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Sample records for significantly impaired performance

  1. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  3. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

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    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  4. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

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    James Head

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario.Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other. Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance.Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7 as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19 = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1 also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18 = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19 = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19 = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4 relative to the control

  5. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

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    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  6. Quality of life is significantly impaired in non-allergic rhinitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segboer, Christine L.; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Gevorgyan, Artur; Hellings, Peter W.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known significant impairment of quality of life (QoL) in allergic rhinitis (AR), the degree of impairment in QoL in non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) remained unknown for a long time, due to a lack of a validated questionnaire to assess QoL in the NAR patient group. In this study a

  7. REVERSIBLE IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS AND THE IMPACT ON ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

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    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an essential objective of economic entities activating in the energy sector. The profit and loss account provides relevant information for performance analyzes, but evaluating the factors which determined the modification of the financial result demands detailed analyzes based on specific techniques. This paper develops and implements an econometric model that analyses the relation between gross profit and the reversible impairment of assets. The results of the analysis have shown that, in the energy sector, there is a significant connection between those two variables.

  8. Mobile phone use for 5 minutes can cause significant memory impairment in humans.

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    Kalafatakis, F; Bekiaridis-Moschou, D; Gkioka, Eirini; Tsolaki, Magda

    2017-01-01

    control group the second measurement was better than the first and the third even better than both previous ones. All differences were statistically significant. The reduction of the performance in the task after using the MP was even higher for the age group of 60-80 years old in comparison with younger age groups, as well as for the individuals with MCI in comparison to healthy participants. Age was significantly negative correlated with performance in the task, while gender showed no significant correlation. MP use has a significant negative impact on working memory performance of human participants. The effect is apparent even for a 5 minute use of the MP. Working memory deficits are greater not only for the 60 years old and above participants but also for individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment. These results are in agreement with previous studies on animals as well as humans on the effects of MP use on the brain. It is argued that low sensitivity of some of the cognitive tasks used until now and the lack of a validated tool in the form of a cognitive task may account for some of the variability in the literature so far. It is suggested that the experimental paradigm that was used in this study for an increased sensitivity measurement of cognitive function and working memory processes in particular may be used for the display of the effects of MP use on cognitive function and for the development of other tasks sensitive to it. Overall, it is concluded that the development of certain restrictions on MP use is necessary for the protection of the brain health of the users.

  9. Intrinsic position uncertainty impairs overt search performance.

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    Semizer, Yelda; Michel, Melchi M

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty regarding the position of the search target is a fundamental component of visual search. However, due to perceptual limitations of the human visual system, this uncertainty can arise from intrinsic, as well as extrinsic, sources. The current study sought to characterize the role of intrinsic position uncertainty (IPU) in overt visual search and to determine whether it significantly limits human search performance. After completing a preliminary detection experiment to characterize sensitivity as a function of visual field position, observers completed a search task that required localizing a Gabor target within a field of synthetic luminance noise. The search experiment included two clutter conditions designed to modulate the effect of IPU across search displays of varying set size. In the Cluttered condition, the display was tiled uniformly with feature clutter to maximize the effects of IPU. In the Uncluttered condition, the clutter at irrelevant locations was removed to attenuate the effects of IPU. Finally, we derived an IPU-constrained ideal searcher model, limited by the IPU measured in human observers. Ideal searchers were simulated based on the detection sensitivity and fixation sequences measured for individual human observers. The IPU-constrained ideal searcher predicted performance trends similar to those exhibited by the human observers. In the Uncluttered condition, performance decreased steeply as a function of increasing set size. However, in the Cluttered condition, the effect of IPU dominated and performance was approximately constant as a function of set size. Our findings suggest that IPU substantially limits overt search performance, especially in crowded displays.

  10. Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0704 TITLE: Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility Impairment...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing ...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility

  11. Presence and significant determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with multiple sclerosis.

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    Martina Borghi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. METHODS: 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N; measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. RESULTS: Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%. In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 1.010-1.097, p = 0.015, Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR = 1.247, 95% CI = 1.024-1.517, p = 0.028, and vocabulary (OR = 0.960, 95% CI = 0.936-0.984, p = 0.001, while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed.

  12. Morning anaerobic performance is not altered by vigilance impairment.

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    Romain Lericollais

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role played by vigilance on the anaerobic performance recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase (nadir of the circadian rhythmicity. Twenty active male participants performed a 60-s Wingate test at 6 a.m. during 3 test sessions in counter-balanced order the day after either (i a normal reference night, (ii a total sleep deprivation night, or (iii a total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended simulated driving task from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. During this task, the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILCs was used to control and quantify the effective decrease in the level of vigilance. The main findings show that (i vigilance of each participant was significantly altered (i.e., a drastic and progressive increase in ILCs is shown during the 7.5 hours of driving by the sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; (ii the subjective evaluation of vigilance performed by self-rated scale revealed an increased impairment of the vigilance level between the normal reference night, the total sleep deprivation night and the total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; and (iii the morning following this last condition, during the Wingate test, the recorded cycling biomechanical parameters (peak power, mean power and fatigue index values, power decrease, and cycling kinetic and kinematic patterns were not significantly different from the two other conditions. Consequently, these results show that anaerobic performances recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase of the circadian rhythmicity are not altered by a drastic impairment in vigilance. These findings seem to indicate that vigilance is probably not a factor that contributes to circadian variations in anaerobic performance.

  13. Mental Fatigue Impairs Soccer-Specific Physical and Technical Performance.

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    Smith, Mitchell R; Coutts, Aaron J; Merlini, Michele; Deprez, Dieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Marcora, Samuele M

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical and technical performance. This investigation consisted of two separate studies. Study 1 assessed the soccer-specific physical performance of 12 moderately trained soccer players using the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Study 2 assessed the soccer-specific technical performance of 14 experienced soccer players using the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests (LSPT, LSST). Each test was performed on two occasions and preceded, in a randomized, counterbalanced order, by 30 min of the Stroop task (mentally fatiguing treatment) or 30 min of reading magazines (control treatment). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort and motivation were measured after treatment. Distance run, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded during the Yo-Yo IR1. LSPT performance time was calculated as original time plus penalty time. LSST performance was assessed using shot speed, shot accuracy, and shot sequence time. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher after the Stroop task in both studies (P motivation was similar between conditions. This mental fatigue significantly reduced running distance in the Yo-Yo IR1 (P performance time were not different between conditions; however, penalty time significantly increased in the mental fatigue condition (P = 0.015). Mental fatigue also impaired shot speed (P = 0.024) and accuracy (P performance.

  14. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

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    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  15. Impaired work performance among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

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    Lerner, Debra; Mirza, Fadi G; Mirza, Fadi; Chang, Hong; Renzulli, Karen; Perch, Katherine; Chelmow, David

    2008-10-01

    To assess the work impact of symptomatic uterine fibroids (UFs). A cohort study compared 58 employed women with symptomatic UFs to 56 healthy controls. Data sources included a self-administered mail questionnaire and medical charts. At-work performance limitations and productivity loss were measured with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate case-control group differences were tested. Based on adjusted mean scores, the UF group had significantly more at-work limitations and productivity loss than controls, while absence rates were similar. The UF group's performance was impaired 18% of the time on average versus 8% for controls (P-values, 0.005-0.040). At-work limitations were explained by depression symptoms, Non-White race/ethnicity, and poorer health-related quality of life. Fibroids and related symptoms impose a burden on the working lives' of women, their employers, and the economy.

  16. COMMUNICATION, WORK PERFORMANCE AND HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Florencio Martínez Pérez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to describe the work performance of employees with hearing disabilities in education and their communication style. Theoretically, Karns, Dow and Neville (2012), postulated that the deaf processed Visual and tactile stimuli in their tasks. In job performance there are the contributions of Treviño et al (2010), Chiavenato (2009, 2011) and Robbins and Judge (2009). Venezuelan laws are included as basis and strengthening of inclution-participation of the deaf. T...

  17. Category verbal fluency performance may be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Márcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    Full Text Available Abstract To study category verbal fluency (VF for animals in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer disease (AD and normal controls. Method: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, while aMCI was based on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent testing of category VF for animals, lexical semantic function (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, WAIS-R forward and backward digit span, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and other task relevant functions such as visual perception, attention, and mood state (with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons, and Pearson's coefficient for correlations of memory and FV tests with other task relevant functions (statistical significance level was p<0.05. Results: aMCI patients had lower performance than controls on category VF for animals and on the backward digit span subtest of WAIS-R but higher scores compared with mild AD patients. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls across all tests. Conclusion: aMCI patients may have poor performance in some non-memory tests, specifically category VF for animals in our study, where this could be attributable to the influence of working memory.

  18. Galantamine counteracts development of learning impairment in guinea pigs exposed to the organophosphorus poison soman: Clinical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2017-01-01

    Galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, protects guinea pigs against the acute toxicity and lethality of organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including soman. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a single exposure of guinea pigs to 1xLD50 soman triggers cognitive impairments that can be counteracted by galantamine. Thus, animals were injected intramuscularly with saline (0.5 ml/kg) or galantamine (8 mg/kg) and 30 min later injected subcutaneously with soman (26.3 µg/kg) or saline. Cognitive performance was analyzed in the Morris water maze (MWM) four days or three months after the soman challenge. Fifty percent of the saline-injected animals that were challenged with soman survived with mild-to-moderate signs of acute toxicity that subsided within a few hours. These animals showed no learning impairment and no memory retention deficit, when training in the MWM started four days post-soman challenge. In contrast, animals presented significant learning impairment when testing started three months post-challenge. Though the magnitude of the impairment correlated with the severity of the acute toxicity, animals that presented no or only mild signs of toxicity were also learning impaired. All guinea pigs that were treated with galantamine survived the soman challenge with no signs of acute toxicity and learned the MWM task as control animals, regardless of when testing began. Galantamine also prevented memory extinction in both saline-and soman-challenged animals. In conclusion, learning impairment develops months after a single exposure to 1xLD50 soman, and galantamine prevents both the acute toxicity and the delayed cognitive deficits triggered by this OP poison. PMID:21784098

  19. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

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    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p  0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have

  20. COMMUNICATION, WORK PERFORMANCE AND HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Florencio Martínez Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the work performance of employees with hearing disabilities in education and their communication style. Theoretically, Karns, Dow and Neville (2012, postulated that the deaf processed Visual and tactile stimuli in their tasks. In job performance there are the contributions of Treviño et al (2010, Chiavenato (2009, 2011 and Robbins and Judge (2009. Venezuelan laws are included as basis and strengthening of inclution-participation of the deaf. The methodology is phenomenological-hermeneutical (Van Manen, 2003, using techniques and tools as participant observation, interview and questionnaire, respectively. As a result it was obtained that deaf people role is skillfully in their jobs, provided they do not involve hearing and his style of communication is respected; they are more responsible, punctual, and collaborators. It is recommended to avoid understatement, pity and increase knowledge about the skills of the deaf; all capabilities are so valued.

  1. Does sleep deprivation impair orthopaedic surgeons' cognitive and psychomotor performance?

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    O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2012-11-07

    Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.

  2. Low Proportion of Dietary Plant Protein among Athletes with Premenstrual Syndrome-Related Performance Impairment.

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    Yamada, Keiko; Takeda, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance. Total protein, animal protein, and plant protein intake were examined, and the proportion of dietary plant protein was calculated for each participant. We divided athletes into two groups: those without PMS-related impairment of athletic performance (n = 117) and those with PMS-related performance impairment (n = 18). A t-test was used to compare mean values and multivariable adjusted mean values between groups; adjustment variables were energy intake, body mass index, and daily training duration. Total protein intake was not significantly different between the groups. However, athletes whose performance was affected by PMS reported higher intake of animal protein (mean 50.6 g) than athletes whose performance was unaffected by PMS (mean 34.9 g). Plant protein intake was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (mean 25.4 g) than among athletes without impairment (mean 26.9 g). The proportion of dietary plant protein was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (39.3%) than those without impairment (45.9%). A low proportion of dietary plant protein may cause PMS-related athletic impairment among athletes.

  3. Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolea MI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena I Tolea,1 James E Galvin1–3 1Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background: Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both aspects of functionality and the relative contribution of its components, muscle mass and strength.Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older (mean age =68.1±10.6 years; 65% female were recruited and underwent physical functionality, anthropometry, and cognitive testing. Participants with low muscle mass were categorized as pre-sarcopenic; those with low muscle mass and muscle strength as sarcopenic; those with higher muscle mass and low muscle strength only were categorized as non-sarcopenic and were compared on risk of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26; Ascertaining Dementia 8 ≥2, physical impairment (Mini Physical Performance Test <12, both, or neither by ordinal logistic regression. Results: Compared to controls, those with sarcopenia were six times more likely to have combined cognitive impairment/physical impairment with a fully adjusted model showing a three-fold increased odds ratio. The results were consistent across different measures of global cognition (odds ratio =3.46, 95% confidence interval =1.07–11.45 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; odds ratio =3.61, 95% confidence interval =1.11–11.72 for Ascertaining Dementia 8. Pre-sarcopenic participants were not different from controls. The effect of sarcopenia on cognition is related to low muscle strength rather than low muscle mass. Conclusion: Individuals with sarcopenia are not only more likely to have single but also to have dual

  4. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  5. Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence that communication impairment in schizophrenia is associated with generalized poor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Anne M; Karcher, Nicole R; Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Docherty, Anna R; Kerns, John G

    2017-03-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit wide-ranging cognitive deficits, including slower processing speed and decreased cognitive control. Disorganized speech symptoms, such as communication impairment, have been associated with poor cognitive control task performance (e.g., goal maintenance and working memory). Whether communication impairment is associated with poorer performance on a broader range of non-cognitive control measures is unclear. In the current study, people with schizophrenia (n =51) and non-psychiatric controls (n =26) completed speech interviews allowing for reliable quantitative assessment of communication impairment. Participants also completed multiple goal maintenance and working memory tasks. In addition, we also examined (a) simple measures of processing speed involving highly automatic prepotent responses and (b) a non-cognitive control measure of general task performance. Schizophrenia communication impairment was significantly associated with poor performance in all cognitive domains, with the largest association found with processing speed (r s =-0.52). Further, communication impairment was also associated with the non-cognitive control measure of poor general task performance (r s =-0.43). In contrast, alogia, a negative speech symptom, and positive symptoms were less if at all related to cognitive task performance. Overall, this study suggests that communication impairment in schizophrenia may be associated with relatively generalized poor cognitive task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  9. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  10. Simulated Evaluation of Drug-Impaired Psychomotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this placebo-controlled, randomized-crossover study was to evaluate a computer-based divided-attention task as a method for measure impaired human psychomotor performance. The ability of the divided-attention task to detect and differentiate was evaluated using single oral doses of placebo, caffeine and diphenhydramine. Ten healthy men were the subjects of the study. Subject performance on divided-attention was compared with tests of short-term memory and a set of visual analog...

  11. The communicative performance of a severely hearing-impaired adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Russel

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the communicative performance of a severely hearing-impaired adolescent.The experimenter taught the subject how to play Russian Backgammon. The subject conversed with, and afterwards taught his mother, speech therapist, and a peer how to play the game. Each dyad played the game once. Videotape recordings were made of each dyadic situation. The channels of communication, both verbal and nonverbal, used by each speaker, were determined. A relational communication coding scheme, involving the analysis of requests and subsequent responses, was applied to the data. Results indicate that the hearing-impaired adolescent, though not always able to hold a dominant position in a dyadic situation, was capable of expressing the same types of control as normal adults. Moreover, the types of control expressed varied as a function of each contextual setting. Whenever the subject did hold a dominant position, the combined verbal plus nonverbal channel was his predominant mode of  communication. These findings  suggest that a sociolinguistic approach provides important information regarding a hearing-impaired adolescent's communicative performance.

  12. Sleep Deprivation Impairs and Caffeine Enhances My Performance, but Not Always Our Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Nadira S; Häusser, Jan A; Kerr, Norbert L

    2017-02-01

    What effects do factors that impair or enhance performance in individuals have when these individuals act in groups? We provide a framework, called the GIE ("Effects of Grouping on Impairments and Enhancements") framework, for investigating this question. As prominent examples for individual-level impairments and enhancements, we discuss sleep deprivation and caffeine. Based on previous research, we derive hypotheses on how they influence performance in groups, specifically process gains and losses in motivation, individual capability, and coordination. We conclude that the effect an impairment or enhancement has on individual-level performance is not necessarily mirrored in group performance: grouping can help or hurt. We provide recommendations on how to estimate empirically the effects individual-level performance impairments and enhancements have in groups. By comparing sleep deprivation to stress and caffeine to pharmacological cognitive enhancement, we illustrate that we cannot readily generalize from group results on one impairment or enhancement to another, even if they have similar effects on individual-level performance.

  13. Nicotine Significantly Improves Chronic Stress-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xueliang; Shang, Yingchun; Fu, Jingxuan; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if nicotine was able to improve cognition deficits in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control, stress, and stress with nicotine treatment. The animal model was established by combining chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and isolated feeding. Mice were exposed to CUMS continued for 28 days, while nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) was also administrated for 28 days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. The anxiety and behavioral despair were analyzed using the forced swim test (FST) and open-field test (OFT). Spatial cognition was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following behavioral assessment, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP) were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both synaptic and Notch1 proteins were measured by Western. Nicotine increased stressed mouse's sucrose consumption. The MWM test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in stressed animals were remarkably affected relative to controls, whereas nicotine partially rescued cognitive functions. Additionally, nicotine considerably alleviated the level of anxiety and the degree of behavioral despair in stressed mice. It effectively mitigated the depression-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and DEP were significantly inhibited in stressed mice. Moreover, nicotine enhanced the expression of synaptic and Notch1 proteins in stressed animals. The results suggest that nicotine ameliorates the depression-like symptoms and improves the hippocampal synaptic plasticity closely associated with activating transmembrane ion channel receptors and Notch signaling components. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Visual-motor integration performance in children with severe specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, K; Watter, P

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated (1) the visual-motor integration (VMI) performance of children with severe specific language impairment (SLI), and any effect of age, gender, socio-economic status and concomitant speech impairment; and (2) the relationship between language and VMI performance. It is hypothesized that children with severe SLI would present with VMI problems irrespective of gender and socio-economic status; however, VMI deficits will be more pronounced in younger children and those with concomitant speech impairment. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that there will be a relationship between VMI and language performance, particularly in receptive scores. Children enrolled between 2000 and 2008 in a school dedicated to children with severe speech-language impairments were included, if they met the criteria for severe SLI with or without concomitant speech impairment which was verified by a government organization. Results from all initial standardized language and VMI assessments found during a retrospective review of chart files were included. The final study group included 100 children (males = 76), from 4 to 14 years of age with mean language scores at least 2SD below the mean. For VMI performance, 52% of the children scored below -1SD, with 25% of the total group scoring more than 1.5SD below the mean. Age, gender and the addition of a speech impairment did not impact on VMI performance; however, children living in disadvantaged suburbs scored significantly better than children residing in advantaged suburbs. Receptive language scores of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals was the only score associated with and able to predict VMI performance. A small subgroup of children with severe SLI will also have poor VMI skills. The best predictor of poor VMI is receptive language scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Children with poor receptive language performance may benefit from VMI assessment and multidisciplinary

  15. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  16. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  17. Association between vestibular function and motor performance in hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-12-01

    The clinical balance performance of normal-hearing (NH) children was compared with the balance performance of hearing-impaired (HI) children with and without vestibular dysfunction to identify an association between vestibular function and motor performance. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six children (mean age, 7 yr 5 mo; range, 3 yr 8 mo-12 yr 11 mo) divided into three groups: NH children with normal vestibular responses, HI children with normal vestibular responses, and HI children with abnormal vestibular function. A vestibular test protocol (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing) in combination with three clinical balance tests (balance beam walking, one-leg hopping, one-leg stance). Clinical balance performance. HI children with abnormal vestibular test results obtained the lowest quotients of motor performance, which were significantly lower compared with the NH group (p beam walking and one-leg stance; p = 0.003 for one-leg hopping). The balance performance of the HI group with normal vestibular responses was better in comparison with the vestibular impaired group but still significantly lower compared with the NH group (p = 0.020 for balance beam walking; p = 0.001 for one-leg stance; not significant for one-leg hopping). These results indicate an association between vestibular function and motor performance in HI children, with a more distinct motor deterioration if a vestibular impairment is superimposed to the auditory dysfunction.

  18. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

  19. Tuberculosis after kidney transplantation is associated with significantly impaired allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvana Daher; de Sandes-Freitas, Tainá Veras; Jacinto, Camilla Neves; Martiniano, Lorena Vasconcelos Mesquita; Amaral, Yago Sucupira; Paes, Fernando José Villar Nogueira; Sales, Maria Luiza de Mattos Brito Oliveira; Esmeraldo, Ronaldo de Matos; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate renal function before, during, and after the course of tuberculosis (TB) disease in kidney transplant recipients, and assess the risk factors for non-recovery of baseline renal function. We performed a retrospective, single-center cohort study, including all patients with confirmed or presumed TB diagnosis after kidney transplant (n=34, 2.1%). Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) adjusted for deaths and graft losses. A significant increase was seen in serum Cr during TB disease and treatment: 1.5 mg/dL at baseline (Cr base ), 1.7 mg/dL at diagnosis (Ppotential causes for this outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a closed-road circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effects of visual impairment and age on driving were investigated and related to visual function. Participants were 139 licensed drivers (young, middle-aged, and older participants with normal vision, and older participants with ocular disease). Driving performance was assessed during the daytime on a closed-road driving circuit. Visual performance was assessed using a vision testing battery. Age and visual impairment had a significant detrimental effect on recognition tasks (detection and recognition of signs and hazards), time to complete driving tasks (overall course time, reversing, and maneuvering), maneuvering ability, divided attention, and an overall driving performance index. All vision measures were significantly affected by group membership. A combination of motion sensitivity, useful field of view (UFOV), Pelli-Robson letter contrast sensitivity, and dynamic acuity could predict 50% of the variance in overall driving scores. These results indicate that older drivers with either normal vision or visual impairment had poorer driving performance compared with younger or middle-aged drivers with normal vision. The inclusion of tests such as motion sensitivity and the UFOV significantly improve the predictive power of vision tests for driving performance. Although such measures may not be practical for widespread screening, their application in selected cases should be considered.

  1. The manic phase of Bipolar disorder significantly impairs theory of mind decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Emily R; Harkness, Kate L; Lazowski, Lauren K; Summers, David; Khoja, Nida; Gregory, James Gardner; Milev, Roumen

    2016-05-30

    Bipolar disorder is associated with significant deficits in the decoding of others' mental states in comparison to healthy participants. However, differences in theory of mind decoding ability among patients in manic, depressed, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder is currently unknown. Fifty-nine patients with bipolar I or II disorder (13 manic, 25 depressed, 20 euthymic) completed the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Task (Eyes task) and the Animals Task developed to control for non-mentalistic response demands of the Eyes Task. Patients also completed self-report and clinician-rated measures of depression, mania, and anxiety symptoms. Patients in the manic phase were significantly less accurate than those in the depressed and euthymic phases at decoding mental states in the Eyes task, and this effect was strongest for eyes of a positive or neutral valence. Further Eyes task performance was negatively correlated with the symptoms of language/thought disorder, pressured speech, and disorganized thoughts and appearance. These effects held when controlling for accuracy on the Animals task, response times, and relevant demographic and clinical covariates. Results suggest that the state of mania, and particularly psychotic symptoms that may overlap with the schizophrenia spectrum, are most strongly related to social cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical peculiarities of antibiotic associated bowels impairment and its significance in irritable bowel syndrome appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. O. Pasichna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the main objective of this study was to investigate bowels impairment due to treatment with antibiotics, its incidence and clinical peculiarities; to evaluate its role in appearance of in irritable bowel syndrome. Material and Methods. We studied 110 patients (33 males and 77 females, age range 16-83 years, who received treatment with antibiotic. We evaluated the function of the intestine before treatment with antibiotic, then in 1 week, 3 months after treatment finish (1, 2, 3, 4 visits respectively. Control group included 20 healthy persons, who haven't had antibiotics administered during recent two years. Results. We revealed that the signs of bowel function impairment took place at the first visit in 18.2% of patients, at the second visit – in 60.0% of patients, at the third visit – in 45.5% of patients and at the fourth visit – in 41.1% of patients. At the second, third and fourth visits the signs of bowels function impairment were observed reliably more often then at the first visit (before antibiotic administration, p<0.001. At the second visit the signs bowels function disorders were the most prominent: abdominal pain – in 44.5%, distention – in 46.4%, diarrhea – in 29.1%, constipation – in 18.2%, presence of both (diarrhea and periodically constipation manifestations – in 2.7%; and extraintestinal manifestations (depression. depressed mood, sorrow, apathy, decreased stamina, sleep disturbances – in 29.1% of patients. Clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome occured in 6 months of observation in 32.2% of patients. Conclusions. The signs of bowel function impairment were observed in 60.0% of patients after finishing treatment with antibiotic. This incidence is much higher than in control group (р<0.001. Bowel disorders mostly manifested as the changes in quantity and consistency of feaces, pain, abdominal distention and extraintestinal manifestations. In 32.2% of patients clinical manifestations of

  3. Impaired financial capacity in late life depression is associated with cognitive performance on measures of executive functioning and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Areán, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Late life depression (LLD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with significant disability and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and cognitive correlates of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with LLD. Participants included 65 LLD individuals and 32 comparison subjects. Assessments included measures of financial capacity, cognitive functioning, and depression symptom severity. Individuals with LLD exhibited a significantly higher rate of impaired financial capacity (22%) than the comparison group (6%). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that performance on measures of executive functioning and attention, but not depression severity, were most strongly associated with financial capacity performance in LLD. Our results suggest impairments of financial capacity in LLD are largely explained by cognitive functioning in these domains.

  4. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Suma; Sethi, Sumita; Srivastav, Sonia; Chaudhary, Amrita; Arora, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  6. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  7. The influence of unilateral saccular impairment on functional balance performance and self-report dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G; Verghese, Susha

    2011-09-01

    of dizziness, vertigo, or unsteadiness, and 30 served as controls. All subjects underwent videonystagmography or electronystagmography (VNG/ENG), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), self-report measures of self-perceived dizziness disability/handicap (Dizziness Handicap Inventory), and tests of postural control (Neurocom Equitest). Subjects were categorized into one of four groups based on balance function test results. All variables were subjected to a multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) total scores and equilibrium scores served as the dependent variables. Results showed that patients with abnormal unilateral saccular or inferior vestibular nerve function (i.e., abnormal cVEMP) demonstrated significantly impaired postural control when compared to normal participants. However, this group demonstrated significantly better postural stability when compared to the group with abnormal caloric responses alone and the group with abnormal caloric responses and abnormal cVEMP results. Patients with an abnormal cVEMP did not differ significantly on the DHI compared to the other two impaired groups. We interpret these findings as evidence that a significantly asymmetrical cVEMP in isolation negatively impacts performance on measures of postural control compared to normal subjects but not compared to patients with significant caloric weaknesses. However, patients with a unilaterally abnormal cVEMP do not differ from patients with significant caloric weaknesses in regard to self-perceived dizziness handicap. American Academy of Audiology.

  8. Cantonese tone production performance of mainstream school children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karen K L; Lau, Ada H Y; Lam, Joffee H S; Lee, Kathy Y S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment.

  9. NREL Research Yields Significant Thermoelectric Performance | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Materials Science and Technology center, said the introduction of SWCNT into fabrics could from an exemplary SWNCT thin film improved thermoelectric properties. The newest paper revealed that that the same SWCNT thin film achieved identical performance when doped with either positive or

  10. Tactile sensitivity of blind and visually impaired children and adolescents. The significance of swimming exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Rostkowska, Elżbieta; Maśnik, Elżbieta

    2001-01-01

    The im of the study is to compare the tactile sensitivity threshold (TST) of the blind children who practice swimming and those who do not practice any sports with the TST of healthy people of similar age. TST was measured on the pad of he index finger of the dominant hand using an aesthesiometer. Lower TST was found in blind girls compared to healthy girls as well as lower TST in blind girls who practice swimming compared to the blind girls who do not practice ane sports. A significant lower...

  11. Performance-based functional impairment and readmission and death: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Folly, Antoine; Mancinetti, Marco; Hayoz, Daniel; Donzé, Jacques D

    2017-06-08

    Readmission and death are frequent after a hospitalisation and difficult to predict. While many predictors have been identified, few studies have focused on functional status. We assessed whether performance-based functional impairment at discharge is associated with readmission and death after an acute medical hospitalisation. We prospectively included patients aged ≥50 years admitted to the Department of General Internal Medicine of a large community hospital. Functional status was assessed shortly before discharge using the Timed Up and Go test performed twice in a standard way by trained physiotherapists and was defined as a test duration ≥15 s. Sensitivity analyses using a cut-off at >10 and >20 s were performed. The primary and secondary outcome measures were unplanned readmission and death, respectively, within 6 months after discharge. Within 6 months after discharge, 107/338 (31.7%) patients had an unplanned readmission and 31/338 (9.2%) died. Functional impairment was associated with higher risk of death (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.15 to 5.18), but not with unplanned readmission (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.15). No significant association was found between functional impairment and the total number of unplanned readmissions (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.67). Functional impairment at discharge of an acute medical hospitalisation was associated with higher risk of death, but not of unplanned readmission within 6 months after discharge. Simple performance-based assessment may represent a better prognostic measure for mortality than for readmission. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p gender-matched controls (32.8+/-11.4 microg/ml). Six severely demented centenarians had an even......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...

  14. Smelling Anxiety Chemosignals Impairs Clinical Performance of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Bano; Young, Alix; Lind, Synnøve; Leegaard, Marie Cathinka; Capuozzo, Alessandra; Parma, Valentina

    2018-05-15

    Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone. The intensity and pleasantness ratings showed that the test subjects could not report perceptual differences between the odor conditions. When exposed to masked anxiety body odors the test subject's dental performance was significantly worse than when they were exposed to masked rest body odors and masker alone, indicating that their performance was modulated by exposure to the emotional tone of the odor. These findings call for a careful evaluation of the anxiety-inducing effects of body odors in performance-related tasks and provide the first ecological evaluation of human anxiety chemosignal communication.

  15. Vegetation composition and structure significantly influence green roof performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, N.; Nagase, A.; Booth, R.; Grime, P. [Sheffield Univ., Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2005-07-01

    The majority of published literature on green roofs contains little specific information on the contribution of plants to the various functions and properties of green roofs. This paper reviewed previously published material in an attempt to shed light on the role of vegetation composition in green roof systems, with specific reference to hydrology and biodiversity support. Two ongoing experiments at the University of Sheffield were then considered: (1) a comparison of quality and quantity of runoff from different types of vegetation; and (2) a comparison of flowering seasons and biodiversity support of different vegetation. Results of the studies showed that there was no general pattern of variation in runoff that could be related to vegetation complexity or taxonomic composition of the communities. During the winter months, high precipitation quickly saturated the soil and percolate losses were similar for all treatments. In the summer, throughflow losses differed between treatments in relation to the structure of the plant canopy. Differing mechanisms resulted in variations in the volume of percolate that was collected. Lower volumes of percolate were observed in herb-only monocultures of Leontdon hispidus, a species with a high water content. Tap-rooted species were seen to more effectively absorb soil moisture. The biodiversity support study focused on the study of Sedum species and Labiatae species, which suggested that mixed vegetation containing these species had a far greater likelihood of attracting wild bees to support pollination. Results of the studies indicated that green roof vegetation with greater structural and species diversity may provide different benefits than sedum-dominated roots. Further studies are needed to investigate the trade-offs between vegetation types, and green roof functions and performance in order to justify calls for a wider diversity of green roof types. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This

  19. Significant vestibular system impairment is common in a cohort of elderly patients referred for assessment of falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gary P; McCaslin, Devin L; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G

    2008-01-01

    Falls in elderly patients are associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare system. The development of falls risk assessment programs have represented a method of responding to what is known about injurious falls. The multidimensional assessments involve the comparison against normative data of a patient's performance on metrics known to influence the likelihood of future falls. The factors assessed usually include falls and medication history, measures of mentation, depression, orthostatic hypotension, simple or choice reaction time, gait stability, postural stability, and the integrity of the patient's vision, somesthetic, and vestibular senses. This investigation was conducted to measure the proportion of patients referred for falls risk assessment who have evidence of vestibular system impairment. Qualitative, retrospective review of data collected from 2003 to 2007. The cohort was 185 consecutive patients referred for multidimensional assessments of falls risk. Patients underwent quantitative assessments of peripheral and central vestibular system function consisting of electro- or videonystagmography (i.e., ENG/VNG), and sinusoidal harmonic acceleration testing. Results of these tests were compared to normative data. We found that 73% of the sample who underwent vestibular system assessment had quantitative evidence of either peripheral or central vestibular system impairment. Our results suggest that quantitative assessments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex should be conducted on patients who are evaluated for falls risk. These examinations should include at least caloric testing and, where available, rotational testing.

  20. How is goodwill impairment driven by relative firm performance? : evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Sara Fontes Coutinho Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Goodwill treatment has been facing considerable changes in terms of regulation. More recently, IAS 36 (2004) develops the subject of impairment of assets, stating that goodwill should be subject to impairment tests on an annual basis. In the IFRS context, the present research study aims at investigating how goodwill impairment is driven by relative firm performance in Europe, using Germany evidence. More precisely, the paper focuses on two distinct analyses: comparing differenc...

  1. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  2. Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, Adriana M; Howieson, Diane B; Wild, Katherine V; Moore, Mindy Milar; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the sensitivity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) Faces subtest to memory impairment associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, Faces performance was examined in 24 MCI patients, 46 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and 98 elderly controls. We hypothesized that participants with diagnoses of MCI or AD would be impaired relative to controls on Faces. Analyses showed that AD participants performed significantly worse than MCI and intact participants, although there were no significant differences between MCI and intact participants. Data suggest that brain areas specialized for face recognition memory may be less affected by MCI and mild AD than regions specialized for verbal memory.

  3. Impaired theta-gamma coupling during working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Rajji, Tarek K; Zomorrodi, Reza; Radhu, Natasha; George, Tony P; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2017-11-01

    Working memory deficits represent a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits have been associated with dysfunctional dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) cortical oscillations. Theta-gamma coupling describes the modulation of gamma oscillations by theta phasic activity that has been directly associated with the ordering of information during working memory performance. Evaluating theta-gamma coupling may provide greater insight into the neural mechanisms mediating working memory deficits in this disorder. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 38 healthy controls performed the verbal N-Back task administered at 4 levels, while EEG was recorded. Theta (4-7Hz)-gamma (30-50Hz) coupling was calculated for target and non-target correct trials for each working memory load. The relationship between theta-gamma coupling and accuracy was determined. Theta-gamma coupling was significantly and selectively impaired during correct responses to target letters among schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. A significant and positive relationship was found between theta-gamma coupling and 3-Back accuracy in controls, while this relationship was not observed in patients. These findings suggest that impaired theta-gamma coupling contribute to working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future work is needed to evaluate the predictive utility of theta-gamma coupling as a neurophysiological marker for functional outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  5. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Olfactory evaluation in Mild Cognitive Impairment: correlation with neurocognitive performance and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacci, Alessandro; Bruno, Rosa M; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Volpi, Leda; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Sicari, Rosa; Taddei, Stefano; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited. Olfactory function was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test (Burghart, Medizintechnik, GmbH, Wedel, Germany). A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment was performed. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery by ultrasound. MCI individuals showed an impaired olfactory function compared to controls. The overall olfactory score is able to predict MCI with a good sensitivity and specificity (70.3 and 77.4% respectively). In MCI, olfactory identification score is correlated with a number of neurocognitive abilities, including overall cognitive status, dementia rating, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial ability and verbal fluency. FMD was reduced in MCI (2.90 ± 2.15 vs. 3.66 ± 1.96%, P = 0.016) and was positively associated with olfactory identification score (ρ s =0.219, P = 0.025). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, olfactory evaluation is able to discriminate between MCI and healthy individuals. Systemic vascular dysfunction might be involved, at least indirectly, in olfactory dysfunction in MCI. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Impaired Driving Performance as Evidence of a Magnocellular Deficit in Dyslexia and Visual Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carri; Chekaluk, Eugene; Irwin, Julia

    2015-11-01

    High comorbidity and an overlap in symptomology have been demonstrated between dyslexia and visual stress. Several researchers have hypothesized an underlying or causal influence that may account for this relationship. The magnocellular theory of dyslexia proposes that a deficit in visuo-temporal processing can explain symptomology for both disorders. If the magnocellular theory holds true, individuals who experience symptomology for these disorders should show impairment on a visuo-temporal task, such as driving. Eighteen male participants formed the sample for this study. Self-report measures assessed dyslexia and visual stress symptomology as well as participant IQ. Participants completed a drive simulation in which errors in response to road signs were measured. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between scores on measures of dyslexia and visual stress. Results also demonstrated that self-reported symptomology predicts magnocellular impairment as measured by performance on a driving task. Results from this study suggest that a magnocellular deficit offers a likely explanation for individuals who report high symptomology across both conditions. While conclusions about the impact of these disorders on driving performance should not be derived from this research alone, this study provides a platform for the development of future research, utilizing a clinical population and on-road driving assessment techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Performance of the Hack's Impairment Index Score: A Novel Tool to Assess Impairment from Alcohol in Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Jason B; Goldlust, Eric J; Ferrante, Dennis; Zink, Brian J

    2017-10-01

    Over 35 million alcohol-impaired (AI) patients are cared for in emergency departments (EDs) annually. Emergency physicians are charged with ensuring AI patients' safety by identifying resolution of alcohol-induced impairment. The most common standard evaluation is an extemporized clinical examination, as ethanol levels are not reliable or predictive of clinical symptoms. There is no standard assessment of ED AI patients. The objective was to evaluate a novel standardized ED assessment of alcohol impairment, Hack's Impairment Index (HII score), in a busy urban ED. A retrospective chart review was performed for all AI patients seen in our busy urban ED over 24 months. Trained nurses evaluated AI patients with both "usual" and HII score every 2 hours. Patients were stratified by frequency of visits for AI during this time: high (≥ 6), medium (2-5), and low (1). Within each category, comparisons were made between HII scores, measured ethanol levels, and usual nursing assessment of AI. Changes in HII scores over time were also evaluated. A total of 8,074 visits from 3,219 unique patients were eligible for study, including 7,973 (98.7%) with ethanol levels, 5,061 (62.7%) with complete HII scores, and 3,646 (45.2%) with health care provider assessments. Correlations between HII scores and ethanol levels were poor (Pearson's R 2  = 0.09, 0.09, and 0.17 for high-, medium-, and low-frequency strata). HII scores were excellent at discriminating nursing assessment of AI, while ethanol levels were less effective. Omitting extrema, HII scores fell consistently an average 0.062 points per hour, throughout patients' visits. The HII score applied a quantitative, objective assessment of alcohol impairment. HII scores were superior to ethanol levels as an objective clinical measure of impairment. The HII declines in a reasonably predictable manner over time, with serial evaluations corresponding well with health care provider evaluations. © 2017 by the Society for Academic

  9. Neuropsychological Impairment in Prodromal, First-Episode, and Chronic Psychosis: Assessing RBANS Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tang, YingYing; Guo, Qian; Zhuo, KaiMing; Qian, ZhenYing; Cui, HuiRu; Zhu, YiKang; Jiang, LiJuan; Chow, Annabelle; Tang, YunXiang; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Yi, ZhengHui; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits are observed throughout all developmental phases of psychosis. However, prior studies have usually focused on a limited illness period and used a wide variety of cognitive instruments. Therefore, it has been difficult to characterize or highlight cognitive functioning in different stages of psychosis. Method We administered the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) tests to 4 participant subgroups, including healthy volunteers (controls, HC, n = 28), subjects at high risk for clinical psychosis (prodrome, CHR, n = 27), first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-Sz, n = 26), and mid-term and long-term chronic schizophrenia patients (Ch-Sz, n =147). Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses of RBANS index scores were assessed among groups. We examined clinical outcomes over 2 years between the CHR and HC subjects, and RBANS domains were used as possible predictors for conversion to psychosis. Results Performance on all RBANS domains was significantly impaired during a post-onset stage of psychosis (FE-Sz and Ch-Sz), and RBANS scores declined along with disease progression. Regression analyses showed that for CHR and HC subjects, baseline impairment in delayed memory (DM) significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Additionally, partial correlations showed that for FE-Sz and Ch-Sz subjects, DM was the only correlate with a later stage of psychosis. Conclusions Cognitive deficits broadly emerged, and diminished functioning followed along with disease progression. Impairment in DM is perhaps one domain that helps us understand the development of psychosis. A critical need is to monitor and treat memory functioning for psychotic patients throughout all phases of the disease. PMID:25973925

  10. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  11. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Prospective memory performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease who have mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Zabberoni, Silvia; Serafini, Francesca; Barban, Francesco; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2015-09-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to keep in memory and realize future intentions. We aimed at investigating whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) PM deficits are related to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Other aims were to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying PM performance, and the association between PM performance and measures of daily living functioning. The study included 15 PD patients with single domain MCI, 15 with multiple domain MCI, 17 PD patients without cognitive disorders (PDNC) and 25 healthy controls (HCs). All subjects were administered a PM procedure that included focal (PM cue is processed in the ongoing task) and nonfocal (PM cue is not processed in the ongoing task) conditions. PD patients were administered an extensive neuropsychological battery and scales to assess daily living abilities. PD patients with MCI (both single and multiple domains) showed lower accuracy on all PM conditions than both HC and PDNC patients. This was predicted by their scores on shifting indices. Conversely, PM accuracy of PDNC patients was comparable to HCs. Regression analyses revealed that PD patients' PM performance significantly predicted scores on daily living scales Conclusions: Results suggest that PM efficiency is not tout-court reduced in PD patients, but it specifically depends on the presence of MCI. Moreover, decreased executive functioning, but not episodic memory failure, accounts for a significant proportion of variance in PM performance. Finally, PM accuracy indices were found to be associated with measures of global daily living functioning and management of medication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Impaired response inhibition in the rat 5 choice continuous performance task during protracted abstinence from chronic alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Irimia

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive processing is a hallmark of addiction. In particular, deficits in inhibitory control can propel continued drug use despite adverse consequences. Clinical evidence shows that detoxified alcoholics exhibit poor inhibitory control in the Continuous Performance Task (CPT and related tests of motor impulsivity. Animal models may provide important insight into the neural mechanisms underlying this consequence of chronic alcohol exposure though pre-clinical investigations of behavioral inhibition during alcohol abstinence are sparse. The present study employed the rat 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT, a novel pre-clinical variant of the CPT, to evaluate attentional capacity and impulse control over the course of protracted abstinence from chronic intermittent alcohol consumption. In tests conducted with familiar 5C-CPT conditions EtOH-exposed rats exhibited impaired attentional capacity during the first hours of abstinence and impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms during the first 5d of abstinence that dissipated thereafter. Subsequent tests employing visual distractors that increase the cognitive load of the task revealed significant increases in impulsive action (premature responses at 3 and 5 weeks of abstinence, and the emergence of impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms at 7 weeks of abstinence. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the emergence of increased impulsive action in alcohol-dependent rats during protracted alcohol abstinence and suggest the 5C-CPT with visual distractors may provide a viable behavioral platform for characterizing the neurobiological substrates underlying impaired behavioral inhibition resulting from chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

  14. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  15. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  16. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  17. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Quail, Stephanie L.; Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5–6, 8–9 and 27–28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2–3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27–28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27–28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27–28 months. Conclusion: this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed. PMID:26869921

  18. Motor performance is impaired following vestibular stimulation in ageing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria W.K. Tung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5-6, 8-9 and 27-28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod and newly-developed behavioural tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus. In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2-3 Hz and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27-28 months that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13, and 27-28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13, and 27-28 months. Conclusion: This study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioural changes in task performance were observed.

  19. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W K; Burton, Thomas J; Quail, Stephanie L; Mathews, Miranda A; Camp, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5-6, 8-9 and 27-28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2-3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27-28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27-28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27-28 months. this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed.

  20. Gait and Cognition in Parkinson’s Disease: Cognitive Impairment Is Inadequately Reflected by Gait Performance during Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Gaßner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative

  1. Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania's Alternate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the use of accommodations and the performance of students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities on the Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)yCoan alternate performance-based assessment. Methods: Differences in test scores on the most basic level (level A) of the PASA of 286…

  2. The Neurocognitive Basis for Impaired Dual-Task Performance in Senior Fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, C Liang; Voss, Michelle W; Chan, Alison; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Handy, Todd C; Graf, Peter; Beattie, B Lynn; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Falls are a major health-care concern, and while dual-task performance is widely recognized as being impaired in those at-risk for falls, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain unknown. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could lead to the refinement and development of behavioral, cognitive, or neuropharmacological interventions for falls prevention. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study with community-dwelling older adults aged 70-80 years with a history of falls (i.e., two or more falls in the past 12 months) or no history of falls (i.e., zero falls in the past 12 months); n = 28 per group. We compared functional activation during cognitive-based dual-task performance between fallers and non-fallers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Executive cognitive functioning was assessed via Stroop, Trail Making, and Digit Span. Mobility was assessed via the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). We found that non-fallers exhibited significantly greater functional activation compared with fallers during dual-task performance in key regions responsible for resolving dual-task interference, including precentral, postcentral, and lingual gyri. Further, we report slower reaction times during dual-task performance in fallers and significant correlations between level of functional activation and independent measures of executive cognitive functioning and mobility. Our study is the first neuroimaging study to examine dual-task performance in fallers, and supports the notion that fallers have reduced functional brain activation compared with non-fallers. Given that dual-task performance-and the underlying neural concomitants-appears to be malleable with relevant training, our study serves as a launching point for promising strategies to reduce falls in the future.

  3. Functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: the 2-year PERFORM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Haro, Josep Maria; Jönsson, Bengt; Tanguy Melac, Audrey; Di Nicola, Sylvie; Chollet, Julien; Milea, Dominique; Rive, Benoît; Saragoussi, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study describes the course of depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment over 2 years in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and investigates the patient-related factors associated with functional impairment. This was a 2-year observational study in 1,159 outpatients with MDD aged 18-65 years who were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. Functional impairment was assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Patients assessed depression severity using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and severity of perceived cognitive symptoms using the five-item Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. To investigate which patient-related factors were associated with functional impairment, univariate analyses of variance were performed to identify relevant factors that were then included in multivariate analyses of covariance at baseline, month 2, months 6 and 12 combined, and months 18 and 24 combined. The greatest improvement in depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment was seen immediately (within 2 months) following initiation or switch of antidepressant therapy, followed by more gradual improvement and long-term stabilization. Improvement in perceived cognitive symptoms was less marked than improvement in depressive symptoms during the acute treatment phase. Functional impairment in patients with MDD was not only associated with severity of depressive symptoms but also independently associated with severity of perceived cognitive symptoms when adjusted for depression severity throughout the 2 years of follow-up. These findings highlight the burden of functional impairment in MDD and the importance of recognizing and managing cognitive symptoms in daily practice.

  4. Six Significant Questions About Performance and Performance Courses in the Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.; Pugh, D. Lionel

    James Bryant Conant's book, "The Education of America" (1963), triggered a major change in physical education curricula. Formerly a (sports) skills and applied techniques oriented discipline, physical education has expanded to areas such as kinesiology and sports sociology. However, performance and performance courses are still an important aspect…

  5. Timing and gender determine if acute pain impairs working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Spady, Thomas J

    2013-11-01

    The effects of pain on memory are complex, and little is known about the vulnerability of working memory (WM) performance when individuals complete a WM test while concurrently experiencing pain. Here, we subjected 78 healthy nonsmoking participants to either acute pain or a control condition while we administered a WM test. In this context, we also tested WM 20 minutes after pain in order to determine if timing of pain affected WM performance, and assessed objective and subjective measures of pain. We hypothesized that pain would impair WM performance during pain. Further, women's WM performance would be impaired more than men. Importantly, there was an interaction between gender and condition, with women exposed to pain experiencing impairments during but not after the cold pressor task. Our data imply that timing and gender are critically important in whether acute pain is costly to WM performance. Our findings have interesting clinical, professional, and educational implications, and understanding the influence of pain could help to improve the interpretation of WM tests in these diverse settings. Results of this study support the growing body of work that attests to the detrimental effect of pain on WM performance. Further, this study provides new evidence that concurrently experiencing cold pressor pain impairs WM in regularly menstruating women and women taking a contraceptive. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to “work” in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design. The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  7. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Grossi, Nina R; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2018-01-09

    Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to "work" in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job) performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design). The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  8. Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship.

  9. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  10. Cognitive flexibility: A distinct element of performance impairment due to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, K A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, H P A

    2018-03-14

    their response. In phase 1 of the task, subjects were explicitly told which stimuli were assigned to the go and no go sets. In phases 2 and 3, new stimuli were used that were different from those used in phase 1. Subjects were not explicitly told the go/no go mappings and were instead required to use accuracy feedback to learn which stimuli were in the go and nogo sets. Phase 3 continued directly from phase 2 and retained the same stimuli as in phase 2, but there was an unannounced reversal of the stimulus-response mappings. Task results confirmed that sleep deprivation resulted in loss of cognitive flexibility through feedback blunting, and that this effect was not produced solely by (1) general performance impairment because of overwhelming sleep drive; (2) reduced working memory resources available to perform the task; (3) incomplete learning of stimulus-response mappings before the unannounced reversal; or (4) interference with stimulus identification through lapses in vigilant attention. Overall, the results suggest that sleep deprivation causes a fundamental problem with dynamic attentional control. This element of performance impairment due to sleep deprivation appears to be distinct from vigilant attention deficits, and represents a particularly significant challenge for fatigue risk management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impaired Neurobehavioural Performance in Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using a Novel Standardised Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. D'Rozario

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundAlthough polysomnography (PSG is the gold-standard measure for assessing disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, it has limited value in identifying individuals experiencing significant neurobehavioural dysfunction. This study used a brief and novel computerised test battery to examine neurobehavioural function in adults with and without OSA.Patients/Methods204 patients with untreated OSA [age 49.3 (12.5 years; body mass index, [BMI] 33.6 (8.0 kg/m2; Epworth sleepiness scale 12 (4.9/24; apnea hypopnea index 33.6 (25.8/h] and 50 non-OSA participants [age 39.2 (14.0 years; BMI 25.8 (4.2 kg/m2, ESS 3.6 (2.3/24]. All participants completed a computerised neurobehavioural battery during the daytime in the sleep clinic. The OSA group subsequently underwent an overnight PSG. The 30 min test battery assessed cognitive domains of visual spatial scanning and selective attention (Letter Cancellation Test, executive function (Stroop task and working memory (2- and 3-Back tasks, and a validated sustained attention task (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT. Group differences in performance were compared. Associations between disease severity and performance were examined in the OSA group.ResultsAfter controlling for age, gender and education, OSA patients demonstrated impaired performance on the Stroop-Text, 2 and 3-Back tasks, and the PVT compared with the non-OSA group. OSA patients had worse performance on the LCT with fewer average hits albeit with better accuracy. Some OSA polysomnographic disease severity measures were weakly correlated with performance.ConclusionsThis brief test battery may provide a sensitive, standardised method of assessing daytime dysfunction in OSA.

  13. Locomotion Characteristics and Match-Induced Impairments in Physical Performance in Male Elite Team Handball Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players...

  14. Performance of Multi-Carrier Access Schemes with Receiver Impairments in Down Link Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra Sekhar; Rao, Raieshwar Kurapati; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    impairments, such as synchronization error and channel estimation errors. This work is targeted towards unified verification of performance of the schemes for different spreading gains, load conditions and sub carrier grouping schemes in quasi static realistic indoor channel environment in the presence...

  15. The Longitudinal Joint Effect of Obesity and Major Depression on Work Performance Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objectives. We examined the longitudinal effect of obesity, major depression, and their combination on work performance impairment (WPI). Methods. We collected longitudinal data (2004-2013) on 1726 paid employees from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety at baseline and 2-, 4-, and 6-year

  16. The longitudinal joint effect of obesity and major depression on work performance impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Y.T.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Penninx, B.W.; Schoevers, R.A.; Bultmann, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the longitudinal effect of obesity, major depression, and their combination on work performance impairment (WPI). Methods: We collected longitudinal data (2004-2013) on 1726 paid employees from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety at baseline and 2-, 4-, and 6-year

  17. Improving the Audio Game-Playing Performances of People with Visual Impairments through Multimodal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Oana; Moldoveanu, Alin; Moldoveanu, Florica; Nagy, Hunor; Wersenyi, Gyorgy; Unnporsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: As the number of people with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is continuously increasing, rehabilitation and engineering researchers have identified the need to design sensory-substitution devices that would offer assistance and guidance to these people for performing navigational tasks. Auditory…

  18. Cognitive performance correlates with cerebrovascular impairments in multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, B.W.; Meyer, J.S.; Rogers, R.L.; Gandhi, S.; Tanahashi, N.; Mortel, K.F.; Tawaklna, T.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the 133 Xe inhalation method in patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N = 26), Alzheimer's dementia (AD, N = 19), and among age-matched, neurologically normal, healthy volunteers (N = 26). Cognitive performance was assessed in all subjects using the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE). Cerebral vasomotor responses were calculated from differences in values of mean hemispheric gray matter blood flow (Delta CBF) measured during inhalation of 100% oxygen (hyperoxia) compared with CBF measured while breathing room air. Significant correlations were found between CCSE performance and vasomotor responsiveness in patients with MID (P less than .01), but not in patients with AD or in neurologically normal volunteers. Loss of vasomotor responsiveness is an indicator of cerebrovascular disease with rigidity and/or loss of reactivity of cerebral vessels, which impairs cerebrovascular responses to situational demands and predisposes to cerebral ischemia. Loss of cerebral vasomotor responsiveness among MID patients, which is a biologic marker of cerebrovascular disease, provides confirmatory evidence of the vascular etiology of MID and assists in separating MID from AD patients

  19. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  20. A home education program for older adults with hearing impairment and their significant others: a randomized trial evaluating short- and long-term effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.E.; Allessie, G.H.; Dondorp, A.W.; Zekveld, A.A.; Kapteyn, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the development and effectiveness of a home education program. The program, designed for hearing-impaired elders and their significant others (SO), deals with communication strategies and speech reading. Participants were randomly assigned to a training group (hearing aid

  1. Comparison of performance on neuropsychological tests in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Figueirêdo do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI can be an intermediate state between normality and dementia in some patients. An early diagnosis, through neuropsychological assessment, could identify individuals at risk of developing dementia. Objective: To verify differences in performance on neuropsychological tests among controls, amnestic MCI (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight AD patients (mean age 73.77±7.24; mean schooling 9.04±4.83; 40 women and 28 men, 34 aMCI patients (mean age 74.44±7.05; mean schooling 12.35±4.01; 20 women and 60 controls (mean age 68.90±7.48; mean schooling 10.72±4.74; 42 women were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment composed of tasks assessing executive functions, language, constructive abilities, reasoning and memory. Results: There were statistically significant differences in performance across all tests among control, aMCI and AD groups, and also between only controls and AD patients. On comparing control and aMCI groups, we found statistically significant differences in memory tasks, except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction. There were also statistically significant differences between aMCI and AD groups on tasks of constructive and visuoperceptual abilities, attention, language and memory, except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment was able to discriminate aMCI from AD patients in almost all tests except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction, visual organization (Hooper and executive functions (WCST; and discriminate controls from AD patients in all tests, and controls from aMCI patients in all memory tests except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction.

  2. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  3. Impaired laparoscopic performance of novice surgeons due to phone call distraction: a single-centre, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Heinze, Julia; Helmert, Jens; Weitz, Juergen; Reissfelder, Christoph; Mees, Soeren Torge

    2017-12-01

    Distractions such as phone calls during laparoscopic surgery play an important role in many operating rooms. The aim of this single-centre, prospective study was to assess if laparoscopic performance is impaired by intraoperative phone calls in novice surgeons. From October 2015 to June 2016, 30 novice surgeons (medical students) underwent a laparoscopic surgery training curriculum including two validated tasks (peg transfer, precision cutting) until achieving a defined level of proficiency. For testing, participants were required to perform these tasks under three conditions: no distraction (control) and two standardised distractions in terms of phone calls requiring response (mild and strong distraction). Task performance was evaluated by analysing time and accuracy of the tasks and response of the phone call. In peg transfer (easy task), mild distraction did not worsen the performance significantly, while strong distraction was linked to error and inefficiency with significantly deteriorated performance (P phone call distractions result in impaired laparoscopic performance under certain circumstances. To ensure patient safety, phone calls should be avoided as far as possible in operating rooms.

  4. Visual Search Performance in Patients with Vision Impairment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Cassia; Margarido, Maria Rita Rodrigues Alves; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Messias, André; Paula, Jayter Silva

    2017-11-01

    Patients with visual impairment are constantly facing challenges to achieve an independent and productive life, which depends upon both a good visual discrimination and search capacities. Given that visual search is a critical skill for several daily tasks and could be used as an index of the overall visual function, we investigated the relationship between vision impairment and visual search performance. A comprehensive search was undertaken using electronic PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases from January 1980 to December 2016, applying the following terms: "visual search", "visual search performance", "visual impairment", "visual exploration", "visual field", "hemianopia", "search time", "vision lost", "visual loss", and "low vision". Two hundred seventy six studies from 12,059 electronic database files were selected, and 40 of them were included in this review. Studies included participants of all ages, both sexes, and the sample sizes ranged from 5 to 199 participants. Visual impairment was associated with worse visual search performance in several ophthalmologic conditions, which were either artificially induced, or related to specific eye and neurological diseases. This systematic review details all the described circumstances interfering with visual search tasks, highlights the need for developing technical standards, and outlines patterns for diagnosis and therapy using visual search capabilities.

  5. Effectiveness of braille and audio-tactile performance technique for improving oral hygiene status of visually impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sushmita; Rajpurohit, Ladusingh; Kokka, Vivian Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Visually impaired people encounter numerous challenges in their daily life which makes it a cumbersome task to pay special attention to oral health needs. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about oral health practices among caretakers and visually impaired individuals, due to which oral health is often neglected when compared to the general health. Hence, there was a need to educate visually challenged individuals about oral hygiene practices in a customized format so that the comprehension of brushing techniques could be conveyed at its best. The present study was a randomized control trial of sixty visually impaired adolescents who were divided into three groups of 20 each. In Group 1, Braille was used, whereas in Group 2, audio-tactile performance (ATP) technique and in Group 3, a combination of both the methods were used to teach tooth brushing as a part of oral health education. Pre- and post-plaque index score using Silness and Loe (1967) after health education were calculated and tabulated for statistical analysis. The postintervention mean plaque index score increased in Group 1 from 29.45 to 42.98, whereas the mean plaque score decreased in Groups 2 and 3 from 30.83-29.9 to 30.23-18.73, respectively. Intergroup comparison of postplaque index score using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA analysis showed significant difference among all three study groups. The combination of Braille and ATP technique of health education served as the most effective medium to teach oral hygiene methods to visually impaired adolescents.

  6. Oral exposure to low-dose of nonylphenol impairs memory performance in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Kohara, Yumi; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-02-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) is a non-ionic surfactant, that is degraded to short-chain NPE and 4-nonylphenol (NP) by bacteria in the environment. NP, one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, exhibits weak estrogen-like activity. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of NP (at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg doses) affects spatial learning and memory, general activity, emotionality, and fear-motivated learning and memory in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats of both sexes were evaluated using a battery of behavioral tests, including an appetite-motivated maze test (MAZE test) that was used to assess spatial learning and memory. In the MAZE test, the time required to reach the reward in male rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg NP group and female rats administered 5 mg/kg NP was significantly longer than that for control animals of the corresponding sex. In other behavioral tests, no significant differences were observed between the control group and either of the NP-treated groups of male rats. In female rats, inner and ambulation values for animals administered 0.5 mg/kg NP were significantly higher than those measured in control animals in open-field test, while the latency in the group treated with 5 mg/kg NP was significantly shorter compared to the control group in step-through passive avoidance test. This study indicates that oral administration of a low-dose of NP slightly impairs spatial learning and memory performance in male and female rats, and alters emotionality and fear-motivated learning and memory in female rats only.

  7. Development and validation of an exercise performance support system for people with lower extremity impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Reid, J C; Griffin, J Z; Pittman, C B; Patrick, T B; Cutts, J H

    1998-02-01

    To identify innovative strategies to support appropriate, self-directed exercise that increase physical activity levels of people with arthritis. This article reports on one interactive, multimedia exercise performance support system (PSS) for people with lower extremity impairments in strength or flexibility. An interdisciplinary team developed the PSS using self-report of lower extremity musculoskeletal impairments (flexibility and strength) to produce an individualized exercise program with video and print educational materials. Initial evaluation has investigated the validity and reliability of program assessments and recommendations. PSS self-report and professional assessments were similar, with more impairments indicated by self-report. PSS exercise recommendations were similar to those made by 3 expert physical therapists using the same exercise data base. Results of PSS impairment assessments were stable over a 1-week period. PSS exercise recommendations appear to be reliable and a valid reflection of current exercise knowledge in rheumatology. Furthermore, users were able to complete the computer-based program with minimal assistance and reported it to be enjoyable and informative.

  8. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  9. Three Days of Intermittent Fasting: Repeated-Sprint Performance Decreased by Vertical-Stiffness Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Anissa; Meeusen, Romain; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Ryu, Joong; Fenneni, Mohamed Amine; Nikolovski, Zoran; Elshafie, Sittana; Chamari, Karim; Roelands, Bart

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effects of 3 d of intermittent fasting (3d-IF: abstaining from eating/drinking from dawn to sunset) on physical performance and metabolic responses to repeated sprints (RSs). Twenty-one active males performed an RS test (2 sets: 5 × 5-s maximal sprints with 25 s of recovery between and 3 min of recovery between sets on an instrumented treadmill) in 2 conditions: counterbalanced fed/control session (CS) and fasting session (FS). Biomechanical and biochemical markers were assessed preexercise and postexercise. Significant main effects of IF were observed for sprints: maximal speed (P = .016), mean speed (P = .015), maximal power (P = .035), mean power (P = .049), vertical stiffness (P = .032), and vertical center-of-mass displacement (P = .047). Sprint speed and vertical stiffness decreased during the 1st (P = .003 and P = .005) and 2nd sprints (P = .046 and P = .048) of set 2, respectively. Postexercise insulin decreased in CS (P = .023) but not in FS (P = .230). Free-fatty-acid levels were higher in FS than in CS at preexercise (P < .001) and at postexercise (P = .009). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher at postexercise in FS (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol/L) than in CS (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P = .039). The triglyceride (TG) concentration was decreased in FS (P < .05) compared with CS. 3d-IF impaired speed and power through a decrease in vertical stiffness during the initial runs of the 2nd set of RS. The findings of the current study confirmed the benefits of 3d-IF: improved HDL-C and TG profiles while maintaining total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, improving muscle power might be a key factor to retain a higher vertical stiffness and to partly counteract the negative effects of intermittent fasting.

  10. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  11. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Guez

    Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  12. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance, and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol, DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking, which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Grittner, Ulrike; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Bohlken, Jens; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Low-normal concentrations of vitamin B-12 (VitB12) may be associated with worse cognition. However, previous evidence has been mixed, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We determined whether serum VitB12 concentrations within the normal range were linked to memory functions and related neuronal structures in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a cross-sectional design, we assessed 100 amnestic MCI patients (52 women; age range: 50-80 y) with low- and high-normal VitB12 concentration (median split: 304 pmol/L) for memory functions with the use of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. MRI was performed at 3 tesla (n= 86) for the estimation of the volume and microstructure of the hippocampus and its subfields as indicated by the mean diffusivity on diffusion-weighted images. With the use of a mediation analysis, we examined whether the relation between VitB12 and memory performance was partially explained by volume or microstructure. MCI patients with low-normal VitB12 showed a significantly poorer learning ability (P= 0.014) and recognition performance (P= 0.008) than did patients with high-normal VitB12. Also, the microstructure integrity of the hippocampus was lower in patients with low-normal VitB12, mainly in the cornu ammonis 4 and dentate gyrus region (P= 0.029), which partially mediated the effect of VitB12 on memory performance (32-48%). Adjustments for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and total homocysteine, folate, and creatinine did not attenuate the effects. Low VitB12 concentrations within the normal range are associated with poorer memory performance, which is an effect that is partially mediated by the reduced microstructural integrity of the hippocampus. Future interventional trials are needed to assess whether supplementation of VitB12 may improve cognition in MCI patients even in the absence of clinically manifested VitB12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01219244. © 2016

  14. Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

    2017-04-01

    Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) × 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short term memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha eDevore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for tens to hundreds of seconds. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  16. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  17. High-calorie food-cues impair working memory performance in high and low food cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Freund, Rebecca; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and intense (high cravers, n=28) and less pronounced food cravings (low cravers, n=28). Participants performed an n-back task that contained either pictures of high-calorie sweets, high-calorie savory foods, or neutral objects. Current subjective food craving was assessed before and after the task. All participants showed slower reaction times and made more omission errors in response to food-cues, particularly savory foods. There were no differences in task performance between groups. State cravings did not differ between groups before the task, but increased more in high cravers compared to low cravers during the task. Results support findings about food cravings impairing visuo-spatial working memory performance independent of trait cravings. They further show that this influence is not restricted to chocolate, but also applies to high-calorie savory foods. Limiting working memory capacity may be especially crucial in persons who are more prone to high-calorie food-cues and experience such cravings habitually. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of age and mild cognitive impairment on associative memory performance and underlying brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.

  19. Striatal lesions produce distinctive impairments in reaction time performance in two different operant chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasted, P J; Döbrössy, M D; Robbins, T W; Dunnett, S B

    1998-08-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in mediating voluntary movement. Excitotoxic striatal lesions in rats have previously been shown to impair the initiation but not the execution of movement in a choice reaction time task in an automated lateralised nose-poke apparatus (the "nine-hole box"). Conversely, when a conceptually similar reaction time task has been applied in a conventional operant chamber (or "Skinner box"), striatal lesions have been seen to impair the execution rather than the initiation of the lateralised movement. The present study was undertaken to compare directly these two results by training the same group of rats to perform a choice reaction time task in the two chambers and then comparing the effects of a unilateral excitotoxic striatal lesion in both chambers in parallel. Particular attention was paid to adopting similar parameters and contingencies in the control of the task in the two test chambers. After striatal lesions, the rats showed predominantly contralateral impairments in both tasks. However, they showed a deficit in reaction time in the nine-hole box but an apparent deficit in response execution in the Skinner box. This finding confirms the previous studies and indicates that differences in outcome are not simply attributable to procedural differences in the lesions, training conditions or tasks parameters. Rather, the pattern of reaction time deficit after striatal lesions depends critically on the apparatus used and the precise response requirements for each task.

  20. Effectiveness of braille and audio-tactile performance technique for improving oral hygiene status of visually impaired adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Deshpande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visually impaired people encounter numerous challenges in their daily life which makes it a cumbersome task to pay special attention to oral health needs. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about oral health practices among caretakers and visually impaired individuals, due to which oral health is often neglected when compared to the general health. Hence, there was a need to educate visually challenged individuals about oral hygiene practices in a customized format so that the comprehension of brushing techniques could be conveyed at its best. Materials and Methods: The present study was a randomized control trial of sixty visually impaired adolescents who were divided into three groups of 20 each. In Group 1, Braille was used, whereas in Group 2, audio-tactile performance (ATP technique and in Group 3, a combination of both the methods were used to teach tooth brushing as a part of oral health education. Pre- and post-plaque index score using Silness and Loe (1967 after health education were calculated and tabulated for statistical analysis. Results: The postintervention mean plaque index score increased in Group 1 from 29.45 to 42.98, whereas the mean plaque score decreased in Groups 2 and 3 from 30.83–29.9 to 30.23–18.73, respectively. Intergroup comparison of postplaque index score using Kruskal–Wallis and ANOVA analysis showed significant difference among all three study groups. Conclusion: The combination of Braille and ATP technique of health education served as the most effective medium to teach oral hygiene methods to visually impaired adolescents.

  1. The effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on memory performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, L M; Marriott, A; Bullock, R; Hancock, J; Smallwood, J; McLaughlin, J

    2009-04-01

    Previous research investigating the impact of glucose ingestion and/or improvements in glucose regulation has found selective cognitive facilitation on episodic memory tasks in successful ageing and dementia. The present study aimed to extend this research to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a repeated-measures design, 24 older adults with and 24 older adults without MCI performed a battery of memory and attention tasks after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness matched placebo. In addition, to assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken throughout the testing session. Consistent with previous research, cognitive facilitation was observed for episodic memory tasks only in both successful ageing and MCI. Older adults with MCI had a similar glucose regulatory response as controls but their fasting levels were elevated. Notably, higher levels of blood glucose were associated with impaired memory performance in both the glucose and placebo conditions. Importantly, both blood glucose and memory performance indices were significant predictors of MCI status. The utility of glucose supplementation and the use of glucose regulation as a biological marker are discussed in relation to these data.

  2. Bridging the gap between neurocognitive processing theory and performance validity assessment among the cognitively impaired: a review and methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Angela; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray

    2014-10-01

    Bigler (2012) and Larrabee (2012) recently addressed the state of the science surrounding performance validity tests (PVTs) in a dialogue highlighting evidence for the valid and increased use of PVTs, but also for unresolved problems. Specifically, Bigler criticized the lack of guidance from neurocognitive processing theory in the PVT literature. For example, individual PVTs have applied the simultaneous forced-choice methodology using a variety of test characteristics (e.g., word vs. picture stimuli) with known neurocognitive processing implications (e.g., the "picture superiority effect"). However, the influence of such variations on classification accuracy has been inadequately evaluated, particularly among cognitively impaired individuals. The current review places the PVT literature in the context of neurocognitive processing theory, and identifies potential methodological factors to account for the significant variability we identified in classification accuracy across current PVTs. We subsequently evaluated the utility of a well-known cognitive manipulation to provide a Clinical Analogue Methodology (CAM), that is, to alter the PVT performance of healthy individuals to be similar to that of a cognitively impaired group. Initial support was found, suggesting the CAM may be useful alongside other approaches (analogue malingering methodology) for the systematic evaluation of PVTs, particularly the influence of specific neurocognitive processing components on performance.

  3. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  4. Respiratory alkalosis may impair the production of vitamin D and lead to significant morbidity, including the fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John M; Fontrier, Toinette H; Coley, J Lynn

    2017-05-01

    Hyperventilation caused by physical and/or psychological stress may lead to significant respiratory alkalosis and an elevated systemic pH. The alkalotic pH may in turn suppress the normal renal release of phosphate into the urine, thereby interrupting the endogenous production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). This could cause a shortfall in its normal production, leading to a variety of adverse consequences. It might partially explain the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness, a treatable disease characterized by severe hyperventilation secondary to the hypoxia of high altitude exposure. Milder degrees of hyperventilation due to different forms of stress may produce other conditions which share characteristics with acute mountain sickness. One of these may be the fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic painful disorder for which no satisfactory treatment exists. Should fibromyalgia and acute mountain sickness have a common etiology, may they also share a common form of treatment? Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Optimal Detection and Error Performance Analysis of the Hardware Impaired Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah; Amin, Osama; Ikki, Salama S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    The conventional minimum Euclidean distance (MED) receiver design is based on the assumption of ideal hardware transceivers and proper Gaussian noise in communication systems. Throughout this study, an accurate statistical model of various hardware impairments (HWIs) is presented. Then, an optimal maximum likelihood (ML) receiver is derived considering the distinct characteristics of the HWIs comprised of additive improper Gaussian noise and signal distortion. Next, the average error probability performance of the proposed optimal ML receiver is analyzed and tight bounds are derived. Finally, different numerical and simulation results are presented to support the superiority of the proposed ML receiver over MED receiver and the tightness of the derived bounds.

  6. On the Optimal Detection and Error Performance Analysis of the Hardware Impaired Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2018-01-15

    The conventional minimum Euclidean distance (MED) receiver design is based on the assumption of ideal hardware transceivers and proper Gaussian noise in communication systems. Throughout this study, an accurate statistical model of various hardware impairments (HWIs) is presented. Then, an optimal maximum likelihood (ML) receiver is derived considering the distinct characteristics of the HWIs comprised of additive improper Gaussian noise and signal distortion. Next, the average error probability performance of the proposed optimal ML receiver is analyzed and tight bounds are derived. Finally, different numerical and simulation results are presented to support the superiority of the proposed ML receiver over MED receiver and the tightness of the derived bounds.

  7. Correlation among personal, social performance and cognitive impairment in male schizophrenic patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R.; Effendy, E.; Camellia, V.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a dramatic mental illness with tragic manifestation. The consequences of the illness are for the individual, affected his or her family and society. Schizophrenia is one of the twenty illness that causes Years Lost due to Disability. Treating only the symptom is insufficient. The aim of treatment must include the quality of life of aschizophrenic person. This study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and performance of the person with schizophrenia. Cognitive test is scaled with Indonesian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina), while personal and social performance isscaled with Personal and Social Performance scale. There are many studies that search the relationship between cognitive impairment and social functioning of schizophrenic patients, but this is the first study that uses PSP and MoCA-Ina. Both PSP and MoCA-Ina are easy to use but still have high sensitivity and specificity, and perhaps can build people’s interest to use it in clinical practice. Twenty-five male schizophrenic patients were assessed in Prof. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital of North Sumatera Province of Indonesia. Positive correlations between MoCA-Ina and PSP score were identified. Clinicians should pay attention to cognitive and might give some early intervention to it.

  8. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Design and Methods: Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face–name pairs. Participants’ memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Results: Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults’ associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults’ failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. Implications: These data have important practical implications for older adults’ ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. PMID:26035876

  9. Dynamic working memory performance in individuals with single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Emma B; Vasquez, Brandon P; Maione, Andrea M; Mah, Linda; Ween, Jon; Anderson, Nicole D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have observed poorer working memory performance in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment than in healthy older adults. It is unclear, however, whether these difficulties are true only of the multiple-domain clinical subtype in whom poorer executive functioning is common. The current study examined working memory, as measured by the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT) and an n-back task, in healthy older adults and adults with single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Individuals with single-domain aMCI committed more errors and required longer to develop an organizational strategy on the SOPT. The single-domain aMCI group did not differ from healthy older adults on the 1-back or 2-back, but had poorer discrimination on the 3-back task. This is, to our knowledge, the first characterization of dynamic working memory performance in a single-domain aMCI group. These results lend support for the idea that clinical amnestic MCI subtypes may reflect different stages on a continuum of progression to dementia and question whether standardized measures of working memory (span tasks) are sensitive enough to capture subtle changes in performance.

  10. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Learning trajectories for speech motor performance in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Goffman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often perform below expected levels, including on tests of motor skill and in learning tasks, particularly procedural learning. In this experiment we examined the possibility that children with SLI might also have a motor learning deficit. Twelve children with SLI and thirteen children with typical development (TD) produced complex nonwords in an imitation task. Productions were collected across three blocks, with the first and second blocks on the same day and the third block one week later. Children's lip movements while producing the nonwords were recorded using an Optotrak camera system. Movements were then analyzed for production duration and stability. Movement analyses indicated that both groups of children produced shorter productions in later blocks (corroborated by an acoustic analysis), and the rate of change was comparable for the TD and SLI groups. A nonsignificant trend for more stable productions was also observed in both groups. SLI is regularly accompanied by a motor deficit, and this study does not dispute that. However, children with SLI learned to make more efficient productions at a rate similar to their peers with TD, revealing some modification of the motor deficit associated with SLI. The reader will learn about deficits commonly associated with specific language impairment (SLI) that often occur alongside the hallmark language deficit. The authors present an experiment showing that children with SLI improved speech motor performance at a similar rate compared to typically developing children. The implication is that speech motor learning is not impaired in children with SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  13. Mental Fatigue: Impairment of Technical Performance in Small-Sided Soccer Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Oliver O; Smith, Mitchell R; Conte, Daniele; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-11-01

    To assess the effects of mental fatigue on physical and technical performance in small-sided soccer games. Twenty soccer players (age 17.8 ± 1.0 y, height 179 ± 5 cm, body mass 72.4 ± 6.8 kg, playing experience 8.3 ± 1.4 y) from an Australian National Premier League soccer club volunteered to participate in this randomized crossover investigation. Participants played 15-min 5-vs-5 small-sided games (SSGs) without goalkeepers on 2 occasions separated by 1 wk. Before the SSG, 1 team watched a 30-min emotionally neutral documentary (control), while the other performed 30 min of a computer-based Stroop task (mental fatigue). Subjective ratings of mental and physical fatigue were recorded before and after treatment and after the SSG. Motivation was assessed before treatment and SSG; mental effort was assessed after treatment and SSG. Player activity profiles and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the SSG, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded before the SSG and immediately after each half. Video recordings of the SSG allowed for notational analysis of technical variables. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher after the Stroop task, whereas motivation for the upcoming SSG was similar between conditions. HR during the SSG was possibly higher in the control condition, whereas RPE was likely higher in the mental-fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had an unclear effect on most physical-performance variables but impaired most technical-performance variables. Mental fatigue impairs technical but not physical performance in small-sided soccer games.

  14. Impact of low vision care on reading performance in children with multiple disabilities and visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Ramani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of evidence in literature to show low vision care enhances the reading performance in children with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment (MDVI. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Low Vision Care intervention on the reading performance of children with MDVI. Materials and Methods: Three subjects who were diagnosed to have cerebral palsy and visual impairment, studying in a special school were recruited for the study. All of them underwent detailed eye examination and low vision care evaluation at a tertiary eye care hospital. A single subject multiple baseline (study design was adopted and the study period was 16 weeks. The reading performance (reading speed, reading accuracy, reading fluency was evaluated during the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The median of all the reading parameters for each week was noted. The trend of the reading performance was graphically represented in both the phases. Results: Reading speed increased by 37 Word per minute, 37 Letters per minute and 5 letters per minute for the subject 1, 2 and 3 respectively after the intervention. Reading accuracy was 84%, 91% and 86.4% at the end of the baseline period and 98.7%, 98.4% and 99% at the end of 16 weeks for subject 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Average reading fluency score was 8.3, 7.1 and 5.5 in the baseline period and 10.2, 10.2 and 8.7 in the intervention period. Conclusion: This study shows evidence of noticeable improvement in reading performance of children with MDVI using a novel study design.

  15. Apolipoprotein E4 Allele and Gait Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryota; Montero-Odasso, Manuel

    2017-11-09

    The apolipoprotein E polymorphism ε4 allele (ApoE4) and gait impairment are both known risk factors for developing cognitive decline and dementia. However, it is unclear the interrelationship between these factors, particularly among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are considered as prodromal for Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to determine whether ApoE4 carrier individuals with MCI may experience greater impairment in gait performance. Fifty-six older adults with MCI from the "Gait and Brain Study" who were identified as either ApoE4 carriers (n = 20) or non-ApoE4 carriers (n = 36) with 1 year of follow-up were included. Gait variability, the main outcome variable, was assessed as stride time variability with an electronic walkway. Additional gait variables and cognitive performance (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) were also recorded. Covariates included age, sex, education level, body mass index, and number of comorbidities. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed that gait stride time and stride length variabilities significantly increased in ApoE4 carriers but was maintained in the non-ApoE4 carriers. Similarly, ApoE4 carriers showed greater decrease in MMSE score at follow-up. In this sample of older adults with MCI, the presence of at least one copy of ApoE4 was associated with the development of both increased gait variability and cognitive decline during 1 year of follow-up. ApoE4 genotype might be considered as a potential mediator of decline in mobility function in MCI; future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our preliminary findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The influence of assistive technology devices on the performance of activities by visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rabello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the influence of assistive technology devices (ATDs on the performance of activities by visually impaired schoolchildren in the resource room. Methods: A qualitative study that comprised observation and an educational intervention in the resource room. The study population comprised six visually impaired schoolchildren aged 12 to 14 years old. The participants were subjected to an eye examination, prescribed ATDs comprising optical and non-optical devices, and provided an orientation on the use of computers. The participants were assessed based on eye/object distance, font size, and time to read a computer screen and printed text. Results: The ophthalmological conditions included corneal opacity, retinochoroiditis, retinopathy of prematurity, aniridia, and congenital cataracts. Far visual acuity varied from 20/200 to 20/800 and near visual acuity from 0.8 to 6 M. Telescopes, spherical lenses, and support magnifying glasses were prescribed. Three out of five participants with low vision after intervention could decrease the font size on the screen computer, and most participants (83.3% reduced their reading time at the second observation session. Relative to the printed text, all the participants with low vision were able to read text written in smaller font sizes and reduced their reading time at the second observation session. Conclusion: Reading skills improved after the use of ATDs, which allowed the participants to perform their school tasks equally to their classmates.

  17. The longitudinal joint effect of obesity and major depression on work performance impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Schoevers, Robert A; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-05-01

    We examined the longitudinal effect of obesity, major depression, and their combination on work performance impairment (WPI). We collected longitudinal data (2004-2013) on 1726 paid employees from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety at baseline and 2-, 4-, and 6-year follow-up. We defined obesity with body mass index and waist circumference. We diagnosed major depression with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. We assessed work performance impairment with a questionnaire for illness-associated costs. We used generalized estimating equations for modeling, and estimated interaction on the additive scale. Obesity, abdominal obesity, and major depression were longitudinally associated with increased risk of high WPI. The combinations of obesity and major depression, and of abdominal obesity and major depression were associated with increased risk of high WPI (odds ratios of 2.36 [95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.44] and 1.88 [95% confidence interval = 1.40, 2.53], respectively), but the relative excess risks attributable to interaction were nonsignificant. The longitudinal joint effect of obesity and major depression on high WPI implies that obesity intervention may be more beneficial for individuals with major depression than those without regarding risk of high WPI, if confirmed in a large, representative sample.

  18. Impaired exercise performance and muscle Na(+),K(+)-pump activity in renal transplantation and haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Aaron C; Leikis, Murray J; McMahon, Lawrence P; Kent, Annette B; Murphy, Kate T; Gong, Xiaofei; McKenna, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    We examined whether abnormal skeletal muscle Na(+),K(+)-pumps underlie impaired exercise performance in haemodialysis patients (HDP) and whether these are improved in renal transplant recipients (RTx). Peak oxygen consumption ( O(2peak)) and plasma [K(+)] were measured during incremental exercise in 9RTx, 10 HDP and 10 healthy controls (CON). Quadriceps peak torque (PT), fatigability (decline in strength during thirty contractions), thigh muscle cross-sectional area (TMCSA) and vastus lateralis Na(+),K(+)-pump maximal activity, content and isoform (α(1)-α(3), β(1)-β(3)) abundance were measured. O(2peak) was 32 and 35% lower in RTx and HDP than CON, respectively (P Na(+),K(+)-pump activity was 28 and 31% lower in RTx and HDP, respectively than CON (P Na(+),K(+)-pump activity (r = 0.45, P = 0.02). O(2peak) and muscle Na(+),K(+)-pump activity were depressed and muscle fatigability increased in HDP, with no difference observed in RTx. These findings are consistent with the possibility that impaired exercise performance in HDP and RTx may be partially due to depressed muscle Na(+),K(+)-pump activity and relative TMCSA.

  19. A matter of attention: Crossmodal congruence enhances and impairs performance in a novel trimodal matching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, Jonas; Daume, Jonathan; Engel, Andreas K; Friese, Uwe

    2016-07-29

    A novel crossmodal matching paradigm including vision, audition, and somatosensation was developed in order to investigate the interaction between attention and crossmodal congruence in multisensory integration. To that end, all three modalities were stimulated concurrently while a bimodal focus was defined blockwise. Congruence between stimulus intensity changes in the attended modalities had to be evaluated. We found that crossmodal congruence improved performance if both, the attended modalities and the task-irrelevant distractor were congruent. If the attended modalities were incongruent, the distractor impaired performance due to its congruence relation to one of the attended modalities. Between attentional conditions, magnitudes of crossmodal enhancement or impairment differed. Largest crossmodal effects were seen in visual-tactile matching, intermediate effects for audio-visual and smallest effects for audio-tactile matching. We conclude that differences in crossmodal matching likely reflect characteristics of multisensory neural network architecture. We discuss our results with respect to the timing of perceptual processing and state hypotheses for future physiological studies. Finally, etiological questions are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The razor's edge: Australian rock music impairs men's performance when pretending to be a surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Daisy; Burton, Thomas Mw; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-12-12

    Over the past few decades there has been interest in the role of music in the operating theatre. However, despite many reported benefits, a number of potentially harmful effects of music have been identified. This study aimed to explore the effects of rock and classical music on surgical speed, accuracy and perceived distraction when performing multiorgan resection in the board game Operation. Single-blind, three-arm, randomised controlled trial. Imperial Festival, London, May 2016. Members of the public (n = 352) aged ≥ 16 years with no previous formal surgical training or hearing impairments. Participants were randomised to listen through noise-cancelling headphones to either the sound of an operating theatre, rock music or classical music. Participants were then invited to remove three organs from the board game patient, Cavity Sam, using surgical tweezers. Time taken (seconds) to remove three organs from Cavity Sam; the number of mistakes made in performing the surgery; and perceived distraction, rated on a five-point Likert-type scale from 1 (not at all distracting) to 5 (very distracting). Rock music impairs the performance of men but not women when undertaking complex surgical procedures in the board game Operation, increasing the time taken to operate and showing a trend towards more surgical mistakes. In addition, classical music was associated with lower perceived distraction during the game, but this effect was attenuated when factoring in how much people liked the music, with suggestions that only people who particularly liked the music of Mozart found it beneficial. Rock music (specifically Australian rock music) appears to have detrimental effects on surgical performance. Men are advised not to listen to rock music when either operating or playing board games.

  1. Caffeine counteracts impairments in task-oriented psychomotor performance induced by chlorpheniramine: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kang, Gaeun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorpheniramine on psychomotor performance and the counteracting effects of caffeine on those sedative antihistamine actions. Sixteen healthy young men participated in this study. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, each subject was administered one of the following conditions in a random order with a one-week interval: 'placebo-placebo', '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-placebo', 'placebo-200 mg of caffeine' or '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-200 mg of caffeine'. Before and after the treatments, psychomotor functions were assessed using a battery of tests. Additionally, subjective responses were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Psychomotor performance changed over time in different ways according to the combination of study medications. In the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition, reaction times of the compensatory tracking task were significantly impaired compared with the other three conditions. In addition, the number of omission errors of the continuous performance test were significantly greater compared with the 'placebo-caffeine' condition. However, the response pattern of the 'chlorpheniramine-caffeine' condition was not significantly different from that of the 'placebo-placebo' condition. Changes of VAS for sleepiness were significantly greater in the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition compared with the other three conditions. In conclusion, chlorpheniramine significantly increases subjective sleepiness and objectively impairs psychomotor performance. However, caffeine counteracts these sedative effects and psychomotor impairments.

  2. Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance have been updated in June 2005 by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Based on experimental and analytical considerations on the recommendations of May 2002, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been evaluated and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Technical documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Experimental and analytical considerations on the seismic effects evaluation criteria, such as analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings, were shown in this document and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Reversal of impairment losses, firm performance and reporting incentives: Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shaari, Hasnah

    2013-01-01

    Malaysian Financial Reporting Standard (FRS) No. 136, Impairment of Assets, was issued in 2005. The standard requires public listed companies to report their non-current assets at no more than their recoverable amount. When the value of impaired assets is recovered, or partly recovered, FRS 136 requires the impairment charges to be reversed to its new recoverable amount. This study tests whether the reversal of impairment losses by Malaysian firms is more closely associated with economic reas...

  5. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  6. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee eWong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  7. Effects of lighting illuminance levels on stair negotiation performance in individuals with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Aliah F; Sourlas, Alexandros; Horton, Khim; McLean, Christopher; Ewins, David; Gould, David; Ghoussayni, Salim

    2018-04-01

    Stair-related falls of older people cause a substantial financial and social burden. Deterioration of the visual system amongst other factors put older people at a high risk of falling. Improved lighting is often recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lighting illuminance on stair negotiation performance in older individuals with visual impairment. Eleven participants aged 60 or over with a vision of 6/18 or worse ascended and descended a staircase under: 50 lx, 100 lx, 200 lx, 300 lx and distributed 200 lx lighting. A motion capture system was used to measure movements of the lower limb. Clearance, clearance variability, temporal and spatial parameters and joint/segment kinematics were computed. There was no effect on clearance or clearance variability. Participants had lower speed, cadence, increased cycle time and stance time in the 50 lx compared to 300 lx and distributed 200 lx lighting in descent. The minimum hip angle in ascent was increased in the 200 lx lighting. Clearance was found to be moderately correlated with balance scores. Individuals with visual impairment adopt precautionary gait in dim lighting conditions. This does not always result in improvements in the parameters associated with risk of falling (e.g. clearance). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Locomotion characteristics and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, P; Madsen, K

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full-time players covered 3 945±538 m. The mean speed was 6.40±1.01 km · h - 1. High-intensity running constituted only 1.7±0.9% of TPT per match corresponding to 7.9±4.9% of the total distance covered. An average of 1 482.4±312.6 activity changes per player (n=82) with 53.2±14.1 high-intensity runs were observed per match. Total distance covered was greater in BP (3 765±532 m) and WP (3 641±501 m) than PV (3 295±495 m) (pteam sport that comprises several types of movement categories, which during match-play place moderate-to-high demands on intermittent endurance running capacity and where the amount of high-intensity running may be high during brief periods of the match. Signs of fatigue-related changes were observed in terms of temporary impaired physical performance, since the amount of high-intensity running was reduced in the second half. Notably, physical demands differed between playing positions, with WP demonstrating a more intensive activity pattern than BP and PV, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill J. Leckey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pre- “race” ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM carbohydrate (CHO] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day. Cyclists were randomized to consume either the ketone diester (2 × 250 mg/kg or a placebo drink, followed immediately by 200 mL diet cola, given ~ 30 min before and immediately prior to commencing a 20 min incremental warm-up. Blood samples were collected prior to and during the warm-up, pre- and post- TT and at regular intervals after the TT. Urine samples were collected pre- and post- warm-up, immediately post TT and 60 min post TT. Pre-exercise ingestion of the diester resulted in a 2 ± 1% impairment in TT performance that was associated with gut discomfort and higher perception of effort. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, serum acetoacetate, and urine ketone concentrations increased from rest following ketone ingestion and were higher than placebo throughout the trial. Ketone ingestion induces hyperketonemia in elite professional cyclists when in a carbohydrate fed state, and impairs performance of a cycling TT lasting ~50 min.

  10. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  11. Performance monitoring and error significance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Kaufmann, Christan; Spielberg, Rüdiger; Kniesche, Rainer; Kathmann, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Performance monitoring has been consistently found to be overactive in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examines whether performance monitoring in OCD is adjusted with error significance. Therefore, errors in a flanker task were followed by neutral (standard condition) or punishment feedbacks (punishment condition). In the standard condition patients had significantly larger error-related negativity (ERN) and correct-related negativity (CRN) ampliudes than controls. But, in the punishment condition groups did not differ in ERN and CRN amplitudes. While healthy controls showed an amplitude enhancement between standard and punishment condition, OCD patients showed no variation. In contrast, group differences were not found for the error positivity (Pe): both groups had larger Pe amplitudes in the punishment condition. Results confirm earlier findings of overactive error monitoring in OCD. The absence of a variation with error significance might indicate that OCD patients are unable to down-regulate their monitoring activity according to external requirements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Medicalising normality? Using a simulated dataset to assess the performance of different diagnostic criteria of HIV-associated cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, Davide; Leech, Robert; Sabin, Caroline A.; Winston, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Objective The reported prevalence of cognitive impairment remains similar to that reported in the pre-antiretroviral therapy era. This may be partially artefactual due to the methods used to diagnose impairment. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (Frascati criteria) and global deficit score (GDS) methods in comparison to a new, multivariate method of diagnosis. Methods Using a simulated ‘normative’ dataset informed by real-world cognitive data from the observational Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in PeoPle Over fiftY (POPPY) cohort study, we evaluated the apparent prevalence of cognitive impairment using the Frascati and GDS definitions, as well as a novel multivariate method based on the Mahalanobis distance. We then quantified the diagnostic properties (including positive and negative predictive values and accuracy) of each method, using bootstrapping with 10,000 replicates, with a separate ‘test’ dataset to which a pre-defined proportion of ‘impaired’ individuals had been added. Results The simulated normative dataset demonstrated that up to ~26% of a normative control population would be diagnosed with cognitive impairment with the Frascati criteria and ~20% with the GDS. In contrast, the multivariate Mahalanobis distance method identified impairment in ~5%. Using the test dataset, diagnostic accuracy [95% confidence intervals] and positive predictive value (PPV) was best for the multivariate method vs. Frascati and GDS (accuracy: 92.8% [90.3–95.2%] vs. 76.1% [72.1–80.0%] and 80.6% [76.6–84.5%] respectively; PPV: 61.2% [48.3–72.2%] vs. 29.4% [22.2–36.8%] and 33.9% [25.6–42.3%] respectively). Increasing the a priori false positive rate for the multivariate Mahalanobis distance method from 5% to 15% resulted in an increase in sensitivity from 77.4% (64.5–89.4%) to 92.2% (83.3–100%) at a cost of specificity from 94.5% (92.8–95.2%) to 85.0% (81.2–88

  13. Hippocampal lesions impair performance on a conditional delayed matching and non-matching to position task in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Hazel L; Döbrössy, Màtè; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2006-08-10

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in a range of cognitive processes, from the ability to acquire new memories, to the ability to learn about spatial relationships. Humans and monkeys with damage to the hippocampus are typically impaired on delayed matching to sample tasks, of which the operant delayed matching to position task (DMTP) is a rat analogue. The reported effects of hippocampal damage on DMTP vary, ranging from delay-dependent deficits to no deficit whatsoever. The present study investigates a novel memory task; the conditional delayed matching/non-matching to position task (CDM/NMTP) in the Skinner box. CDM/NMTP uses the presence of specific stimulus cues to signify whether a particular trial is matching or non-matching in nature. Thus, it incorporates both the task contingencies within one session, and supplements the requirement for remembering the side of the lever in the sample phase with attending to the stimulus and remembering the conditional discrimination for the rule. Rats were trained preoperatively and the effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus were examined on postoperative retention of the task. Rats with lesions of the hippocampus incurred a significant impairment on the task that was manifest at all delays intervals. Despite a bias towards matching during training, trials of either type were performed with equivalent accuracy and neither rule was affected differentially by the lesion. This task may prove useful in determining the cognitive roles of a range of brain areas.

  14. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  15. Inhibition of hippocampal aromatization impairs spatial memory performance in a male songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David J; Ma, Chunqi; Soma, Kiran K; Saldanha, Colin J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed the presence and regulation of aromatase at the vertebrate synapse, and identified a critical role played by presynaptic estradiol synthesis in the electrophysiological response to auditory and other social cues. However, if and how synaptic aromatization affects behavior remains to be directly tested. We have exploited 3 characteristics of the zebra finch hippocampus (HP) to test the role of synaptocrine estradiol provision on spatial memory function. Although the zebra finch HP contains abundant aromatase transcripts and enzyme activity, immunocytochemical studies reveal widespread pre- and postsynaptic, but sparse to undetectable somal, localization of this enzyme. Further, the superficial location of the avian HP makes possible the more exclusive manipulation of its neurochemical characteristics without perturbation of the neuropil and the resultant induction of astroglial aromatase. Last, as in other vertebrates, the HP is critical for spatial memory performance in this species. Here we report that local inhibition of hippocampal aromatization impairs spatial memory performance in an ecologically valid food-finding task. Local aromatase inhibition also resulted in lower levels of estradiol in the HP, but not in adjacent brain areas, and was achieved without the induction of astroglial aromatase. The observed decrement in acquisition and subsequent memory performance as a consequence of lowered aromatization was similar to that achieved by lesioning this locus. Thus, hippocampal aromatization, much of which is achieved at the synapse in this species, is critical for spatial memory performance.

  16. Effect of musical training on pitch discrimination performance in older normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -discrimination performance for NH listeners. It is unclear whether a comparable effect of musical training occurs for listeners whose sensory encoding of F0 is degraded. To address this question, F0 discrimination was investigated for three groups of listeners (14 young NH, 9 older NH and 10 HI listeners), each......Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, as well as elderly listeners, typically have a reduced ability to discriminate the fundamental frequency (F0) of complex tones compared to young normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Several studies have shown that musical training, on the other hand, leads to improved F0...... including musicians and non-musicians, using complex tones that differed in harmonic content. Musical training significantly improved F0 discrimination for all groups of listeners, especially for complex tones containing low-numbered harmonics. In a second experiment, the sensitivity to temporal fine...

  17. Significantly enhanced robustness and electrochemical performance of flexible carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors by electrodepositing polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Du, Lianhuan; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Yu, Xiang; Mai, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report robust, flexible CNT-based supercapacitor (SC) electrodes fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole (PPy) on freestanding vacuum-filtered CNT film. These electrodes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical properties (with the ultimate tensile strength of 16 MPa), and greatly enhanced electrochemical performance (5.6 times larger areal capacitance). The major drawback of conductive polymer electrodes is the fast capacitance decay caused by structural breakdown, which decreases cycling stability but this is not observed in our case. All-solid-state SCs assembled with the robust CNT/PPy electrodes exhibit excellent flexibility, long lifetime (95% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles) and high electrochemical performance (a total device volumetric capacitance of 4.9 F/cm3). Moreover, a flexible SC pack is demonstrated to light up 53 LEDs or drive a digital watch, indicating the broad potential application of our SCs for portable/wearable electronics.

  18. Multiple Antennas Systems and Full Duplex Relay Systems with Hardware Impairments: New Performance Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2016-12-01

    Next generation of wireless communication mostly relies on multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) configuration and full-duplex relaying to improve data-rates, spectrale efficiency, spatial-multiplexing, quality-of-service and energy-efficiency etc. However, multiple radio frequency (RF) transceivers in MIMO system and multi-hops in relay networks, accumulate transceiver impairments, rendering an unacceptable system performance. Majority of the technical contributions either assume ideal hardware or inappropriately model hardware impairments which often induce misleading results especially for high data-rate communication systems. We propose statistical mathematical modeling of various hardware impairment (HWI) to characterize their deteriorating effects on the information signal. In addition, we model the aggregate HWI as improper Gaussian signaling (IGS), to fully characterize their asymmetric properties and the self-interfering signal attribute under I/Q imbalance. The proposed model encourages to adopt asymmetric transmission scheme, as opposed to traditional symmetric signaling. First, we present statistical baseband equivalent mathematical models for general MIMO system and two special scenarios of receive and transmit diversity systems under HWI. Then, we express their achievable rate under PGS and IGS transmit schemes. Moreover, we tune the IGS statistical characteristics to maximize the achievable rate. We also present optimal beam-forming/pre-coding and receive combiner vector for multiple-input single-output (MISO) and single-input multiple output (SIMO) systems, which lead to SDNR maximization. Moreover, we propose an adaptive scheme to switch between maximal IGS (MIGS) and PGS transmission based on the described conditions to reduce computational overhead. Subsequently, two case studies are presented. 1) Outage analysis has been carried out for SIMO, under transceiver distortion noise, for two diversity combining schemes 2) The benefits of employing IGS

  19. Ankle taping does not impair performance in jump or balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abián-Vicén, Javier; Alegre, Luis M; Fernández-Rodríguez, J Manuel; Lara, Amador J; Meana, Marta; Aguado, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of prophylactic ankle taping on two balance tests (static and dynamic balance) and one jump test, in the push off and the landing phase. Fifteen active young subjects (age: 21.0 ± 4.4 years) without previous ankle injuries volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three tests in two different situations: with taping and without taping. The tests were a counter movement jump, static balance, and a dynamic posturography test. The tests and conditions were randomly performed. The path of the center of pressures was measured in the balance tests, and the vertical ground reaction forces were recorded during the push-off and landing phases of the counter movement jump. Ankle taping had no influence on balance performance or in the push off phase of the jump. However, the second peak vertical force value during the landing phase of the jump was 12% greater with ankle taping (0.66 BW, 95% CI -0.64 to 1.96). The use of prophylactic ankle taping had no influence on the balance or jump performance of healthy young subjects. In contrast, the taped ankle increased the second peak vertical force value, which could be related to a greater risk of injury produced by the accumulation of repeated impacts in sports where jumps are frequently performed. Key pointsAnkle taping has no influence on balance performance.Ankle taping does not impair performance during the push-off phase of the jump.Ankle taping could increase the risk of injury during landings by increasing peak forces.

  20. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 2: precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as `field' or `global' significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is

  1. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  2. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  3. Optimized distributed systems achieve significant performance improvement on sorted merging of massive VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2018-06-01

    Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.

  4. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional

  5. A Meta-analysis for the Diagnostic Performance of Transient Elastography for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myung-Won; Kim, Kyung Won; Pyo, Junhee; Huh, Jimi; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE-LSM) and hepatic venous pressure gradient and the diagnostic performance of TE-LSM in assessing clinically significant portal hypertension through meta-analysis. Eleven studies were included from thorough literature research and selection processes. The summary correlation coefficient was 0.783 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737-0.823). Summary sensitivity, specificity and area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 87.5% (95% CI, 75.8-93.9%), 85.3 % (95% CI, 76.9-90.9%) and 0.9, respectively. The subgroup with low cut-off values of 13.6-18 kPa had better summary estimates (sensitivity 91.2%, specificity 81.3% and partial AUC 0.921) than the subgroup with high cut-off values of 21-25 kPa (sensitivity 71.2%, specificity 90.9% and partial AUC 0.769). In summary, TE-LSM correlated well with hepatic venous pressure gradient and represented good diagnostic performance in diagnosing clinically significant portal hypertension. For use as a sensitive screening tool, we propose using low cut-off values of 13.6-18 kPa in TE-LSM. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  7. Performance Evaluation of User Selection Protocols in Random Networks with Energy Harvesting and Hardware Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Nhat Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate performances of various user selection protocols under impact of hardware impairments. In the considered protocols, a Base Station (BS selects one of available Users (US to serve, while the remaining USs harvest the energy from the Radio Frequency (RF transmitted by the BS. We assume that all of the US randomly appear around the BS. In the Random Selection Protocol (RAN, the BS randomly selects a US to transmit the data. In the second proposed protocol, named Minimum Distance Protocol (MIND, the US that is nearest to the BS will be chosen. In the Optimal Selection Protocol (OPT, the US providing the highest channel gain between itself and the BS will be served. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of average Outage Probability (OP over Rayleigh fading channels. We also consider average harvested energy per a US. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations are then performed to verify the theoretical results.

  8. Melatonin administration impairs visuo-spatial performance and inhibits neocortical long-term potentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Burgos, Héctor; Flores, Francisco; Valladares, Luis; Sierralta, Walter; Fernández, Victor; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Paula; Hernández, Alejandro

    2006-10-01

    Melatonin has been shown to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices of rats. Since LTP may be one of the main mechanisms by which memory traces are encoded and stored in the central nervous system, it is possible that melatonin could modulate cognitive performance by interfering with the cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved in LTP. We investigated in rats the effects of intraperitoneally-administered melatonin (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg), its saline-ethanol solvent, or saline alone, on the acquisition of visuo-spatial memory as well as on the ability of the cerebral cortex to develop LTP in vivo. Visuo-spatial performance was assessed daily in rats, for 10 days, in an 8-arm radial maze, 30 min after they received a single daily dose of melatonin. Visual cortex LTP was determined in sodium pentobarbital anesthetized rats (65 mg/kg i.p.), by potentiating transcallosal evoked responses with a tetanizing train (312 Hz, 500 ms duration) 30 min after administration of a single dose of melatonin. Results showed that melatonin impaired visuo-spatial performance in rats, as revealed by the greater number of errors committed and time spent to solve the task in the radial maze. Melatonin also prevented the induction of neocortical LTP. It is concluded that melatonin, at the doses utilized in this study, could alter some forms of neocortical plasticity involved in short- and long-term visuo-spatial memories in rats.

  9. Acute administration of cyclosporine A does not impair attention or memory performance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Anna L; Kirchhof, Julia; Füting, Anna; Hütter, Bernd-Otto; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Benson, Sven; Hadamitzky, Martin; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2017-06-01

    There is clinical and experimental evidence that treatment with immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with mental health problems and neuropsychological disturbances in patients. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent cognitive functions such as memory and attention processes are affected by the pharmacological treatment. This is partly because of the fact that it is difficult to refer the observed neuropsychological disturbances in patients to the drug itself, to drug-induced immune suppression, or to interaction with other medication or comorbidities. Thus, in a double-blind study with healthy male participants (n=30), we investigated whether short-term intake of therapeutic doses of CsA (4×2.5 mg/kg) affects attention, working memory performance, and anxiety levels, measured with the Tests of Attentional Performance and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The data indicate that short-term CsA-administration and subsequent suppression in interleukin-2 production are accompanied neither by a decrease in attention or memory performance nor by increased anxiety levels in healthy male volunteers, suggesting that the short-term intake of CsA does not impair cognitive functioning. Further studies in healthy humans are needed to determine neurocognitive functions and mood states after short-term or subchronic treatment with different immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs.

  10. Facial Recognition of Happiness Is Impaired in Musicians with High Music Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Alini Daniéli Viana; Camargo, Cristielli M; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Osório, Flávia L

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments. The aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER) between musicians with high and low MPA. 150 amateur and professional musicians with different musical backgrounds were assessed in respect to their level of MPA and completed a dynamic FER task. The outcomes investigated were accuracy, response time, emotional intensity, and response bias. Musicians with high MPA were less accurate in the recognition of happiness ( p  = 0.04; d  = 0.34), had increased response bias toward fear ( p  = 0.03), and increased response time to facial emotions as a whole ( p  = 0.02; d  = 0.39). Musicians with high MPA displayed FER deficits that were independent of general anxiety levels and possibly of general cognitive capacity. These deficits may favor the maintenance and exacerbation of experiences of anxiety during public performance, since cues of approval, satisfaction, and encouragement are not adequately recognized.

  11. Performance characteristics of SCC radioimmunoassay and clinical significance serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Youn

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of SCC RIV and the clinical significance of serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy, serum SCC Ag levels were measured by SCC RIV kit in 40 normal controls and 35 percents with various untreated malignancy, who visited Chonju Presbyterian Medical Center. The results were as follows; 1. The SCC RIA was simple to perform and can be completed in two workday. And the standard curve and reproducibility were both good. 2. The mean serum SCC Ag level in normal controls was 1.64 ± 0.93 ng/mL and normal upper limit of serum SCC Ag was defined as 2.6 ng/mL. 3 out of 40 (7.5%) normal controls showed elevated SCC Ag levels above the normal upper limit. 3. In 35 patients with various untreated malignancy, 18 patients (51.4%) showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels, 59.1% of 22 patients with cervical cancer, 80% of 5 patients with lung cancer, 33% of 3 patients with esophageal cancer, 0% of 2 patients with rectal cancer and 0% of 3 patients with breast cancer showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels. Above results represent that SCC RIV is simple method to perform followed by good standard curve and reproducibility, and may be a useful indicator reflecting diagnostic data of patients with cervical cancer and lung cancer

  12. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 1: temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as "field" or "global" significance. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Monthly temperature climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. In winter and in most regions in summer, the downscaled distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones. A systematic cold summer bias occurs in deep river valleys due to overestimated elevations, in coastal areas due probably to enhanced sea breeze circulation, and over large lakes due to the interpolation of water temperatures. Urban areas in concave topography forms have a warm summer bias due to the strong heat islands, not reflected in the observations. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate fine-scale features in the monthly temperature field over regions of complex topography, but over spatially homogeneous areas even small biases can lead to significant deteriorations relative to the driving reanalysis. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the

  13. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  14. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β=−1.07, pmemory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β=−1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

  15. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano Iii, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-01-01

    A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β = -1.07, p memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum.

  16. Examining significant factors in micro and small enterprises performance: case study in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Tomas; Zegeye, Muluken; Tilahun, Shimelis; Avvari, Muralidhar

    2017-07-01

    Furniture manufacturing micro and small enterprises are confronted with several factors that affect their performance. Some enterprises fail to sustain, some others remain for long period of time without transforming, and most are producing similar and non-standard products. The main aim of this manuscript is on improving the performance and contribution of MSEs by analyzing impact of significant internal and external factors. Data was collected via a questionnaire, group discussion with experts and interviewing process. Randomly selected eight representative main cities of Amhara region with 120 furniture manufacturing enterprises are considered. Data analysis and presentation was made using SPSS tools (correlation, proximity, and T test) and impact-effort analysis matrix tool. The correlation analysis shows that politico-legal with infrastructure, leadership with entrepreneurship skills and finance and credit with marketing factors are those factors, which result in high correlation with Pearson correlation values of r = 0.988, 0.983, and 0.939, respectively. The study investigates that the most critical factors faced by MSEs are work premises, access to finance, infrastructure, entrepreneurship and business managerial problems. The impact of these factors is found to be high and is confirmed by the 50% drop-out rate in 2014/2015. Furthermore, more than 25% work time losses due to power interruption daily and around 65% work premises problems challenged MSEs. Further, an impact-effort matrix was developed to help the MSEs to prioritize the affecting factors.

  17. HIV-associated cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in a Thai cohort on long-term cART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tanya C; Kerr, Stephen J; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Suksawek, Saowaluk; Klungkang, Supalak; Channgam, Taweesak; Odermatt, Christoph C; Maek-A-Nantawat, Wirach; Ruxtungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W

    2018-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in an HIV-positive cohort, well-suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in an Asian resource-limited setting. Cross-sectional sociodemographic and cognitive data were collected in 329 HIV-positive and 510 HIV-negative participants. Cognitive performance was assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), WAIS-III Digit Symbol, Trail Making A, and Grooved Pegboard (both hands). Psychomotor test scores in the HIV-positive participants were converted to Z-scores using scores of the HIV-negative participants as normative data. Psychomotor impairment was defined as performance on two tests more than 1 standard deviation (SD) from controls or more than 2 SD on one test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between HIV and non-HIV-related covariates and poorer cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment. HIV-positive participants, mean age 45 (SD 7.69) years received cART for a median of 12.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.1-14.4). Median CD4 cell count was 563 cells/mm 3 (IQR 435-725), and 92.77% had plasma HIV RNA performance (tests all P 90% on long-term cART, we found that inferior cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment were primarily associated with non-HIV-related factors.

  18. Evacuation of performance and significant chemical constituents and by products in drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrah, I. A.

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water treatment is a task that comprises of several processes that eventually lead to the addition of chemicals to achieve the objectives of treatment. This study was conducted to assess treatment performance, explain the presence of significant chemical species in water, and investigate the interactions and chemical by-products that are formed during the course of treatment. Grab water samples were collected on a regular basis from the influent and effluent of Zai water treatment plant. Chemical analysis were conducted to determine the concentrations of various chemical species of interest. Turbidity, temperature, and pH of the samples were also measured. The study concluded that Zai Water Treatment Plant produces potable drinking water in accordance with Jordanian Standards. The use of treatment chemical resulted in an increase in the concentrations of certain materials, such as manganese, aluminum, and sulfate. The turbidity of the raw water and the TOC of the samples were positively correlated, and the treatment results in approximately 20% TOC reduction, which demonstrates that the measures used for the control of TOC (carbon adsorption and permanganate pre-oxidation), are not very effective. The study also showed that the TOC content of our raw water samples and the concentration of tribalomethanes resulting after disinfection were positively correlated, and that bromoform was the dominant component. Also chloroform was the minor component of tribalomethanes formed during treatment. Positive correlation between the total concentration of tribalomethanes in water and the chlorine dose used for disinfection was also observed, and the total concentration of tribalomethanes increased with temperature. The formation of tribalomethanes was enhanced as the pH of water increased and as the concentration of bromide ion in raw water became significant. (author). 25 refs., 14 figs.1 table

  19. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  20. Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia C; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Buerger, Katharina; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Mueller, Claudia; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve. In elderly controls (CN, n = 37) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17), we assessed global connectivity of the LFC hub during successful face-name association learning, using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance, accounted for gender and proxies of neurodegeneration (age, hippocampus atrophy, and APOE genotype). We found that greater education was associated with higher LFC-connectivity in both CN and MCI during successful memory. Furthermore, higher LFC-connectivity predicted higher residualized memory (i.e., reserve). These results suggest that higher LFC-connectivity contributes to reserve in both healthy and pathological aging.

  1. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. No significant effect of prefrontal tDCS on working memory performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna eNilsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been put forward as a non-pharmacological alternative for alleviating cognitive decline in old age. Although results have shown some promise, little is known about the optimal stimulation parameters for modulation in the cognitive domain. In this study, the effects of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC on working memory performance were investigated in thirty older adults. An N-back task assessed working memory before, during and after anodal tDCS at a current strength of 1mA and 2mA, in addition to sham stimulation. The study used a single-blind, cross-over design. The results revealed no significant effect of tDCS on accuracy or response times during or after stimulation, for any of the current strengths. These results suggest that a single session of tDCS over the dlPFC is unlikely to improve working memory, as assessed by an N-back task, in old age.

  3. Roles and significance of water conducting features for transport models in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Medina, A.

    1999-01-01

    The term water conducting features (WCF) refers to zones of high hydraulic conductivity. In the context of waste disposal, it is further implied that they are narrow so that chances of sampling them are low. Yet, they may carry significant amounts of water. Moreover, their relatively small volumetric water content causes solutes to travel fast through them. Water-conducting features are a rather common feature of natural media. The fact that they have become a source of concern in recent years, reflects more the increased level of testing and monitoring than any intrinsic property of low permeability media. Accurate simulations of solute transport require a realistic accounting for water conducting features. Methods are presented to do so and examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Since detailed accounting of WCF's will not be possible in actual performance assessments, efforts should be directed towards typification, so as to identify the essential effects of WCF's on solute transport through different types of rocks. Field evidence suggests that, although individual WCF's may be difficult to characterize, their effects are quite predictable. (author)

  4. Preliminary evidence of improved cognitive performance following vestibular rehabilitation in children with combined ADHD (cADHD) and concurrent vestibular impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Younes; Rezazadeh, Nima; Moossavi, Abdollah; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Rostami, Reza; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Badfar, Faride; Moghadam, Sedigheh Farokhi; Sadeghi-Firoozabadi, Vahid; Khodabandelou, Yousef

    2017-12-01

    Balance function has been reported to be worse in ADHD children than in their normal peers. The present study hypothesized that an improvement in balance could result in better cognitive performance in children with ADHD and concurrent vestibular impairment. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of comprehensive vestibular rehabilitation therapy on the cognitive performance of children with combined ADHD and concurrent vestibular impairment. Subject were 54 children with combined ADHD. Those with severe vestibular impairment (n=33) were randomly assigned to two groups that were matched for age. A rehabilitation program comprising overall balance and gate, postural stability, and eye movement exercises was assigned to the intervention group. Subjects in the control group received no intervention for the same time period. Intervention was administered twice weekly for 12 weeks. Choice reaction time (CRT) and spatial working memory (SWM) subtypes of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were completed pre- and post-intervention to determine the effects of vestibular rehabilitation on the cognitive performance of the subjects with ADHD and concurrent vestibular impairment. ANCOVA was used to compare the test results of the intervention and control group post-test. The percentage of correct trial scores for the CRT achieved by the intervention group post-test increased significantly compared to those of the control group (p=0.029). The CRT mean latency scores were significantly prolonged in the intervention group following intervention (p=0.007) compared to the control group. No significant change was found in spatial functioning of the subjects with ADHD following 12 weeks of intervention (p>0.05). The study highlights the effect of vestibular rehabilitation on the cognitive performance of children with combined ADHD and concurrent vestibular disorder. The findings indicate that attention can be affected by early vestibular

  5. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage impairs racing performance in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, P S; Bromberek, J L; Saulez, M N; Hinchcliff, K W; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) occurs commonly in Thoroughbred racehorses worldwide. While EIPH is believed to be an important cause of impaired performance in these horses, there is limited evidence from sufficiently powered studies to evaluate this association. To evaluate whether EIPH is associated with finishing position, distance finished behind race winners and differences in race earning among Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa. Prospective cross-sectional study. One thousand Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa were enrolled prior to a single race and underwent tracheobronchoscopic examination within 2 h of racing. Three observers, blinded to the horses' identity and race performance, independently evaluated EIPH occurrence and severity using video recordings of the examination. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic and linear regression while controlling for important horse and race factors as potential confounding variables. Overall, 68% of horses had evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1). Horses without evidence of EIPH (severity grade 0), when compared with horses with any evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1), were >2 times more likely to win races (odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4-3.7; P = 0.001), finished an average of one length ahead of horses with EIPH (P = 0.03), and were 2.5 times more likely to be in the highest decile in race earnings (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.1, PThoroughbred racehorses not medicated with furosemide and not using nasal dilator strips. These findings provide strong corroboration of previous research indicating that the occurrence of EIPH has a major impact on the ability of Thoroughbred racehorses to compete successfully as elite athletes. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  6. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  7. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  8. ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STATEMENT OF OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME– IN RESPECT OF REPORTING COMPANIES’ PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Orban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A commonly accepted rule-system, which name was International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS created the framework for represent the financial performace, and other facts related to the company’s health. In the system of IFRS profit is not equal to income less expenses, this deviation led to the other comprehensive income, OCI term. IFRS have created the term of other comprehensive income, but knowledge and using of it is not widespread. In this paper I tend to present the meaning and essence of this income category, and to reveal how it is work in corporate practice. As basis of the research, definitions and formats related to the statement of comprehensive income will be presented in the paper first. In order to get a clear picture about the differences between the income statements, I make a comparison of the IFRS and the Hungarian Accounting Act in the field of performance’s representation. As a result of my comparison I’ve stated that the EU accepted the international financial reporting standards to present the financial performance of publicly traded companies, and as EU member state it is obligatory for the Hungarian companies as well. This is the reason why Hungary’s present task is taking over the IFRS mentality. After the comparative analysis I’ve examined the Statement of other comprehensive income in the practice of 11 listed companies in the Budapest Stock Exchange. The Premium category includes those companies’ series of liquid shares, which has got broader investor base. The aim of this examination was to reveal if the most significant listed companies calculate other comprehensive income and what kind of items do they present in the statement of OCI. As a result of the research we can state that statement of other comprehensive income is part of the statement of total comprehensive income in general, and not an individual statement. Main items of the other comprehensive income of the examined companies are the

  9. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to

  10. Overweight and Cognitive Performance: High Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impairment in Reactive Control during Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Steenbergen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25 was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short, representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.

  11. Compression stockings significantly improve hemodynamic performance in post-thrombotic syndrome irrespective of class or length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Azzam, Mustapha; Kalodiki, Evi; Makris, Gregory C; Geroulakos, George

    2013-07-01

    Graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings have been demonstrated to reduce the morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome. The ideal length or compression strength required to achieve this is speculative and related to physician preference and patient compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of four different stockings and determine the patient's preference. Thirty-four consecutive patients (40 legs, 34 male) with post-thrombotic syndrome were tested with four different stockings (Mediven plus open toe, Bayreuth, Germany) of their size in random order: class 1 (18-21 mm Hg) and class II (23-32 mm Hg), below-knee (BK) and above-knee thigh-length (AK). The median age, Venous Clinical Severity Score, Venous Segmental Disease Score, and Villalta scale were 62 years (range, 31-81 years), 8 (range, 1-21), 5 (range, 2-10), and 10 (range, 2-22), respectively. The C of C0-6EsAs,d,pPr,o was C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, C6 = 3. Obstruction and reflux was observed on duplex in 47.5% legs, with deep venous reflux alone in 45%. Air plethysmography was used to measure the venous filling index (VFI), venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume. Direct pressure measurements were obtained while lying and standing using the PicoPress device (Microlab Elettronica, Nicolò, Italy). The pressure sensor was placed underneath the test stocking 5 cm above and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus. At the end of the study session, patients stated their preferred stocking based on comfort. The VFI, venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume improved significantly with all types of stocking versus no compression. In class I, the VFI (mL/s) improved from a median of 4.9 (range, 1.7-16.3) without compression to 3.7 (range, 0-14) BK (24.5%) and 3.6 (range, 0.6-14.5) AK (26.5%). With class II, the corresponding improvement was to 4.0 (range, 0.3-16.2) BK (18.8%) and 3.7 (range, 0.5-14.2) AK (24

  12. Impairment of exercise performance following cold water immersion is not attenuated after 7 days of cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas M; Roelands, Bart; Bailey, Stephen P; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain

    2018-03-19

    It is well-documented that severe cold stress impairs exercise performance. Repeated immersion in cold water induces an insulative type of cold acclimation, wherein enhanced vasoconstriction leads to greater body heat retention, which may attenuate cold-induced exercise impairments. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate changes in exercise performance during a 7-day insulative type of cold acclimation. Twelve healthy participants consisting of eight males and four females (mean ± SD age: 25.6 ± 5.2 years, height: 174.0 ± 8.9 cm, weight: 75.6 ± 13.1 kg) performed a 20 min self-paced cycling test in 23 °C, 40% humidity without prior cold exposure. Twenty-four hours later they began a 7-day cold acclimation protocol (daily 90 min immersion in 10 °C water). On days one, four, and seven of cold acclimation, participants completed the same cycling test. Measurements of work completed, core and skin temperatures, heart rate, skin blood flow, perceived exertion, and thermal sensation were measured during each cycling test. Successful insulative cold acclimation was observed. Work produced during the baseline cycling test (220 ± 70 kJ) was greater (p immersions (195 ± 58, 197 ± 60, and 194 ± 62 kJ) despite similar ratings of perceived exertion during each test, suggesting that cold exposure impaired cycling performance. This impairment, however, was not attenuated over the cold acclimation period. Results suggest that insulative cold acclimation does not attenuate impairments in exercise performance that were observed following acute cold water immersion.

  13. Self-perceived memory impairment and cognitive performance in an elderly independent population with age-related white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, B.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether self-perceived memory impairment is associated with the severity of white matter changes (WMC) and is related to cognitive impairment. METHODS: Data were drawn from the multinational Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS), which investigates the impact of WMC....... A question about self-perceived memory impairment was used as a measure for presence of memory complaints. Cognitive performance was analysed test-by-test and in three main domains: memory, executive functions and speed/motor control. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used as a measure of depressive...... symptoms. RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-eight subjects were included in this study. No association was found between memory complaints and the severity of WMC. Subjects with memory complaints (n = 399) had a higher GDS score [t((637)) = -7.15; pcognitive tests...

  14. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  15. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (β = -0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (β = -0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  16. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  18. Cognitive Orientation to (Daily) Occupational Performance intervention leads to improvements in impairments, activity and participation in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ashleigh; Licari, Melissa; Reid, Siobhan; Armstrong, Jodie; Fallows, Rachael; Elliott, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) present with a variety of impairments in fine and gross motor function, which impact on their activity and participation in a variety of settings. This research aimed to determine if a 10-week group-based Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) intervention improved outcome measures across the impairment, activity and participation levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. In this quasi-experimental, pre-post-test, 20 male children aged 8-10 years (x9y1m ± 9 m) with a confirmed diagnosis of DCD participated in either the 10 week group intervention based on the CO-OP framework (n = 10) or in a control period of regular activity for 10 weeks (n = 10). Outcome measures relating to impairment (MABC-2, motor overflow assessment), activity (Handwriting Speed Test) and participation [Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, (COPM) and Goal Attainment Scale) were measured at weeks 0 and 10 in the intervention group. Children who participated in the CO-OP intervention displayed improvements in outcome measures for impairment, activity and participation, particularly a reduction in severity of motor overflow. Parent and child performance and satisfaction ratings on the COPM improved from baseline to week 10 and all goals were achieved at or above the expected outcome. No significant changes were reported for the control group in impairment and activity (participation was not measured for this group). The strategies implemented by children in the CO-OP treatment group, targeted towards individualised goal attainment, show that CO-OP, when run in a group environment, can lead to improvements across all levels of the ICF. Development Coordination Disorder is a condition which has significant physical, academic and social impacts on a child and can lead to activity limitations and participation restrictions. Cognitive

  19. Study on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS performance in healthy individuals, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Garcia da Costa Armentano

    Full Text Available Abstract Executive deficits as well as deficits in episodic memory characterize the initial phases of Alzheimer Disease (AD and are clinically correlated to neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional loss. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment present more problems as to inhibitory response control, switching and cognitive flexibility. Objective: To compare performance on the BADS with performance on other executive functional tests among patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI to performance of control individuals and to examine discriminative capacity of BADS among these groups. Methods: The BADS was performed by 35 healthy controls, 13 patients with aMCI, and 16 mild probable AD patients. Besides performing the BADS, subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation which comprised: the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS, verbal fluency by phonemic categories (F.A.S and Concentrated Attention Test (CA. Results: There were no differences among groups by educational level, but performance differed for age (p<0.01. No difference between healthy controls and aMCI patients was found on total scores or subitems of the BADS. A significant difference was observed between aMCI and AD patients (p<0.05 and between controls and AD patients (p<0.05 on total and standard scores. Conclusions: Performance on the BADS differed between healthy individuals and mild AD patients. The BADS proved to be a sensitive method for discriminating AD from aMCI.

  20. Millisecond photo-thermal process on significant improvement of supercapacitor’s performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kui; Wang, Jixiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high way for charge transfer is created by a millisecond photo-thermal process which could decrease contact resistance among nanomaterials and improve the electrochemical performances. - Highlights: • Improve conductivity among nanomaterials with a millisecond photo-thermal process. • The specific capacitance can increase about 25% with an photo-thermal process. • The circle stability and rate capability can be improved above 10% with photo-thermal process. • Provide a new way that create electron path to improve electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Supercapacitors fabricated with nanomaterials usually have high specific capacitance and excellent performance. However, the small size of nanomaterials renders a considerable limitation of the contact area among nanomaterials, which is harmful to charge carrier transfer. This fact may hinder the development and application of nanomaterials in electrochemical storage systems. Here, a millisecond photo-thermal process was introduced to create a charge carries transfer path to decrease the contact resistance among nanomaterials, and enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. Polyaniline (PANI) nanowire, as a model nanomaterial, was used to modify electrodes under different photo-thermal process conditions. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results were analysed by equivalent circuit simulation. These results demonstrate that the photo-thermal process can alter the morphology of PANI nanowires, lower the charge transfer resistances and thus improve the performance of electrodes. The specific capacitance increase of the modified electrodes is about 25%. The improvement of the circle stability and rate capability are above 10%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on research the effect of photo-thermal process on the conductivity

  1. Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Leopold Busse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of a resistance training programon cognitive performance and muscle strength in sedentaryelderly individuals with memory impairment. Methods: Thirty-onesedentary elderly persons with no dementia or depression wererandomly distributed into two groups: Physical Activity Group andControl Group. The resistance training exercise program lastednine months and consisted of three series of six exercises persession, carried out on lever-type equipment for approximatelyone hour, twice a week. Every three months, both groups weresubmitted to the following cognitive tests: Rivermead BehavioralMemory Test (RBMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISDirect and Indirect Digit Span, Memory Complaints Scale, andCambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG. Results: After nine months,the group that did resistance exercises showed a significantincrease in the standardized RBMT score (p = 0.021 and in musclestrength (p < 0.001, with no significant difference in the otherparameters evaluated. Conclusions: These results indicate thatsupervised resistance exercises can improve memory performancein sedentary elderly individuals with prior memory compromise,besides increasing muscle strength.

  2. Training leads to increased auditory brain-computer interface performance of end-users with motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, S; Käthner, I; Kübler, A

    2016-02-01

    Auditory brain-computer interfaces are an assistive technology that can restore communication for motor impaired end-users. Such non-visual brain-computer interface paradigms are of particular importance for end-users that may lose or have lost gaze control. We attempted to show that motor impaired end-users can learn to control an auditory speller on the basis of event-related potentials. Five end-users with motor impairments, two of whom with additional visual impairments, participated in five sessions. We applied a newly developed auditory brain-computer interface paradigm with natural sounds and directional cues. Three of five end-users learned to select symbols using this method. Averaged over all five end-users the information transfer rate increased by more than 1800% from the first session (0.17 bits/min) to the last session (3.08 bits/min). The two best end-users achieved information transfer rates of 5.78 bits/min and accuracies of 92%. Our results show that an auditory BCI with a combination of natural sounds and directional cues, can be controlled by end-users with motor impairment. Training improves the performance of end-users to the level of healthy controls. To our knowledge, this is the first time end-users with motor impairments controlled an auditory brain-computer interface speller with such high accuracy and information transfer rates. Further, our results demonstrate that operating a BCI with event-related potentials benefits from training and specifically end-users may require more than one session to develop their full potential. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  4. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  5. Labour Mobility and Plant Performance in Denmark: The Significance of Related Inflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron

    This paper investigates the impact of different types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative effect on plant performance in general, while the effect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that flow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inflow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inflows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative effect on plant...

  6. The Significance of Specialist Teachers of Learners with Visual Impairments as Agents of Change: Examining Personnel Preparation in the United Kingdom through a Bioecological Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Mike; Ravenscroft, John; Douglas, Graeme; Hewett, Rachel; Cobb, Rory

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The unique challenges to learning and participation in education associated with visual impairment are well documented in the literature, as is the importance of addressing these challenges through ensuring practitioners who support them are equipped with appropriate knowledge, understanding, and skills. We use a bioecological…

  7. Neuropsychological Impairments in Schizophrenia: Integration of Performance-Based and Brain Imaging Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, Abraham; Harvey, Philip D.

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant view was that schizophrenia patients have limited, if any, neuropsychological impairments, and those that are observed are only secondary to the florid symptoms of the disorder. This view has dramatically changed. This review integrates recent evidence demonstrating the severity and profile of neuropsychological…

  8. Significant Returns in Engagement and Performance with a Free Teaching App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical research shows that teaching methods other than traditional lectures may result in better outcomes. However, lecture remains the dominant method in economics, likely due to high implementation costs of methods shown to be effective in the literature. In this article, the author shows significant benefits of using a teaching app for…

  9. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  10. Identifying significant uncertainties in thermally dependent processes for repository performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansemer, J.D.; Lamont, A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the performance of the potential Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, scientific investigations are being conducted to reduce the uncertainty about process models and system parameters. This paper is intended to demonstrate a method for determining a strategy for the cost effective management of these investigations. It is not meant to be a complete study of all processes and interactions, but does outline a method which can be applied to more in-depth investigations

  11. White matter microstructural damage in small vessel disease is associated with Montreal cognitive assessment but not with mini mental state examination performances: vascular mild cognitive impairment Tuscany study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Marco; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Ciolli, Laura; Del Bene, Alessandra; Marini, Sandro; Nannucci, Serena; Pescini, Francesca; Valenti, Raffaella; Ginestroni, Andrea; Toschi, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been proposed as a screening tool in vascular cognitive impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive to white matter microstructural damage. We investigated if diffusion tensor imaging-derived indices are more strongly associated with performances on MoCA or on the widely used mini mental state examination in patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease. Mild cognitive impairment patients with moderate/severe degrees of white matter hyperintensities on MRI were enrolled. Lacunar infarcts, cortical atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy and median values of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the cerebral white matter were studied and correlated with cognitive tests performances. Seventy-six patients (mean age 75.1±6.8 years, mean years of education 8.0±4.3) were assessed. In univariate analyses, a significant association of both MoCA and mini mental state examination scores with age, education, cortical atrophy, and medial temporal lobe atrophy was found, whereas mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated with MoCA. In partial correlation analyses, adjusting for all demographic and neuroimaging variables, both mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated only with MoCA (mean diffusivity: r= -0.275, P=0.023; fractional anisotropy: r=0.246, P=0.043). In patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease, diffusion tensor imaging-measured white matter microstructural damage is more related to MoCA than mini mental state examination performances. MoCA is suited for the cognitive screening of patients with small vessel disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. It is likely that other confounding factors concomitantly affect outcomes in out-of-hours surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  13. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  14. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  15. Authoring experience: the significance and performance of storytelling in Socratic dialogue with rehabilitating cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect in philosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experience to illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participants is the traditional point of departure for the dialogical exchange. However, narrating is much more than a beginning point or the skeletal framework of events and it deserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impacts the conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article we show how the narrative aspect became a rich resource for the compassionate bond between participants and how their stories cultivated the abstract reflection in the group. In addition, the aim of the article is to reveal the different layers in the performance of storytelling, or of authoring experience. By picking, poking and dissecting an experience through a collaborative effort, most participants had their initial experience existentially refined and the chosen concept of which the experience served as an illustration transformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientation post cancer.

  16. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-10-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g-1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg-1 at 1 A g-1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors.

  17. AREVA - 2012 annual results: significant turnaround in performance one year after launching the Action 2016 plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperray, Julien; Berezowskyj, Katherine; Kempkes, Vincent; Rosso, Jerome; Thebault, Alexandre; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2013-01-01

    One year after launching Areva's Action 2016 strategic plan, the first results are in. AREVA is ahead of schedule in executing its recovery plan. While pursuing its efforts in the management of a few difficult projects (such as OL3), Areva group was able to return to a virtuous performance cycle rooted in strong growth in nuclear order intake and good progress on its cost reduction program. Commercially, despite the difficult economic environment, AREVA was able to capitalize on its leadership in the installed base and on its long-term partnerships with strategic customers, beginning with EDF, with which AREVA renewed a confident and constructive working relationship. Areva has secured 80% of its objective of one billion euros of savings by the end of 2015 to improve its competitiveness. The group also continued efforts to optimize working capital requirement and control the capital expenditure trajectory. Together, these results enabled AREVA to exceed the objectives set for 2012 for two key indicators of its strategic plan: EBITDA and free operating cash flow. Nearly 60% of the 2.1 billion euros devoted to capital expenditures for future growth in 2012 were funded by operations, a quasi-doubled share compared to 2011. Areva's floor target for asset disposals was achieved one year ahead of schedule, also helping the Group to control its net debt, which remained below 4 billion euros. In 2013, Areva is continuing to implement the Action 2016 plan to keep its turnaround on track. In summary: - Backlog renewed over the year 2012 to euro 45.4 bn thanks to the increase in nuclear order intake; - Sales revenue growth: euro 9.342 bn (+5.3% vs. 2011), led by nuclear and renewables operations; - Very sharp upturn in EBITDA: euro 1.007 bn (+euro 586 m vs. 2011) - Very net improvement in free operating cash flow: -euro 854 m (+euro 512 m vs. 2011); - Back to positive reported operating income: euro 118 m (+euro 1.984 bn vs. 2011); - 2012-2013 floor target for asset disposals

  18. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short-term memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, Sasha; Manella, Laura C; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB) can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for 10-100 s. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM) impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM) had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  19. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  20. Which impairments are most associated with high mobility performance in older adults? Implications for a rehabilitation prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jonathan F; Kiely, Dan K; LaRose, Sharon; Leveille, Suzanne G

    2008-12-01

    To test which rehabilitative impairments are associated with higher mobility performance among community-dwelling, mobility-limited older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from participants within a randomized controlled trial. Outpatient rehabilitation research center. Community-dwelling older adults (N=138; mean age, 75.4 y) with mobility limitations as defined by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Not applicable. Balance measured via the Berg Balance Scale, leg strength, leg velocity, submaximal aerobic capacity, body mass index (BMI), and mobility performance as measured by the SPPB. Each of the 5 physiologic attributes (unipedal balance, leg strength, leg velocity, submaximal aerobic capacity, BMI) was categorized into tertiles by using lower values as reference for impairment status. Within an adjusted model, measures associated with higher SPPB performance (>9) included a BBS score greater than or equal to 54 (odds ratio [OR]=4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-18.60), leg strength greater than or equal to 21.5 N/kg (OR=30.35; 95% CI, 5.48-168.09), leg velocity .0101 to .0129 m.s(-1).kg(-1) (OR=5.31; 95% CI, 1.25-22.57), and leg velocity greater than or equal to .0130 m.s(-1).kg(-1) (OR=22.86; 95% CI, 3.88-134.75). Our investigation highlights the importance of rehabilitative impairments in leg strength, leg velocity, and balance as being associated with mobility status as measured by the SPPB. In our sample of participants within an exercise trial, submaximal aerobic capacity and BMI status were not associated with mobility performance. These findings suggest that the augmentation of not only leg strength and balance but also leg velocity may be important in the rehabilitative care of mobility-limited older adults.

  1. A single night of sleep loss impairs objective but not subjective working memory performance in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rångtell, Frida H; Karamchedu, Swathy; Andersson, Peter; Liethof, Lisanne; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Lampola, Lauri; Schiöth, Helgi B; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2018-01-31

    Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss. Participants were administered a digital working memory test in which eight-digit sequences were learned and retrieved in the morning after each condition. Learning of digital sequences was accompanied by either silence or auditory distraction (equal distribution among trials). After sequence retrieval, each trial ended with a question regarding how certain participants were of the correctness of their response, as a self-estimate of working memory performance. We found that sleep loss impaired objective but not self-estimated working memory performance in women. In contrast, both measures remained unaffected by sleep loss in men. Auditory distraction impaired working memory performance, without modulation by sleep loss or sex. Being unaware of cognitive limitations when sleep-deprived, as seen in our study, could lead to undesirable consequences in, for example, an occupational context. Our findings suggest that sleep-deprived young women are at particular risk for overestimating their working memory performance. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Physical exercise performance in temperate and warm environments is decreased by an impaired arterial baroreflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Pires

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether running performance in different environments is dependent on intact arterial baroreceptor reflexes. We also assessed the exercise-induced cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses in animals lacking arterial baroafferent signals. To accomplish these goals, male Wistar rats were subjected to sinoaortic denervation (SAD or sham surgery (SHAM and had a catheter implanted into the ascending aorta to record arterial pressure and a telemetry sensor implanted in the abdominal cavity to record core temperature. After recovering from these surgeries, the animals were subjected to constant- or incremental-speed exercises performed until the voluntary interruption of effort under temperate (25° C and warm (35° C conditions. During the constant-speed exercises, the running time until the rats were fatigued was shorter in SAD rats in both environments. Although the core temperature was not significantly different between the groups, tail skin temperature was higher in SAD rats under temperate conditions. The denervated rats also displayed exaggerated increases in blood pressure and double product compared with the SHAM rats; in particular, in the warm environment, these exaggerated cardiovascular responses in the SAD rats persisted until they were fatigued. These SAD-mediated changes occurred in parallel with increased variability in the very low and low components of the systolic arterial pressure power spectrum. The running performance was also affected by SAD during the incremental-speed exercises, with the maximal speed attained being decreased by approximately 20% in both environments. Furthermore, at the maximal power output tolerated during the incremental exercises, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate and double product were exaggerated in the SAD relative to SHAM rats. In conclusion, the chronic absence of the arterial baroafferents accelerates exercise fatigue in temperate and warm

  3. Exposure to Unsolvable Anagrams Impairs Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Starcke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that external manipulations, such as stress or mood induction, can affect decision-making abilities. In the current study, we investigated whether the exposure to an unsolvable task affected subsequent performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were exposed to unsolvable anagrams (n = 20, or a condition in which they worked on solvable anagrams (n = 22. Afterwards, all participants played the Iowa Gambling Task, a prominent task that measures decision making under uncertain conditions with no explicit rules for gains and losses. In this task, it is essential to process feedback from previous decisions. The results demonstrated that participants who worked on unsolvable anagrams made more disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task than the other participants. In addition, a significant gender effect was observed: Males who worked on unsolvable anagrams made a more disadvantageous decisions than the other male participants. Females who worked on unsolvable anagrams also made more disadvantageous decision than the other female participants, but differences were small and not significant. We conclude that the exposure to unsolvable anagrams induced the experience of uncontrollability which can elicit stress and learned helplessness. Stress and learned helplessness might have reduced the ability to learn from the given feedback, particularly in male participants. We assume that in real life, uncontrollable challenges that last longer than a single experimental manipulation can affect decision making severely, at least in males.

  4. Loss of EphA4 impairs short-term spatial recognition memory performance and locomotor habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R; Winter, C; Wieske, F; Kempf, A; Yee, B K; Schwab, M E; Singer, P

    2012-11-01

    EphA4 receptor (EphA4) tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity in the mature brain, but its relevance to the control of normal behavior remains largely unexplored. This study is the first attempt to obtain a behavioral profile of constitutive homozygous and heterozygous EphA4 knockout mice. A deficit in locomotor habituation in the open field, impairment in spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reduced probability of spatial spontaneous alternation in the T-maze were identified in homozygous EphA4(-/-) mice, while heterozygo us EphA4(+/-) mice appeared normal on these tests in comparison with wild-type (WT) controls. The multiple phenotypes observed in EphA4(-/-) mice might stem from an underlying deficit in habituation learning, reflecting an elementary form of nonassociative learning that is in contrast to Pavlovian associative learning, which appeared unaffected by EphA4 disruption. A deficit in motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod was also demonstrated only in EphA4(-/-) mice--a finding in keeping with the presence of abnormal gait in EphA4(-/-) mice--although they were able to improve performance over training. There was no evidence for substantial changes in major neurochemical markers in various brain regions rich in EphA4 as shown by post-mortem analysis. This excludes the possibility of major neurochemical compensation in the brain of EphA4(-/-) mice. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time the behavioral significance of EphA4 disruption, supporting further investigation of EphA4 as a possible target for behavioral interventions where habituation deficits are prominent. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, M; Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; Nienaber-Rousseau, C; van Loon, L J C; De Groot, L C P G M

    2013-10-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied. The objective of this study was to explore the association between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D status with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in a pre-frail and frail elderly population. This cross-sectional study included 127 pre-frail and frail elderly people in The Netherlands. Whole body and appendicular lean mass (ALM) (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), leg strength (one repetition maximum), handgrip strength and physical performance (short physical performance battery) were measured, and blood samples were collected for the assessment of serum 25(OH)D status (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). In addition, habitual dietary intake (3-day food records) and physical activity data (accelerometers) were collected. In total, 53% of the participants had a serum 25(OH)D level below 50  nmol/l. After adjustment for confounding factors, 25(OH)D status was associated with ALM (β=0.012, P=0.05) and with physical performance (β=0.020, PVitamin D intake was associated with physical performance (β=0.18, P0.05). In this frail elderly population, 25(OH)D status is low and suggests a modest association with reduced ALM and impaired physical performance. In addition, vitamin D intake tended to be associated with impaired physical performance. Our findings highlight the need for well-designed intervention trials to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on 25(OH)D status, muscle mass and physical performance in pre-frail and frail elderly people.

  6. Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Plassman, Brenda L; Burke, James R; Kabeto, Mohammed U; Langa, Kenneth M; Llewellyn, David J; Rogers, Mary A M; Steffens, David C

    2009-11-01

    The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia must reflect an increasingly diverse and aging United States population. This study compared direct testing and informant reports of cognition with clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment and dementia between African Americans and whites. Participants in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study completed in-person dementia evaluations, and were assigned clinical diagnoses (by a consensus panel of dementia experts) of normal; cognitive impairment, not demented (CIND); and dementia. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) total score and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) were used to assess cognitive performance and reported cognitive decline. A higher CERAD total score was associated with lower odds of CIND and dementia, at comparable ratios between African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of dementia in both African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of CIND among whites, but not among African Americans. Cultural differences may influence informant reports of prevalent CIND and dementia. Our findings also highlight the need for more comparative research to establish the cultural validity of measures used to diagnose these conditions.

  7. Improvement of Screening Accuracy of Mini-Mental State Examination for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Non-Alzheimer's Disease Dementia by Supplementation of Verbal Fluency Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Dong Young; Seo, Eun Hyun; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choe, Young Min; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Park, Shin Young; Choo, Il Han; Youn, Jong Chul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Ki Woong; Woo, Jong Inn

    2014-01-01

    THIS STUDY AIMED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER THE SUPPLEMENTATION OF VERBAL FLUENCY: Animal category test (VF) performance can improve the screening ability of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and their major subtypes. Six hundred fifty-five cognitively normal (CN), 366 MCI [282 amnestic MCI (aMCI); 84 non-amnestic MCI (naMCI)] and 494 dementia [346 Alzheimer's disease (AD); and 148 non-Alzheimer's disease dementia (NAD)] individuals living in the community were included (all aged 50 years and older) in the study. The VF-supplemented MMSE (MMSE+VF) score had a significantly better screening ability for MCI, dementia and overall cognitive impairment (MCI plus dementia) than the MMSE raw score alone. MMSE+VF showed a significantly better ability than MMSE for both MCI subtypes, i.e., aMCI and naMCI. In the case of dementia subtypes, MMSE+VF was better than the MMSE alone for NAD screening, but not for AD screening. The results support the usefulness of VF-supplementation to improve the screening performance of MMSE for MCI and NAD.

  8. Running performance at high running velocities is impaired but V'O(₂max and peripheral endothelial function are preserved in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wojewoda

    Full Text Available It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6⁻/⁻ possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V'O(₂max, decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m·min⁻¹ vs. 16.89±1.15 m·min⁻¹, P<0.02, respectively. Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m·min⁻¹ in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05 than in WT mice. V'O(₂max in IL-6⁻/⁻ (n = 20 amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ was similar as in WT mice (n = 22 amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, (P = 0.16. No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6⁻/⁻ and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m·min⁻¹ as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly lower (P<0.01 than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6⁻/⁻ mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice could not be explained by reduced V'O(₂max, endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance

  9. Running performance at high running velocities is impaired but V'O(₂max) and peripheral endothelial function are preserved in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Marta; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Fortin, Dominique; Onopiuk, Marta; Jakubczyk, Justyna; Sitek, Barbara; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Majerczak, Joanna; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6⁻/⁻) possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT), however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V'O(₂max)), decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m·min⁻¹ vs. 16.89±1.15 m·min⁻¹, P<0.02, respectively). Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m·min⁻¹ in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05) than in WT mice. V'O(₂max) in IL-6⁻/⁻ (n = 20) amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ was similar as in WT mice (n = 22) amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, (P = 0.16). No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6⁻/⁻ and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m·min⁻¹ as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6⁻/⁻ mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6⁻/⁻ mice could not be explained by reduced V'O(₂max), endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance

  10. Running Performance at High Running Velocities Is Impaired but V′O2max and Peripheral Endothelial Function Are Preserved in IL-6−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Marta; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Fortin, Dominique; Onopiuk, Marta; Jakubczyk, Justyna; Sitek, Barbara; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Majerczak, Joanna; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that IL-6 knockout mice (IL-6−/−) possess lower endurance capacity than wild type mice (WT), however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to examine whether reduced endurance running capacity in IL-6−/− mice is linked to impaired maximal oxygen uptake (V′O2max), decreased glucose tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other mechanisms. Maximal running velocity during incremental running to exhaustion was significantly lower in IL-6−/− mice than in WT mice (13.00±0.97 m.min−1 vs. 16.89±1.15 m.min−1, P<0.02, respectively). Moreover, the time to exhaustion during running at 12 m.min−1 in IL-6−/− mice was significantly shorter (P<0.05) than in WT mice. V′O2max in IL-6−/− (n = 20) amounting to 108.3±2.8 ml.kg−1.min−1 was similar as in WT mice (n = 22) amounting to 113.0±1.8 ml.kg−1.min−1, (P = 0.16). No difference in maximal COX activity between the IL-6−/− and WT mice in m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius was found. Moreover, no impairment of peripheral endothelial function or glucose tolerance was found in IL-6−/− mice. Surprisingly, plasma lactate concentration during running at 8 m.min−1 as well at maximal running velocity in IL-6−/− mice was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in WT mice. Interestingly, IL-6−/− mice displayed important adaptive mechanisms including significantly lower oxygen cost of running at a given speed accompanied by lower expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and lower plasma lactate concentrations during running at submaximal and maximal running velocities. In conclusion, impaired endurance running capacity in IL-6−/− mice could not be explained by reduced V′O2max, endothelial dysfunction or impaired muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, our results indicate that IL-6 cannot be regarded as a major regulator of exercise capacity but rather as a modulator of endurance performance. Furthermore, we

  11. Performance of the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D+C in elderly patients with cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhey Frans RJ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EQ-5D is a reliable tool for measuring Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. However, concern has been expressed that it may ignore elements of HRQoL, particularly cognition. In response to this concern, the EQ-5D has been extended with a cognitive dimension (EQ-5D+C. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D+C in elderly patients with cognitive impairments by assessing their construct validity and responsiveness. Methods Data from the MEDICIE study (n = 196 were used, in which all questionnaires were rated by proxies. Results Regarding construct validity, we found similar correlations between the EQ-5D and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and between the EQ-5D+C and the MMSE. Furthermore, both the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D+C were responsive to changes in the MMSE, with the EQ-5D performing slightly better. Conclusion We conclude that the EQ-5D performs well for evaluating HRQoL in a population with cognitive impairments. Based on the results of this explorative study, it does not seem necessary to adjust the current classification system by adding a cognitive dimension. However, in order to compare both instruments regarding utility values, it is necessary to develop a new scoring algorithm for the EQ-5D+C by conducting a general population study. Considering the explorative nature of this study, it is recommended that more aspects of the validity of both the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D+C are explored in patients with cognitive impairments using a more tailored study design.

  12. Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed "up & go" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Cochrane, Barbara B; Engel, Joyce M; Teri, Linda

    2011-08-01

    Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=-0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=-0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed "Up & Go" Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Pfunction performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Physical performance speed was associated with executive function after adjusting for age, sex, and age-related factors in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Further research is needed to determine

  13. Positive stereotypes, negative outcomes: Reminders of the positive components of complementary gender stereotypes impair performance in counter-stereotypical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalon, Rotem; Shnabel, Nurit; Becker, Julia C

    2018-04-01

    Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance. In Study 2 (N = 86 male participants), reminders of the stereotype about men's agency (vs. a control/no-stereotype condition) impaired men's performance in a test of socio-emotional abilities. Consistent with previous research on stereotype threat, in both studies the effect was evident among participants with high domain identification. These findings extend our understanding of the potentially adverse implications of seemingly positive gender stereotypes. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Winckler, Ciro; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C.; Kitamura, Katia; Veríssimo, Amaury W.; Pereira, Lucas A.; Nakamura, Fábio Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015) between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise) and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height) vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test) variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9%) and 200-m dash (1.43%). In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes' sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance. PMID:26594181

  15. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu eLoturco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015 between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9% and 200-m dash (1.43%. In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes’ sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance.

  16. Personal Conflict Impairs Performance on an Unrelated Self-Control Task: Lingering Costs of Uncertainty and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquist, Jessica L; Baumeister, Roy F; McGregor, Ian; Core, Tammy J; Benjamin, Ilil; Tice, Dianne M

    2018-01-01

    People have the ability to make important choices in their lives, but deliberating about these choices can have costs. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that writing about conflicted personal goals and values (conflict condition) would impair self-control on an unrelated subsequent task as compared to writing about clear personal goals and values (clarity condition). Personal conflict activates the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; Hirsh, Mar, & Peterson, 2012), which may make it harder for participants to successfully execute self-control. In this large ( N =337), pre-registered study participants in the conflict condition performed worse on anagrams than participants in the clarity condition, and the effect of condition on anagram performance was mediated by a subjective uncertainty measure of BIS activation. This suggests that BIS activation leads to poor self-control. Moreover, given that conflict is inherent in the exercise of self-control, results point to BIS activation as a mechanism for why initial acts of self-control impair self-control on subsequent, unrelated tasks.

  17. The Positivity Effect on the Intensity of Experienced Emotion and Memory Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gorenc-Mahmutaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We examined the ‘positivity effect' on memory performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia patients. Methods: In 109 subjects (28 controls, 32 with MCI, 27 with mild and 32 with moderate dementia, we investigated free recalls (immediate and delayed and recognition of 12 pictures. Moreover, the emotional valence of the pictures perceived and the emotions evoked in the subjects were evaluated. Results: Patients with mild and moderate dementia recalled fewer pictures than those with MCI or the healthy controls. Across the groups, the positive pictures were better memorized and induced a higher arousal than the negative or neutral ones. Conclusions: Our findings indicate a positivity effect on memory performance and intensity of experience not only in healthy elderly patients but also in those with MCI or mild and moderate dementia. This effect does not refer to the compliance of the patients investigated since they perceived and experienced the pictures in the expected way.

  18. Higher incentives can impair performance: neural evidence on reinforcement and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtziger, Anja; Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Steinhauser, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Standard economic thinking postulates that increased monetary incentives should increase performance. Human decision makers, however, frequently focus on past performance, a form of reinforcement learning occasionally at odds with rational decision making. We used an incentivized belief-updating task from economics to investigate this conflict through measurements of neural correlates of reward processing. We found that higher incentives fail to improve performance when immediate feedback on decision outcomes is provided. Subsequent analysis of the feedback-related negativity, an early event-related potential following feedback, revealed the mechanism behind this paradoxical effect. As incentives increase, the win/lose feedback becomes more prominent, leading to an increased reliance on reinforcement and more errors. This mechanism is relevant for economic decision making and the debate on performance-based payment. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Influence of controlled encoding and retrieval facilitation on memory performance in patients with different profiles of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Serra, Laura; Marra, Camillo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bruni, Amalia C; Curcio, Sabrina; Bozzali, M; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2015-01-01

    Memory tests able to differentiate encoding and retrieval processes from the memoranda storing ones should be used to differentiate patients in a very early phase of AD. In fact, individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be characterized by two different memory profiles: a pure amnestic one (with poor learning and retrieval and poor improvement when encoding is assisted and retrieval is facilitated) and a dysexecutive one (with inefficient encoding and/or poor retrieval strategies and improvement with assisted encoding and retrieval). The amnestic profile characterizes subjects affected by medio-temporal atrophy typical of AD. In this study, a Grober-Buschke memory procedure was used to evaluate normal controls and MCI patients with different cognitive profiles: pure amnestic (aMCIsd), amnestic plus other cognitive impairments (aMCImd) and non-amnestic (naMCI). An index of sensitivity of cueing (ISC) measured the advantage passing from free to cued recall. Results showed that both strategic and consolidation abilities were impaired in the aMCIsd and aMCImd groups and were preserved in the naMCI group. aMCImd, however, compensated the memory deficit with assisted encoding and retrieval, but aMCIsd performed very poorly. When MCI subjects were defined according to the ISC value, subjects with poor ISC were primarily in the aMCIsd group and, to a lesser extent, in the aMCImd group and the naMCI group. Finally, patients with a poor ISC showed cerebral atrophy documented in the precocious phase of AD and the retrosplenial cerebral areas seemed to be the most useful areas for identifying patients in the early phase of AD.

  20. TNFα G308A polymorphism is associated with resilience to sleep deprivation-induced psychomotor vigilance performance impairment in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brieann C; Wisor, Jonathan P; Field, Stephanie A; Schmidt, Michelle A; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-07-01

    Cytokines such as TNFα play an integral role in sleep/wake regulation and have recently been hypothesized to be involved in cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation. We examined the effect of a guanine to adenine substitution at position 308 in the TNFα gene (TNFα G308A) on psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation. A total of 88 healthy women and men (ages 22-40) participated in one of five laboratory total sleep deprivation experiments. Performance on a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was measured every 2-3h. The TNFα 308A allele, which is less common than the 308G allele, was associated with greater resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation (regardless of time of day), and also provided a small performance benefit at baseline. The effect of genotype on resilience persisted when controlling for between-subjects differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, and baseline sleep duration. The TNFα G308A polymorphism predicted less than 10% of the overall between-subjects variance in performance impairment during sleep deprivation. Nonetheless, the differential effect of the polymorphism at the peak of performance impairment was more than 50% of median performance impairment at that time, which is sizeable compared to the effects of other genotypes reported in the literature. Our findings provided evidence for a role of TNFα in the effects of sleep deprivation on psychomotor vigilance performance. Furthermore, the TNFα G308A polymorphism may have predictive potential in a biomarker panel for the assessment of resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment due to sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between BDNF Polymorphism and Physical Activity on Inhibitory Performance in the Elderly without Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Canivet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the elderly, physical activity (PA enhances cognitive performances, increases brain plasticity and improves brain health. The neurotrophic hypothesis is that the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is implicated in brain plasticity and cognition, is triggered by PA because motoneurons secrete BDNF into the bloodstream during exercise. Individual differences in cognitive performance may be explained by individual differences in genetic predisposition. A single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene, BDNFVal66Met, affects activity-dependent BDNF secretion. This study investigated the influence of the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism on the relationship between PA and controlled inhibition performance in older adults.Methods: A total of 114 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age = 71.53 years old were evaluated. Participants were genotyped for the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism. We evaluated inhibitory performance using choice reaction times (RT and error rates from a Simon-like task and estimated their PA using two self-reported questionnaires. We established four groups according to PA level (active vs. inactive and BDNFVal66Met genotype (Met carriers vs. Val-homozygous. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and ANCOVA, including age, gender and body mass index as covariates.Results: The BDNFVal66Met polymorphism interacted with PA on controlled inhibition performance. More specifically, inactive Val-homozygous participants exhibited a lower inhibition performance than active Val homozygotes and inactive Met carriers; the former had a higher error rate without differences in RT.Conclusion: Differences between individuals on inhibitory performance may be partially understood by the interaction between genetic influence in BDNF secretion and PA level. The results of this study clearly support the neurotrophic hypothesis that BDNF synthesis is an important mechanism underlying the influence of physical activity on brain

  2. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  3. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy [Department of Anesthesiology Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  4. Sediment-induced turbidity impairs foraging performance and prey choice of planktivorous coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Jones, G P

    2013-09-01

    Sedimentation is a substantial threat to aquatic ecosystems and a primary cause of habitat degradation on near-shore coral reefs. Although numerous studies have demonstrated major impacts of sedimentation and turbidity on corals, virtually nothing is known of the sensitivity of reef fishes. Planktivorous fishes are an important trophic group that funnels pelagic energy sources into reef ecosystems. These fishes are visual predators whose foraging is likely to be impaired by turbidity, but the threshold for such effects and their magnitude are unknown. This study examined the effect of sediment-induced turbidity on foraging in four species of planktivorous damselfishes (Pomacentridae) of the Great Barrier Reef, including inshore and offshore species that potentially differ in tolerance for turbidity. An experimental flow tunnel was used to quantify their ability to catch mobile and immobile planktonic prey under different levels of turbidity and velocity in the range encountered on natural and disturbed reefs. Turbidity of just 4 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) reduced average attack success by up to 56%, with higher effect sizes for species with offshore distributions. Only the inshore species (Neopomacentrus bankieri), which frequently encounters this turbidity on coastal reefs, could maintain high prey capture success. At elevated turbidity similar to that found on disturbed reefs (8 NTU), attack success was reduced in all species examined by up to 69%. These reductions in attack success led to a 21-24% decrease in foraging rates for all mid to outer-shelf species, in spite of increasing attack rates at high turbidity. Although effects of turbidity varied among species, it always depended heavily on prey mobility and ambient velocity. Attack success was up to 14 times lower on mobile prey, leaving species relatively incapable of foraging on anything but immobile prey at high turbidity. Effects of turbidity were particularly prominent at higher velocities, as

  5. ANKLE TAPING DOES NOT IMPAIR PERFORMANCE IN JUMP OR BALANCE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abián-Vicén

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of prophylactic ankle taping on two balance tests (static and dynamic balance and one jump test, in the push off and the landing phase. Fifteen active young subjects (age: 21.0 ± 4.4 years without previous ankle injuries volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three tests in two different situations: with taping and without taping. The tests were a counter movement jump, static balance, and a dynamic posturography test. The tests and conditions were randomly performed. The path of the center of pressures was measured in the balance tests, and the vertical ground reaction forces were recorded during the push-off and landing phases of the counter movement jump. Ankle taping had no influence on balance performance or in the push off phase of the jump. However, the second peak vertical force value during the landing phase of the jump was 12% greater with ankle taping (0.66 BW, 95% CI -0.64 to 1.96. The use of prophylactic ankle taping had no influence on the balance or jump performance of healthy young subjects. In contrast, the taped ankle increased the second peak vertical force value, which could be related to a greater risk of injury produced by the accumulation of repeated impacts in sports where jumps are frequently performed

  6. On the significance of the noise model for the performance of a linear MPC in closed-loop operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, Morten; Boiroux, Dimitri; Mahmoudi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the noise model for the performance of a Model Predictive Controller when operating in closed-loop. The process model is parametrized as a continuous-time (CT) model and the relevant sampled-data filtering and control algorithms are developed. Using CT...... models typically means less parameters to identify. Systematic tuning of such controllers is discussed. Simulation studies are conducted for linear time-invariant systems showing that choosing a noise model of low order is beneficial for closed-loop performance. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation...

  7. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Mental Fatigue and Spatial References Impair Soccer Players' Physical and Tactical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Coutinho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of mental fatigue and additional corridor and pitch sector lines on players' physical and tactical performances during soccer small-sided games. Twelve youth players performed four Gk+6vs6+Gk small-sided games. Prior to the game, one team performed a motor coordination task to induce mental fatigue, while the other one performed a control task. A repeated measures design allowed to compare players' performances across four conditions: (a with mental fatigue against opponents without mental fatigue in a normal pitch (MEN, (b with mental fatigue on a pitch with additional reference lines (#MEN; (c without mental fatigue against mentally fatigued opponents on a normal pitch (CTR; and (d without mental fatigue on a pitch with reference lines (#CTR. Player's physical performance was assessed by the distance covered per minute and the number of accelerations and decelerations (0.5–3.0 m/s2; > −3.0 m/s2. Positional data was used to determine individual (spatial exploration index, time synchronized in longitudinal and lateral directions and team-related variables (length, width, speed of dispersion and contraction. Unclear effects were found for the physical activity measures in most of the conditions. There was a small decrease in time spent laterally synchronized and a moderate decrease in the contraction speed when MEN compared to the CTR. Also, there was a small decrease in the time spent longitudinally synchronized during the #MEN condition compared to MEN. The results showed that mental fatigue affects the ability to use environmental information and players' positioning, while the additional reference lines may have enhanced the use of less relevant information to guide their actions during the #MEN condition. Overall, coaches could manipulate the mental fatigue and reference lines to induce variability and adaptation in young soccer players' behavior.

  9. Relationship between control beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Rachel L; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Clare, Linda; Ames, David; Saling, Michael M; Storey, Elsdon; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    Little information is available regarding the extent of strategy use and factors that affect strategy use in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). This study aimed to compare spontaneous strategy use and beliefs about the controllability of memory between aMCI and healthy older adult (HOA) samples and to explore the relationships between beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance for both groups. The aMCI and HOA groups each composed of 60 individuals matched for age and education. The Memory Controllability Inventory was used to assess control beliefs, and the extent of semantic clustering on a list-learning task provided a measure of spontaneous strategy use. The aMCI group endorsed lower control beliefs and demonstrated poorer semantic clustering and memory performance compared with the HOA group. Although strategy use partially mediated the control beliefs-memory performance relationship for the HOA group, this was not replicated for the aMCI group. Despite the weak relationship between control beliefs and strategy use, and control beliefs and memory performance for the aMCI group, the strong relationship between strategy use and memory performance provides impetus for further research into factors that can be used as a means of enhancing strategy use in interventions for aMCI.

  10. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Autistic Traits and Cognitive Performance in Young People with Mild Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan M.; Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Spencer, Michael D.; Philip, Ruth C. M.; Power, Michael J.; Johnstone, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)…

  12. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, R.; Wensing, T.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because

  13. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file

  14. Intracavitary ultrasound impairs left ventricular performance: presumed role of endocardial endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebert, T. C.; de Hert, S. G.; Andries, L. J.; Jageneau, A. H.; Brutsaert, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of isolated cardiac muscle by high-power, high-frequency, continuous wave ultrasound selectively damages endocardial endothelium (EE). We evaluated this ultrasound effect in vivo on the performance of the intact ejecting canine left ventricle (LV). A cylindrical ultrasound probe (0.9

  15. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  16. Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hägg, S.; Zhan, Y.; Karlsson, Robert; Gerritsen, L.; Ploner, A.; Lee, J.S.; Broer, L.; Deelen, J.; Marioni, R.E.; Wong, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29867291X; Lundquist, A.; Zhu, G.; Hansell, N.K.; Sillanpää, E.; Fedko, I O; Amin, N.A.; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; de Craen, A.J.M.; Degerman, S.; Harris, S.E.; Kan, K.-J.; Martin-Ruiz, C.M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Adolfsson, A.N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Samani, Nilesh J; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Viljanen, A.; Von Zglinicki, T.; Wright, M J; Hottenga, J.J.; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rantanen, T.; Kaprio, J.A.; Nyholt, D.R.; Martin, N.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314123083; Nyberg, Lars; Adolfsson, R.; Kuh, D.; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Slagboom, P Eline; Van Duijn, C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068368232; Codd, V.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR)

  17. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Wiesje L J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2011-12-01

      In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined.   Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive function. Pain intensity was measured with three visual analog scales and the Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. A grip strength test, the 6-minute walk test, the Unipedal Stance Test and the Lifting Low Test were administered in order to obtain a performance-based measure of physical capacity. Self-reported physical ability was assessed with the Disability Rating Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Functioning, and Role Physical scales. Psychosocial function was examined using the Mental Health and Role Emotional subscales of the Short Form-36.   The study was set in two outpatient physical therapy clinics in The Netherlands.   The analysis showed that a lower mental processing speed was related to a higher level of pain, as well as to a lower performance-based and self-reported physical functioning. In addition, both performance-based and self-reported physical function revealed an inverse correlation with pain intensity. Psychosocial function turned out to be an important mediator of the relationship between pain and self-reported, but not performance-based, physical function. Mental processing speed, on the other hand, was found to mediate the relationship between pain and performance-based physical functioning.   The results suggest that in chronic pain patients, mental processing speed mediates the relationship between pain and physical function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Increased functional connectivity in the default mode network in mild cognitive impairment: a maladaptive compensatory mechanism associated with poor semantic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Venneri, Annalena; Sambataro, Fabio; Cuetos, Fernando; Fasano, Fabrizio; Marchi, Massimo; Crisi, Girolamo; Caffarra, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Semantic memory decline and changes of default mode network (DMN) connectivity have been reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Only a few studies, however, have investigated the role of changes of activity in the DMN on semantic memory in this clinical condition. The present study aimed to investigate more extensively the relationship between semantic memory impairment and DMN intrinsic connectivity in MCI. Twenty-one MCI patients and 21 healthy elderly controls matched for demographic variables took part in this study. All participants underwent a comprehensive semantic battery including tasks of category fluency, visual naming and naming from definition for objects, actions and famous people, word-association for early and late acquired words and reading. A subgroup of the original sample (16 MCI patients and 20 healthy elderly controls) was also scanned with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and DMN connectivity was estimated using a seed-based approach. Compared with healthy elderly, patients showed an extensive semantic memory decline in category fluency, visual naming, naming from definition, words-association, and reading tasks. Patients presented increased DMN connectivity between the medial prefrontal regions and the posterior cingulate and between the posterior cingulate and the parahippocampus and anterior hippocampus. MCI patients also showed a significant negative correlation of medial prefrontal gyrus connectivity with parahippocampus and posterior hippocampus and visual naming performance. Our findings suggest that increasing DMN connectivity may contribute to semantic memory deficits in MCI, specifically in visual naming. Increased DMN connectivity with posterior cingulate and medio-temporal regions seems to represent a maladaptive reorganization of brain functions in MCI, which detrimentally contributes to cognitive impairment in this clinical population.

  19. Significance of uncertainties derived from settling tank model structure and parameters on predicting WWTP performance - A global sensitivity analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty derived from one of the process models – such as one-dimensional secondary settling tank (SST) models – can impact the output of the other process models, e.g., biokinetic (ASM1), as well as the integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models. The model structure and parameter...... and from the last aerobic bioreactor upstream to the SST (Garrett/hydraulic method). For model structure uncertainty, two one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) models are assessed, including a first-order model (the widely used Takács-model), in which the feasibility of using measured...... uncertainty of settler models can therefore propagate, and add to the uncertainties in prediction of any plant performance criteria. Here we present an assessment of the relative significance of secondary settling model performance in WWTP simulations. We perform a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) based...

  20. Usefulness of the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment for the evaluation of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dong-Wook; Ju, Hyun-Bin; Jung, Do-Un; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Moon, Jung-Joon; Kim, You-Na

    2017-10-25

    To assess the usefulness of the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) as a new diagnostic method and tool for the assessment of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment. In total, 35 patients with cognitive impairment and 35 healthy controls were recruited for this study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the evaluation of cognitive function, while the Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index (BADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index (IADL), and UPSA were used for the evaluation of activities of daily living function. UPSA scores were significantly lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in controls. The UPSA total score was significantly correlated with MMSE, CDR, GDS, and IADL scores. With regard to the detection of cognitive impairment, UPSA exhibited a greater determination power (R 2 = 0.593) compared with BADL (R 2 = 0.149) and IADL (R 2 = 0.423) and higher sensitivity and specificity compared with IADL. Our results suggest that UPSA is a useful tool for the evaluation of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment.

  1. Rule induction performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia: examining the role of simple and biconditional rule learning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Heringa, Sophie M; Kessels, Roy P C; Biessels, Geert Jan; Koek, Huiberdina L; Maes, Joseph H R; van den Berg, Esther

    2017-04-01

    Rule induction tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test require executive control processes, but also the learning and memorization of simple stimulus-response rules. In this study, we examined the contribution of diminished learning and memorization of simple rules to complex rule induction test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Twenty-six aMCI patients, 39 AD patients, and 32 control participants were included. A task was used in which the memory load and the complexity of the rules were independently manipulated. This task consisted of three conditions: a simple two-rule learning condition (Condition 1), a simple four-rule learning condition (inducing an increase in memory load, Condition 2), and a complex biconditional four-rule learning condition-inducing an increase in complexity and, hence, executive control load (Condition 3). Performance of AD patients declined disproportionately when the number of simple rules that had to be memorized increased (from Condition 1 to 2). An additional increment in complexity (from Condition 2 to 3) did not, however, disproportionately affect performance of the patients. Performance of the aMCI patients did not differ from that of the control participants. In the patient group, correlation analysis showed that memory performance correlated with Condition 1 performance, whereas executive task performance correlated with Condition 2 performance. These results indicate that the reduced learning and memorization of underlying task rules explains a significant part of the diminished complex rule induction performance commonly reported in AD, although results from the correlation analysis suggest involvement of executive control functions as well. Taken together, these findings suggest that care is needed when interpreting rule induction task performance in terms of executive function deficits in these patients.

  2. High variability impairs motor learning regardless of whether it affects task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, Marco; Casadio, Maura; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    Motor variability plays an important role in motor learning, although the exact mechanisms of how variability affects learning are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor variability may have different effects on learning in redundant tasks, depending on whether it is present in the task space (where it affects task performance) or in the null space (where it has no effect on task performance). We examined the effect of directly introducing null and task space variability using a manipulandum during the learning of a motor task. Participants learned a bimanual shuffleboard task for 2 days, where their goal was to slide a virtual puck as close as possible toward a target. Critically, the distance traveled by the puck was determined by the sum of the left- and right-hand velocities, which meant that there was redundancy in the task. Participants were divided into five groups, based on both the dimension in which the variability was introduced and the amount of variability that was introduced during training. Results showed that although all groups were able to reduce error with practice, learning was affected more by the amount of variability introduced rather than the dimension in which variability was introduced. Specifically, groups with higher movement variability during practice showed larger errors at the end of practice compared with groups that had low variability during learning. These results suggest that although introducing variability can increase exploration of new solutions, this may adversely affect the ability to retain the learned solution. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the role of introducing variability during motor learning in a redundant task. The presence of redundancy allows variability to be introduced in different dimensions: the task space (where it affects task performance) or the null space (where it does not affect task performance). We found that introducing variability affected learning adversely, but the amount of

  3. Ankle Taping Does Not Impair Performance in Jump or Balance Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Abián-Vicén, Javier; Alegre, Luis M.; Fernández-Rodríguez, J. Manuel; Lara, Amador J.; Meana, Marta; Aguado, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of prophylactic ankle taping on two balance tests (static and dynamic balance) and one jump test, in the push off and the landing phase. Fifteen active young subjects (age: 21.0 ± 4.4 years) without previous ankle injuries volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three tests in two different situations: with taping and without taping. The tests were a counter movement jump, static balance, and a dynamic posturography test. The tests a...

  4. Impact of a poka-yoke device on job performance of individuals with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R F; Noblett, M J; Phelps, J A

    1998-09-01

    Job performance and production related issues are important not only to successful vocational training and ultimate job placement for individuals with cognitive disabilities, but also for their ability to have expanded vocational options. This study hypothesized that the application of Kaizen philosophy, and poka-yoke techniques in particular, could create job opportunities and improve productivity of individuals with cognitive disabilities. Poka-yoke or error-proofing techniques are part of the collection of Kaizen techniques. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost/effectiveness, and quality. Kaizen strives to empower the worker, increase worker satisfaction, facilitate a sense of accomplishment, and thereby create pride-of-work. These techniques typically reduce the physical and cognitive demands of a task and thereby render the task more accessible. The job was a fuel clamp assembly. A redesigned assembly fixture was the poka-yoke intervention. Consistent with poka-yoke principles, the intervention improved the productivity of everyone attempting the assembly. In particular, the workers in this study showed an 80% increase in productivity and an average percent error drop from 52% to about 1% after the process redesign. Furthermore, the workers showed improved morale, self-esteem, and pride-of-work. Prior to the process redesign, only the higher functioning workers could successfully perform the assembly. After the redesign a greater number of workers could successfully perform the assembly. These results not only validated the study hypothesis, but demonstrated that the success facilitated by applying Kaizen techniques had similar results with individuals with cognitive disabilities as with nondisabled workers.

  5. Does Accrual Management Impair the Performance of Earnings-Based Valuation Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Courteau; Jennifer L. Kao; Yao Tian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically how the presence of accrual management may affect firm valuation. We compare the performance of earnings-based and non-earnings-based valuation models, represented by Residual Income Model (RIM) and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), respectively, based on the absolute percentage pricing and valuation errors for two subsets of US firms: “Suspect” firms that are likely to have engaged in accrual management and “Normal” firms matched on industry, year and size. Results ...

  6. Explicit instructions facilitate performance of OCD participants but impair performance of non-OCD participants on a serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Assaf; Liberman, Nira; Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals diagnosed with OCD tend to rely on explicit processing while performing implicit learning tasks. We sought to investigate whether individuals with OCD are capable of implicit learning, but would demonstrate improved performance when explicit processing strategies are enhanced. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 non-psychiatric control (NPC) participants performed an implicit learning task in which they responded to a single target stimulus that successively appears at one of four locations according to an underlying sequence. We manipulated the learning strategy by informing half of the participants that the target stimulus location was determined by an underlying sequence, which they should identify (intentional learning). The other half of the participants was not informed of the existence of the underlying sequence, and was expected to learn the sequence implicitly (standard learning). We predicted that OCD participants will exhibit inferior performance compared to NPC participants in the standard learning condition, and that intentional learning instructions would impair the performance of NPC participants, but enhance the performance of OCD participants. The results supported these predictions and suggest that individuals with OCD prefer controlled to automatic processing. We discuss the implications of this conclusion to our understanding of OCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Control Strength Depletion Reduces Self-Efficacy and Impairs Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey D; Bray, Steven R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of task self-efficacy as a psychological factor involved in the relationship between self-control depletion and physical endurance. Participants (N = 37) completed two isometric handgrip endurance trials, separated by a Stroop task, which was either congruent (control) or incongruent (causing depletion). Task self-efficacy for the second endurance trial was measured following the Stroop task. Participants in the depletion condition reported lower task self-efficacy and showed a greater reduction in performance on the second endurance trial when compared with controls. Task self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between self-control depletion and endurance performance. The results of this study provide evidence that task self-efficacy is negatively affected following self-control depletion. We recommend that task self-efficacy be further investigated as a psychological factor accounting for the negative change in self-control performance of physical endurance and sport tasks following self-control strength depletion.

  8. Mental Fatigue Alters Cortical Activation and Psychological Responses, Impairing Performance in a Distance-Based Cycling Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio O. Pires

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We sought to verify if alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC activation and psychological responses would play along with impairments in pacing and performance of mentally fatigued cyclists.Materials and Methods: Eight recreational cyclists performed two preliminary sessions to familiarize them with the rapid visual information processing (RVP test, psychological scales and 20 km cycling time trial (TT20km (session 1, as well as to perform a VO2MAX test (session 2. Thereafter, they performed a TT20km either after a RVP test (30 min or a time-matched rest control session (session 3 and 4 in counterbalanced order. Performance and psychological responses were obtained throughout the TT20km while PFC electroencephalography (EEG was obtained at 10 and 20 km of the TT20km and throughout the RVP test. Increases in EEG theta band power indicated a mental fatigue condition. Repeated-measures mixed models design and post-hoc effect size (ES were used in comparisons.Results: Cyclists completed the trial ~2.7% slower in mental fatigue (34.3 ± 1.3 min than in control (33.4 ± 1.1 min, p = 0.02, very large ES, with a lower WMEAN (224.5 ± 17.9 W vs. 240.2 ± 20.9 W, respectively; p = 0.03; extremely large ES. There was a higher EEG theta band power during RVP test (p = 0.03; extremely large ES, which remained during the TT20km (p = 0.01; extremely large ES. RPE increased steeper in mental fatigue than in control, together with isolated reductions in motivation at 2th km (p = 0.04; extremely large ES, felt arousal at the 2nd and 4th km (p = 0.01; extremely large ES, and associative thoughts to exercise at the 6th and 16th km (p = 0.02; extremely large ES of the TT20km.Conclusions: Mentally fatigued recreational cyclists showed impaired performance, altered PFC activation and faster increase in RPE during a TT20km.

  9. Evaluation of Physiological and Psychological Impairment of Human Performance in Cold Stressed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-23

    overall oscillations, although Uprus et al. ( 1935 ) notes that overt body tremors also occur during fever, relaxation of sphincters and emotional...periods of time. Shivering can occur in decorticate (Aring, 1935 ) and thalamectomized animals (Clark, et al., 1939) and in animals with anterior hypothalmic...prior to (pro) and during (poet) cold exposure. None of epre . post comparltons are significantly different nor are there any differences between

  10. Impaired swimming performance of acid-exposed Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, L.A. (North/South Consultants Inc., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)); Scherer, E. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Freshwater Inst. Science Lab., Winnipeg, MB (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    Effects of increased ambient acidity are of particular interest, as the formation of metabolic and respiratory acids and acceleration of branchial ion loss during vigorous swimming duplicates or compounds effects of exposure to environmental acidity. Three year old Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) were exposed to five levels of acidity between pH 6 and pH 3.8. Swimming performance as determined by critical swimming speeds was 67.5 cm {center dot} s{sup -1} or 4.4 body lengths per second for untreated fish (pH 7.8). Performance declined sharply below pH 4.5; at pH 3.8 it was reduced by 35% after 7 days of exposure. Tailbeat frequencies and ventilation rates showed no dose-response effects. This would support the assumption that afferent and efferent neuromuscular functions may have remained unimpaired under increased ambient acidity so that the stimulus of directed water current continued to elicit forced swimming, causing (forcing) the fish to use the entire scope for activity available at the various pH levels. At swimming speeds between 20 and 50 cm {center dot} s{sup -1}, ventilation rates at all levels of acidity were higher than at the control level. Based on this, spontaneous, i.e., non-forced swimming activity may show a lower response threshold. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Communicative performance of adolescents with severe speech impairment: influence of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, B M; Bedrosian, J L

    1989-08-01

    The communicative performance of 4 preoperational-level adolescents, using limited speech, gestures, and communication board techniques, was examined in a two-part investigation. In Part 1, each subject participated in an academic interaction with a teacher in a therapy room. Data were transcribed and coded for communication mode, function, and role. Two subjects were found to predominantly use the speech mode, while the remaining 2 predominantly used board and one other mode. The majority of productions consisted of responses to requests, and the initiator role was infrequently occupied. These findings were similar to those reported in previous investigations conducted in classroom settings. In Part 2, another examination of the communicative performance of these subjects was conducted in spontaneous interactions involving speaking and nonspeaking peers in a therapy room. Using the same data analysis procedures, gesture and speech modes predominated for 3 of the subjects in the nonspeaking peer interactions. The remaining subject exhibited minimal interaction. No consistent pattern of mode usage was exhibited across the speaking peer interactions. In the nonspeaking peer interactions, request predominated. In contrast, a variety of communication functions was exhibited in the speaking peer interactions. Both the initiator and the maintainer roles were occupied in the majority of interactions. Pertinent variables and clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Pop up satellite tags impair swimming performance and energetics of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline; Tudorache, Christian; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) have recently been applied in attempts to follow the oceanic spawning migration of the European eel. PSATs are quite large, and in all likelihood their hydraulic drag constitutes an additional cost during swimming, which remains to be quantified, as does...... the potential implication for successful migration. Silver eels (L(T)=598.6 +/- 29 mm SD, N = 9) were subjected to swimming trials in a Steffensen-type swim tunnel at increasing speeds of 0.3-0.9 body lengths s(-1), first without and subsequently with, a scaled down PSAT dummy attached. The tag significantly...... increased oxygen consumption (MO(2)) during swimming and elevated minimum cost of transport (COT(min)) by 26 Standard (SMR) and active metabolic rate (AMR) as well as metabolic scope remained unaffected, suggesting that the observed effects were caused by increased drag. Optimal swimming speed (U...

  13. The European Academy laparoscopic “Suturing Training and Testing’’ (SUTT) significantly improves surgeons’ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Z.; Tanos, V.; Van Belle, Y.; Carvalho, J.L.; Campo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of suturing training and testing (SUTT) model by laparoscopy was evaluated, measuring the suturingskill acquisition of trainee gynecologists at the beginning and at the end of a teaching course. During a workshop organized by the European Academy of Gynecological Surgery (EAGS), 25 participants with three different experience levels in laparoscopy (minor, intermediate and major) performed the 4 exercises of the SUTT model (Ex 1: both hands stitching and continuous suturing, Ex 2: right hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 3: left hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 4: dominant hand stitching, tissue approximation and intracorporeal knotting). The time needed to perform the exercises is recorded for each trainee and group and statistical analysis used to note the differences. Overall, all trainees achieved significant improvement in suturing time (p psychomotor skills, surgery, teaching, training suturing model. PMID:26977264

  14. Pyraclostrobin Impairs Energetic Mitochondrial Metabolism and Productive Performance of Silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemo, Daniel; Mingatto, Fábio Ermínio; Carvalho, Amanda de; Bizerra, Paulo Francisco Veiga; Tavares, Marco Aurélio; Balieira, Kamila Vilas Boas; Bellini, William Cesar

    2018-03-09

    Silkworm cocoon production has been reduced due to a number of problems other than those inherent in sericulture, such as diseases, malnutrition, and inappropriate management. The use of pesticides in areas surrounding mulberry fields can contaminate these plants and consequently harm caterpillars. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin in mulberry plants interferes with the mitochondrial bioenergetics and the productive performance of silkworms. Mulberry plants were treated with pyraclostrobin (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ha-1). After 30 d of fungicide application, fifth instar caterpillars were fed with leaves from the treated plants. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo mitochondrial bioenergetics of mitochondria from the head and intestines, as well as the feed intake and mortality rate of the caterpillars and the weight of fresh cocoons and cocoons shells. At doses of 50 µM (in vitro) and 200 g ha-1 (in vivo), pyraclostrobin inhibited oxygen consumption in state 3, dissipated membrane potential, and inhibited ATP synthesis in mitochondria. Pyraclostrobin acted as a respiratory chain inhibitor, affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics. The fungicide did not interfere with food consumption but negatively affected mortality rate and weight of cocoons. Mulberry leaves contaminated with pyraclostrobin negatively impact the mitochondrial bioenergetics of silkworms and cocoon production.

  15. Impaired Performance of Pressure-Retarded Osmosis due to Irreversible Biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Perreault, François; Straub, Anthony P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-11-03

    Next-generation pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) approaches aim to harness the energy potential of streams with high salinity differences, such as wastewater effluent and seawater desalination plant brine. In this study, we evaluated biofouling propensity in PRO. Bench-scale experiments were carried out for 24 h using a model wastewater effluent feed solution and simulated seawater desalination brine pressurized to 24 bar. For biofouling tests, wastewater effluent was inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and artificial seawater desalination plant brine draw solution was seeded with Pseudoalteromonas atlantica. Our results indicate that biological growth in the feed wastewater stream channel severely fouled both the membrane support layer and feed spacer, resulting in ∼50% water flux decline. We also observed an increase in the pumping pressure required to force water through the spacer-filled feed channel, with pressure drop increasing from 6.4±0.8 bar m(-1) to 15.1±2.6 bar m(-1) due to spacer blockage from the developing biofilm. Neither the water flux decline nor the increased pressure drop in the feed channel could be reversed using a pressure-aided osmotic backwash. In contrast, biofouling in the seawater brine draw channel was negligible. Overall, the reduced performance due to water flux decline and increased pumping energy requirements from spacer blockage highlight the serious challenges of using high fouling potential feed sources in PRO, such as secondary wastewater effluent. We conclude that PRO power generation using wastewater effluent and seawater desalination plant brine may become possible only with rigorous pretreatment or new spacer and membrane designs.

  16. Interactive effects of diabetes and impaired kidney function on cognitive performance in old age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Yan, Zhongrui; Liang, Yajun; Jiang, Hui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Song, Aiqin; Feng, Lei; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2016-01-12

    The interactive effect between diabetes and impaired kidney function on cognitive impairment in older adults has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of diabetes and impaired kidney function with cognitive impairment among Chinese older people living in a rural area. This cross-sectional study included 1,358 participants (age ≥60 years; 60.5% women) in the population-based Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong, China. Data on demographics, lifestyle factors, health history, use of medications, global cognitive function, and kidney function were collected through structured interviews, clinical examinations, and blood tests. We defined diabetes as a fasting plasma glucose level ≥7.0 mmol/l or use of hypoglycemic agents, impaired kidney function as glomerular filtration rate estimated from cystatin C (eGFRcys) Cognitive impairment was defined using the education-based cut-off scores of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed using multiple general linear and logistic regression models. Cognitive impairment was defined in 197 (14.5%) persons. The multi-adjusted β coefficient of MMSE score associated with diabetes was -0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.16, 0.03); the corresponding figures associated with eGFRcys function showed an interactive effect on cognitive impairment ( interaction = 0.02). Compared with individuals having neither diabetes nor impaired kidney function, those with both conditions had a multi-adjusted odds ratio of 4.23 (95% CI, 2.10-8.49) for cognitive impairment. The relative excess risk due to interaction was 2.74. This study suggests that concurrent presence of diabetes and impaired kidney function is associated with a substantial likelihood for cognitive impairment in older adults.

  17. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Wang, Xianghao; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 104 J/m3 and 10 × 104 J/m3, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between -330 Oe and 330 Oe to between -650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2-20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  18. Can Impairment Interfere with Performance by Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome According to International Classification of Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Kavousipor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most prevalent compression neuropathy of upper extremity which, two of the most important risk factors of that are the female sex and manual works. In the model of international classification of function, disability and health, disease is an impairment, results in functional limitation. The goal of this study is to compare hand function of participants between various severities of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, during 6 months period of time, 30 housekeeper women with carpal tunnel syndrome, with the mean age of 47.03 years, were selected through simple sampling. They were assessed for hand function, by Purdue peg board test and Boston questionnaire, after that a professional practitioner had performed Nerve Conductive Velocity (NCV test and identified the severity of their diseases. Then the data were analyzed with SPSS software, by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The mean of Purdue peg board test and Boston questionnaire scores in various clusters of carpal tunnel syndrome severity, were not different (P>0.05. Conclusion: In this research, severity of electrodiagnostic findings of participants, with carpal tunnel syndrome, is not related to their performance and functional limitations.

  19. Response of the medial temporal lobe network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment to therapeutic intervention assessed by fMRI and memory task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Bakker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have detected hyperactivity in the hippocampus during task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Such elevated activation has been localized to the hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3 during performance of a task designed to detect the computational contributions of those hippocampal circuits to episodic memory. The current investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that greater hippocampal activation in aMCI represents a dysfunctional shift in the normal computational balance of the DG/CA3 regions, augmenting CA3-driven pattern completion at the expense of pattern separation mediated by the dentate gyrus. We tested this hypothesis using an intervention based on animal research demonstrating a beneficial effect on cognition by reducing excess hippocampal neural activity with low doses of the atypical anti-epileptic levetiracetam. In a within-subject design we assessed the effects of levetiracetam in three cohorts of aMCI participants, each receiving a different dose of levetiracetam. Elevated activation in the DG/CA3 region, together with impaired task performance, was detected in each aMCI cohort relative to an aged control group. We observed significant improvement in memory task performance under drug treatment relative to placebo in the aMCI cohorts at the 62.5 and 125 mg BID doses of levetiracetam. Drug treatment in those cohorts increased accuracy dependent on pattern separation processes and reduced errors attributable to an over-riding effect of pattern completion while normalizing fMRI activation in the DG/CA3 and entorhinal cortex. Similar to findings in animal studies, higher dosing at 250 mg BID had no significant benefit on either task performance or fMRI activation. Consistent with predictions based on the computational functions of the DG/CA3 elucidated in basic animal research, these data support a dysfunctional encoding mechanism

  20. Significant performance enhancement in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor by high-κ organic dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze-Gao, Wang; Yuan-Fu, Chen; Cao, Chen; Ben-Lang, Tian; Fu-Tong, Chu; Xing-Zhao, Liu; Yan-Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    The electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with and without high-κ organic dielectrics are investigated. The maximum drain current I D max and the maximum transconductance g m max of the organic dielectric/AlGaN/GaN structure can be enhanced by 74.5%, and 73.7% compared with those of the bare AlGaN/GaN HEMT, respectively. Both the threshold voltage V T and g m max of the dielectric/AlGaN/GaN HEMT are strongly dielectric-constant-dependent. Our results suggest that it is promising to significantly improve the performance of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by introducing the high-κ organic dielectric. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Functional relationships between plasmids and their significance for metabolism and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Grażyna; Mazur, Andrzej; Wielbo, Jerzy; Marczak, Małgorzata; Zebracki, Kamil; Koper, Piotr; Skorupska, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 (RtTA1) is a soil bacterium establishing a highly specific symbiotic relationship with clover, which is based on the exchange of molecular signals between the host plant and the microsymbiont. The RtTA1 genome is large and multipartite, composed of a chromosome and four plasmids, which comprise approximately 65 % and 35 % of the total genome, respectively. Extrachromosomal replicons were previously shown to confer significant metabolic versatility to bacteria, which is important for their adaptation in the soil and nodulation competitiveness. To investigate the contribution of individual RtTA1 plasmids to the overall cell phenotype, metabolic properties and symbiotic performance, a transposon-based elimination strategy was employed. RtTA1 derivatives cured of pRleTA1b or pRleTA1d and deleted in pRleTA1a were obtained. In contrast to the in silico predictions of pRleTA1b and pRleTA1d, which were described as chromid-like replicons, both appeared to be completely curable. On the other hand, for pRleTA1a (symbiotic plasmid) and pRleTA1c, which were proposed to be unessential for RtTA1 viability, it was not possible to eliminate them at all (pRleTA1c) or entirely (pRleTA1a). Analyses of the phenotypic traits of the RtTA1 derivatives obtained revealed the functional significance of individual plasmids and their indispensability for growth, certain metabolic pathways, production of surface polysaccharides, autoaggregation, biofilm formation, motility and symbiotic performance. Moreover, the results allow us to suggest broad functional cooperation among the plasmids in shaping the phenotypic properties and symbiotic capabilities of rhizobia.

  2. Predictors of early stable symptomatic remission after an exacerbation of schizophrenia: the significance of symptoms, neuropsychological performance and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christina; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Bohn, Francesca; Aghotor, Julia; Köther, Ulf; Pfueller, Ute; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits and severity of initial psychopathology have been repeatedly associated with poor symptomatic outcomes in schizophrenia. The role of higher-order cognitive biases on symptomatic outcomes of the disorder has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of cognitive biases, psychopathology and neuropsychological deficits on the probability of achieving early symptomatic remission after a psychotic episode in patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder undergoing an acute psychotic episode, and 25 healthy controls. According to psychopathology assessments, patients were split into those who had achieved remission after an average follow-up interval of 7 months, and those who had not (NR). Patients who achieved remission exhibited higher premorbid IQ and better performance on the TMT-B, as well as lower baseline positive, disorganized and distress symptoms than NR patients. TMT-B performance and positive symptoms at baseline were the best predictors of remission. Cognitive biases and negative symptoms were not associated with later remission. The findings highlight the significance of initial symptom severity for at least short-term symptomatic outcomes and, thus, the importance of adequate symptomatic treatment and prevention of psychotic outbreaks in patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei, E-mail: hust-yangxiaofei@163.com [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xianghao [School of Information Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-01-28

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3} and 10 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3}, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  4. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10 4  J/m 3 and 10 × 10 4  J/m 3 , the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance

  5. Significance of size dependent and material structure coupling on the characteristics and performance of nanocrystalline micro/nano gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, K.; Ghommem, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2018-05-01

    Capacitive-based sensing microelectromechanical (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) gyroscopes have significant advantages over conventional gyroscopes, such as low power consumption, batch fabrication, and possible integration with electronic circuits. However, inadequacies in the modeling of these inertial sensors have presented issues of reliability and functionality of micro-/nano-scale gyroscopes. In this work, a micromechanical model is developed to represent the unique microstructure of nanocrystalline materials and simulate the response of micro-/nano-gyroscope comprising an electrostatically-actuated cantilever beam with a tip mass at the free end. Couple stress and surface elasticity theories are integrated into the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam model in order to derive a size-dependent model. This model is then used to investigate the influence of size-dependent effects on the static pull-in instability, the natural frequencies and the performance output of gyroscopes as the scale decreases from micro-to nano-scale. The simulation results show significant changes in the static pull-in voltage and the natural frequency as the scale of the system is decreased. However, the differential frequency between the two vibration modes of the gyroscope is observed to drastically decrease as the size of the gyroscope is reduced. As such, the frequency-based operation mode may not be an efficient strategy for nano-gyroscopes. The results show that a strong coupling between the surface elasticity and material structure takes place when smaller grain sizes and higher void percentages are considered.

  6. Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Wendy M; Kuypers, Kim P C; Theunissen, Eef L; Surinx, Anke; Blankespoor, Roos J; Skopp, Gisela; Jeffery, Wayne K; Walls, H Chip; van Leeuwen, Cees J; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2012-10-01

    The acute and chronic effects of dronabinol [medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] on actual driving performance and the Standard Field Sobriety Test (SFST) were assessed. It was hypothesized that occasional users would be impaired on these tests and that heavy users would show less impairment due to tolerance. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, three-way cross-over study. Twelve occasional and 12 heavy cannabis users (14 males/10 females) received single doses of placebo, 10 and 20 mg dronabinol. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP; i.e. weaving) is the primary measure of road-tracking control. Time to speed adaptation (TSA) is the primary reaction-time measure in the car-following test. Percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and subjective high on a visual analogue scale were secondary measures. Superiority tests showed that SDLP (P = 0.008) and TSA (P = 0.011) increased after dronabinol in occasional users. Equivalence tests demonstrated that dronabinol-induced increments in SDLP were bigger than impairment associated with BAC of 0.5 mg/ml in occasional and heavy users, although the magnitude of driving impairment was generally less in heavy users. The SFST did not discriminate between conditions. Levels of subjective high were comparable in occasional and heavy users. Dronabinol (medicinal tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users in a dose-dependent way, but to a lesser degree in heavy users due possibly to tolerance. The Standard Field Sobriety Test is not sensitive to clinically relevant driving impairment caused by oral tetrahydrocannabinol. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Performance, fatigue and stress in open-plan offices: The effects of noise and restoration on hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Jahncke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals were compared in two within-participant office noise conditions (high noise: 60 L Aeq and low noise: 30 L Aeq . Performance, subjective fatigue, and physiological stress were tested during working on a simulated open-plan office. We also tested two between-participants restoration conditions following the work period with high noise (nature movie or continued office noise. Participants with a hearing impairment (N = 20 were matched with normal hearing participants (N = 18 and undertook one practice session and two counterbalanced experimental sessions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with basic memory and attention tasks. We also measured physiological stress indicators (cortisol and catecholamines and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The hearing impaired participants were more affected by high noise than the normal hearing participants, as shown by impaired performance for tasks that involve recall of semantic information. The hearing impaired participants were also more fatigued by high noise exposure than participants with normal hearing, and they tended to have higher stress hormone levels during the high noise compared to the low noise condition. Restoration with a movie increased performance and motivation for the normal hearing participants, while rest with continued noise did not. For the hearing impaired participants, continued noise during rest increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not. In summary, the impact of noise and restorative conditions varied with the hearing characteristics of the participants. The small sample size does however encourage caution when interpreting the results.

  8. Cognitively-Impaired-Not-Demented Status Moderates the Time-Varying Association between Finger Tapping Inconsistency and Executive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2017-02-01

    Response time inconsistency (RTI) in cognitive performance predicts deleterious health outcomes in late-life; however, RTI estimates are often confounded by additional influences (e.g., individual differences in learning). Finger tapping is a basic sensorimotor measure largely independent of higher-order cognition that may circumvent such confounds of RTI estimates. We examined the within-person coupling of finger-tapping mean and RTI on working memory, and the moderation of these associations by cognitive status. A total of 262 older adults were recruited and classified as controls, cognitively-impaired-not-demented (CIND) unstable or CIND stable. Participants completed finger-tapping and working-memory tasks during multiple weekly assessments, repeated annually for 4 years. Within-person coupling estimates from multilevel models indicated that on occasions when RTI was greater, working-memory response latency was slower for the CIND-stable, but not for the CIND-unstable or control individuals. The finger-tapping task shows potential for minimizing confounds on RTI estimates, and for yielding RTI estimates sensitive to central nervous system function and cognitive status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Association between fully automated MRI-based volumetry of different brain regions and neuropsychological test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sönke; Buchert, Ralph; Spies, Lothar; Eichenlaub, Martin; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Jahn, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Fully automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetry may serve as biomarker for the diagnosis in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. We aimed at investigating the relation between fully automated MRI-based volumetric measures and neuropsychological test performance in amnestic MCI and patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. In order to assess a possible prognostic value of fully automated MRI-based volumetry for future cognitive performance, the rate of change of neuropsychological test performance over time was also tested for its correlation with fully automated MRI-based volumetry at baseline. In 50 subjects, 18 with amnestic MCI, 21 with mild AD, and 11 controls, neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted MRI were performed at baseline and at a mean follow-up interval of 2.1 ± 0.5 years (n = 19). Fully automated MRI volumetry of the grey matter volume (GMV) was performed using a combined stereotactic normalisation and segmentation approach as provided by SPM8 and a set of pre-defined binary lobe masks. Left and right hippocampus masks were derived from probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Volumes of the inner and outer liquor space were also determined automatically from the MRI. Pearson's test was used for the correlation analyses. Left hippocampal GMV was significantly correlated with performance in memory tasks, and left temporal GMV was related to performance in language tasks. Bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital GMVs were correlated to performance in neuropsychological tests comprising multiple domains. Rate of GMV change in the left hippocampus was correlated with decline of performance in the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental Status Examination, and trail making test B (TMT-B). The decrease of BNT and TMT-A performance over time correlated with the loss of grey matter in multiple brain regions. We conclude that fully automated MRI

  10. Computerized evaluation of deambulatory pattern before and after visual rehabilitation treatment performed with biofeedback in visually impaired patients suffering from macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pacella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was double: the primary endpoint was to evaluate the efficacy of visual rehabilitation of visually impaired patients with macular degeneration (AMD. The secondary endpoint was to assess the effect of rehabilitation treatment on the ambulatory pattern using a computerized evaluation of walking, focusing the attention on space-time parameters that are influenced in patients with visual impairment. Methods: 10 patients with AMD were enrolled, 6 males and 4 females, and examined 15 eyes, at Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Visual rehabilitation was carried out with the use of a microperimeter MP1 using the examination of biofeedback. Patients are asked to move their eyes in coordination with an audible feedback that alerts the patient when he is setting properly the fixation target previously selected. All patients were subjected to 10 sessions lasting 15 minutes each for each eye, 1 time per week. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was assessed by far with the ETDRS optotype IN LOG MAR, and by close to 25 cm by adding + 4 ball (addition to near to the BCVA. For each eye the PB ( print body on the distance of 25 cm was measured; It fixation stability for 30 seconds was examined by microperimeter. Gait Analysis was performed with system ELITE BTS SpA (Milan, Italy. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation treatment with biofeedback it was found a marked improvement in BCVA. The BCVA before the rehabilitation treatment was ETDRS 12 LETTERS = 0.86 logMAR. At the end of the visual rehabilitation 16 LETTERS = 0.78 logMAR. The near visual acuity presented a decrease of the printer body measurement (PB and a statistically significant improvement in the fixation stability. Analysis of the spatial and temporal parameters of gait cycle, aimed at assessing the global aspects of gait (speed, rhythm, symmetry, fluidity, dynamic balance showed no significant changes

  11. Dizocilpine (MK-801) impairs learning in the active place avoidance task but has no effect on the performance during task/context alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtechova, Iveta; Petrasek, Tomas; Hatalova, Hana; Pistikova, Adela; Vales, Karel; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-05-15

    The prevention of engram interference, pattern separation, flexibility, cognitive coordination and spatial navigation are usually studied separately at the behavioral level. Impairment in executive functions is often observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. We have designed a protocol for assessing these functions all together as behavioral separation. This protocol is based on alternated or sequential training in two tasks testing different hippocampal functions (the Morris water maze and active place avoidance), and alternated or sequential training in two similar environments of the active place avoidance task. In Experiment 1, we tested, in adult rats, whether the performance in two different spatial tasks was affected by their order in sequential learning, or by their day-to-day alternation. In Experiment 2, rats learned to solve the active place avoidance task in two environments either alternately or sequentially. We found that rats are able to acquire both tasks and to discriminate both similar contexts without obvious problems regardless of the order or the alternation. We used two groups of rats, controls and a rat model of psychosis induced by a subchronic intraperitoneal application of 0.08mg/kg of dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors. Dizocilpine had no selective effect on parallel/sequential learning of tasks/contexts. However, it caused hyperlocomotion and a significant deficit in learning in the active place avoidance task regardless of the task alternation. Cognitive coordination tested by this task is probably more sensitive to dizocilpine than spatial orientation because no hyperactivity or learning impairment was observed in the Morris water maze. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Awareness of and Concern About Memory Performance on the Prediction of Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Catherine E; Donovan, Nancy J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Papp, Kate V; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Sperling, Reisa A; Locascio, Joseph J; Vannini, Patrizia

    2018-05-03

    To investigate the relationship of awareness of and concern about memory performance to progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. Participants (n = 33) had a diagnosis of MCI at baseline and a diagnosis of MCI or AD dementia at follow-up. Participants were categorized as "Stable-MCI" if they retained an MCI diagnosis at follow-up (mean follow-up = 18.0 months) or "Progressor-MCI" if they were diagnosed with AD dementia at follow-up (mean follow-up = 21.6 months). Awareness was measured using the residual from regressing a participant's objective memory score onto their subjective complaint score (i.e., residualConcern was assessed using a questionnaire examining the degree of concern when forgetting. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the presence of these syndromes could predict future diagnosis of AD dementia, and repeated measures analysis of covariance tests were used to examine longitudinal patterns of these syndromes. Baseline anosognosia was apparent in the Progressor-MCI group, whereas participants in the Stable-MCI group demonstrated relative awareness of their memory performance. Baseline awareness scores successfully predicted whether an individual would progress to AD-dementia. Neither group showed change in awareness of performance over time. Neither group showed differences in concern about memory performance at baseline or change in concern about performance over time. These data suggest that anosognosia may appear prior to the onset of AD dementia, while anosodiaphoria likely does not appear until later in the AD continuum. Additionally, neither group showed significant changes in awareness or concern over time, suggesting that change in these variables may happen over longer periods. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Sentence Length and Complexity on Working Memory Performance in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI): A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Schwartz, Richard G.; Farkas, Lajos; Katsnelson, Valeriya

    2006-01-01

    Background: English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform more poorly than their typically developing peers in verbal working memory tasks where processing and storage are simultaneously required. Hungarian is a language with a relatively free word order and a rich agglutinative morphology. Aims: To examine the effect…

  14. Impaired Performance on See-Know Tasks amongst Children with Autism: Evidence of Specific Difficulties with Theory of Mind or Domain-General Task Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that children with autism have a diminished understanding of the perception-knowledge relationship, as a specific manifestation of a theory of mind (ToM) impairment. However, such a conclusion may not be justified on the basis of previous studies, which have suffered from significant methodological weaknesses. The current…

  15. Memory performance on the story recall test and prediction of cognitive dysfunction progression in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Sohn, Sang Wuk; Kim, Sungjae; Park, Kyung Won

    2017-10-01

    To determine the factors that influence diagnosis and differentiation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) by comparing memory test results at baseline with those at 1-2-year follow up. We consecutively recruited 23 healthy participants, 44 MCI patients and 27 patients with very mild AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease and Petersen's clinical diagnostic criteria. We carried out detailed neuropsychological tests, including the Story Recall Test (SRT) and the Seoul Verbal Learning Test, for all participants. We defined study participants as the "progression group" as follows: (i) participants who showed conversion to dementia from the MCI state; and (ii) those with dementia who showed more than a three-point decrement in their Mini-Mental State Examination scores with accompanying functional decline from baseline status, which were ascertained by physician's clinical judgment. The SRT delayed recall scores were significantly lower in the patients with mild AD than in those with MCI and after progression. Lower (relative risk 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.1-1.6) and higher SRT delayed recall scores (relative risk 2.1, confidence interval 1.0-2.8), and two-test combined immediate and delayed recall scores (relative risk 2.0, confidence interval 0.9-2.3; and relative risk 2.8, confidence interval 1.1-4.2, respectively) were independent predictors of progression in a stepwise multiple adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, with age, sex, depression and educational level forced into the model. The present study suggests that the SRT delayed recall score independently predicts progression to dementia in patients with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1603-1609. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effect Considering of Mild and Moderate Visual and Auditory Impairment on the Activities of Daily Living and Balance Performance in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Hosseini

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Even mild and moderate auditory impairment can cause disability in the basic ADL. If mild and moderate auditory impairment exist simultaneously with visual impairment, the person had balance disability. Auditory impairment didn't have any effect on balance.

  17. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  18. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  19. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  20. Quantifying the impact on navigation performance in visually impaired: Auditory information loss versus information gain enabled through electronic travel aids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kreilinger

    Full Text Available This study's purpose was to analyze and quantify the impact of auditory information loss versus information gain provided by electronic travel aids (ETAs on navigation performance in people with low vision. Navigation performance of ten subjects (age: 54.9±11.2 years with visual acuities >1.0 LogMAR was assessed via the Graz Mobility Test (GMT. Subjects passed through a maze in three different modalities: 'Normal' with visual and auditory information available, 'Auditory Information Loss' with artificially reduced hearing (leaving only visual information, and 'ETA' with a vibrating ETA based on ultrasonic waves, thereby facilitating visual, auditory, and tactile information. Main performance measures comprised passage time and number of contacts. Additionally, head tracking was used to relate head movements to motion direction. When comparing 'Auditory Information Loss' to 'Normal', subjects needed significantly more time (p<0.001, made more contacts (p<0.001, had higher relative viewing angles (p = 0.002, and a higher percentage of orientation losses (p = 0.011. The only significant difference when comparing 'ETA' to 'Normal' was a reduced number of contacts (p<0.001. Our study provides objective, quantifiable measures of the impact of reduced hearing on the navigation performance in low vision subjects. Significant effects of 'Auditory Information Loss' were found for all measures; for example, passage time increased by 17.4%. These findings show that low vision subjects rely on auditory information for navigation. In contrast, the impact of the ETA was not significant but further analysis of head movements revealed two different coping strategies: half of the subjects used the ETA to increase speed, whereas the other half aimed at avoiding contacts.

  1. Effectiveness of Interventions to Address Visual and Visual-Perceptual Impairments to Improve Occupational Performance in Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sue; Kaldenberg, Jennifer; Selmane, Romeissa; Carlo, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Visual and visual-perceptual impairments occur frequently with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and influence occupational performance. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve occupational performance for adults with visual and visual-perceptual impairments as a result of TBI. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched, and 66 full text articles were reviewed. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Strong evidence supports the use of scanning, limited evidence supports the use of adaptive strategies, and mixed evidence supports the use of cognitive interventions to improve occupational performance for adults with TBI. Evidence related to vision therapy varies on the basis of the specific intervention implemented. Although the strength of the research varied, implications are discussed for practice, education, and research. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. The Effects of Quality of Life and Ability to Perform Activities of Daily Living on Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older People Living in Publicly Managed Congregate Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Feng; Yang, Rea-Jeng; Chang, Shu-Fang; Chou, Yuan Hwa; Huang, Ean-Wen

    2017-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a decrease in cognitive abilities that does not affect the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Therefore, this condition is easily overlooked. The prevalence and factors of influence for MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing are currently unknown. This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing and assessed the correlations among quality of life (QoL), ADL, and MCI. This study applied a correlational study design. The participants were older people who met the study criteria and who lived in public housing in Wanhua District, Taipei City, Taiwan. One-on-one interviews were conducted to measure the cognitive abilities of the participants, and 299 valid samples were collected. The prevalence of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing was 16.1%. The χ test was employed to evaluate the distribution of MCI prevalence and indicated that the group with higher MCI prevalence exhibited the following characteristics: older than 81 years; married; lived in public housing for more than 20 years; cohabiting; had a history of drinking; and exhibited severe memory regression, physical disabilities, psychological distress, and low QoL. The difference between the groups achieved statistical significance (p < .05). After performing logistical regression analysis to control demographic variables, we found that QoL and ADL were critical for predicting MCI. This study confirmed that QoL and ADL correlate significantly with MCI in older people. Maintaining an open and supportive community enables older people to maintain sufficient mental activity, which has been shown to reduce MCI. These findings may provide an important reference for policy makers, educators, researchers, and community practitioners in their development of service strategies for older people.

  3. The COMT Val158 allele is associated with impaired delayed-match-to-sample performance in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored the association between three measures of working memory ability and genetic variation in a range of catecholamine genes in a sample of children with ADHD. Methods One hundred and eighteen children with ADHD performed three working memory measures taken from the CANTAB battery (Spatial Span, Delayed-match-to-sample, and Spatial Working Memory. Associations between performance on working memory measures and allelic variation in catecholamine genes (including those for the noradrenaline transporter [NET1], the dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes [DRD4; DRD2], the gene encoding dopamine beta hydroxylase [DBH] and catechol-O-methyl transferase [COMT] were investigated using regression models that controlled for age, IQ, gender and medication status on the day of test. Results Significant associations were found between performance on the delayed-match-to-sample task and COMT genotype. More specifically, val/val homozygotes produced significantly more errors than did children who carried a least one met allele. There were no further associations between allelic variants and performance across the other working memory tasks. Conclusions The working memory measures employed in the present study differed in the degree to which accurate task performance depended upon either the dynamic updating and/or manipulation of items in working memory, as in the spatial span and spatial working memory tasks, or upon the stable maintenance of representations, as in the delay-match–to-sample task. The results are interpreted as evidence of a relationship between tonic dopamine levels associated with the met COMT allele and the maintenance of stable working memory representations required to perform the delayed-match-to-sample-task.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  5. Resting State Default Mode Network Connectivity, Dual Task Performance, Gait Speed, and Postural Sway in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of falling. In particular, older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are more vulnerable to falling compared with their healthy counterparts. Major contributors to this increased falls risk include a decline in dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. Recent evidence highlights the potential influence of the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) on dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. The DMN is active during rest and deactivates during task-oriented processes, to maintain attention and stay on task. The FPN and SMA are involved in top-down attentional control, motor planning, and motor execution. The DMN shows less deactivation during task in older adults with MCI. This lack of deactivation is theorized to increase competition for resources between the DMN and task-related brain regions (e.g., the FPN and SMA), increasing distraction from the task and reducing task performance. However, no study has yet investigated the relationship between the between-network connectivity of the DMN with these regions and dual task walking, gait speed or postural sway. We hypothesized that greater functional connectivity both within the DMN and between DMN-FPN and DMN-SMA, will be associated with poorer performance during dual task walking, slower gait speed, and greater postural sway in older adults with MCI. Forty older adults with MCI were measured on a dual task-walking paradigm, gait speed over a 4-m walk, and postural sway using a sway-meter. Greater within-DMN connectivity was significantly correlated with poorer dual task performance. Furthermore, greater inter-network connectivity between the DMN and SMA was significantly correlated with slower gait speed and greater postural sway on the eyes open floor sway task. Thus, greater resting state DMN functional connectivity may be an underlying neural mechanism for reduced dual task

  6. A Pencil Rescues Impaired Performance on a Visual Discrimination Task in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Ashley R.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    We tested proposals that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support not just memory but certain kinds of visual perception as well. Patients with hippocampal lesions or larger MTL lesions attempted to identify the unique object among twin pairs of objects that had a high degree of feature overlap. Patients were markedly impaired under the more…

  7. Long-lasting suppression of hippocampal cell proliferation and impaired cognitive performance by methotrexate in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seigers, Riejanne; Schagen, Sanne B.; Beerling, Wieteke; Boogerd, Willem; Van Tellingen, Olaf; Van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2008-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a cytostatic agent widely used in combination with other agents as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and is associated with cognitive impairment as a long-term side effect in some cancer patients. This paper aimed to identify a neurobiological mechanism possibly

  8. Repetitive box lifting performance is impaired in a hot environment: implications for altered work-rest cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, Carl M; Sökmen, Bulent; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Dias, Joao C; Pryor, J Luke; Creighton, Brent C; Muñoz, Colleen X; Apicella, Jenna M; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; Anderson, Jeffery M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental temperature on repetitive box lifting (RBL) performance, associated stress hormone and creatine kinase (CK) responses. Ten healthy males performed two experimental trials in a random crossover design. The trials consisted of three 40 min (10 min sitting, 20 min standing, and 10 min RBL) circuits performed in either 23 °C or 38 °C followed by a 180 min seated recovery period in 23 °C. RBL performance (i.e., number of boxes lifted) was reduced (p ≤ 0.05) in 38 °C compared to the 23 °C trial. Physiological Strain Index was significantly different between trials (38 °C: 8.5 ± 1.1 versus 23 °C: 7.2 ± 0.7; p ≤ 0.01). Plasma testosterone was elevated (p ≤ 0.05) across both trials and then decreased at 60 min recovery, compared to pre-exercise (PRE) measures, but was higher (p ≤ 0.05) during the 38 °C trial. Plasma cortisol increased (p ≤ 0.05) at 60 min during both trials and remained elevated until 120 min in 23 °C, and until 60 min recovery in 38 °C. Serum CK was greater through 48 hr post compared to PRE values in both trials. Thus, 10 min RBL performance was reduced in 38 °C despite the 30-min rest periods between RBL intervals. Plasma testosterone and cortisol were generally higher during the 38 °C trial, suggesting a greater stress response. Additional research is needed to determine optimal work:rest cycles for maximizing work performance in thermally oppressive environments.

  9. Why does interactional justice promote organizational loyalty, job performance, and prevent mental impairment? The role of social support and social stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Kathleen; Mamatoglu, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Using social exchange theory as a conceptual framework, we investigated the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes organizational loyalty (affective commitment, turnover intentions), perceived job performance (self-rated performance, personal accomplishment), and mental impairment (cognitive irritation, emotional exhaustion) in an online survey of 218 employees working in the field of computer technology. Specifically, we predicted that interactional justice would heighten the quality of social exchange relationships and therefore expected perceived social support (POS) and bullying to mediate the proposed relationships. We tested our hypotheses applying a latent structural equation model. Our findings revealed that POS mediated the relationship between interactional justice and organizational loyalty, whereas bullying mediated the relationship between interactional justice and mental impairment. Practical implications are discussed concerning how to foster interactional justice and POS and how to weaken bullying behavior.

  10. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    -polymerization time intervals, the polymerization did not cause significant deficits in performance of the DA task, suggesting that hippocampal function was not impaired by PEDOT deposition. However, GFAP+ and ED-1+ cells were also found at the deposition two weeks after the polymerization, suggesting potential secondary scarring. Therefore, less extensive deposition or milder deposition conditions may be desirable to minimize this scarring while maintaining decreased system impedance.

  11. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  12. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  13. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  14. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Ferguson, Sally A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Anderson, Clare; Kennaway, David J; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked. Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2-7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2-3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4-7 shifts. Following 4-7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2-3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4-7 nights. Those working 4-7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5 (th), 25 (th), 50 (th), 75 (th)percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift. A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

  15. The Combined Utility of a Brief Functional Measure and Performance-Based Screening Test for Case Finding of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Qun Lin; Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Xu, Jing; Xu, Xin; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Dong, YanHong

    2016-04-01

    Use of a total risk score (TRS) based on vascular and sociodemographic risk factors has been recommended to identify patients at risk of cognitive impairment. Moreover, combining screening tests has been reported to improve positive predictive values (PPV) for case finding of cognitive impairment. We investigated the utility of the conjunctive combination of the informant-based AD8 and the performance-based National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute protocol for the detection of cognitive impairment, defined by a clinical dementia rating (CDR) score ≥0.5, in patients at risk of cognitive impairment (TRS ≥3). Participants were recruited from 2 primary healthcare centers in Singapore and received the AD8, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR, and a formal neuropsychological test battery. The scores for NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol were extracted from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment items. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to determine the discriminant indices of the screening instruments, the conjunctive combination (ie, screened positive on both tests), and the compensatory combination (ie, screened positive in either of or both tests). A total of 309 participants were recruited of whom 78.7% (n = 243) had CDR = 0 and 21.3% (n = 66) had CDR ≥0.5. The conjunctive combination of AD8 and NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol achieved excellent PPV and acceptable sensitivity (PPV 91.7%, sensitivity 73.3%). The conjunctive combination of the AD8 and NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is brief and accurate, and hence, suitable for case finding of cognitive impairment (CDR ≥0.5) in patients screened positive on the TRS in primary healthcare centers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  18. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  19. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Montesinos, Rosa; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Bardales, Yadira; Valeriano-Lorenzo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with vascular dementia (VD). Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation), and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS). Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46), contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24). The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16). Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients. PMID:29354218

  20. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI, patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and patients with vascular dementia (VD. Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation, and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE, and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS. Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46, contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24. The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16. Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients.

  1. Performance limits of coated particle fuel. Part I. The significance of empirical performance diagrams and mathematical models in fuel development and power reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, L. W.; Hick, H.

    1973-06-15

    This report introduces a general survey of our present knowledge and understanding of coated particle fuel performance. It defines first the reference power reactor conditions and the reference coated particle design on which the survey is centred. It describes then the typical strategy which has been followed in coated particle fuel development by the Dragon Project R & D Branch. Finally it shows the priorities which have governed the time scale and scope of fuel development and of the present review.

  2. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer before and after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Diagnostic performance and prognostic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Ju; Hur, Bo Yun [National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Chan; Hyun, Jong Hee; Chang, Hee Jin; Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dae Yong; Oh, Jae Hwan [National Cancer Centre, Centre for Colorectal Cancer, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [National Cancer Centre, Centre for Colorectal Cancer, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in terms of identifying extramural venous invasion (EMVI) in rectal cancer patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and its prognostic significance. During 2008-2010, 200 patients underwent surgery following preoperative CRT for rectal cancer. Two radiologists independently reviewed all pre- and post-CRT MRI retrospectively. We investigated diagnostic performance of pre-CRT MR-EMVI (MR-EMVI) and post-CRT MR-EMVI (yMR-EMVI), based on pathological EMVI as the standard of reference. We assessed correlation between MRI findings and patients' prognosis, such as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Additionally, subgroup analysis in MR- or yMR-EMVI-positive patients was performed to confirm the significance of the severity of EMVI in MRI on patient's prognosis. The sensitivity and specificity of yMR-EMVI were 76.19% and 79.75% (area under the curve: 0.830), respectively. In univariate analysis, yMR-EMVI was the only significant MRI factor in DFS (P = 0.027). The mean DFS for yMR-EMVI (+) patients was significantly less than for yMR-EMVI (-) patients: 57.56 months versus 72.46 months. yMR-EMVI demonstrated good diagnostic performance. yMR-EMVI was the only significant EMVI-related MRI factor that correlated with patients' DFS in univariate analysis; however, it was not significant in multivariate analysis. (orig.)

  4. Reorganization of motor cortex and impairment of motor performance induced by hindlimb unloading are partially reversed by cortical IGF-1 administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoet, Julien; Canu, Marie-Hélène; Gillet, Christophe; Fourneau, Julie; Garnier, Cyril; Bastide, Bruno; Dupont, Erwan

    2017-01-15

    Immobilization, bed rest, or sedentary lifestyle, are known to induce a profound impairment in sensorimotor performance. These alterations are due to a combination of peripheral and central factors. Previous data conducted on a rat model of disuse (hindlimb unloading, HU) have shown a profound reorganization of motor cortex and an impairment of motor performance. Recently, our interest was turned towards the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in cerebral plasticity since this growth factor is considered as the mediator of beneficial effects of exercise on the central nervous system, and its cortical level is decreased after a 14-day period of HU. In the present study, we attempted to determine whether a chronic subdural administration of IGF-1 in HU rats could prevent deleterious effects of HU on the motor cortex and on motor activity. We demonstrated that HU induces a shrinkage of hindlimb cortical representation and an increase in current threshold to elicit a movement. Administration of IGF-1 in HU rats partially reversed these changes. The functional evaluation revealed that IGF-1 prevents the decrease in spontaneous activity found in HU rats and the changes in hip kinematics during overground locomotion, but had no effect of challenged locomotion (ladder rung walking test). Taken together, these data clearly indicate the implication of IGF-1 in cortical plastic mechanisms and in behavioral alteration induced by a decreased in sensorimotor activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  6. Decision-making processes in the workplace : how exhaustion, lack of resources and job demands impair them and affect performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschi, A.; Demerouti, E.; Sartori, R.; Weller, J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been

  7. Decision-making processes in the workplace : How exhaustion, lack of resources and job demands impair them and affect performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been

  8. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy and decision environment management (DEM. Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  9. Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus

    Full Text Available The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C to adenine (A in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age. Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

  10. Plasticity, permanence and patient performance: study design and data analysis in the cognitive rehabilitation of acquired communication impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E Cowell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication impairments such as aphasia and apraxia can follow brain injury and result in limitation of an individual's participation in social interactions, and capacity to convey needs and desires. Our research group developed a computerised treatment programme which is based on neuroscientific principles of speech production (Varley and Whiteside, 2001; Varley, 2010; Whiteside and Varley, 1998 and has been shown to improve communication in people with apraxia and aphasia (Dyson et al., 2009; Varley et al., 2009. Investigations of treatment efficacy have presented challenges in study design, effect measurement and statistical analysis which are likely to be shared by other researchers in the wider field of cognitive neurorehabilitation evaluation. Several key factors define neurocognitively based therapies, and differentiate them and their evaluation from other forms of medical intervention. These include: (1 inability to blind patients to the content of the treatment and control procedures; (2 neurocognitive changes that are more permanent than pharmacological treatments on which many medical study designs are based; and (3 the semi-permanence of therapeutic effects means that new baselines are set throughout the course of a given treatment study, against which comparative interventions or long term retention effects must be measured. This article examines key issues in study design, effect measurement and data analysis in relation to the rehabilitation of patients undergoing treatment for apraxia of speech. Results from our research support a case for the use of multiperiod, multiphase cross-over design with specific computational adjustments and statistical considerations. The paper provides researchers in the field with a methodologically feasible and statistically viable alternative to other designs used in rehabilitation sciences.

  11. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  12. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  13. Significant determinants of academic performance by new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. The case of the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Moncada Mora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the significant determiners of academic performance of new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. A description and correlation of the variables were undertaken to formalize the probabilistic model that confirms the positive, negative, individual and global effects.

  14. Congenital hearing impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, Caroline D. [Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  15. Congenital hearing impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Caroline D.

    2006-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  16. Performance Evaluation of Analog Beamforming with Hardware Impairments for mmW Massive MIMO Communication in an Urban Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gimenez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques for communication at millimeter-Wave (mmW frequency bands has become a key enabler to meet the data rate demands of the upcoming fifth generation (5G cellular systems. In particular, analog and hybrid beamforming solutions are receiving increasing attention as less expensive and more power efficient alternatives to fully digital precoding schemes. Despite their proven good performance in simple setups, their suitability for realistic cellular systems with many interfering base stations and users is still unclear. Furthermore, the performance of massive MIMO beamforming and precoding methods are in practice also affected by practical limitations and hardware constraints. In this sense, this paper assesses the performance of digital precoding and analog beamforming in an urban cellular system with an accurate mmW channel model under both ideal and realistic assumptions. The results show that analog beamforming can reach the performance of fully digital maximum ratio transmission under line of sight conditions and with a sufficient number of parallel radio-frequency (RF chains, especially when the practical limitations of outdated channel information and per antenna power constraints are considered. This work also shows the impact of the phase shifter errors and combiner losses introduced by real phase shifter and combiner implementations over analog beamforming, where the former ones have minor impact on the performance, while the latter ones determine the optimum number of RF chains to be used in practice.

  17. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  18. Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Brouwer, E.M.; Nienaber-Rousseau, C.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied. The objective of this study was to explore the

  19. Study of the Ability of Articulation Index (Al for Predicting the Unaided and Aided Speech Recognition Performance of 25 to 65 Years Old Hearing-Impaired Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Mohammad Khani

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been increased interest in the use of Al for assessing hearing handicap and for measuring the potential effectiveness of amplification system. AI is an expression of proportion of average speech signal that is audible to a given patient, and it can vary between 0.0 to 1.0. Method and Materials: This cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in department of audiology, rehabilitation, faculty, IUMS form 31 Oct 98 to 7 March 1999, on 40 normal hearing persons (80 ears; 19 males and 21 females and 40 hearing impaired persons (61 ears; 36 males and 25 females, 25-65 years old with moderate to moderately severe SNI-IL The pavlovic procedure (1988 for calculating Al, open set taped standard mono syllabic word lists, and the real -ear probe- tube microphone system to measure insertion gain were used, through test-retest. Results: 1/A significant correlation was shown between the Al scores and the speech recognition scores of normal hearing and hearing-impaired group with and without the hearing aid (P<0.05 2/ There was no significant differences in age group & sex: also 3 In test-retest measures of the insertion gain in each test and 4/No significant in test-retest of speech recognition test score. Conclusion: According to these results the Al can predict the unaided and aided monosyllabic recognition test scores very well, and age and sex variables have no effect on its ability. Therefore with respect to high reliability of the Al results and its simplicity, easy -to- use, cost effective, and little time consuming for calculation, its recommended the wide use of the Al, especially in clinical situation.

  20. Overnight social isolation in pigs decreases salivary cortisol but does not impair spatial learning and memory or performance in a decision making task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Josef evan der Staay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive Holeboard (HB task (Experiment 1 and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT (Experiment 2, a decision making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of nineteen female pigs with a birthweight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16 and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 minutes after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period, and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance

  1. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  2. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna [Seoul National University, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yanof, Jeffrey H. [Philips Healthcare, CT Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI{sub vol} and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI{sub vol} varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI{sub vol} and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI{sub vol} (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI{sub vol} (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  3. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna; Park, Seong Ho; Yanof, Jeffrey H.; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI vol and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI vol varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI vol and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI vol (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI vol (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  4. Impaired Physical Performance and Clinical Responses after a Recreational Bodybuilder's Self-Administration of Steroids: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Katherine; Silva-Junior, Fernando Lopes; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; De-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We reported clinical and physical responses to 7 weeks of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) self-administration in a male recreational bodybuilder. He was self-administrating a total of 3,250 mg of testosterone when his previous and current clinical and physical trials records were revisited. Body shape, performance, and biochemistry results were clustered into three phases labeled PRE (before the self-use), POST I (immediately at the cessation of the 7-week administration), and POST II (12 weeks after the cessation). Elevated testosterone and estradiol levels were observed in the POST I phase, while hepatic and renal functions remained altered in the POST II phase. Body mass and body fat percentages increased throughout the three phases. When adjusted according to body mass, drops in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity (2.1% to 12.9%) were observed across the phases. This case report shows that overall performance decreased when a bodybuilding practitioner self-administered AAS. PMID:26770942

  5. Performance characteristics of CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay and clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 assay in patients with malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.E.; Shong, Y.K.; Cho, B.Y.; Kim, N.K.; Koh, C.S.; Lee, M.H.; Hong, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay and the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 assay in patients with malignancy, serum CA 19-9 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibody in 135 normal controls, 81 patients with various untreated malignancy, 9 patients of postoperative colon cancer without recurrence and 20 patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases, who visited Seoul National University Hospital from June, 1984 to March, 1985. (Author)

  6. The effect of passive listening versus active observation of music and dance performances on memory recognition and mild to moderate depression in cognitively impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.

  7. There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N; Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Songbo; Li, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether, when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups. Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  9. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  10. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  11. Significant improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal CPAP therapy - Observational study and randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Boerner

    Full Text Available The olfactory function highly impacts quality of life (QoL. Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is often applied by nasal masks (nCPAP. The influence of nCPAP on the olfactory performance of OSA patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nCPAP and after three months treatment, in moderate and severe OSA patients.The sense of smell was assessed in 35 patients suffering from daytime sleepiness and moderate to severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 15/h, with the aid of a validated test battery (Sniffin' Sticks before initiation of nCPAP therapy and after three months of treatment. Additionally, adherent subjects were included in a double-blind randomized three weeks CPAP-withdrawal trial (sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.Twenty five of the 35 patients used the nCPAP therapy for more than four hours per night, and for more than 70% of nights (adherent group. The olfactory performance of these patients improved significantly (p = 0.007 after three months of nCPAP therapy. When considering the entire group of patients, olfaction also improved significantly (p = 0.001. In the randomized phase the sense of smell of six patients deteriorated under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure (p = 0.046 whereas five patients in the maintenance CPAP group showed no significant difference (p = 0.501.Olfactory performance improved significantly after three months of nCPAP therapy in patients suffering from moderate and severe OSA. It seems that this effect of nCPAP is reversible under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.ISRCTN11128866.

  12. Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, Miriam Z; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Few well-controlled studies have examined psychomotor and cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients (MMP). In the present study, performance of 18 opioid-dependent MMP was evaluated relative to that of 21 control participants without substance abuse histories. The MMP and control groups were balanced with respect to gender, race, age, years of education, current employment status, current reading level, and estimated IQ score. Recent drug abstinence was verified by urine testing. Participants with a urine screen positive for benzodiazepines or a breathalyzer test positive for alcohol prior to performance testing were excluded. To avoid testing under conditions of acute heroin or cocaine intoxication, but without testing under conditions of acute withdrawal, participants with current use of heroin or cocaine were only required to abstain for 24 h prior to performance testing. MMP exhibited impairment relative to controls in psychomotor speed (digit symbol substitution and trail-making tests), working memory (two-back task), decision making (gambling task), and metamemory (confidence ratings on a recognition memory test); results also suggested possible impairment in inhibitory mechanisms (Stroop color-word paradigm). MMP did not exhibit impairment in time estimation, conceptual flexibility or long-term memory. The wide range of impaired functions is striking, and may have important implications for daily functioning in MMP. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical significance of the impairments in laboratory-based tests for daily performance in the natural environment, as well as to differentiate impairments due to acute methadone dosing, chronic methadone maintenance, chronic poly-drug abuse, and other factors. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Irealnd Ltd.

  13. Performance in hippocampus- and PFC-dependent cognitive domains are not concomitantly impaired in rats exposed to 20 cGy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Richard A.; Miller, Vania D.; Hadley, Melissa M.; Jewell, Jessica S.; Macadat, Evangeline

    2016-08-01

    NASA is currently conducting ground based experiments to determine whether the radiation environment that astronauts will encounter on deep space missions will have an impact on their long-term health and their ability to complete the various tasks during the mission. Emerging data suggest that exposure of rodents to mission-relevant HZE radiation doses does result in the impairment of various neurocognitive processes. An essential part of mission planning is a probabilistic risk assessment process that takes into account the likely incidence and severity of a problem. To date few studies have reported the impact of space radiation in a format that is amenable to PRA, and those that have only reported data for a single cognitive process. This study has established the ability of individual male Wistar rats to conduct a hippocampus-dependent (spatial memory) task and a cortex-dependent (attentional set shifting task) 90 days after exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles. Radiation-induced impairment of performance in one cognitive domain was not consistently associated with impaired performance in the other domain. Thus sole reliance upon a single measure of cognitive performance may substantially under-estimate the risk of cognitive impairment, and ultimately it may be necessary to establish the likelihood that mission-relevant HZE doses will impair performance in the three or four cognitive domains that NASA considers to be most critical for mission success, and build a PRA using the composite data from such studies.

  14. Feeding broiler breeders a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period impairs reproductive performance but enhances broiler offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Leblois, J; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian studies have shown that nutritional constraints during the perinatal period are able to program the progeny (metabolism, performance). The presented research aimed to investigate if broiler breeders and their offspring performance could be influenced by reducing the dietary crude protein (CP) level with 25%. A total of 160 day-old pure line A breeder females were randomly divided over 2 dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial diets, whereas the reduced balanced protein (RP) breeders received an isoenergetic diet that was decreased with 25% in dietary CP and amino acid during their entire lifespan. The RP birds required an increased feed allowance, varying between 3 and 15%, to meet the same BW goals as their control fed counterparts. The difference in feed allocations and reduction of the dietary CP level resulted in a net protein reduction varying between 14 and 23%. At wk 27 and 40, the body composition of the breeders was changed as a result of the dietary treatment. At both ages, the proportional abdominal fat pad weight of the RP breeders was increased (P < 0.001), whereas the proportional breast muscle weight was only higher at wk 27 in the control group compared to the RP group (P < 0.001). Egg weight (P < 0.001) and egg production (P < 0.001) was decreased for the RP fed birds. The lower dietary CP level reduced the proportional albumen weight of the RP eggs (P = 0.006). Male offspring from RP breeders were characterized by an increase in BW from 28 d until 35 d of age (P = 0.015). Moreover, female progeny of RP breeders showed a reduced FCR (P = 0.025), whereas male progeny showed a tendency (P = 0.052) towards a lower FCR at 5 wk of age. In conclusion, lowering dietary CP levels in rearing and laying phase of breeders had a negative effect on breeder performance but enhanced live performance of the offspring. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Construction of a web-based questionnaire for longitudinal investigation of work exposure, musculoskeletal pain and performance impairments in high-performance marine craft populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Martire, Riccardo; de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen; Äng, Björn Olov; Garme, Karl

    2017-07-20

    High-performance marine craft personnel (HPMCP) are regularly exposed to vibration and repeated shock (VRS) levels exceeding maximum limitations stated by international legislation. Whereas such exposure reportedly is detrimental to health and performance, the epidemiological data necessary to link these adverse effects causally to VRS are not available in the scientific literature, and no suitable tools for acquiring such data exist. This study therefore constructed a questionnaire for longitudinal investigations in HPMCP. A consensus panel defined content domains, identified relevant items and outlined a questionnaire. The relevance and simplicity of the questionnaire's content were then systematically assessed by expert raters in three consecutive stages, each followed by revisions. An item-level content validity index (I-CVI) was computed as the proportion of experts rating an item as relevant and simple, and a scale-level content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) as the average I-CVI across items. The thresholds for acceptable content validity were 0.78 and 0.90, respectively. Finally, a dynamic web version of the questionnaire was constructed and pilot tested over a 1-month period during a marine exercise in a study population sample of eight subjects, while accelerometers simultaneously quantified VRS exposure. Content domains were defined as work exposure, musculoskeletal pain and human performance, and items were selected to reflect these constructs. Ratings from nine experts yielded S-CVI/Ave of 0.97 and 1.00 for relevance and simplicity, respectively, and the pilot test suggested that responses were sensitive to change in acceleration and that the questionnaire, following some adjustments, was feasible for its intended purpose. A dynamic web-based questionnaire for longitudinal survey of key variables in HPMCP was constructed. Expert ratings supported that the questionnaire content is relevant, simple and sufficiently comprehensive, and the pilot test suggested

  16. Differential impairments underlying decision making in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a cognitive modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Trista Wai Sze; Ahn, Woo-Young; Bates, John E; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Guillaume, Sebastien; Redgrave, Graham W; Danner, Unna N; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the underlying processes of decision-making impairments in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). We deconstructed their performance on the widely used decision task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) into cognitive, motivational, and response processes using cognitive modeling analysis. We hypothesized that IGT performance would be characterized by impaired memory functions and heightened punishment sensitivity in AN, and by elevated sensitivity to reward as opposed to punishment in BN. We analyzed trial-by-trial data of IGT obtained from 224 individuals: 94 individuals with AN, 63 with BN, and 67 healthy comparison individuals (HC). The prospect valence learning model was used to assess cognitive, motivational, and response processes underlying IGT performance. Individuals with AN showed marginally impaired IGT performance compared to HC. Their performance was characterized by impairments in memory functions. Individuals with BN showed significantly impaired IGT performance compared to HC. They showed greater relative sensitivity to gains as opposed to losses than HC. Memory functions in AN were positively correlated with body mass index. This study identified differential impairments underlying IGT performance in AN and BN. Findings suggest that impaired decision making in AN might involve impaired memory functions. Impaired decision making in BN might involve altered reward and punishment sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selective decline of neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor genes within CA1 pyramidal neurons and hippocampus proper: Correlation with cognitive performance and neuropathology in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael H; Alldred, Melissa J; Che, Shaoli; Elarova, Irina; Chen, Yinghua; Jeanneteau, Freddy; Kranz, Thorsten M; Chao, Moses V; Counts, Scott E; Mufson, Elliott J

    2017-09-09

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections. Gene expression levels were correlated with cognitive test scores and AD neuropathology criteria. We found a significant downregulation of several neurotrophin genes (e.g., Gdnf, Ngfb, and Ntf4) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in MCI compared to NCI and AD subjects. In addition, the neurotrophin receptor transcripts TrkB and TrkC were decreased in MCI and AD compared to NCI. Regional hippocampal dissections also revealed select neurotrophic gene dysfunction providing evidence for vulnerability within the hippocampus proper during the progression of dementia. Downregulation of several neurotrophins of the NGF family and cognate neurotrophin receptor (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) genes correlated with antemortem cognitive measures including the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), a composite global cognitive score (GCS), and Episodic, Semantic, and Working Memory, Perceptual Speed, and Visuospatial domains. Significant correlations were found between select neurotrophic expression downregulation and neuritic plaques (NPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), but not diffuse plaques (DPs). These data suggest that dysfunction of neurotrophin signaling complexes have profound negative sequelae within vulnerable hippocampal cell types, which play a role in mnemonic and executive dysfunction

  18. Total sleep deprivation does not significantly degrade semantic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, K A; Grant, D A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, Hpa

    2018-01-17

    Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level. Thus, the performance impairment induced by sleep deprivation on this task occurred in cognitive processes downstream of semantic encoding.

  19. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, M; Büttner, P; Sarau, G; Höflich, K; Heilmann, M; Chen, W; Wen, X; Conibeer, G; Christiansen, S H

    2017-02-03

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device's active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 [Formula: see text] alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments-chemical etching and alumina deposition-reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  20. Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiyi, Li; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    at 2C. The battery performance is significantly better than that of pure LTO electrode and LTO/graphene electrode.

  1. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  2. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  3. Working memory and novel word learning in children with hearing impairment and children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K; Forsberg, J; Löfqvist, A; Mäki-Torkko, E; Sahlén, B

    2004-01-01

    Working memory is considered to influence a range of linguistic skills, i.e. vocabulary acquisition, sentence comprehension and reading. Several studies have pointed to limitations of working memory in children with specific language impairment. Few studies, however, have explored the role of working memory for language deficits in children with hearing impairment. The first aim was to compare children with mild-to-moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment and children with normal language development, aged 9-12 years, for language and working memory. The special focus was on the role of working memory in learning new words for primary school age children. The assessment of working memory included tests of phonological short-term memory and complex working memory. Novel word learning was assessed according to the methods of. In addition, a range of language tests was used to assess language comprehension, output phonology and reading. Children with hearing impairment performed significantly better than children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment on tasks assessing novel word learning, complex working memory, sentence comprehension and reading accuracy. No significant correlation was found between phonological short-term memory and novel word learning in any group. The best predictor of novel word learning in children with specific language impairment and in children with hearing impairment was complex working memory. Furthermore, there was a close relationship between complex working memory and language in children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment but not in children with hearing impairment. Complex working memory seems to play a significant role in vocabulary acquisition in primary school age children. The interpretation is that the results support theories suggesting a weakened influence of phonological short-term memory on novel word

  4. Short-course radiotherapy, with elective delay prior to surgery, in patients with unresectable rectal cancer who have poor performance status or significant co-morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, Paul; Hingorani, Mohan; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Cooper, Rachel; Melcher, Alan; Crellin, Adrian; Kwok-Williams, Michelle; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Standard treatment for rectal cancer which threatens the expected plane of resection on MRI imaging is long-course, pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (1.8-2 Gy, 25-28 fractions). Not all patients are suitable for this because of age, poor performance status or co-morbidities. We describe our experience of short-course (5 x 5 Gy) pre-operative radiotherapy with planned, delayed surgery (SCPRT-delay) in this patient group. Materials and methods: Between April 2001 and October 2007, 43 patients were selected for SCPRT-delay. The clinical records were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 82 (range 58-87). Forty-one patients had radiotherapy of which 26 (61%) were subsequently able to have surgery. Of these, R0, R1 and R2 resections were performed in 22, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, although two patients required hospital admission for management of diarrhoea and one developed significant late small bowel toxicity, attributable to radiotherapy. In those undergoing R0 or R1 resection there have been no local recurrences (median follow-up 18 months). Median survival for the whole group was 23 months, although this was 44 months in those undergoing surgery. Conclusions: SCPRT-delay appears to be a useful alternative to long-course pre-operative chemoradiotherapy in this high-risk group of patients.

  5. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  6. Motor Imagery Impairment in Postacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=20 for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks. However, only the mental chronometry task and EEG analysis revealed paresis side-specific effects. Moreover, sensitivity loss contributed to a performance drop in the mental rotation task. The findings indicate that although MI abilities may be impaired after stroke, most patients retain their ability for MI EEG-based neurofeedback. Interestingly, performance in the different MI measures did not strongly correlate, neither in stroke patients nor in healthy controls. We conclude that one MI measure is not sufficient to fully assess an individual’s MI abilities.

  7. Performance Characteristics of CA 19-9 Radioimmunoassay and Clinical Significance of Serum CA 19-9 Assay in Patients with Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shong, Young Kee; Cho, Bo Youn; Kim, Noe Kyeong; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Hong, Seong Woon; Hong, Kee Suk

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay and the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 assay in patients with malignancy, serum. CA 19-9 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibody in 135 normal controls, 81 patients with various untreated malignancy, 9 patients of postoperative colon cancer without recurrence and 20 patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases, who visited Seoul National University Hospital from June, 1984 to March, 1985. The results were as follows; 1) The CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay was simple to perform and can be completed in one work day. And the between-assay reproducibility and the assay recovery were both excellent. 2) The mean serum CA 19-9 level in 135 normal controls was 8.4±4.2 U/mL. Normal upper limit of serum CA 19-9 was defined as 21.0 U/mL. 4 out of 135 (3.0%) normal controls showed elevated CA 19-9 levels above the normal upper limit. 3) One out of 20 (5.0%) patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases showed elevated serum CA 19-9 level above the normal upper limit. 4) In 81 patients with various untreated malignancy, 41 patients (50.6%) showed elevated serum CA 19-9 levels. 66.7% of 18 patients with colorectal cancer, 100% of 2 patients with pancreatic cancer, 100% of 3 patients with common bile duct cancer, 47.1% of 17 patients with stomach cancer, 28.6% of 28 patients with hepatoma and 60.0% of 5 gastrointestinal tract cancers showed elevated serum CA 19-9 levels. 5) The sensitivities of serum CA 19-9 related to respectability in colorectal and stomach cancer were 33.3% in resectable colorectal cancer, 83.3% in unresectable colorectal cancer, 41.7% in resectable stomach cancer, 60.0% in unresectable stomach cancer respectively. 6) The sensitivity of serum CA 19-9 in 9 patients of postoperative colorectal cancer without recurrence were 33.3% and significantly decreased compared with that of untreated colorectal cancer, 66.7% (p<0.05). 7) In Patients with colorectal cancer

  8. Cognitive Impairment in Infratentorial Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Beginning in the mid-1980s, with anatomical, behavioral, and neuropsychological evidence, it was suggested that the role of the cerebellum extends beyond a purely motor domain. A series of articles were published reviewing the potential role of the cerebellum in cognition. Both of these functions are supported by connections of dentate nucleus and frontal cortex through the thalamus. The cognitive profile of isolated subtentorial and cerebellar infarcts is related to the involved frontal circuit (especially executive functions. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the cognitive profile of cerebellar and subtentorial infarcts. METHODS: Nineteen patients with infratentorial infarcts and 19 neurologically healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Neuropsychometric test battery was employed in both of the groups. RESULTS: Age, sex, education, clinical syndrome, and localization had no effect on the cognitive test performances. Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, a verbal memory test, was worse in the patient group. Patients had difficulties in recognizing the items of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and spent significantly more time to complete the trail making test part B. The patient group also demonstrated lower performance level in the verbal fluency test when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The cognitive impairment pattern of the verbal and visual memory tests and impairment determined on the verbal fluency test and the trail making tests may imply frontal impairment. Our results support the knowledge that cerebellar or brainstem strokes cause mild frontal type cognitive syndrome by damaging cerebello-ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways

  9. On the computational assessment of white matter hyperintensity progression: difficulties in method selection and bias field correction performance on images with significant white matter pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Gonzalez-Castro, Victor; Wang, Xin; Doubal, Fergus; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Centre for Clinical Brian Sciences, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ghandour, Dina T. [University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Subtle inhomogeneities in the scanner's magnetic fields (B{sub 0} and B{sub 1}) alter the intensity levels of the structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affecting the volumetric assessment of WMH changes. Here, we investigate the influence that (1) correcting the images for the B{sub 1} inhomogeneities (i.e. bias field correction (BFC)) and (2) selection of the WMH change assessment method can have on longitudinal analyses of WMH progression and discuss possible solutions. We used brain structural MRI from 46 mild stroke patients scanned at stroke onset and 3 years later. We tested three BFC approaches: FSL-FAST, N4 and exponentially entropy-driven homomorphic unsharp masking (E{sup 2}D-HUM) and analysed their effect on the measured WMH change. Separately, we tested two methods to assess WMH changes: measuring WMH volumes independently at both time points semi-automatically (MCMxxxVI) and subtracting intensity-normalised FLAIR images at both time points following image gamma correction. We then combined the BFC with the computational method that performed best across the whole sample to assess WMH changes. Analysis of the difference in the variance-to-mean intensity ratio in normal tissue between BFC and uncorrected images and visual inspection showed that all BFC methods altered the WMH appearance and distribution, but FSL-FAST in general performed more consistently across the sample and MRI modalities. The WMH volume change over 3 years obtained with MCMxxxVI with vs. without FSL-FAST BFC did not significantly differ (medians(IQR)(with BFC) = 3.2(6.3) vs. 2.9(7.4)ml (without BFC), p = 0.5), but both differed significantly from the WMH volume change obtained from subtracting post-processed FLAIR images (without BFC)(7.6(8.2)ml, p < 0.001). This latter method considerably inflated the WMH volume change as subtle WMH at baseline that became more intense at follow-up were counted as increase in the volumetric change. Measurement of WMH volume change remains

  10. The special status of verbal knowledge in semantic memory: evidence from performance of semantically impaired subjects on verbalizable and non-verbalizable versions of the object decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Luzzi, Simona; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2014-01-01

    According to the semantic hub hypothesis, a supramodal semantic hub is equally needed to deal with verbal and extraverbal "surface" representations. Damage to the supramodal hub is thought to underlie the crossmodal impairment observed in selective semantic deficits. In the present paper, we provide evidence supporting an alternative view: we hold that semantic impairment is not equal across domains but affects verbal behavior disproportionately. We investigated our hypothesis by manipulating the verbal load in an object decision task. Two pathological groups showing different levels of semantic impairment were enrolled together with their normal controls. The severe group included 10 subjects with semantic dementia and the mild group 10 subjects with Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with our hypothesis, when shifting from the low verbal load to the high verbal load condition, brain-damaged individuals, as compared to controls, showed a disproportionate impairment as a function of the severity of their semantic deficit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Psychological Distress and Personality Traits on Cognitive Performances and the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Honings, S.T.H.; Ponds, R.W.; Aalten, P.; Kohler, S.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relation between psychological distress, personality traits, and cognitive decline in cognitively impaired patients remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of psychological distress and personality traits on cognitive functioning in subjects with mild cognitive

  12. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  13. Extent and neural basis of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Didic, Mira; Joubert, Sven; Guedj, Eric; Koric, Lejla; Felician, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that semantic memory is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the extent and the neural basis of this impairment remain unknown. The aim of the present study was: 1) to evaluate whether all or only a subset of semantic domains are impaired in MCI patients; and 2) to assess the neural substrate of the semantic impairment in MCI patients using voxel-based analysis of MR grey matter density and SPECT perfusion. 29 predominantly amnestic MCI patients and 29 matched control subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a full neuropsychological assessment, along with a battery of five tests evaluating different domains of semantic memory. A semantic memory composite Z-score was established on the basis of this battery and was correlated with MRI grey matter density and SPECT perfusion measures. MCI patients were found to have significantly impaired performance across all semantic tasks, in addition to their anterograde memory deficit. Moreover, no temporal gradient was found for famous faces or famous public events and knowledge for the most remote decades was also impaired. Neuroimaging analyses revealed correlations between semantic knowledge and perirhinal/entorhinal areas as well as the anterior hippocampus. Therefore, the deficits in the realm of semantic memory in patients with MCI is more widespread than previously thought and related to dysfunction of brain areas beyond the limbic-diencephalic system involved in episodic memory. The severity of the semantic impairment may indicate a decline of semantic memory that began many years before the patients first consulted.

  14. Postoperative pain impairs subsequent performance on a spatial memory task via effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haidong; Kawano, Takashi; Tamura, Takahiko; Iwata, Hideki; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Satoru; Yamazaki, Fumimoto; Kumagai, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-12-18

    Pain may be associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD); however, this relationship remains under investigated. Therefore, we examined the impact of postoperative pain on cognitive functions in aged animals. Rats were allocated to the following groups: control (C), 1.2 % isoflurane for 2 hours alone (I), I with laparotomy (IL), IL with analgesia using local ropivacaine (IL+R), and IL with analgesia using systemic morphine (IL+M). Pain was assessed by rat grimace scale (RGS). Spatial memory was evaluated using a radial maze from postoperative days (POD) 3 to 14. NMDA receptor (NR) 2 subunits in hippocampus were measured by ELISA. Finally, effects of memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on postoperative cognitive performance were tested. Postoperative RGS was increased in Group IL, but not in other groups. The number of memory errors in Group I were comparable to that in Group C, whereas errors in Group IL were increased. Importantly, in Group IL+R and IL+M, cognitive impairment was not found. The memory errors were positively correlated with the levels of NMDA receptor 2 subunits in hippocampus. Prophylactic treatment with memantine could prevent the development of memory deficits observed in Group IL without an analgesic effect. Postoperative pain contributes to the development of memory deficits after anesthesia and surgery via up-regulation of hippocampal NMDA receptors. Our findings suggest that postoperative pain management may be important for the prevention of POCD in elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS.

  16. Performance studies of GooFit on GPUs vs RooFit on CPUs while estimating the statistical significance of a new physical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Florio, Adriano

    2017-10-01

    In order to test the computing capabilities of GPUs with respect to traditional CPU cores a high-statistics toy Monte Carlo technique has been implemented both in ROOT/RooFit and GooFit frameworks with the purpose to estimate the statistical significance of the structure observed by CMS close to the kinematical boundary of the J/ψϕ invariant mass in the three-body decay B + → J/ψϕK +. GooFit is a data analysis open tool under development that interfaces ROOT/RooFit to CUDA platform on nVidia GPU. The optimized GooFit application running on GPUs hosted by servers in the Bari Tier2 provides striking speed-up performances with respect to the RooFit application parallelised on multiple CPUs by means of PROOF-Lite tool. The considerable resulting speed-up, evident when comparing concurrent GooFit processes allowed by CUDA Multi Process Service and a RooFit/PROOF-Lite process with multiple CPU workers, is presented and discussed in detail. By means of GooFit it has also been possible to explore the behaviour of a likelihood ratio test statistic in different situations in which the Wilks Theorem may or may not apply because its regularity conditions are not satisfied.

  17. Review of Studies of Clay Minerals as Significant Component of Potential Host Rocks or Engineering Barriers for Radioactive Waste Disposals Performed at Comenius University in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Uhlik; Vladimir, Sucha; Maria, Caplovicova; Igor, Stricek

    2013-01-01

    About 50 % of electric power is produced by nuclear power plants in Slovakia. In spite of the significant production of nuclear waste, Slovakia has not defined basic strategy of radioactive-waste isolation. However, some pilot projects and studies have been carried out. Five areas were determined as prospective sites for construction of deep geological repository (DGR). Two of them are situated in the south of Slovakia. Szecseny schlier (mixture of siltstones and Clay-stones) of Lucenec Formation (Egerian) is one of the most prospective host rocks from lithological, structural and spatial perspective. Besides the investigation of potential host rock for DGR the studies of bentonite properties as important part of engineering barriers for radioactive waste disposals were performed. Detailed mineral and structural analyses of smectites from the bentonitic material exposed to laboratory Mock-Up test were realised. Particular interest has been focused on interaction between Fe and smectites. Other field of interest is investigation of sorption of Cs and Sr on natural and modified bentonites, including irradiation. Purpose of this work is to present a short review of other studies done by our group with partial focusing to interaction of organic dye (Rhoda-mine 6G) with smectite that is connected with changes of layer charge after treatment; possibilities to measure preferential orientation of clays after compaction by TEM and to effort to use X-ray micro-tomography for inner structure of sediments. (authors)

  18. Heterostructured TiO2/NiTiO3 Nanorod Arrays for Inorganic Sensitized Solar Cells with Significantly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Ying; Wang, Jian-Gan; Sun, Huan-Huan; Wei, Bingqing

    2018-04-11

    Organic dyes used in the conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suffer from poor light stability and high cost. In this work, we demonstrate a new inorganic sensitized solar cell based on ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanorod arrays of TiO 2 /NiTiO 3 (NTO) heterostructures prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. The semiconductor heterostructure arrays are highly desirable and promising for DSSCs because of their direct charge transport capability and slow charge recombination rate. The low-cost NTO inorganic semiconductor possesses an appropriate band gap that matches well with TiO 2 , which behaves like a "dye" to enable efficient light harvesting and fast electron-hole separation. The solar cells constructed by the ordered TiO 2 /NTO heterostructure photoanodes show a significantly improved power conversion efficiency, high fill factor, and more promising, outstanding life stability. The present work will open up an avenue to design heterostructured inorganics for high-performance solar cells.

  19. Selective cognitive impairments associated with NMDA receptor blockade in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Laura M; Astur, Robert S; Jung, Rex E; Bustillo, Juan R; Lauriello, John; Yeo, Ronald A

    2005-03-01

    Hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. NMDAR antagonists like ketamine induce schizophrenia-like features in humans. In rodent studies, NMDAR antagonism impairs learning by disrupting long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. This study investigated the effects of ketamine on spatial learning (acquisition) vs retrieval in a virtual Morris water task in humans. Verbal fluency, working memory, and learning and memory of verbal information were also assessed. Healthy human subjects participated in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. On two separate occasions, ketamine/placebo was administered and cognitive tasks were assessed in association with behavioral ratings. Ketamine impaired learning of spatial and verbal information but retrieval of information learned prior to drug administration was preserved. Schizophrenia-like symptoms were significantly related to spatial and verbal learning performance. Ketamine did not significantly impair attention, verbal fluency, or verbal working memory task performance. Spatial working memory was slightly impaired. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for ketamine's differential impairment of verbal and spatial learning vs retrieval. By using the Morris water task, which is hippocampal-dependent, this study helps bridge the gap between nonhuman animal and human NMDAR antagonism research. Impaired cognition is a core feature of schizophrenia. A better understanding of NMDA antagonism, its physiological and cognitive consequences, may provide improved models of psychosis and cognitive therapeutics.

  20. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guimond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal memory (VM represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments.

  1. Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Errors in Children of South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamah, Gamal Abdel Naser; Talaat Abdel Alim, Ahmed Ahmed; Mostafa, Yehia Salah El Din; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed Abdel Salam; Mohammed, Asmaa Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Asmaa Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in children of South Sinai, and to evaluate outcomes of rehabilitation programs. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of 2070 healthy school children screened for visual impairment from 2009 through 2010 in cities of South Sinai and their surrounding Bedouin settlements. Visual acuity (VA) was tested using Snellen charts followed by cycloplegic autorefractometry for cases with presenting VA ≤ 6/9. Appropriate eyeglasses were prescribed and VA re-evaluated. This study included 1047 boys and 1023 girls, mean age 10.7 ± 3.1 years. Visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/9) was detected in 29.4% of children, while 2.0% had moderate-severe visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/24). There were statistically significant differences in prevalence of visual impairment between the studied cities (p visual impairment was significantly higher among girls (p children showed significantly lower prevalences of visual impairment. Only age was a reliable predictor of visual impairment (odds ratio 0.94, p children who received spectacles (p children had some form of visual impairment, 90.32% of which comprised refractive errors (mainly astigmatism) which were significantly corrected with eyeglasses. VA screening and correction of refractive errors are of the utmost importance for ensuring better visual outcomes and improved school performance.

  2. When should fractional flow reserve be performed to assess the significance of borderline coronary artery lesions: Derivation of a simplified scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Fadi A; Falasiri, Shayan; Glover, Charles B; Khaliq, Asma; Leung, Calvin C; Mroue, Jad; Ebra, George

    2016-11-01

    To derive a simplified scoring system (SSS) that can assist in selecting patients who would benefit from the application of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Angiographers base decisions to perform FFR on their interpretation of % diameter stenosis (DS), which is subject to variability. Recent studies have shown that the amount of myocardium at jeopardy is an important factor in determining the degree of hemodynamic compromise. We conducted a retrospective multivariable analysis to identify independent predictors of hemodynamic compromise in 289 patients with 317 coronary vessels undergoing FFR. A SSS was derived using the odds ratios as a weighted factor. The receiver operator characteristics curve was used to identify the optimal cutoff (≥3) to discern a functionally significant lesion (FFR≤0.8). Male gender, left anterior descending artery apical wrap, disease proximal to lesion, minimal lumen diameter and % DS predicted abnormal FFR (≤0.8) and lesion location in the left circumflex predicted a normal FFR. Using a cutoff score of ≥3 on the SSS, a specificity of 90.4% (95% CI: 83.0-95.3) and a sensitivity of 38.0% (95% CI: 31.5-44.9) was generated with a positive predictive value of 89.0% (95% CI: 80.7%-94.6%) and negative predictive value of 41.6% (95% CI: 35.1%-48.3%). The decision to use FFR should be based not only on the % DS but also the size of the myocardial mass jeopardized. A score of ≥3 on the SSS should prompt further investigation with a pressure wire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Note on Testing Mediated Effects in Structural Equation Models: Reconciling Past and Current Research on the Performance of the Test of Joint Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Matthew J.; Gonzalez, Oscar; Miocevic, Milica; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Methods to assess the significance of mediated effects in education and the social sciences are well studied and fall into two categories: single sample methods and computer-intensive methods. A popular single sample method to detect the significance of the mediated effect is the test of joint significance, and a popular computer-intensive method…

  4. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs

  5. Dietary pyridoxine deficiency reduced growth performance and impaired intestinal immune function associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary pyridoxine (PN) deficiency on growth performance, intestinal immune function and the potential regulation mechanisms in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of PN (0.12-7.48 mg/kg) for 70 days. After that, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that compared with the optimal PN level, PN deficiency: (1) reduced the production of innate immune components such as lysozyme (LZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), complements and antimicrobial peptides and adaptive immune components such as immunoglobulins in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P TOR) signalling [TOR/ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 (S6K1) and eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp; (3) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [not in the proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine (DI)], IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D [(rather than interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2)] partly relating to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling [IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IKKγ/inhibitor of κBα (IκBα)/NF-κB (p65 and c-Rel)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp. These results suggest that PN deficiency could impair the intestinal immune function, and the potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. In addition, based on percent weight gain (PWG), the ability against enteritis and LZ activity, the dietary PN requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 4.43, 4.75 and 5.07 mg/kg diet, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  7. Online formative MCQs to supplement traditional teaching: a very significant positive impact on student performance in the short and long run

    OpenAIRE

    Catley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The paper builds on the research underpinning One Lecturer’s Experience of Blending E-learning with Traditional Teaching (Catley, 2005). It analyses the earlier findings in more depth and examines the longer term impact of online quizzes on student performance. Engagement with formative online MCQs is explored generally and the links between MCQ engagement and a range of student characteristics: seminar attendance, “A” level performance, age, nationality, gender and prior study of the discipl...

  8. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30% Severe Impairment – 0.16 - 0.30% Speech, memory, coordination, attention, reaction time, balance significantly impaired All driving-related skills dangerously impaired Judgement and decision making dangerously impaired Blackouts (amnesia) Vomiting and other signs ...

  9. Aspects of Cultural Landscape Application on Classical Stage Art. Ballet Performance in the Open Space as a Significant Element of the Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lebedeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the applications aspects of cultural landscape for the preparation of the classical performing arts staging. Research findings highlighted that the cultural landscape (parks, estates, castles, bastions, etc. objects occupies an increasingly important role in public recreation and classical art development programs. At the same time it is noted that event’s aesthetic and emotional quality suffers due to the fact that no specific attention was given for the preparation of the event space. More methodological materials are necessary for preparation of this type of design spaces. In Lithuania classical performing arts events in cultural landscape open spaces are based on XVI–XVII century tradition and has good prospects for modern development. A review of some of the classical art events installations, based on the importance of quality of open spaces influence on the emotional impact, that should be an integral part of the cultural event. The author summarizes his experience of ballet events in open spaces in the cultural landscape – Klaipėda, Trakai. Presented is Tchaikovsky's ballet “Swan Lake” construction in Klaipėda John Hill project that includes infrastructure and environmental design concept: audience space, stage design, stage design performance solutions. Analogous key decisions are later adapted to the ballet performance in the natural environment of the lake Trakai. Experience of this project dictated the necessity of deeper understanding and methodological basis for the classical performing arts analysis and design.

  10. Cognitive impairment in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of factors contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in elderly people. Previous studies have focused upon a single or a few risk factors. In this study we assessed and compared the significance of a wide variety of potential risk factors for cognitive impairment...... in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 208 pairs of elderly women (mean age = 73.2 years) were examined in a cross-sectional case-control study. Each pair consisted of a case (with impaired cognition) and a control subject matched by age and educational status. Cognitive functions were determined using...

  11. Association of neck circumference and cognitive impairment among Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Mei; Li, Qing-Wei; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Zeng, Shu-Jun; Shen, Jun; Sun, Ji; Wu, Dan-Hong; Cheng, Qi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC) and cognitive impairment and interactions between relevant variables to the risk of cognitive impairment. A population-based survey was conducted among elderly inhabitants aged 60 years and over from a community in Shanghai suburb. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations and log likelihood ratio tests to examine interactions. Cognitive impairment was identified in 269 (10.8%) subjects from 2,500 participants. Higher BMI (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.11-2.16), higher WHR (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.07-1.95), and higher total cholesterol (TC) (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.09-2.13) were significantly associated with the increased risk of cognitive impairment. Significant interactions were observed between TC and a few other relevant variables, respectively. NC was associated with the high risk of cognitive impairment. Additive effects of NC with TC on cognitive impairment were observed.

  12. Food quality and motivation: a refined low-fat diet induces obesity and impairs performance on a progressive ratio schedule of instrumental lever pressing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Aaron P; Lau, Yan Lam Matthew; Telminova, Ekatherina; Lim, Hwee Cheei; Fan, Boyang; Fast, Cynthia D; Garlick, Dennis; Pendergrass, David C

    2014-04-10

    Purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding causes deleterious metabolic and cognitive effects when compared with unrefined low-fat diets in rodent models. These effects are often attributed to the diet's high content of fat, while less attention has been paid to other mechanisms associated with the diet's highly refined state. Although the effects of HFD feeding on cognition have been explored, little is known about the impact of refined vs. unrefined food on cognition. We tested the hypothesis that a refined low-fat diet (LFD) increases body weight and adversely affects cognition relative to an unrefined diet. Rats were allowed ad libitum access to unrefined rodent chow (CON, Lab Diets 5001) or a purified low-fat diet (REF, Research Diets D12450B) for 6 months, and body weight and performance on an instrumental lever pressing task were recorded. After six months on their respective diets, group REF gained significantly more weight than group CON. REF rats made significantly fewer lever presses and exhibited dramatically lower breaking points than CON rats for sucrose and water reinforcement, indicating a chronic reduction of motivation for instrumental performance. Switching the rats' diet for 9 days had no effect on these measures. Diet-induced obesity produces a substantial deficit in motivated behavior in rats, independent of dietary fat content. This holds implications for an association between obesity and motivation. Specifically, behavioral traits comorbid with obesity, such as depression and fatigue, may be effects of obesity rather than contributing causes. To the degree that refined foods contribute to obesity, as demonstrated in our study, they may play a significant contributing role to other behavioral and cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  14. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  15. Variation in performance measure criteria significantly affects cardiology practice rankings: Insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil G; Maddox, Thomas M; Oetgen, William J; Spertus, John A; Rumsfeld, John S; Heidenreich, Paul A; Peterson, Eric D; Drozda, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Million Hearts is a national initiative to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over 5 years by improving cardiovascular prevention. An important tool in the success of programs like Million Hearts is public ranking on the quality of practices, yet different measures may provide different rankings, so the true quality of practices is difficult to discern. We evaluated the quality of ambulatory cardiology care using performance measure metrics. We compared rankings of practices participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry using measures from (1) the physician quality reporting system and (2) the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. We compared achievement rates for measures between the 2 frameworks and determined correlations in rankings using Spearman correlation coefficients. From January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012, there were 1,711,326 patients enrolled from 111 US practices. Among eligible patients, the physician quality reporting system and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement measures were achieved in 76.1% versus 77.4% for antiplatelet prescription (P performance and failing to achieve public health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of intra- and inter-regional labour mobility on plant performance in Denmark: the significance of related labour inflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.; Boschma, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of labour mobility on plant performance in Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant and the degree to which these match the existing skills at the plant

  17. The effect of intra- and inter-regional labour mobility on plant performance in Denmark : The significance of related labour inflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123155541

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of labour mobility on plant performance in Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant and the degree to which these match the existing skills at the plant

  18. Localization of impaired kinesthetic processing post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Michael Kenzie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinesthesia is our sense of limb motion, and allows us to gauge the speed, direction, and amplitude of our movements. Over half of stroke survivors have significant impairments in kinesthesia, which leads to greatly reduced recovery and function in everyday activities. Despite the high reported incidence of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, very little is known about how damage beyond just primary somatosensory areas affects kinesthesia. Stroke provides an ideal model to examine structure-function relationships specific to kinesthetic processing, by comparing lesion location with behavioral impairment. To examine this relationship, we performed voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and statistical region of interest analyses on a large sample of sub-acute stroke subjects (N=142 and compared kinesthetic performance with stroke lesion location. Subjects with first unilateral, ischemic stroke underwent neuroimaging and a comprehensive robotic kinesthetic assessment (~9 days post-stroke. The robotic exoskeleton measured subjects’ ability to perform a kinesthetic mirror-matching task of the upper limbs without vision. The robot moved the stroke-affected arm and subjects’ mirror-matched the movement with the unaffected arm. We found that lesions both within and outside primary somatosensory cortex were associated with significant kinesthetic impairments. Further, sub-components of kinesthesia were associated with different lesion locations. Impairments in speed perception were primarily associated with lesions to the right post-central and supramarginal gyri whereas impairments in amplitude of movement perception were primarily associated with lesions in the right pre-central gyrus, anterior insula, and superior temporal gyrus. Impairments in perception of movement direction were associated with lesions to bilateral post-central and supramarginal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus and parietal operculum. All measures of impairment shared a common

  19. Localization of Impaired Kinesthetic Processing Post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzie, Jeffrey M; Semrau, Jennifer A; Findlater, Sonja E; Yu, Amy Y; Desai, Jamsheed A; Herter, Troy M; Hill, Michael D; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Kinesthesia is our sense of limb motion, and allows us to gauge the speed, direction, and amplitude of our movements. Over half of stroke survivors have significant impairments in kinesthesia, which leads to greatly reduced recovery and function in everyday activities. Despite the high reported incidence of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, very little is known about how damage beyond just primary somatosensory areas affects kinesthesia. Stroke provides an ideal model to examine structure-function relationships specific to kinesthetic processing, by comparing lesion location with behavioral impairment. To examine this relationship, we performed voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and statistical region of interest analyses on a large sample of sub-acute stroke subjects ( N = 142) and compared kinesthetic performance with stroke lesion location. Subjects with first unilateral, ischemic stroke underwent neuroimaging and a comprehensive robotic kinesthetic assessment (~9 days post-stroke). The robotic exoskeleton measured subjects' ability to perform a kinesthetic mirror-matching task of the upper limbs without vision. The robot moved the stroke-affected arm and subjects' mirror-matched the movement with the unaffected arm. We found that lesions both within and outside primary somatosensory cortex were associated with significant kinesthetic impairments. Further, sub-components of kinesthesia were associated with different lesion locations. Impairments in speed perception were primarily associated with lesions to the right post-central and supramarginal gyri whereas impairments in amplitude of movement perception were primarily associated with lesions in the right pre-central gyrus, anterior insula, and superior temporal gyrus. Impairments in perception of movement direction were associated with lesions to bilateral post-central and supramarginal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus and parietal operculum. All measures of impairment shared a common association with

  20. Management and non-supervisory perceptions surrounding the implementation and significance of high-performance work practices in a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbridge, Gayle Ann

    Change management has become an imperative for organizations as they move into the 21st century; up to 75 percent of change initiatives fail. Nuclear power plants face the same challenges as industrial firms with the added challenge of deregulation. Faced with this challenge, restructuring the electric utility has raised a number of complex issues. Under traditional cost-of-service regulation, electric utilities were able to pass on their costs to consumers who absorbed them. In the new competitive environment, customers will now choose their suppliers based on the most competitive price. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of congruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel regarding the perceived implementation of high performance workplace practices at a nuclear power plant. This study used as its foundation the practices identified in the Road to High Performance Workplaces: A Guide to Better Jobs and Better Business Results by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of the American Workplace (1994). The population for this study consisted of organizational members at one nuclear power plant. Over 300 individuals completed surveys on high performance workplace practices. Two surveys were administered, one to non-supervisory personnel and one to first line supervisors and above. The determination of implementation levels was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis. Results of the study revealed 32 areas of noncongruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel in regard to the perceived implementation level of the high performance workplace practices. Factor analysis further revealed that the order in which the respondents place emphasis on the variables varies between the two groups. This study provides recommendations that may improve the nuclear power plants alignment of activities. Recommendations are also provided for additional research on high-performance work practices.

  1. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in major depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katie M; Gallagher, Peter; Robinson, Lucy J; Carter, Janet D; McIntosh, Virginia Vw; Frampton, Christopher Ma; Watson, Stuart; Young, Allan H; Ferrier, I Nicol; Porter, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    The current study examines prevalence of cognitive impairment in four mood disorder samples, using four definitions of impairment. The impact of premorbid IQ on prevalence was examined, and the influence of treatment response. Samples were: (i) 58 inpatients in a current severe depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (ii) 69 unmedicated outpatients in a mild to moderate depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (iii) 56 outpatients with bipolar disorder, in a depressive episode, and (iv) 63 outpatients with bipolar disorder, currently euthymic. Cognitive assessment was conducted after treatment in Studies 1 (6 weeks of antidepressant treatment commenced on admission) and 2 (16-week course of cognitive behaviour therapy or schema therapy), allowing the impact of treatment response to be assessed. All mood disorder samples were compared with healthy control groups. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was highest for the inpatient depression sample (Study 1), and lowest for the outpatient depression sample (Study 2). Substantial variability in rates was observed depending on the definition of impairment used. Correcting cognitive performance for premorbid IQ had a significant impact on the prevalence of cognitive impairment in the inpatient depression sample. There was minimal evidence that treatment response impacted on prevalence of cognitive impairment, except in the domain of psychomotor speed in inpatients. As interventions aiming to improve cognitive outcomes in mood disorders receive increasing research focus, the issue of setting a cut-off level of cognitive impairment for screening purposes becomes a priority. This analysis demonstrates important differences in samples likely to be recruited depending on the definition of cognitive impairment and begins to examine the importance of premorbid IQ in determining who is impaired. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  3. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F Nienke; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Cox, Ralf F A

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with visual impairment (n = 56) compared to a group of children with normal sight (n = 66). Children with visual impairment and children with normal sight aged 4-8 years executed two types of movements (cyclic and discrete) in two orientations (vertical or horizontal) over two distances (10 cm and 20 cm) with two objects resembling the size and shape of regularly prescribed stand and dome magnifiers. The visually impaired children performed slower movements than the normally sighted children. In both groups, the accuracy and speed of the reciprocal aiming movements improved significantly with age. Surprisingly, in both groups, the performance with the dome-shaped object was significantly faster (in the 10 cm condition and 20 cm condition with discrete movements) and more accurate (in the 20 cm condition) than with the stand-shaped object. From a controllability perspective, this study suggests that it is better to prescribe dome-shaped than cylinder-shaped magnifiers to young children with visual impairment. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Eleven participants [mean age 13.5 ± 0.7 years, height 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass (BM) 62.1 ± 9.4 kg] performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed four 15 min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). In the 5 min pre-exercise, participants consumed 0.818 mL kg(-1) BM of a CHO or a non-CHO placebo gel, and a further 0.327 mL kg(-1) BM every 15 min during part A of the LIST (38.0 ± 5.5 g CHO h(-1) in the CHO trial). Intermittent endurance capacity was increased by 21.1% during part B when the CHO gel was ingested (4.6 ± 2.0 vs. 3.8 ± 2.4 min, P games players during a simulated team games protocol.

  5. Impaired performance on advanced Theory of Mind tasks in children with epilepsy is related to poor communication and increased attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Judith; Lewis, Charlie; Sherlock, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Children with epilepsy (CWE) have social difficulties that can persist into adulthood, and this could be related to problems with understanding others' thoughts, feelings, and intentions. This study assessed children's ability to interpret and reason on mental and emotional states (Theory of Mind) and examined the relationships between task scores and reports of communication and behavior. Performance of 56 CWE (8-16years of age) with below average IQ (n=17) or an average IQ (n=39) was compared with that of 62 healthy controls with an average IQ (6-16years of age) on cognition, language, and two advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that required children to attribute mental or emotional states to eye regions and to reason on internal mental states in order to explain behavior. The CWE-below average group were significantly poorer in both ToM tasks compared with controls. The CWE - average group showed a significantly poorer ability to reason on mental states in order to explain behavior, a difference that remained after accounting for lower IQ and language deficits. Poor ToM skills were related to increased communication and attention problems in both CWE groups. There is a risk for atypical social understanding in CWE, even for children with average cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. From Texas to Alaska: Leading Hearing Impaired Elementary Students in Texas to Engage in Science of the Northern Lights Performed in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, J. M.; Ibarra, S.; Pfeifer, M. D.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Interacting with hearing impaired students who communicate using auditory/oral methods provides challenges and opportunities to education/outreach activities. Despite many advances in assistive technologies, these hearing impaired students will learn much less incidentally than their peers with typical hearing. In other words, they will often require repeated auditory and perhaps visual reinforcement in order to learn a new word or a new concept. This need leads to a much more deliberate and conscious interaction between educators or scientists and the students. We are reporting from a unique joint project between the Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children and the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), to bring actual space research to life for hearing impaired elementary school students. During this project, we combined the unique capabilities of Deaf Education educators with the excitement and wonder of researching the northern lights. For three consecutive winters, we conducted a series of informal yet structured activities each year with fourth and fifth grade students. Our interactions went beyond typical classroom activities and readily available educational materials. Our goal was to engage and excite the students. To do so, we set up a series of interactions and mini-projects that introduced the students to actual research and actual researchers. From "meet the scientists" visits to school over a field trip to the SwRI space research facilities to observing and predicting the aurora using real-time space weather data, we engaged students in the "who" and "how" of doing research and field work in Alaska's winter. Over the course of this project, students connected with a remote school in the interior of Alaska, participated in the excitement of a NASA sounding rocket campaign in in Poker Flat, AK, skyped with researchers and students in Alaska, and made aurora predictions using NOAA real time space weather data. The highlight of the program each year was

  7. Stress-first protocol for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging with semiconductor cameras: high diagnostic performances with significant reduction in patient radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Mathieu; Claudin, Marine; Veran, Nicolas; Morel, Olivier; Besseau, Cyril; Boutley, Henri; Djaballah, Wassila; Poussier, Sylvain; Verger, Antoine; Moulin, Frederic; Imbert, Laetitia; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Effective doses of 14 mSv or higher are currently being attained in patients having stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed on the same day with conventional protocols. This study aimed to assess the actual reduction in effective doses as well as diagnostic performances for MPI routinely planned with: (1) high-sensitivity cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) cameras, (2) very low injected activities and (3) a stress-first protocol where the normality of stress images may lead to avoiding rest imaging. During a 1-year period, 2,845 patients had MPI on a CZT camera, a single-day stress-first protocol and low injected activities (120 MBq of 99m Tc-sestamibi at stress for 75 kg body weight and threefold higher at rest). The ability to detect > 50 % coronary stenosis was assessed in a subgroup of 149 patients who also had coronary angiography, while the normalcy rate was assessed in a subgroup of 128 patients with a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease (<10 %). Overall, 33 % of patients had abnormal MPI of which 34 % were women and 34 % were obese. The mean effective doses and the percentage of exams involving only stress images were: (1) 3.53 ± 2.10 mSv and 37 % in the overall population, (2) 4.83 ± 1.56 mSv and 5 % in the subgroup with angiography and (3) 1.96 ± 1.52 mSv and 71 % in the low-probability subgroup. Sensitivity and global accuracy for identifying the 106 patients with coronary stenosis were 88 and 80 %, respectively, while the normalcy rate was 97 %. When planned with a low-dose stress-first protocol on a CZT camera, MPI provides high diagnostic performances and a dramatic reduction in patient radiation doses. This reduction is even greater in low-risk subgroups with high rates of normal stress images, thus allowing the mean radiation dose to be balanced against cardiac risk in targeted populations. (orig.)

  8. Lower rate of invasive revascularisation in acute coronary syndrome patients with significant stenosis on coronary angiography when angiography is performed on a diagnostics only hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    Patient Register. We included those examined with CAG in the analysis. Information on distance from the patient's home to nearest invasive centre was obtained from Statistics Denmark along with information on education, personal income, previous medicine use and vital status. Patients were grouped...... of the admission. Result Of 24 910 patients with first ACS, 33% lived less than 21 km from one of the 5 invasive centres, 33% lived between 21-64 km and 33% >64 km away. Revascularisation was performed in 13 964 (73%) of the 18263 patients examined with a CAG. Among those examined with a CAG, the cumulative...... incidence of revascularisation was 79% for the third living closest to a centre vs. 74% for those living farthest away. When adjusting for variables like gender, age, vessel disease and the others mentioned above, there was a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.80 (95% CI 0. 73-0.85, p

  9. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meyer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  10. Significant performance variation among PCR systems in diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis in São Paulo, Brazil: analysis of 467 amniotic fluid samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Suely Okay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Performance variation among PCR systems in detecting Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively reported and associated with target genes, primer composition, amplification parameters, treatment during pregnancy, host genetic susceptibility and genotypes of different parasites according to geographical characteristics. PATIENTS: A total of 467 amniotic fluid samples from T. gondii IgM- and IgG-positive Brazilian pregnant women being treated for 1 to 6 weeks at the time of amniocentesis (gestational ages of 14 to 25 weeks. METHODS: One nested-B1-PCR and three one-round amplification systems targeted to rDNA, AF146527 and the B1 gene were employed. RESULTS: Of the 467 samples, 189 (40.47% were positive for one-round amplifications: 120 (63.49% for the B1 gene, 24 (12.69% for AF146527, 45 (23.80% for both AF146527 and the B1 gene, and none for rDNA. Fifty previously negative one-round PCR samples were chosen by computer-assisted randomization analysis and re-tested (nested-B1-PCR, during which nine additional cases were detected (9/50 or 18%. DISCUSSION: The B1 gene PCR was far more sensitive than the AF146527 PCR, and the rDNA PCR was the least effective even though the rDNA had the most repetitive sequence. Considering that the four amplification systems were equally affected by treatment, that the amplification conditions were optimized for the target genes and that most of the primers have already been reported, it is plausible that the striking differences found among PCR performances could be associated with genetic diversity in patients and/or with different Toxoplasma gondii genotypes occurring in Brazil. CONCLUSION: The use of PCR for the diagnosis of fetal Toxoplasma infections in Brazil should be targeted to the B1 gene when only one gene can be amplified, preferably by nested amplification with primers B22/B23.

  11. Impairment in proverb interpretation as an executive function deficit in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyhe, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Milian, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (EAD). The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD.

  12. Modeling of cognitive impairment by disease duration in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Achiron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Large-scale population studies measuring rates and dynamics of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis (MS are lacking. In the current cross-sectional study we evaluated the patterns of cognitive impairment in MS patients with disease duration of up to 30 years. METHODS: 1,500 patients with MS were assessed by a computerized cognitive battery measuring verbal and non-verbal memory, executive function, visual spatial perception, verbal function, attention, information processing speed and motor skills. Cognitive impairment was defined as below one standard deviation (SD and severe cognitive impairment as below 2SD for age and education matched healthy population norms. RESULTS: Cognitive performance in our cohort was poorer than healthy population norms. The most frequently impaired domains were information processing speed and executive function. MS patients with secondary-progressive disease course performed poorly compared with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting and primary progressive MS patients. By the fifth year from disease onset, 20.9% of patients performed below the 1SD cutoff for impairment, p=0.005, and 6.0% performed below the 2SD cutoff for severe cognitive impairment, p=0.002. By 10 years from onset 29.3% and 9.0% of patients performed below the 1SD and 2SD cutoffs, respectively, p=0.0001. Regression modeling suggested that cognitive impairment may precede MS onset by 1.2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of cognitive impairment in this large sample of MS patients were lower than previously reported and severe cognitive impairment was evident only in a relatively small group of patients. Cognitive impairment differed significantly from expected normal distribution only at five years from onset, suggesting the existence of a therapeutic window during which patients may benefit from interventions to maintain cognitive health.

  13. EEG UPPER/LOW ALPHA FREQUENCY POWER RATIO RELATES TO TEMPORO-PARIETAL BRAIN ATROPHY AND MEMORY PERFORMANCES IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI due to Alzheimer disease (AD. The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI.Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio . Difference of cortical thikness among the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment.Results: High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical grey matter (CGM volume reduction of 471 mm2 than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p

  14. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  15. Significant performance enhancement of inverted organic light-emitting diodes by using ZnIx as a hole-blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuan-Hui; Zhang, Bi-Long; Sun, Chao; Li, Ruo-Xuan; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Wen-Ming; Zhao, Chun-Yi; Jin, Sheng-Ye; Liu, Wei-Feng; Luo, Ying-Min; Du, Guo-Tong; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2017-06-01

    A highly efficient inverted organic light emitting diode using 1.0 nm-thick ZnIx as a hole-blocking layer is developed. We fabricate devices with the configuration ITO/ZnIx (1.0 nm)/Alq3 (50 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/MoO3 (6.0 nm)/Al (100 nm). The deposition of a ZnIx layer increases the maximum luminance by two orders of magnitude from 13.4 to 3566.1 cd/m2. In addition, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are increased by three orders of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage to reach 1 cd/m2 decreases from 13 to 8 V. The results suggest that the electron injection efficiency is not improved by introducing a ZnIx layer. Instead, the improved device performance originates from the strong hole-blocking ability of ZnIx. This work indicates that layered materials may lead to novel applications in optoelectronic devices.

  16. Maternal separation decreases adult hippocampal cell proliferation and impairs cognitive performance but has little effect on stress sensitivity and anxiety in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Sgoifo, Andrea; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2011-01-20

    Stressful events during childhood are thought to increase the risk for the development of adult psychopathology. A widely used animal model for early life stress is maternal separation (MS), which is thought to affect development and cause alterations in neuroendocrine stress reactivity and emotionality lasting into adulthood. However, results obtained with this paradigm are inconsistent. Here we investigated whether this variation may be related to the type of stressor or the tests used to assess adult stress sensitivity and behavioral performance. Rat pups were exposed to a 3h daily MS protocol during postnatal weeks 1-2. In adulthood, animals were subjected to a wide variety of stressors and tests to obtain a better view on the effects of MS on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, anxiety-like behavior, social interaction and cognition. Also, the influence of MS on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was studied because it might underlie changes in neuroendocrine regulation and behavioral performance. The results show that, independent of the nature of the stressor, MS did not affect the neuroendocrine response. MS did not influence anxiety-like behavior, explorative behavior and social interaction, but did affect cognitive function in an object recognition task. The amount of new born cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly decreased in MS animals; yet, cell differentiation and survival were not altered. In conclusion, while interfering with the mother-infant relationship early in life did affect some aspects of adult neuroplasticity and cognitive function, it did not lead to permanent changes in stress sensitivity and emotionality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Significance of findings of both emergency chest X-ray and thoracic computed tomography routinely performed at the emergency unit in 102 polytrauma patients. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieser, T.; Buehne, K.H.; Haeuser, H.; Bohndorf, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively whether and to what extent both thoracic computed tomography (Tx-CT) and supine X-ray of the chest (Rx-Tx) are able to show additional findings that are therapeutically relevant. Patients and Methods: According to a fixed study protocol, we performed Rx-Tx and Tx-CT in 102 consecutive, haemodynamically stable polytrauma patients (mean age, 41.2 yrs; age range, 12-93 yrs). Findings of therapeutical relevance drawn from both Tx-CT and Rx-Tx, and urgent interventions indicated by an attending trauma team were documented on a standardized evaluation sheet immediately. Any change in the patient's management that is different from routine life-saving procedures, and any therapeutical intervention done in the emergency room or elsewhere (operating theatre, angiographic facility) were considered therapeutically relevant. Results: Of 102 patients, 43 (42.2%) had a total of 51 therapeutically relevant findings. Rx-Tx alone yielded 23 relevant findings (45.1%) in 23 patients (22.5%). Of them, Tx-CT has shown additional important findings in 7 patients (30.4%). When Tx-CT alone is considered, it revealed 22 new findings of therapeutical relevance (43.2%) in 20 patients (46.5%). Altogether, Tx-CT was able to show 30 relevant findings in 27 patients, i.e., there was a therapeutical benefit for 26.5% of all polytrauma patients included. Most frequently, there was a need for chest-tube insertion (n=29). Conclusions: Polytrauma patients if haemodynamically stable may profit from computed tomography of the chest when therapeutically relevant thoracic injuries are looked for or early therapeutical interventions are to be checked. However, chest X-ray should stay as a 'front-line' screening method because of its superbly quick feasibility and availability. (orig.) [de

  18. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory

  19. Performance of Hippocampus Volumetry with FSL-FIRST for Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia in at Risk Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Kepp, Timo; Lange, Catharina; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    MRI-based hippocampus volume, a core feasible biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is not yet widely used in clinical patient care, partly due to lack of validation of software tools for hippocampal volumetry that are compatible with routine workflow. Here, we evaluate fully-automated and computationally efficient hippocampal volumetry with FSL-FIRST for prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of FSL-FIRST hippocampal volume (corrected for head size and age) revealed an area under the curve of 0.79, 0.70, and 0.70 for prediction of aMCI-to-ADD conversion within 12, 24, or 36 months, respectively. Thus, FSL-FIRST provides about the same power for prediction of progression to ADD in aMCI as other volumetry methods.

  20. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  1. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  2. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  3. Sarcopenia and cognitive impairment in elderly women: results from the EPIDOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Cesari, Matteo; Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Dupuy, Charlotte; Nourhashémi, Fati; Schott, Anne-Marie; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2013-03-01

    common pathophysiological pathways are shared between age-related body composition changes and cognitive impairment. evaluate whether current operative sarcopenia definitions are associated with cognition in community-dwelling older women. cross-sectional analyses. a total of 3,025 women aged 75 years and older. body composition (assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and cognition (measured by short portable mental status questionnaire) were obtained in all participants. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association of six operative definitions of sarcopenia with cognitive impairment. Gait speed (GS, measured over a 6-meter track at usual pace) and handgrip strength (HG, measured by a hand-held dynamometer) were considered additional factors of interest. a total of 492 (16.3%) women were cognitively impaired. The prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3 to 18.8%. No sarcopenia definition was associated with cognitive impairment after controlling for potential confounders. To proof consistency, the analyses were performed using GS and HG, two well-established predictors of cognitive impairment. Low GS [odds ratio (OR) 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.40] and low HG (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) were associated with cognitive impairment. no significant association was evidenced between different operative sarcopenia definitions and cognitive impairment. The study suggests that the association between physical performance and cognitive impairment in not mediated by sarcopenia.

  4. Elevated cystatin C: is it a reflection for kidney or liver impairment in hepatic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Behairy; El-Araby, Hanaa; Adawy, Nermin; Hassona, Mona; El-Nady, Naglaa; Zakaria, Haidy; Khedr, Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    To assess if elevated serum cystatin C (Cyst-C) is an indicator for renal or hepatic dysfunction in presence of liver fibrosis. Data of 50 children with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), out of which 25 were without renal impairment, and 25 with renal impairment were analyzed. Twenty healthy children served as a healthy control group. Routine investigations, creatinine clearance, hepatitis viral markers, abdominal ultrasonography, and liver biopsy were performed for patients with CLDs. Measurement of serum Cyst-C concentration by particle induced immunonephelometry were completed for both patients and control group. Results showed that serum Cyst-C is not correlated with the degree of hepatic impairment ( p > 0.05). Cyst-C levels were significantly higher in patients with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.71 ± 0.12), and healthy control group (0.63 ± 0.85). Cystatin-C showed significant elevation in patients with severe fibrosis with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.76 ± 0.04) ( p without renal impairment. Cyst-C > 2.34 mg/l predicting GFR 2.73 mg/l predicting GFR impairment in children with CLDs. Further studies are needed to estimate the accuracy of serum Cyst-C for early detection of renal impairment and close monitoring of the hepatic children.

  5. [Comparison of visual impairment caused by trachoma in China between 1978 and 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ailian; Cai, Xiaogu; Qiao, Liya; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Baochen; Wang, Ningli

    2015-10-01

    To understand the distribution of visual impairment caused by trachoma in China and provide evidences for evaluation of eliminating blinding trachoma in China in the mission of Vision 2020. Sampling study. The results from the first year 1987 and second (year 2006) national sampling surveys of disabled persons were analyzed. Chi-square test was performed using SAS 9.30 to analyze the rates of visual impairment caused by trachoma in different groups. Unifactor and multifactor analyses were applied to analyze the relevance between visual impairment caused by trachoma and risk factors, including gender and age. The rate of visual impairment caused by trachoma was 102.01 persons/100 000 in 1987 and 17.62 persons/100 000 in 2006. The percentage of trachoma in all kinds of visual impairment was 14.25% in 1987 and 1.87% in 2006, and the difference was significant (F = 1 382.6, P visual impairment caused by trachoma. H-aggregation areas included Hubei, Sichuan, Anhui, Shannxi, Guizhou, Hunan provinces and Chongqing Municipality. Survival time without trachoma between 1987 and 2006 was significantly different (F = 2 745.9, P visual impairment caused by trachoma increased with age. Except the group of > 85 years, the rate of visual impairment caused by trachoma in all age groups in 1987 was significantly higher than that in 2006. The risk of visual impairment caused by trachoma in 1987 was 5.8 times that in 2006. If the other risk factors were not involved, the risk in 1987 was 8.75 times that in 2006. The risk in females was twice that in males. Both, the rate and risk of visual impairment caused by trachoma were significantly reduced in China. Impressive progresses were achieved in trachoma prevention and control.

  6. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  7. Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE, or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function–related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus.

  8. Exercise Training in Athletes with Bicuspid Aortic Valve Does Not Result in Increased Dimensions and Impaired Performance of the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stefani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is one of the most common congenital heart disease (0.9%–2% and is frequently found in the athletes and in the general population. BAV can lead to aortic valve dysfunction and to a progressive aortic dilatation. Trained BAV athletes exhibit a progressive enlargement of the left ventricle (LV compared to athletes with normal aortic valve morphology. The present study investigates the possible relationship between different aortic valve morphology and LV dimensions. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2011, we investigated a total of 292 BAV subjects, divided into three different groups (210 athletes, 59 sedentaries, and 23 ex-athletes. A 2D echocardiogram exam to classify BAV morphology and measure the standard LV systo-diastolic parameters was performed. The study was conducted as a 5-year follow-up echocardiographic longitudinal and as cross-sectional study. Results. Typical BAV was more frequent in all three groups (68% athletes, 67% sedentaries, and 63% ex-athletes than atypical. In BAV athletes, the typical form was found in 51% (107/210 of soccer players, 10% (21/210 of basketball players, 10% track and field athletics (20/210, 8% (17/210 of cyclists, 6% (13/210 swimmers, and 15% (32/210 of rugby players and others sport. Despite a progressive enlargement of the LV (P<0.001 observed during the follow-up study, no statistical differences of the LV morphology and function were evident among the diverse BAV patterns either in sedentary subjects or in athletes. Conclusion. In a large population of trained BAV athletes, with different prevalence of typical and atypical BAV type, there is a progressive nonstatistically significant enlargement of the LV. In any case, the dimensions of the LV remained within normal range. The metabolic requirements of the diverse sport examined in the present investigations do not seem to produce any negative impact in BAV athletes

  9. Symptoms predicting psychosocial impairment in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Staniford, Jessica; Luck, Amy

    2017-05-12

    The current study aimed to determine which particular eating disorder (ED) symptoms and related features, such as BMI and psychological distress, uniquely predict impairment in bulimia nervosa (BN). Two hundred and twenty-two adults with BN completed questionnaires assessing ED symptoms, general psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment. Regression analyses were used to determine predictors which account for variance in impairment. Four variables emerged as significant predictors of psychosocial impairment: concerns with eating; concerns with weight and shape; dietary restraint; and general psychological distress. Findings support previous work highlighting the importance of weight and shape concerns in determining ED-related impairment. Other ED symptoms, notably dietary restraint and concerns with eating, were also significant predictors as was psychological distress. Results suggest that cognitive aspects of EDs, in addition to psychological distress, may be more important determinants of impairment than behavioural symptoms, such as binge eating or purging.

  10. The relationship between separation anxiety and impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L; Rowe, Richard; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon; Pickles, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the contemporaneous and prognostic relationship between symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and associated functional impairment. The sample comprised n=2067 8–16 year-old twins from a community-based registry. Juvenile subjects and their parents completed a personal interview on two occasions, separated by an average follow-up period of 18 months, about the subject’s current history of SAD and associated functional impairment. Results showed that SAD symptoms typically caused very little impairment but demonstrated significant continuity over time. Older youth had significantly more persistent symptoms than younger children. Prior symptom level independently predicted future symptom level and diagnostic symptom threshold, with and without impairment. Neither diagnostic threshold nor severity of impairment independently predicted outcomes after taking account of prior symptom levels. The results indicate that impairment may index current treatment need but symptom levels provide the best information about severity and prognosis. PMID:17658718

  11. Hypoxia: Exposure Time Until Significant Performance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    three alcoholic beverages per day (on average), or were taking any prescription medication (besides oral contraceptives). Likewise, those who were...or tested positively for pregnancy were disqualified from the study, as the risks of hypoxia to a human fetus are currently unknown. Also, those...that could impact inclusion in the study. After the questionnaire, all female participants provided a urine sample for pregnancy testing. Participants

  12. Significant improvement of electrochemical performance of Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LiVPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. YU ZHANGa,∗, XIAOLAN BAIb ... and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ... Analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) ... studied with a SEM (JSM-7500F, Japan) equipped with.

  13. Cognitive impairment and self-care in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduk AM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra M Hajduk,1,2 Stephenie C Lemon,3 David D McManus,1,2,4 Darleen M Lessard,1 Jerry H Gurwitz,1,2,4 Frederick A Spencer,5 Robert J Goldberg,1,2 Jane S Saczynski1,2,4 1Division of Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases and Vulnerable Populations, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 3Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 4Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Heart failure (HF is a prevalent chronic disease in older adults that requires extensive self-care to prevent decompensation and hospitalization. Cognitive impairment may impact the ability to perform HF self-care activities. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and adherence to self-care in patients hospitalized for acute HF. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants: A total of 577 patients (mean age = 71 years, 44% female hospitalized for HF at five medical centers in the United States and Canada. Measurements and methods: Participants were interviewed for information on self-reported adherence to self-care using the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale. We assessed cognitive impairment in three domains (memory, processing speed, and executive function using standardized measures. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record review. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between cognitive impairment and self-care practices adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results: A total of 453 patients (79% were impaired in at least one cognitive

  14. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  16. Impairment of learning and memory performances induced by BPA: Evidences from the literature of a MoA mediated through an ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Belzunces, Luc P; Canivenc, Marie-Chantal; Schroeder, Henri; Chevrier, Cécile; Pasquier, Elodie

    2018-03-29

    Many rodent studies and a few non-human primate data report impairments of spatial and non-spatial memory induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), which are associated with neural modifications, particularly in processes involved in synaptic plasticity. BPA-induced alterations involve disruption of the estrogenic pathway as established by reversal of BPA-induced effects with estrogenic receptor antagonist or by interference of BPA with administered estradiol in ovariectomised animals. Sex differences in hormonal impregnation during critical periods of development and their influence on maturation of learning and memory processes may explain the sexual dimorphism observed in BPA-induced effects in some studies. Altogether, these data highly support the plausibility that alteration of learning and memory and synaptic plasticity by BPA is essentially mediated by disturbance of the estrogenic pathways. As memory function in humans involves similar signaling pathways, this mode of action of BPA has the potential to alter human cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Performance of non-neurological older adults on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test: normal variability or cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    There is currently no standard criterion for determining abnormal test scores in neuropsychology; thus, a number of different criteria are commonly used. We investigated base rates of abnormal scores in healthy older adults using raw and T-scores from indices of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Color-Word Test. Abnormal scores were examined cumulatively at seven cutoffs including >1.0, >1.5, >2.0, >2.5, and >3.0 standard deviations (SD) from the mean as well as those below the 10th and 5th percentiles. In addition, the number of abnormal scores at each of the seven cutoffs was also examined. Results showed when considering raw scores, ∼15% of individuals obtained scores>1.0 SD from the mean, around 10% were less than the 10th percentile, and 5% fell >1.5 SD or 1.0 and >1.5 SD from the mean, respectively. Roughly 15% and 5% fell at the 2.0 SD from the mean were infrequent. Although the presence of a single abnormal score at 1.0 and 1.5 SD from the mean or at the 10th and 5th percentiles was not unusual, the presence of ≥2 abnormal scores using any criteria was uncommon. Consideration of base rate data regarding the percentage of healthy individuals scoring in the abnormal range should help avoid classifying normal variability as neuropsychological impairment.

  18. Mental rotation impairs attention shifting and short-term memory encoding: neurophysiological evidence against the response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannebakker, Merel M; Jolicœur, Pierre; van Dam, Wessel O; Band, Guido P H; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-09-01

    Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial attention to a second stimulus (S2). Visual-spatial attention was monitored by using the N2pc component of the ERP. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) believed to index the retention of information in visual short-term memory. We found modulations of both the N2pc and the SPCN, suggesting that engaging mechanisms of mental rotation impairs the deployment of visual-spatial attention and delays the passage of a representation of S2 into visual short-term memory. Both results suggest interactions between mental rotation and visual-spatial attention in capacity-limited processing mechanisms indicating that response selection is not pivotal in dual-task delays and all three processes are likely to share a common resource like executive control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  1. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  2. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  3. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  4. Optimization of biomathematical model predictions for cognitive performance impairment in individuals: accounting for unknown traits and uncertain states in homeostatic and circadian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Mott, Christopher G; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Mollicone, Daniel J; McKenzie, Frederic D; Dinges, David F

    2007-09-01

    Current biomathematical models of fatigue and performance do not accurately predict cognitive performance for individuals with a priori unknown degrees of trait vulnerability to sleep loss, do not predict performance reliably when initial conditions are uncertain, and do not yield statistically valid estimates of prediction accuracy. These limitations diminish their usefulness for predicting the performance of individuals in operational environments. To overcome these 3 limitations, a novel modeling approach was developed, based on the expansion of a statistical technique called Bayesian forecasting. The expanded Bayesian forecasting procedure was implemented in the two-process model of sleep regulation, which has been used to predict performance on the basis of the combination of a sleep homeostatic process and a circadian process. Employing the two-process model with the Bayesian forecasting procedure to predict performance for individual subjects in the face of unknown traits and uncertain states entailed subject-specific optimization of 3 trait parameters (homeostatic build-up rate, circadian amplitude, and basal performance level) and 2 initial state parameters (initial homeostatic state and circadian phase angle). Prior information about the distribution of the trait parameters in the population at large was extracted from psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance measurements in 10 subjects who had participated in a laboratory experiment with 88 h of total sleep deprivation. The PVT performance data of 3 additional subjects in this experiment were set aside beforehand for use in prospective computer simulations. The simulations involved updating the subject-specific model parameters every time the next performance measurement became available, and then predicting performance 24 h ahead. Comparison of the predictions to the subjects' actual data revealed that as more data became available for the individuals at hand, the performance predictions became

  5. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  6. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Predictors of vision impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.

  9. Impaired terrestrial and arboreal locomotor performance in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) after exposure to an AChE-inhibiting pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuRant, Sarah E.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used AChE-inhibiting pesticide on terrestrial and arboreal sprint performance, important traits for predator avoidance and prey capture, in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Lizards were exposed to carbaryl (2.5, 25, and 250 μg/g) and were raced before and 4, 24, and 96 h after dosing. In the terrestrial setting, exposure to low concentrations of carbaryl had stimulatory effects on performance, but exposure to the highest concentration was inhibitory. No