning of children with SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Jenkins, Paul E; Staniford, Jessica; Luck, Amy
The current study aimed to determine which particular eating disorder (ED) symptoms and related features, such as BMI and psychological distress, uniquely predict impairment in bulimia nervosa (BN). Two hundred and twenty-two adults with BN completed questionnaires assessing ED symptoms, general psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment. Regression analyses were used to determine predictors which account for variance in impairment. Four variables emerged as significant predictors of psychosocial impairment: concerns with eating; concerns with weight and shape; dietary restraint; and general psychological distress. Findings support previous work highlighting the importance of weight and shape concerns in determining ED-related impairment. Other ED symptoms, notably dietary restraint and concerns with eating, were also significant predictors as was psychological distress. Results suggest that cognitive aspects of EDs, in addition to psychological distress, may be more important determinants of impairment than behavioural symptoms, such as binge eating or purging.
Lee, So Jung; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Su Young; An, Suk Kyoon
Psychosocial dysfunction was a nettlesome problem of schizophrenia even in their prodromal phase as well as in their first-episode. In addition, its relations with psychopathology were not determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the social and role function impairment was found in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals as well as first-episode schizophrenia patients and to explore its relations with psychopathology. Thirty-seven normal controls, 63 UHR participants and 28 young, first-episode schizophrenia patients were recruited. Psychosocial functioning was examined by using Global function: Social and Role scale. Psychopathologies of positive, negative and depressive symptom were also measured. Social and role functioning in UHR were compromised at the equivalent level of those of first-episode schizophrenia patients. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that social and role dysfunction was associated with negative symptoms in each UHR and first-episode schizophrenia group. These findings suggest that the significant impairment of social and role function may be appeared before the active psychosis onset at the level of extent to those of first-episode schizophrenia patients. The psychosocial intervention strategy especially targeting the negative symptoms should be developed and provided to individuals from their prepsychotic stage of schizophrenia.
Alexander V Lebedev
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The current study aimed to investigate resting state fMRI correlates of cognitive impairment in PD from a large-scale network perspective, and to assess the impact of dopamine deficiency on these networks. Thirty PD patients with resting state fMRI were included from the Parkinson’s Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI database. Eighteen patients from this sample were also scanned with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. A standardized neuropsychological battery was administered, evaluating verbal memory, visuospatial, and executive cognitive domains. Image preprocessing was performed using an SPM8-based workflow, obtaining time-series from 90 regions-of-interest (ROIs defined from the AAL brain atlas. The Brain Connectivity Toolbox was used to extract nodal strength from all ROIs and modularity of the cognitive circuitry determined using the meta-analytical software Neurosynth. Brain-behavior covariance patterns between cognitive functions and nodal strength were estimated using Partial Least Squares. Extracted latent variable scores were correlated with performances in the three cognitive domains and striatal dopamine transporter binding ratios (SBR using linear modeling. Finally, influence of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficiency on modularity of the cognitive network was analyzed. Less severe executive impairment was associated with increased dorsal fronto-parietal cortical processing and inhibited subcortical and primary sensory involvement. This pattern was positively influenced by the relative preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function. The pattern associated with better memory performance favored prefronto-limbic processing, and did not reveal associations with presynaptic striatal dopamine uptake. SBR ratios were negatively associated with modularity of the cognitive network, suggesting integrative effects of the preserved nigrostriatal dopamine system on this
van Esch, T.E.M.
In terms of disability and handicap, problems in auditory function involve much more than a reduced sensitivity to soft sounds, the most commonly used measure of hearing impairment. In daily life, many hearing-impaired (HI) listeners suffer more from impaired processing of audible sounds, than from
Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G
Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.
Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping
To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.
Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich
In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.
Salthouse, Timothy A.; Mandell, Arielle R.
Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TO...
Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.
Raaphorst, J.; van Tol, M.J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Majoie, C.B.; Van den Berg, L.H.; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D.J.
Background and purpose: Thirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory
Raaphorst, J.; Tol, M.J. van; Visser, M de; Kooi, A.J. van der; Majoie, C.B.; Berg, L.H. van den; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D.J.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory
Raaphorst, J.; van Tol, M. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.; Majoie, C. B.; van den Berg, L. H.; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D. J.
Background and purposeThirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory
Raaphorst, J.; van Tol, M. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.; Majoie, C. B.; van den Berg, L. H.; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D. J.
Thirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory function was investigated
Poulos, A.; van Crugten, C.; Sharp, P.; Carey, W. F.; Robertson, E.; Becroft, D. M.; Saudubray, J. M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Christensen, E.; Brandt, N.
Normal amniocytes and chorionic villous cells in culture are able to produce 14CO2 from exogenous [1-14C] phytanic acid. In contrast, cells from four fetuses at risk for the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome and related disorders showed a greatly reduced activity, indicating a block in
Pennings, RJE; Huygen, PLM; van den Ouweland, JMW; Cryns, K; Dikkeschei, LD; Van Camp, G; Cremers, CWRJ
This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and
Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Ouweland, J.M.W. van den; Cryns, K.; Dikkeschei, L.D.; Camp, G. van; Cremers, C.W.R.J.
This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and
Ulfers, Sara S; Berg, Christine
Cancer-related cognitive impairments (CRCI) can limit participation in meaningful activities before, during, and after cancer treatment. This study explored occupational therapists' perceived knowledge gaps and needs regarding CRCI in adults and older adults. An online survey was sent to a convenience sample of 60 practitioners at facilities throughout the continuum of care and 176 directors and faculty in accredited occupational therapy programs. Using a snowball sampling approach, recipients were asked to forward the survey to other occupational therapists. One hundred seven occupational therapists participated. The majority (92%) responded that it would be beneficial to attend a face-to-face continuing education program; preferences for the content and design of a continuing competency seminar are described. These findings support the development and delivery of continuing competence programs tailored toward occupational therapists' CRCI knowledge needs.
Krag, Aleksander; Møller, Søren; Pedersen, Erling B
were studied during a 400 ml/h oral water load. Results: Child C patients had a lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (32 vs 63 ml/min, Pwater clearance () did not differ (-0......: In Child C cirrhosis, ascites and mild hyponatraemia, there is an impaired ability to excrete solute-free water. The patients are characterised by a low glomerular filtration rate, a low distal tubular flow and an inability to increase free water clearance during water loading. This may be related......Abstract Background: Water retention in advanced cirrhosis and ascites may involve disturbances in renal distal tubular function and in the vasopressin system. Methods: Twelve patients with Child B cirrhosis and ascites were compared with 11 patients with Child C cirrhosis and ascites. The subjects...
Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John
Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750 ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050 ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage.
Rafael Coimbra Ferreira Beltrame
Full Text Available Abstract The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients.
Bahls, Martin; Groß, Stefan; Ittermann, Till; Busch, Raila; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Völzke, Henry; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus
Exercise and statins reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise capacity may be assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Whether statin medication is associated with CPET parameters is unclear. We investigated if statins are related with exercise capacity during CPET in the general population. Cross-sectional data of two independent cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were merged (n = 3,500; 50% males). Oxygen consumption (VO2) at peak exercise (VO2peak) and anaerobic threshold (VO2@AT) was assessed during symptom-limited CPET. Two linear regression models related VO2peak with statin usage were calculated. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, previous myocardial infarction, and physical inactivity and model 2 additionally for body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Propensity score matching was used for validation. Statin usage was associated with lower VO2peak (no statin: 2336; 95%-confidence interval [CI]: 2287-2,385 vs. statin 2090; 95%-CI: 2,031-2149 ml/min; P exercise capacity in males but not females. Sex specific effects of statins on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity deserve further research.
Full Text Available To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s are still required.
The objective of this study was to clarify the utility of VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or AD-related studies, correlations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests were investigated. Subjects comprised 18 and 12 patients with probable AD and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to a cerebral degeneration near AD, respectively. Neuropsychological tests consisted of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)-J cog., Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-Revised or -IIIrd (WAIS-R/-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Subjects received these tests within one month before or after cranial MRI scans, and correlations between Z-scores of VSRAD reflecting the parahippocampal atrophy and results of these neuropsychological tests were statistically examined. The Z-scores had a significant positive correlation with scores of ADAS (p=.0129) and an inverse correlation with scores of ''Information'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III (p=.0294). Further, the Z-scores showed a tendency to weak, inverse correlations with the scores of HDS-R, ''Similarity'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III and ''Visual Reproduction II'' as a subtest of WMS-R (p=.0532, .0635, and .0609, respectively). Usefulness of VSRAD for the diagnosis of AD was indicated by the significant correlations hoted with ADAS and HDS-R, and it was further suggested that parahippocampal atrophy was related to semantic and visual memory impairments of AD, judging from the correlations with subtests of WAIS-R/-III and WMS-R. (author)
Eugenia Falomir Lockhart
In the current study we implemented ICV IGF-I gene therapy in very old rats (28 months and assessed the motor performance pre and 17-days after surgery. Glial immunoreactivity in striatum was evaluated by Iba1 and GFAP markers. Results: As we previously reported, IGF-I restored motor coordination and forelimb grip strength in aged rats (Sanchez et al., 2008. We found that microglia immunoreactivity (Iba-1+ was significantly increased for at least 17 days after treatment with IGF-I (Xm-senil-IGF-I=8.370±0.3297 vs Xm-senil-DsRed= 5.557±0.2553; p<0.0001, astrocytes (GFAP+ showed not changes. Our results identify a novel function of microglia in the maintenance of motor permormance and suggest an original approach for reversing age-associated motor and exploratory performance recorded in rats.
Li, Wen-Juan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Peng, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Li, Chang; Chen, Yi; Li, Jing-En; Song, Wan-Rui; Xie, Ming-Yong
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oxidative stress and immune dysfunction could be attenuated by Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) in d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice, and provide evidence for its effects. The results showed that PSG-1 significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain, and spleen, but concomitantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase compared with the d-gal group. Elevation of glutathione contents and attenuation of glutathione disulfide contents were also found in PSG-1-treated animals. Furthermore, the results showed that PSG-1 treatment increased basal lymphocyte proliferation as well as T cell and B cell proliferation and enhanced interleukin-2 production. Taken together, the results suggested that PSG-1 had potential as a novel agent to promote health and improve aging-associated pathologies, at least in part, via modification of the redox system and improvement of immune function.
Lazzari, Virginia Meneghini; Zimmermann-Peruzatto, Josi Maria; Agnes, Grasiela; Becker, Roberta Oriques; de Moura, Ana Carolina; Almeida, Silvana; Guedes, Renata Padilha; Giovenardi, Marcia
Social interaction between animals is crucial for the survival and life in groups. It is well demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play critical roles in the regulation of social behaviors in mammals, however, other neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in the brain circuitry related to these behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain of OT knockout (OTKO) male mice. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of the OT receptor (Oxtr), AVP receptors 1a and 1b (Avpr1a; Avpr1b), dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2), and the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (Esr1; Esr2) genes in the hippocampus (HPC), olfactory bulb (OB), hypothalamus (HPT) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). AVP gene (Avp) expression was analyzed in the HPT. Gene expression results were discussed regarding to social interaction and sexual behavior findings. Additionally, we analyzed the influence of OT absence on the Avp mRNA expression levels in the HPT. RNA extraction and cDNAs synthesis followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed for gene expression determination. Results were calculated with the 2 -ΔΔCt method. Our main finding was that HPC is more susceptible to gene expression changes due to the lack of OT. OTKOs exhibited decreased expression of Drd2 and Avpr1b, but increased expression of Oxtr in the HPC. In the PFC, Esr2 was increased. In the HPT, there was a reduced Avp expression in the OTKO group. No differences were detected in the OB and HPT. Despite these changes in gene expression, sexual behavior was not affected. However, OTKO showed higher social investigation and lower aggressive performance than wild-type mice. Our data highlight the importance of OT for proper gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors related to the regulation of social interaction in male mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Pye, Annie; Charalambous, Anna Pavlina; Leroi, Iracema; Thodi, Chrysoulla; Dawes, Piers
Cognitive screening tests frequently rely on items being correctly heard or seen. We aimed to identify, describe, and evaluate the adaptation, validity, and availability of cognitive screening and assessment tools for dementia which have been developed or adapted for adults with acquired hearing and/or vision impairment. Electronic databases were searched using subject terms "hearing disorders" OR "vision disorders" AND "cognitive assessment," supplemented by exploring reference lists of included papers and via consultation with health professionals to identify additional literature. 1,551 papers were identified, of which 13 met inclusion criteria. Four papers related to tests adapted for hearing impairment; 11 papers related to tests adapted for vision impairment. Frequently adapted tests were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). Adaptations for hearing impairment involved deleting or creating written versions for hearing-dependent items. Adaptations for vision impairment involved deleting vision-dependent items or spoken/tactile versions of visual tasks. No study reported validity of the test in relation to detection of dementia in people with hearing/vision impairment. Item deletion had a negative impact on the psychometric properties of the test. While attempts have been made to adapt cognitive tests for people with acquired hearing and/or vision impairment, the primary limitation of these adaptations is that their validity in accurately detecting dementia among those with acquired hearing or vision impairment is yet to be established. It is likely that the sensitivity and specificity of the adapted versions are poorer than the original, especially if the adaptation involved item deletion. One solution would involve item substitution in an alternative sensory modality followed by re-validation of the adapted test.
Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.
Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui
As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude
Beltrame, Rafael Coimbra Ferreira; Friderichs, Maurício; Fior, Bárbara Rayanne; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Silva, Dirceu Reis da; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Seligman, Renato; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo
The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients. Resumo A doença relacionada à IgG4 tem um espectro clínico amplo em que múltiplos órgãos podem ser afetados, e o diagnóstico depende de achados histopatológicos típicos e elevada expressão de IgG4 em plasmócitos no tecido afetado. Descrevemos o quadro clínico e a evolução de um paciente com nefrite túbulo-intersticial aguda, insuficiência renal grave e manifestações sistêmicas como linfoadenomegalias e pancreatite crônica. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelas características clínicas e pela histopatologia renal e de linfonodo, na qual a imunohistoquímica mostrou tecido linfoide com policlonalidade e expressão aumentada de IgG4, com uma relação IgG4/IgG total > 80%. O paciente foi tratado com prednisona na dose de 60 mg/dia, seguido de micofenolato mofetil, e apresentou melhora clínica e da função renal depois de 6 meses de tratamento. O alto índice de suspeição da doença relacionada ao IgG4 com comprometimento multissist
Fisk, N M; Vaughan, J; Talbert, D
A substantial proportion of perinatal losses in polyhydramnios occur as unexplained normally formed stillbirths. In order to investigate the relationship between fetal condition and raised amniotic pressure (AP), fetal blood gas and acid-base status were determined together with AP in 22 pregnancies with polyhydramnios. At fetal blood sampling, 8 (36%) had a venous pH value and 16 (73%) a pO2 value below the reference range. Both fetal pH and pO2 were significantly negatively correlated with the degree of elevation in AP (y = 7.43 - 0.036x, r = 0.56, p = 0.006, where y = pH and x = AP z score, and y = -1.6 - 0.48x, r = 0.54, p = 0.01, where y = pO2 z score, respectively). Although some of these fetuses were hydropic, had congenital anomalies, or were from multiple pregnancies, univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the above associations could not be accounted for by these potentially confounding variables. This work suggests that abnormal fetal blood gas status in human pregnancies with poly-hydramnios is associated with elevated AP.
Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.
Full Text Available Alcohol-related myopathy (Alc-M is highly prevalent among heavy drinkers, although its pathogenesis is not well understood. We hypothesize that Alc-M is mediated by combined effects of insulin/IGF resistance and oxidative stress, similar to the effects of ethanol on liver and brain. We tested this hypothesis using an established model in which adult rats were pair-fed for 8 weeks with isocaloric diets containing 0% (N = 8 or 35.5% (N = 13 ethanol by caloric content. Gastrocnemius muscles were examined by histology, morphometrics, qRT-PCR analysis, and ELISAs. Chronic ethanol feeding reduced myofiber size and mRNA expression of IGF-1 polypeptide, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors, IRS-1, and IRS-2. Multiplex ELISAs demonstrated ethanol-associated inhibition of insulin, IRS-1, Akt, and p70S6K signaling, and increased activation of GSK-3β. In addition, ethanol-exposed muscles had increased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunoreactivity, reflecting lipid peroxidation, and reduced levels of mitochondrial Complex IV, Complex V, and acetylcholinesterase. These results demonstrate that experimental Alc-M is associated with inhibition of insulin/IGF/IRS and downstream signaling that mediates metabolism and cell survival, similar to findings in alcoholic liver and brain degeneration. Moreover, the increased oxidative stress, which could be mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction, may have led to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which itself is sufficient to cause myofiber atrophy and degeneration.
Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xiaolin
This study investigated how topic shift and topic continuation influence pronoun interpretation in Chinese. ERPs recorded on pronouns in topic structure showed stronger and earlier late positive responses (P600) for the topic-shift than for the topic-continuation conditions. However, in nontopic structure where the subject (denoting only subjecthood), rather than the topic (denoting both topichood and subjecthood), acted as the antecedent of the pronoun, almost indistinguishable P600 responses were obtained on the pronoun regardless of whether it was referring to the subject (i.e., subject continuation) or the object (i.e., subject shift). Moreover, stronger and earlier P600 responses were elicited by pronouns in the topic-shift than in the subject-shift conditions, although there was no difference between the topic-continuation and the subject-continuation conditions. These findings suggest that topic shift results in greater difficulty in the resolution stage of referential processing, although the bonding process is not sensitive to the manipulation of topic status, and that topic has a privileged cognitive status relative to other nontopic entities (e.g., subject) in real-time language processing. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency. PMID:24395287
Espil, Flint M; Capriotti, Matthew R; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W
Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with chronic tic disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency.
There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition
Mihelčić, Matej; Šimić, Goran; Babić Leko, Mirjana; Lavrač, Nada; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav
Based on a set of subjects and a collection of attributes obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we used redescription mining to find interpretable rules revealing associations between those determinants that provide insights about the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We extended the CLUS-RM redescription mining algorithm to a constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) setting, which enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-constrained associations. Redescription mining enabled finding specific constructs of clinical and biological attributes that describe many groups of subjects of different size, homogeneity and levels of cognitive impairment. We confirmed some previously known findings. However, in some instances, as with the attributes: testosterone, ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, Fas ligand, the imaging attribute Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD, as well as the levels of leptin and angiopoietin-2 in plasma, we corroborated previously debatable findings or provided additional information about these variables and their association with AD pathogenesis. Moreover, applying redescription mining on ADNI data resulted with the discovery of one largely unknown attribute: the Pregnancy-Associated Protein-A (PAPP-A), which we found highly associated with cognitive impairment in AD. Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01) were found between PAPP-A and clinical tests: Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, Mini Mental State Examination, etc. The high importance of this finding lies in the fact that PAPP-A is a metalloproteinase, known to cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Since it also shares similar substrates with A Disintegrin and the Metalloproteinase family of enzymes that act as α-secretase to physiologically cleave amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, it could
Emhardt, John R; Yepes, Juan F; Vinson, LaQuia A; Jones, James E; Emhardt, John D; Kozlowski, Diana C; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo
The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the relationship between appointment failure and the factors of age, gender, race, insurance type, day of week, scheduled time of surgery, distance traveled, and weather; (2) investigate reasons for failure; and (3) explore the relationships between the factors and reasons for failure. Electronic medical records were accessed to obtain data for patients scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia from May 2012 to May 2015. Factors were analyzed for relation to appointment failure. Data from 3,513 appointments for 2,874 children were analyzed. Bivariate associations showed statistically significant (Pgeneral anesthesia face specific barriers to care.
Merchant, Sana; Medow, Marvin S; Visintainer, Paul; Terilli, Courtney; Stewart, Julian M
Neurovascular coupling (NVC) describes the link between an increase in task-related neural activity and increased cerebral blood flow denoted "functional hyperemia." We previously showed induced cerebral blood flow oscillations suppressed functional hyperemia; conversely functional hyperemia also suppressed cerebral blood flow oscillations. We used lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) oscillations to force oscillations in middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv). Here, we used N-back testing, an intellectual memory challenge as a neural activation task, to test the hypothesis that OLBNP-induced oscillatory cerebral blood flow can reduce functional hyperemia and NVC produced by a working memory task and can interfere with working memory. We used OLBNP (-30 mmHg) at 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10 Hz and measured spectral power of CBFv at all frequencies. Neither OLBNP nor N-back, alone or combined, affected hemodynamic parameters. 2-Back power and OLBNP individually were compared with 2-back power during OLBNP. 2-Back alone produced a narrow band increase in oscillatory arterial pressure (OAP) and oscillatory cerebral blood flow power centered at 0.0083 Hz. Functional hyperemia in response to 2-back was reduced to near baseline and 2-back memory performance was decreased by 0.03-, 0.05-, and 0.10-Hz OLBNP. OLBNP alone produced increased oscillatory power at frequencies of oscillation not suppressed by added 2-back. However, 2-back preceding OLBNP suppressed OLBNP power. OLBNP-driven oscillatory CBFv blunts NVC and memory performance, while memory task reciprocally interfered with forced CBFv oscillations. This shows that induced cerebral blood flow oscillations suppress functional hyperemia and functional hyperemia suppresses cerebral blood flow oscillations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that induced cerebral blood flow oscillations suppress functional hyperemia produced by a working memory task as well as memory task performance. We conclude that oscillatory
Barashkov, Nikolay A; Teryutin, Fedor M; Pshennikova, Vera G; Solovyev, Aisen V; Klarov, Leonid A; Solovyeva, Natalya A; Kozhevnikov, Andrei A; Vasilyeva, Lena M; Fedotova, Elvira E; Pak, Maria V; Lekhanova, Sargylana N; Zakharova, Elena V; Savvinova, Kyunney E; Gotovtsev, Nyurgun N; Rafailo, Adyum M; Luginov, Nikolay V; Alexeev, Anatoliy N; Posukh, Olga L; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Fedorova, Sardana A
Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) is one of the frequent sensory disorders registered in 50% of individuals over 80 years. ARHI is a multifactorial disorder due to environmental and poor-known genetic components. In this study, we present the data on age-related hearing impairment of 48 heterozygous carriers of mutation IVS1+1G>A (GJB2 gene) and 97 subjects with GJB2 genotype wt/wt in the Republic of Sakha/Yakutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia). This subarctic territory was found as the region with the most extensive accumulation of mutation IVS1+1G>A in the world as a result of founder effect in the unique Yakut population isolate. The GJB2 gene resequencing and detailed audiological analysis in the frequency range 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 kHz were performed in all examined subjects that allowed to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations between the presence of single mutation IVS1+1G>A and hearing of subjects from examined groups. We revealed the linear correlation between increase of average hearing thresholds at speech frequencies (PTA0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0 kHz) and age of individuals with GJB2 genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (rs = 0.499, p = 0.006860 for males and rs = 0.427, p = 0.000277 for females). Moreover, the average hearing thresholds on high frequency (8.0 kHz) in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (both sexes) were significantly worse than in individuals with genotype wt/wt (pA/wt was estimated to be ∼40 years (rs = 0.504, p = 0.003). These findings demonstrate that the single IVS1+1G>A mutation (GJB2) is associated with age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) of the IVS1+1G>A carriers in the Yakuts.
Nikolay A Barashkov
Full Text Available Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI is one of the frequent sensory disorders registered in 50% of individuals over 80 years. ARHI is a multifactorial disorder due to environmental and poor-known genetic components. In this study, we present the data on age-related hearing impairment of 48 heterozygous carriers of mutation IVS1+1G>A (GJB2 gene and 97 subjects with GJB2 genotype wt/wt in the Republic of Sakha/Yakutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia. This subarctic territory was found as the region with the most extensive accumulation of mutation IVS1+1G>A in the world as a result of founder effect in the unique Yakut population isolate. The GJB2 gene resequencing and detailed audiological analysis in the frequency range 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 kHz were performed in all examined subjects that allowed to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations between the presence of single mutation IVS1+1G>A and hearing of subjects from examined groups. We revealed the linear correlation between increase of average hearing thresholds at speech frequencies (PTA0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0 kHz and age of individuals with GJB2 genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (rs = 0.499, p = 0.006860 for males and rs = 0.427, p = 0.000277 for females. Moreover, the average hearing thresholds on high frequency (8.0 kHz in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (both sexes were significantly worse than in individuals with genotype wt/wt (pA/wt was estimated to be ∼40 years (rs = 0.504, p = 0.003. These findings demonstrate that the single IVS1+1G>A mutation (GJB2 is associated with age-related hearing impairment (ARHI of the IVS1+1G>A carriers in the Yakuts.
Oh, Yunjin; Lee, Soon Min
This study explored whether learning-related anxiety would negatively affect intention to persist with e-learning among students with visual impairment, and examined the roles of three online interactions in the relationship between learning-related anxiety and intention to persist with e-learning. For this study, a convenience sample of…
Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gp96 plays an important role in specific cytotoxic immune response which is involved in anti-tumor effect in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of heat shock protein gp96 and immune-related gene CTLA-4, CD8 expressions in lung cancer tissues of different progressive stages. Methods We used Envision immunohistochemistry method to detect the levels of expression of gp96, CTLA-4, CD8 in tissue microarray, which contained 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 lymph node metastasis lung cancer tissues, 12 precancerous lesions and 10 normal lung tissues, and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Results (1 The positive rate of gp96 in primary lung cancer was remarkably higher than that in precancerous lesion and normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 in primary lung cancer tissue and precancerous lesion was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CD8 in primary lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of gp96 in CD8-positive lymphocytes in the high expression group was less than that in the low group (P < 0.05. (2 The positive rate of gp96 was closely related to sex, differentiation and clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to age, gross type, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 was closely related to age and differentiation (P < 0.05, but not to sex, gross type, histological type, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. CD8 expression was related to clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to sex, age, gross type, histological type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rates of gp96, CTLA-4 were higher than that of CD8 in squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC, respectively. (3 There was positive correlation between gp
Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.
Full Text Available Objective To determined the serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and provide a basis for the prevention of diabetes related complications. Methods Two-hundred and forty-six T2DM patients (113 males and 133 females, aged 60.2±15.3 years, disease course 5-22 years hospitalized in the Navy General Hospital of PLA from March to December, 2012, were involved in the present study. The patients were divided into complication group (n=140 and no complication group (n=106 according to whether there were diabetes related complications, and 120 healthy individuals were recruited as control group. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, fibrinogen (FIB, platelet count (PLT, and platelet size distribution width (PDW, mean platelet volume (MPV, and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR were determined and compared among the 3 groups. Results The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MPV, PDW, P-LCR and FIB were significantly higher in complication group than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05, and PLT, APTT and PT were significantly lower than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05. No significant difference of HDL-C levels was found among the 3 groups. Conclusions The blood of patients with T2DM was in hyperviscous and/or hypercoagulable states, and it is prone to induce vascular complications. Monitoring serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters should be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.015
Tanjala T. Gipson
Full Text Available Objective. To review the recent literature on the clinical features, genetic mutations, neurobiology associated with dysregulation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, and clinical trials for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC, neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1 and fragile X syndrome (FXS, and phosphatase and tensin homolog hamartoma syndromes (PTHS, which are neurogenetic disorders associated with abnormalities in synaptic plasticity and mTOR signaling. Methods. Pubmed and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched using specific search strategies. Results/Conclusions. Although traditionally thought of as irreversible disorders, significant scientific progress has been made in both humans and preclinical models to understand how pathologic features of these neurogenetic disorders can be reduced or reversed. This paper revealed significant similarities among the conditions. Not only do they share features of impaired synaptic plasticity and dysregulation of mTOR, but they also share clinical features—autism, intellectual disability, cutaneous lesions, and tumors. Although scientific advances towards discovery of effective treatment in some disorders have outpaced others, progress in understanding the signaling pathways that connect the entire group indicates that the lesser known disorders will become treatable as well.
El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A
To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
A methodology is developed to identify and flag significant trends related to the safety and availability of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The development is intended to aid in reducing likelihood of human errors. To assure that the methodology can be easily adapted to various types of classification schemes of operation data, a data bank classified by the Transient Analysis Classification and Evaluation (TRACE) scheme is selected for the methodology. The significance criteria for human-initiated events affecting the systems and for events caused by human deficiencies were developed. Clustering analysis was used to verify the learning trend in multidimensional histograms. A computer code is developed based on the K-Means algorithm and applied to find the learning period in which error rates are monotonously decreasing with plant age. The Freeman-Tukey (F-T) deviates are used to select generic problems identified by a large positive value (here approximately over 2.0) for the deviate. The identified generic problems are: decision errors which are highly associated with reactor startup operations in the learning period of PWR plants (PWRs), response errors which are highly associated with Secondary Non-Nuclear Systems (SNS) in PWRs, and significant errors affecting systems and which are caused by response action are highly associated with startup reactor mode in BWRS
Ishigaki, Sayaka; Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Tsuji, Naoko; Iwakura, Takamasa; Ono, Masafumi; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Tsuji, Takayuki; Kato, Akihiko; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Hideo
Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. The circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation leads to renal damage and hypertension, which are associated with diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation. The activation of intrarenal RAS following reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation, sympathetic hyperactivity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition leads to the development of renal damage. Melatonin is a hormone regulating the circadian rhythm, and has multiple functions such as anti-oxidant and anti-adrenergic effects and enhancement of NO bioavailability. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations are lower in CKD patients. However, it is not known if impaired endogenous melatonin secretion is related to BP, intrarenal RAS, or renal damage in CKD patients. We recruited 53 CKD patients and conducted 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. urine was collected during the daytime and nighttime. We investigated the relationship among the melatonin metabolite urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (U-aMT6s), BP, renal function, urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT), and urinary albumin (U-Alb). Patients' U-aMT6s levels were significantly and negatively correlated with clinical parameters such as renal function, systolic BP, U-AGT, and U-Alb, during both day and night. Multiple regression analyses for U-aMT6s levels were performed using age, gender, renal function, and each parameter (BPs, U-AGT or U-Alb), at daytime and nighttime. U-aMT6s levels were significantly associated with U-AGT (β = -0.31, p = 0.044) and U-Alb (β = -0.25, p = 0.025) only at night. Impaired nighttime melatonin secretion may be associated with nighttime intrarenal RAS activation and renal damage in CKD patients.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the relation between abnormal functional connectivity of substantia nigra and impairment of movement and cognition in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD. Methods A total of 22 subjects, including 14 patients with RBD and 8 sex, age, education-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study according to international diagnostic criteria. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Ⅲ (UPDRS Ⅲ and Hoehn-Yahr Stage were used to evaluate motor function. Digit Ordering Test - Attention (DOT - A, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Trail Making Test (TMT, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT, Clock Drawing Test (CDT, Boston Naming Test (BNT and Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT were used to evaluate cognitive function. The functional connectivity from left and right substantia nigra to brain region were examined. Results There were no statistical differences of UPDRSⅢ and Hoehn?Yahr Stage between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. In comparison with control group, SDMT (P = 0.001, ROCFT-copy (P = 0.013 and AVLT-N2 (P = 0.032 were significantly lower, while TMT-B test was significantly higher (P =0.005 in RBD group. Compared with control group, the functional connectivity of right substantia nigra to left precentral gyrus (P < 0.005 and right angular gyrus (P < 0.005 were all decreased in RBD group. Conclusions The results suggest that cognitive impairment occurs earlier than movement disorders in RBD, and there are abnormal functional connectivity from right substantia nigra to left precentral gyrus and right angular gyrus, proving that abnormal functional connectivity is the base of behavior disorders in RBD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.09.005
Setia, Monika; Islam, Amina M; Thompson, James P; Matchar, David B
An expanding elderly population poses challenges for the provision of care and treatment for age-related physical and mental disorders. Cognitive impairment (CI)/dementia is one such mental disorder that is on the rise in Singapore and has concomitant implications for social and health systems. The objective of this study is to understand the perspectives of prominent stakeholders about current and future issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia among the elderly in Singapore. Using indepth interviews, this qualitative study obtained the views of multiple stakeholders on issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia in Singapore. The 30 individuals interviewed as part of the study included clinicians, policy-makers, researchers, community workers, administrators, and caregivers. Using a framework approach, interview texts were indexed into domains and issues by utilizing NVivo 9.0 software. The stakeholders expressed concerns related to multiple domains of the CI/dementia care system: attitude and awareness, economics, education, family caregiving, inputs to care system, living arrangements, prevention, screening and diagnosis, and treatment and management of care. Within each domain, multiple issues and challenges were identified by respondents. The study identifies a complex set of inter-related issues and challenges that are associated with the care and treatment of people with CI/dementia. The results suggest that CI and dementia profoundly affect patients, families, and communities and that the issues related to the two disorders are truly system-wide. These findings lay the foundation for utilization of a systems approach to studying CI/dementia and provide an analytic framework for future research on complex health care issues.
Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako
Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.
Johns, Shelley A; Von Ah, Diane; Brown, Linda F; Beck-Coon, Kathleen; Talib, Tasneem L; Alyea, Jennifer M; Monahan, Patrick O; Tong, Yan; Wilhelm, Laura; Giesler, R Brian
Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a common, fatigue-related symptom that disrupts cancer survivors' quality of life. Few interventions for CRCI exist. As part of a randomized pilot study targeting cancer-related fatigue, the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on survivors' cognitive outcomes were investigated. Breast and colorectal cancer survivors (n = 71) with moderate-to-severe fatigue were randomized to MBSR (n = 35) or a fatigue education and support (ES; n = 36) condition. The Attentional Function Index (AFI) and the Stroop test were used to assess survivors' cognitive function at baseline (T1), after the 8-week intervention period (T2), and 6 months later (T3) using intent-to-treat analysis. Mediation analyses were performed to explore mechanisms of intervention effects on cognitive functioning. MBSR participants reported significantly greater improvement on the AFI total score compared to ES participants at T2 (d = 0.83, p = 0.001) and T3 (d = 0.55, p = 0.021). MBSR also significantly outperformed ES on most AFI subscales, although both groups improved over time. MBSR produced greater Stroop accuracy rates relative to ES at T2 (r = 0.340, p = 0.005) and T3 (r = 0.280, p = 0.030), with improved accuracy over time only for the MBSR group. There were no significant differences in Stroop reaction time between groups. Improvements in mindfulness mediated the effect of group (e.g., MBSR vs. ES) on AFI total score at T2 and T3. Additional randomized trials with more comprehensive cognitive measures are warranted to definitively assess the efficacy of MBSR for CRCI. This pilot study has important implications for all cancer survivors as it is the first published trial to show that MBSR offers robust and durable improvements in CRCI.
Mokshein, Siti Eshah
The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that
Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William
Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.
Forrester, T.; Wilks, R.; Gaskin, P.; Luke, A.; Jahoor, F.; Adeyemo, A.
There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)
Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A
The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.
Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.
Amal A. Mohamed
Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA is an antigen induced by stress and performs an integral role in immune responses as an anti-infectious and antitumor agent. This work was designed to investigate whether (SNP rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region is predictive of liver cirrhosis (LC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC or not. Forty-seven healthy controls and 94 HCV-infected patients, subdivided into 47 LC and 47 HCC subjects were enrolled in this study. SNP association was studied using real time PCR and soluble serum MICA concentration was measured using ELISA. Results showed that heterozygous genotype rs2596542CT was significantly (P = 0.022 distributed between HCC and LC related CHC patients. The sMICA was significantly higher (P = 0.0001 among HCC and LC. No significant association (P = 0.56 between rs2596542CT genotypes and sMICA levels was observed. Studying SNP rs2596542C/T association with HCC and LC susceptibility revealed that statistical significant differences (P = 0.013, P = 0.027 were only observed between SNP rs2596542C/T and each of HCC and LC, respectively, versus healthy controls, indicating that the rs2596542C/T genetic variation is not a significant contributor to HCC development in LC patients. Moreover, the T allele was considered a risk factor for HCC and LC vulnerability in HCV patients (OR = 1.93 and 2.1, respectively, while the C allele contributes to decreasing HCC risk. Therefore, SNP (rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region and sMICA levels might be potential useful markers in the assessment of liver disease progression to LC and HCC.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the host's behavior. In particular, Toxoplasma infection has been linked to schizophrenia, suicide attempt, differences in aspects of personality and poorer neurocognitive performance. However, these studies are often conducted in clinical samples or convenience samples.In a population-representative birth-cohort of individuals tested for presence of antibodies to T. gondii (N = 837 we investigated the association between infection and four facets of human behavior: neuropsychiatric disorder (schizophrenia and major depression, poor impulse control (suicidal behavior and criminality, personality, and neurocognitive performance. Suicide attempt was marginally more frequent among individuals with T. gondii seropositivity (p = .06. Seropositive individuals also performed worse on one out of 14 measures of neuropsychological function.On the whole, there was little evidence that T. gondii was related to increased risk of psychiatric disorder, poor impulse control, personality aberrations or neurocognitive impairment.
Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Lunner, Thomas
Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results...... in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared......-talker masker) on the PPD during speech perception. Twenty-five HI and 32 age-matched NH participants listened to sentences across a broad range of SNRs, masked with speech from a single talker (-25 dB to +15 dB SNR) or with stationary noise (-12 dB to +16 dB). Correct sentence recognition scores and pupil...
Full Text Available The early detection of subjects with probable cognitive deficits is crucial for effective appliance of treatment strategies. This paper explored a methodology used to discriminate between evoked related potential signals of stroke patients and their matched control subjects in a visual working memory paradigm. The proposed algorithm, which combined independent component analysis and orthogonal empirical mode decomposition, was applied to extract independent sources. Four types of target stimulus features including P300 peak latency, P300 peak amplitude, root mean square, and theta frequency band power were chosen. Evolutionary multiple kernel support vector machine (EMK-SVM based on genetic programming was investigated to classify stroke patients and healthy controls. Based on 5-fold cross-validation runs, EMK-SVM provided better classification performance compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Comparing stroke patients with healthy controls using the proposed algorithm, we achieved the maximum classification accuracies of 91.76% and 82.23% for 0-back and 1-back tasks, respectively. Overall, the experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective. The approach in this study may eventually lead to a reliable tool for identifying suitable brain impairment candidates and assessing cognitive function.
Li, Xiaoou; Yan, Yuning; Wei, Wenshi
The early detection of subjects with probable cognitive deficits is crucial for effective appliance of treatment strategies. This paper explored a methodology used to discriminate between evoked related potential signals of stroke patients and their matched control subjects in a visual working memory paradigm. The proposed algorithm, which combined independent component analysis and orthogonal empirical mode decomposition, was applied to extract independent sources. Four types of target stimulus features including P300 peak latency, P300 peak amplitude, root mean square, and theta frequency band power were chosen. Evolutionary multiple kernel support vector machine (EMK-SVM) based on genetic programming was investigated to classify stroke patients and healthy controls. Based on 5-fold cross-validation runs, EMK-SVM provided better classification performance compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Comparing stroke patients with healthy controls using the proposed algorithm, we achieved the maximum classification accuracies of 91.76% and 82.23% for 0-back and 1-back tasks, respectively. Overall, the experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective. The approach in this study may eventually lead to a reliable tool for identifying suitable brain impairment candidates and assessing cognitive function.
Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.
Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760
David J Allsop
Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.
Full Text Available To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample.Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012 data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale.28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376 were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25 group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively. Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160 and severe VI (VA ≤20/200 had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63 group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye.The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective
Eussen, Simone J P M; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Wijckmans, Nicole; den Biggelaar, Louise; Oude Elferink, Stefanie J W H; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; van der Kallen, Carla J; Koster, Annemarie; Schaper, Nicolaas; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dagnelie, Pieter C
Observational studies suggest an inverse association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of information on the relationship of specific dairy products with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Individuals aged 40-75 years were recruited for the Maastricht Study. All the participants filled out a 253-food item FFQ, covering fifty specific dairy items that captured differences between full-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed products, as well as fermented and non-fermented products. Glucose metabolism status was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, and participants were informed on their glucose metabolism status after returning the FFQ. Data of 2391 individuals were available to estimate OR (95 % CI) for IGM (n 470) and newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM (n 125), with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, energy intake and intakes of vegetables, fruits, meat and fish. For IGM, fully adjusted analyses revealed inverse associations, with OR comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake of 0·73 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·96) for skimmed products and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·99) for fermented products. These dairy products were not associated with ND T2DM. In contrast, full-fat products were positively associated with ND T2DM (OR 2·01; 95 % CI 1·16, 3·47), whereas total dairy product intake was inversely associated with ND T2DM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·93). In conclusion, individuals with a high consumption of skimmed and fermented products had lower odds of having IGM, and individuals with a high consumption of total dairy products had lower odds of having ND T2DM. High intake of full-fat products was not related to IGM but was positively related to ND T2DM.
Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong
Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Russo, D.J.; Russo, D.; Clements, J.; Wackers, F.
A previous study reported an excellent prognosis and low cardiac event rate in patients(pts) with chest pain and normal quantitative T1-201 scintigraphy(SC). Such result would not be unexpected if the population under study had a predominance of pts with low pre-T1-201 likelihood(L) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the authors undertook telephone follow-up in pts with chest pain syndrome and normal quantitative T1-201 exercise SC, and related outcome to pretest L of CAD. Pretest L was determined by serial L analysis on the basis of: symptoms, age, sex, and exercise ECG. All pts had T1-201 SC immediately post exercise and 2 hrs later. After interpolative background correction, circumferential count and washout profiles were generated. All pts had unequivocally normal studies. Of a total of 96 pts studied in 1981-82, 20 pts were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 76 pts, 45 were males and 31 females. The pretest L of CAD had an inverted Gaussian distribution: thirty-four pts(47%) had 66% L of CAD. Mean follow-up was 22+- 3 months. No deaths occurred. Two pts(3%) (with pretest L of 54% and 94%) had myocardial infarctions, 8 and 22 months respectively after T1-201 stress SC. One pt underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) 16 months after T1-201 stress SC. These findings confirm excellent prognostic significance of normal quantitative T1-201 stress scintigraphy
Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.
Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.
Huyghe, J.R.; Laer, L. Van; Hendrickx, J.J.
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a very common multifactorial disorder. Despite the knowledge that genetics play an important role in the etiology of human ARHI as revealed by heritability studies, to date, its precise genetic determinants remain elusive. Here we report t...
Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Bekers, O.; Sleegers, K.; van Broeckhoven, C.L.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F. R. J.
Background: Memory problems are a main feature of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and may be related to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. We investigated whether the effect of the APOE genotype on memory in subjects with MCI was dependent on age and underlying Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology.
Whitaker, Lydia R.; Simpson, Andrew; Roberson, Debi
Impairments in recognizing subtle facial expressions, in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may relate to difficulties in constructing prototypes of these expressions. Eighteen children with predominantly intellectual low-functioning ASD (LFA, IQ <80) and two control groups (mental and chronological age matched), were assessed for…
Kveiborg, M.; Rattan, Suresh; Clark, B.F.C.
Age-related bone loss is thought to be due to impaired osteoblast functions. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been shown to be important stimulators of bone formation and osteoblast activities in vitro and in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that in vitro osteoblast senescence is associated ...
Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I
The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...
Full Text Available Introduction: Newborn hearing screening leads to the early detection of hearing impairment. The aim of screening is to decrease or remove the effect of hearing impairment on development of speech and language by timely diagnosis and effective treatment. A number of risk factors lead to delayed start of decreased hearing ability including: 1. Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV virus, 2. Meningitis, 3. Mumps, 4. Positive family history, 5. Head trauma, 6. Chemotherapy, 7. Syndrome pertaining to delayed start of decreased hearing. Unfortunately, lack of attention to early diagnosis of hearing impairment is becoming a general health problem. No research has yet been carried out relating to the knowledge of pediatricians on this issue, particularly the importance of hearing impairment and hearing screening. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude to newborn hearing screening among pediatricians. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was conducted in Isfahan in 2012 among 300 pediatricians and final-year pediatric residents. An adjusted 22-question version of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI questionnaire was used to collect data. The validity and reliability of the EHDI questionnaire was previously demonstrated by Boys Town National Research Hospital and its Farsi translated version was validated by the EDC Center at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Results: In our study, 83% of pediatricians agreed on the importance of hearing impairment screening for all infants. However 65% were not aware of special needs for hearing-impaired patients. Conclusion: Newborn hearing impairment and deafness screening is important, irrespective of the costs, and lack of timely diagnosis results in both individual and social consequences. The majority of physicians use textbooks to gain information about hearing screening, but recognize that this is insufficient. Although
Naganuma, Misa; Motooka, Yumi; Sasaoka, Sayaka; Hatahira, Haruna; Hasegawa, Shiori; Fukuda, Akiho; Nakao, Satoshi; Shimada, Kazuyo; Hirade, Koseki; Mori, Takayuki; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Kato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro
Platinum compounds cause several adverse events, such as nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity. We evaluated the incidence of renal impairment as adverse events are related to the administration of platinum compounds using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. We analyzed adverse events associated with the use of platinum compounds reported from April 2004 to November 2016. The reporting odds ratio at 95% confidence interval was used to detect the signal for each renal impairment incidence. We evaluated the time-to-onset profile of renal impairment and assessed the hazard type using Weibull shape parameter and used the applied association rule mining technique to discover undetected relationships such as possible risk factor. In total, 430,587 reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database were analyzed. The reporting odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for renal impairment resulting from the use of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and nedaplatin were 2.7 (2.5-3.0), 0.6 (0.5-0.7), 0.8 (0.7-1.0), and 1.3 (0.8-2.1), respectively. The lower limit of the reporting odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for cisplatin was >1. The median (lower-upper quartile) onset time of renal impairment following the use of platinum-based compounds was 6.0-8.0 days. The Weibull shape parameter β and 95% confidence interval upper limit of oxaliplatin were impairment during cisplatin use in real-world setting. The present findings demonstrate that the incidence of renal impairment following cisplatin use should be closely monitored when patients are hypertensive or diabetic, or when they are co-administered furosemide, loxoprofen, or pemetrexed. In addition, healthcare professionals should closely assess a patient's background prior to treatment.
Ford, Janet A; Milosky, Linda M
This study examined whether young children with typical language development (TL) and children with language impairment (LI) make emotion inferences online during the process of discourse comprehension, identified variables that predict emotion inferencing, and explored the relationship of these variables to social competence. Preschool children (16 TL and 16 LI) watched narrated videos designed to activate knowledge about a particular emotional state. Following each story, children named a facial expression that either matched or did not match the anticipated emotion. Several experimental tasks examined linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities. Finally, each child's teacher completed a measure of social competence. Children with TL named expressions significantly more slowly in the mismatched condition than in the matched condition, whereas children with LI did not differ in response times between the conditions. Language and vocal response time measures were related to emotion inferencing ability, and this ability predicted social competence scores. The findings suggest that children with TL are inferring emotions during the comprehension process, whereas children with LI often fail to make these inferences. Making emotion inferences is related to discourse comprehension and to social competence in children. The current findings provide evidence that language and vocal response time measures predicted inferencing ability and suggest that additional factors may influence discourse inferencing and social competence.
Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon
Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (Pimpaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763
St Clair, Michelle C; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Pickles, Andrew
Individuals with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) often have subsequent problems with reading skills, but there have been some discrepant findings as to the developmental time course of these skills. This study investigates the developmental trajectories of reading skills over a 9-year time-span (from 7 to 16 years of age) in a large sample of individuals with a history of SLI. Relationships among reading skills, autistic symptomatology, and language-related abilities were also investigated. The results indicate that both reading accuracy and comprehension are deficient but that the development of these skills progresses in a consistently parallel fashion to what would be expected from a normative sample of same age peers. Language-related abilities were strongly associated with reading skills. Unlike individuals with SLI only, those with SLI and additional autistic symptomatology had adequate reading accuracy but did not differ from the individuals with SLI only in reading comprehension. They exhibited a significant gap between what they could read and what they could understand when reading. These findings provide strong evidence that individuals with SLI experience continued, long-term deficits in reading skills from childhood to adolescence.
Waliszewska-Prosół, Marta; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kotas, Roman; Bańkowski, Tomasz; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Podemski, Ryszard
The clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) can vary significantly among patients and is affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Among these, stress and personality type have been gaining more attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of event-related potentials (ERPs) with regards to stress perception and personality type, as well as cognitive performance in MS patients. The study group consisted of 30 MS patients and 26 healthy controls. Auditory ERPs were performed in both groups, including an analysis of P300 and N200 response parameters. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used in the MS group to measure the perception of stress. The D-type Scale (DS14) scale was used to determine the features of Type D personality, characterized by social inhibition and negative affectivity. The score on the PSS corresponded with a moderate or high level of stress perception in 63% of MS patients, while 23% of patients presented with a Type D personality. P300 latencies were significantly longer (p = 0.001), N200 amplitudes were significantly higher (p = 0.004), and N200 latencies were longer in MS patients than in the controls. Strong positive correlations were found between N200 and P300 amplitudes, as well as between the DS14 and PSS results. Most MS patients experience moderate to severe stress. ERP abnormalities were found in MS patients who did not have overt cognitive impairment and showed correlations with stress levels and negative affectivity. Event-related potentials may be useful in assessing the influence of stress and emotions on the course of MS.
Christos A. Frantzidis
Full Text Available Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer’s disease (AD with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD. Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aMCI and 24 mild AD patients who underwent electroencephalographic (EEG data acquisition during a resting-state condition. Synchronization analysis through the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT, and directional brain network analysis were applied on the EEG data. This computational model was performed for networks that have the same number of edges (N=500, 600, 700, 800 edges across all participants and groups (fixed density values. All groups exhibited a small-world (SW brain architecture. However, we found a significant reduction in the SW brain architecture in both aMCI and MD patients relative to the group of Healthy controls. This functional disorganization was also correlated with the participant’s generic cognitive status. The deterioration of the network’s organization was caused mainly by deficient local information processing as quantified by the mean cluster coefficient value. Functional hubs were identified through the normalized betweenness centrality metric. Analysis of the local characteristics showed relative hub preservation even with statistically significant reduced strength. Compensatory phenomena were also evident through the formation of additional hubs on left frontal and parietal regions. Our results indicate a declined functional network organization even during the prodromal phase. Degeneration is evident even in the preclinical phase and coexists with transient network reorganization due to compensation.
Stress-related exhaustion disorder--clinical manifestation of burnout? A review of assessment methods, sleep impairments, cognitive disturbances, and neuro-biological and physiological changes in clinical burnout.
Grossi, Giorgio; Perski, Aleksander; Osika, Walter; Savic, Ivanka
The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the literature on clinically significant burnout, focusing on its assessment, associations with sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, as well as neurobiological and physiological correlates. Fifty-nine English language articles and six book chapters were included. The results indicate that exhaustion disorder (ED), as described in the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases, seems to be the most valid clinical equivalent of burnout. The data supports the notion that sleep impairments are causative and maintaining factors for this condition. Patients with clinical burnout/ED suffer from cognitive impairments in the areas of memory and executive functioning. The studies on neuro-biological mechanisms have reported functional uncoupling of networks relating the limbic system to the pre-frontal cortex, and decreased volumes of structures within the basal ganglia. Although there is a growing body of literature on the physiological correlates of clinical burnout/ED, there is to date no biomarker for this condition. More studies on the role of sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, and neurobiological and physiological correlates in clinical burnout/ED are warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku
Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.
Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young
The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.
Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.
Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and
Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard
The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.
Hubert-Dibon, Gaëlle; Bru, Marie; Gras Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Elise; Roy, Arnaud
To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with specific language impairment (SLI). In a prospective sample at a Learning Disabilities Reference Center, proxy-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27) was assessed for children with SLI and unaffected children from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Quality of life predictors for children with SLI were evaluated by recording the length and number of speech therapy and psychotherapy sessions and the specific school organization that the children had participated in. The KIDSCREEN scores of the two groups were compared using nonparametric statistics. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 67 children with SLI and 67 unaffected children. For children with SLI, the mean HRQOL scores were significantly lower for physical and psychological well-being, autonomy and parent relation, social support, and school environment compared to the reference group, controlling for age and parental education (β = -6.7 (-12.7;-.7) P = 0.03, β = -4.9 (-9.5;-.3) P = 0.04, β = -8.4 (-14.2;-2.6) P = 0.005, β = -11.6 (-19.5;-3.7) P = 0.004, β = -7.1(-12.4;-1.7) P = 0.010, respectively). Multivariate analyses in the group of children with SLI found that children who had undergone psychotherapy sessions or who had been enrolled in specific schooling programs had reduced HRQOL scores in social support and school environment and that children who were in a special class had higher scores in physical well-being. Children with SLI had significantly lower HRQOL scores as compared to unaffected children. Measurement of HRQOL could serve as one of the strategies employed throughout the follow-up of these individuals to provide them with the most appropriate and comprehensive care possible.
Full Text Available To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of children with specific language impairment (SLI.In a prospective sample at a Learning Disabilities Reference Center, proxy-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 was assessed for children with SLI and unaffected children from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Quality of life predictors for children with SLI were evaluated by recording the length and number of speech therapy and psychotherapy sessions and the specific school organization that the children had participated in. The KIDSCREEN scores of the two groups were compared using nonparametric statistics.The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 67 children with SLI and 67 unaffected children. For children with SLI, the mean HRQOL scores were significantly lower for physical and psychological well-being, autonomy and parent relation, social support, and school environment compared to the reference group, controlling for age and parental education (β = -6.7 (-12.7;-.7 P = 0.03, β = -4.9 (-9.5;-.3 P = 0.04, β = -8.4 (-14.2;-2.6 P = 0.005, β = -11.6 (-19.5;-3.7 P = 0.004, β = -7.1(-12.4;-1.7 P = 0.010, respectively. Multivariate analyses in the group of children with SLI found that children who had undergone psychotherapy sessions or who had been enrolled in specific schooling programs had reduced HRQOL scores in social support and school environment and that children who were in a special class had higher scores in physical well-being.Children with SLI had significantly lower HRQOL scores as compared to unaffected children. Measurement of HRQOL could serve as one of the strategies employed throughout the follow-up of these individuals to provide them with the most appropriate and comprehensive care possible.
Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jia; Li, Wendi
Impairments in response inhibition and working memory functions have been found to be closely associated with internet addiction (IA) symptoms and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In this study, we examined response inhibition and working memory processes with two different materials (internet-related and internet-unrelated stimuli) among adolescents with IA, ADHD and co-morbid IA/ADHD. Twenty-four individuals with IA, 28 individuals with ADHD, 17 individuals with IA/ADHD, and 26 matched normal controls (NC) individuals were recruited. All participants were measured with a Stop-Signal Task and 2-Back Task under the same experimental conditions. In comparison to the NC group, subjects with IA, ADHD and IA/ADHD demonstrated impaired inhibition and working memory. In addition, in comparison to internet-unrelated conditions, IA and co-morbid subjects performed worse on the internet-related condition in the Stop trials during the stop-signal task, and they showed better working memory on the internet-related condition in the 2-Back Task. The findings of our study suggest individuals with IA and IA/ADHD may be impaired in inhibition and working memory functions that might be linked to poor inhibition specifically related to internet-related stimuli, which will advance our understanding of IA and contribute to prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Milders, Maarten V.; Veenstra, Wencke S.; van der Naalt, Joukje
Impairments in social behavior are frequently found in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and are associated with an unfavorable outcome with regard to return to work and social reintegration. Neuropsychological tests measuring aspects of social cognition are thought to be
Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin
Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…
Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Kai-Wen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a deficit of dorsal visual stream processing as well as the impairment of inhibitory control capability. However, the cognitive processing mechanisms of executive dysfunction have not been addressed. In the present study, the endogenous Posner paradigm task was administered to 15 children with…
Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…
O'Hanlon, Erik; Howley, Sarah; Prasad, Sarah; McGrath, Jane; Leemans, Alexander; McDonald, Colm; Garavan, Hugh; Murphy, Kieran C
INTRODUCTION: Impaired spatial working memory is a core cognitive deficit observed in people with 22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and has been suggested as a candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, to date, the neuroanatomical mechanisms describing its structural and functional
Jiao, Jiao; Tian, Weihua; Qiu, Ping; Norton, Elizabeth L; Wang, Michael M; Chen, Y Eugene; Yang, Bo
The NOTCH1 gene mutation has been identified in bicuspid aortic valve patients. We developed an in vitro model with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to evaluate the role of NOTCH1 in smooth muscle and endothelial cell (EC) differentiation. The iPSCs were derived from a patient with a normal tricuspid aortic valve and aorta. The NOTCH1 gene was targeted in iPSCs with the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system. The NOTCH1 -/- (NOTCH1 homozygous knockout) and isogenic control iPSCs (wild type) were differentiated into neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and into cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs). The NCSCs were differentiated into smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The CVPCs were differentiated into ECs. The differentiations of SMCs and ECs were compared between NOTCH1 -/- and wild type cells. The expression of NCSC markers (SRY-related HMG-box 10 and transcription factor AP-2 alpha) was significantly lower in NOTCH1 -/- NCSCs than in wild type NCSCs. The SMCs derived from NOTCH1 -/- NCSCs showed immature morphology with smaller size and decreased expression of all SMC-specific contractile proteins. In NOTCH1 -/- CVPCs, the expression of ISL1, NKX2.5, and MYOCD was significantly lower than that in isogenic control CVPCs, indicating impaired differentiation from iPSCs to CVPCs. The NOTCH1 -/- ECs derived from CVPCs showed significantly lower expression of cluster of differentiation 105 and cluster of differentiation 31 mRNA and protein, indicating a defective differentiation process. NOTCH1 is critical in SMC and EC differentiation of iPSCs through NCSCs and CVPCs, respectively. NOTCH1 gene mutations might potentially contribute to the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms by affecting SMC differentiation in some patients with bicuspid aortic valve. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR in children with specific language impairment (SLI and typically developing children (TD in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of -2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11 and percent correct consonants (PCC (d = 1.79. The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12, and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49. The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037, and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7. When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47 than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57. Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and
Full Text Available Isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to be responsible for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD and development of AD in the older age groups. However, the pathogenesis of AD-related cognitive impairments induced by isoflurane anesthesia remains elusive. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which isoflurane anesthesia caused AD-related cognitive impairments. Aged Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 12, 1 control group (CONT and 5 isoflurane treated (ISO groups (ISO 0, ISO 0.5D, ISO 1D, ISO 3D and ISO 7D. The CONT group inhaled 30% O2 for 2 h without any anesthesia. ISO groups were placed under anesthesia with 3% isoflurane and then exposed to 1.5% isoflurane delivered in 30% O2 for 2 h. Rats in each ISO group were then analyzed immediately (ISO 0 or at various time points (0.5, 1, 3 or 7 day after this exposure. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze test. Protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP, β-site APP cleavage enzyme-1 (BACE-1 and Aβ42 peptide were analyzed in hippocampal samples by Western blot. β-Amyloid (Abeta plaques were detected in hippocampal sections by Congo red staining. Compared with controls, all ISO groups showed increased escape latency and impaired spatial memory. Isoflurane increased APP mRNA expression and APP protein depletion, promoting Aβ42 overproduction, oligomerization and accumulation. However, isoflurane did not affect BACE-1 expression. Abeta plaques were observed only in those ISO groups sacrificed at 3 or 7 d. Our data indicate that aged rats exposed to isoflurane had increased APP mRNA expression and APP protein depletion, with Aβ42 peptide overproduction and oligomerization, resulting in formation of Abeta plaques in the hippocampus. Such effects might have contributed to cognitive impairments, including in spatial memory, observed in these rats after isoflurane anesthesia.
Hala I. Al-Daghistani
Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.
Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena
To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Soluble forms of oligomeric beta-amyloid (Aβ are thought to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Transgenic manipulation of methylation of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase, PP2A, was recently shown to alter the sensitivity of mice to AD-related impairments resulting from acute exposure to elevated levels of Aβ. In addition, eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide (EHT, a naturally occurring component from coffee beans that modulates PP2A methylation, was shown to confer therapeutic benefits in rodent models of AD and Parkinson's disease. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHT protects animals from the pathological effects of exposure to elevated levels of soluble oligomeric Aβ. We treated mice with EHT-containing food at two different doses and assessed the sensitivity of these animals to Aβ-induced behavioral and electrophysiological impairments. We found that EHT administration protected animals from Aβ-induced cognitive impairments in both a radial-arm water maze and contextual fear conditioning task. We also found that both chronic and acute EHT administration prevented Aβ-induced impairments in long-term potentiation. These data add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that interventions with pharmacological agents, such as EHT, that target PP2A activity may be therapeutically beneficial for AD and other neurological conditions.
Andersson, Malin; Jägervall, Karl; Eriksson, Per; Persson, Anders; Granerus, Göran; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan
Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82–0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists’ visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82–0.98) and 0.91 (0.83–0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with
Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory
Auerbach, Raymond K; Chen, Bin; Butte, Atul J
Anglo - Saxon ally over Nasser and the canal.55 In 2010, in a speech at Chatham House, Liberal Democrat Nick Clegg suggested that “what...strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo ...American context as well as NATO. 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, United States, Special Relationship, Anglo - American Relations, Iraq, Afghanistan
Stanislovaitiene, Daiva; Zaliuniene, Dalia; Krisciukaitis, Algimantas; Petrolis, Robertas; Smalinskiene, Alina; Lesauskaite, Vita; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Lesauskaite, Vaiva
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a progressive retinal disease, is responsible for an impaired central vision in about 180 million people worldwide. Current options for ARMD prevention and treatment are limited due to an incomplete understanding of disease etiopathogenesis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs5888 of SCARB1 gene reflecting lipid and antioxidant micronutrient metabolism pathways is associated with ARMD susceptibility and to evaluate if there is any relation between SCARB1 rs5888 and the macular lesion area. The prospective case-control study included patients with ARMD (n = 215) and the reference group (n = 238) drawn from a random sample of the Lithuanian population (n = 1436). The genotyping test of SCARB1 rs5888 was carried out using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Regression analysis adjusted by gender and age demonstrated that SCARB1 rs5888 TT genotype significantly decreased the odds for ARMD development (OR: 0.61, 95%; CI: 0.380-0.981, p = 0.04). A smoking habit and leading an outdoor life are associated with larger macular lesion areas in ARMD patients (0.54 (0.00-39.06) vs. 3.09 (0.02-19.30) and 0.27 (0.00-34.57) vs. 0.75 (0.00-39.06), respectively). In late stage ARMD subjects with CT genotype, the macular lesion area was larger than in TT carriers (7.64 (0.49-39.06) mm 2 vs. 5.02 (0.03-37.06) mm 2 , p = 0.006). SCARB1 rs5888 and environmental oxidative stress have a prominent role in ARMD susceptibility, early ARMD progression to advanced stage disease and even in the outcome of the disease-an area of macular lesion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An instrument was developed in Canada to assess impairments related to oral functioning of individuals with four years of age or older with Down syndrome (DS. The present study attempted to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the instrument for the Brazilian Portuguese language and to test its reliability and validity. Findings After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the instrument was tested on caregivers of people with DS. Clinical examination for malocclusion was carried out in people with DS by two calibrated examiners. Inter and Intra examiner agreement was assessed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 respectively. Total of 157 people with DS and their caregivers were able to compose the sample. They were selected from eight institutions for people with DS in five cities of southeastern Brazil. The mean age of people with DS was 20.7 [±13.1] and for caregivers was 53.1 [±13.7]. The mean instrument score was 18.6 [±9.0]. Internal reliability ranged from 0.49 to 0.80 and external reliability ranged from 0.78 to 0.88. Construct validity was verified by significant correlations identified between malocclusion and the total instrument; and caregivers’ educational level and the instrument (p Conclusions Initial validity tests indicated that the instrument related to the oral health for people with DS may be a valid instrument to this segment of the population in Brazil.
Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.
signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...
Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria
of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...
Duffy, J R; Warburg, Finn; Koelle, S-F T
BACKGROUND: Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we...... hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. METHODS: A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress...... pain. RESULTS: Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic...
Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée
Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p work per week (p < 0.01). Women workers reported experiencing more sites of pain (p < 0.003). This exploratory study suggests that managing the server-customer relationship could be important in preventing musculoskeletal disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence in autism suggests a deficit in glutathione (GSH), a major endogenous antioxidant. It is not known whether the synthesis, consumption, and/or regeneration of GSH is affected in autism. In the cerebellum tissues from autism (n=10) and age-matched control subjects (n=10), the activities of GSH-related enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) involved in antioxidant defense, detoxification, GSH regeneration, and synthesis, respectively, were analyzed. GCL is a rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis, and the relationship between its activity and the protein expression of its catalytic subunit GCLC and its modulatory subunit GCLM was also compared between the autistic and the control groups. Results showed that the activities of GPx and GST were significantly decreased in autism compared to that of the control group (Pautistic subjects showed lower GR activity than 95% confidence interval (CI) of the control group. GCL activity was also significantly reduced by 38.7% in the autistic group compared to the control group (P=0.023), and 8 of 10 autistic subjects had values below 95% CI of the control group. The ratio of protein levels of GCLC to GCLM in the autism group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.022), and GCLM protein levels were reduced by 37.3% in the autistic group compared to the control group. A positive strong correlation was observed between GCL activity and protein levels of GCLM (r=0.887) and GCLC (r=0.799) subunits in control subjects but not in autistic subjects, suggesting that regulation of GCL activity is affected in autism. These results suggest that enzymes involved in GSH homeostasis have impaired activities in the cerebellum in autism, and lower GCL activity in autism may be related to decreased protein expression
Wang, Tao; Guan, Rui-Li; Liu, Ming-Chao; Shen, Xue-Feng; Chen, Jing Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Luo, Wen-Jing
Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxic metal. Pb exposure may cause neurobehavioral changes, such as learning and memory impairment, and adolescence violence among children. Previous animal models have largely focused on the effects of Pb exposure during early development (from gestation to lactation period) on neurobehavior. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats during the juvenile stage (from juvenile period to adult period). We investigated the synaptic function and structural changes and the relationship of these changes to neurobehavioral deficits in adult rats. Our results showed that juvenile Pb exposure caused fear-conditioned memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior, but locomotion and pain behavior were indistinguishable from the controls. Electrophysiological studies showed that long-term potentiation induction was affected in Pb-exposed rats, and this was probably due to excitatory synaptic transmission impairment in Pb-exposed rats. We found that NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated current was inhibited, whereas the GABA synaptic transmission was normal in Pb-exposed rats. NR2A and phosphorylated GluR1 expression decreased. Moreover, morphological studies showed that density of dendritic spines declined by about 20 % in the Pb-treated group. The spine showed an immature form in Pb-exposed rats, as indicated by spine size measurements. However, the length and arborization of dendrites were unchanged. Our results suggested that juvenile Pb exposure in rats is associated with alterations in the glutamate receptor, which caused synaptic functional and morphological changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby leading to behavioral changes.
Zhao, Liang-Yun; Kapur, Payal; Wu, Kai-Jie; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Bing; He, Da-Lin; Chen, Wei; Margulis, Vitaly; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Luo, Jun-Hang
We have recently reported tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in RCC development. In this study, We identified one CpG methylation biomarker (DAB2IP CpG1) located UTSS of DAB2IP that was associated with poor overall survival in a cohort of 318 ccRCC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We further validated the prognostic accuracy of DAB2IP CpG methylation by pyrosequencing quantitative methylation assay in 224 ccRCC patients from multiple Chinese centers (MCHC set), and 239 patients from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (UTSW set) by using FFPE samples. DAB2IP CpG1 can predict the overall survival of patients in TCGA, MCHC, and UTSW sets independent of patient age, Fuhrman grade and TNM stage (all p<0.05). DAB2IP CpG1 successfully categorized patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significant differences of clinical outcome in respective clinical subsets, regardless of age, sex, grade, stage, or race (HR: 1.63-7.83; all p<0.05). The detection of DAB2IP CpG1 methylation was minimally affected by ITH in ccRCC. DAB2IP mRNA expression was regulated by DNA methylation in vitro. DAB2IP CpG1 methylation is a practical and repeatable biomarker for ccRCC, which can provide prognostic value that complements the current staging system. PMID:27129174
Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo
Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stone, Amanda L; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S
Having a parent with chronic pain (CP) may confer greater risk for persistence of CP from childhood into young adulthood. Social learning, such as parental modeling and reinforcement, represents one plausible mechanism for the transmission of risk for CP from parents to offspring. Based on a 7-day pain diary in 154 pediatric patients with functional abdominal CP, we tested a model in which parental CP predicted adolescents' daily average CP severity and functional impairment (distal outcomes) via parental modeling of pain behaviors and parental reinforcement of adolescent's pain behaviors (mediators) and adolescents' cognitive appraisals of pain threat (proximal outcome representing adolescents' encoding of parents' behaviors). Results indicated significant indirect pathways from parental CP status to adolescent average daily pain severity (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.31, p = 0.03) and functional impairment (b = 0.08, SE = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.03) over the 7-day diary period via adolescents' observations of parent pain behaviors and adolescent pain threat appraisal. The indirect pathway through parental reinforcing responses to adolescents' pain did not reach significance for either adolescent pain severity or functional impairment. Identifying mechanisms of increased risk for pain and functional impairment in children of parents with CP ultimately could lead to targeted interventions aimed at improving functioning and quality of life in families with chronic pain. Parental modeling of pain behaviors represents a potentially promising target for family based interventions to ameliorate pediatric chronic pain.
Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor
Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.
Tsyben, Anastasia; Guilfoyle, Mathew; Timofeev, Ivan; Anwar, Fahim; Allanson, Judith; Outtrim, Joanne; Menon, David; Hutchinson, Peter; Helmy, Adel
The outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is heterogeneous and poorly defined and physical disability scales like the extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE) while providing valuation information in terms of broad categorisation of outcome are unlikely to capture the full spectrum of deficits. Quality of life questionnaires such as SF-36 are emerging as potential tools to help characterise factors important to patients' recovery. This study assessed the association between physical disability and subjective health rating. The relationship is of value as it may help evaluate the impact of TBI on patients' lives and facilitate the delivery of appropriate neuro-rehabilitation services. A single-centre retrospective study was undertaken to assess the relationship between physical outcome as measured by GOSE and quality of life captured by the SF-36 questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for each of the eight SF-36 domains to measure internal consistency of the test. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to look at the association between GOSE and the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores on the SF-36. Finally, we performed a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) to assess the relative contribution of GOSE score, age at the time of trauma, sex and TBI duration towards MCS and PCS rating. There is a statistically significant difference in the MCS and PCS scores based on patients' GOSE scores. The mean scores of the eight SF-36 domains showed significant association with GOSE. GLMM demonstrated that GOSE was the strongest predictor of PCS and MCS. Age was an important variable in the PCS score while time following trauma was a significant predictor of MCS rating. This study highlights that patients' physical outcome following TBI is a strong predictor of the subjective mental and physical health. Nevertheless, there remains tremendous variability in individual SF-36 scores for each GOSE category, highlighting that additional factors
Whitson, Heather E; Cousins, Scott W; Burchett, Bruce M; Hybels, Celia F; Pieper, Carl F; Cohen, Harvey J
To determine the risk of disability in individuals with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment and to compare the magnitude of risk associated with visual impairment, cognitive impairment, or the multimorbidity. Prospective cohort. North Carolina. Three thousand eight hundred seventy-eight participants in the North Carolina Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly with nonmissing visual status, cognitive status, and disability status data at baseline Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (cognitive impairment defined as > or =4 errors), self reported visual acuity (visual impairment defined as inability to see well enough to recognize a friend across the street or to read newspaper print), demographic and health-related variables, disability status (activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), mobility), death, and time to nursing home placement. Participants with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment were at greater risk of IADL disability (odds ratio (OR)=6.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.34-9.75), mobility disability (OR=4.04, 95% CI=2.49-6.54), ADL disability (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.87-4.32), and incident ADL disability (OR=3.66, 95%, CI=2.36-5.65). In each case, the estimated OR associated with the multimorbidity was greater than the estimated OR associated with visual or cognitive impairment alone, a pattern that was not observed for other adverse outcomes assessed. No significant interactions were observed between cognitive impairment and visual impairment as predictors of disability status. Individuals with coexisting visual impairment and cognitive impairment are at high risk of disability, with each condition contributing additively to disability risk. Further study is needed to improve functional trajectories in patients with this prevalent multimorbidity. When visual or cognitive impairment is present, efforts to maximize the other function may be beneficial.
... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...
Yu Bing; Guo Qiyong; Fan Guoguang; Ma Hongwei; Wang Lu; Liu Na
Objective: To assess the working memory and explore the activation of bra/n areas for children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) with fMRI scan. Methods: Twenty three right-handed children with PNE and 20 age-matched right-handed healthy children as the controls were recruited. Intelligence tests were performed by means of Wechsler Young Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in children with PNE and normal controls. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performances IQ (PIQ) and the memory/caution (M/C) factor of PNE children and the controls were measured. After Intelligence tests, an event-related fMRI scan was performed using the categorical N-Back working memory task. Percent of correct responses (PCR) and mean reaction time to correct response (mRT) were recorded and analyzed by the student t test. The fMRI data were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2), the differences in activation were compared between two groups. Results: The data of 15 PNE children and 15 healthy children were evaluated. The FIQ, VIQ and PIQ in PNE group were m a normal range and no statistical significance with the control group (P>0.05). M/C factor in the PNE group(90.4±10.2) was significantly lower than that in the control group (99.6±11.9) (t=2.260, P<0.05). In the N-Back test, PNE children had significantly less PCR [(72.7±6.3)% vs. (86.3± 6.7)%, t=5.727, P<0.01] and longer mRT [(625.8±72.5) ms vs. (534.8±63.3) ms, t=3.684, P<0.01] than the healthy controls. The activation regions of PNE patients and healthy children were mainly in the dorsal right frontal lobe, right parietal lobe, left temporal lobe gyrus fusiformis and bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe. The activation level in left posterior cerebellar lobe in PNE children was significant lower than that in healthy controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: The children with PNE have deficits in working memory which might be associated with the dysfunction of the left cerebellum. (authors)
Full Text Available Raymond L Ownby,1 Amarilis Acevedo2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 2College of Psychology, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA Background: In spite of treatment advances, HIV infection is associated with cognitive deficits. This is even more important as many persons with HIV infection age and experience age-related cognitive impairments. Both computer-based cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have shown promise as interventions to improve cognitive function. In this study, we investigate the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive training with and without tDCS in older persons with HIV. Patients and methods: In this single-blind randomized study, participants were 14 individuals of whom 11 completed study procedures (mean age =5