WorldWideScience

Sample records for significantly impact child

  1. Conundrum of Autism: A Review of Its Causes and Significant Impact on the Education of a School Age Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeafor, Cosmas U.

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a brain development disorder that is characterized by impaired social interaction, communication, restricted and repetitive behavior which starts before a child is three years old. As a result of the outcome of set of signs such as restricted and repetitive behaviors, autism distinguishes itself from milder Autism Spectrum Disorders…

  2. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  3. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  4. The Significance of Animal Cruelty in Child Protection Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Alberta; Pozzulo, Joanna D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency with which child protection workers (CPWs) in Ontario, Canada, seek information about animal cruelty during investigations of child maltreatment and the extent to which they consider information about animal cruelty when making decisions about whether intervention is required. The CPWs (N…

  5. Impact significance determination-Designing an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how best to go about determining the significance of impacts has, to date, only been addressed in a partial and preliminary way. The assumption tends to be made that it is either only necessary to provide explicit, justified reasons for a judgment about significance and/or to explicitly apply a prescribed procedure-a procedure usually involving the staged application of thresholds and/or criteria. The detailed attributes, strengths and limitations of such approaches and possible alternative approaches have yet to be explored systematically. This article addresses these deficiencies by analyzing the characteristics, specific methods and positive and negative tendencies of three general impact significance determination approaches-the technical approach, the collaborative approach and the reasoned argumentation approach. A range of potential composite approaches are also described. With an enhanced understanding of these approaches, together with potential combinations, EIA practitioners and other EIA participants can be in a better position to select an approach appropriate to their needs, to reinforce the positive tendencies and offset the negative tendencies of the selected approach and to combine the best qualities of more than one approach

  6. Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, L; Erkal, N; Gangadharan, L; Meng, X

    2013-02-22

    We document that China's One-Child Policy (OCP), one of the most radical approaches to limiting population growth, has produced significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals. Our data were collected from economics experiments conducted with 421 individuals born just before and just after the OCP's introduction in 1979. Surveys to elicit personality traits were also used. We used the exogenous imposition of the OCP to identify the causal impact of being an only child, net of family background effects. The OCP thus has significant ramifications for Chinese society.

  7. Impact of Play Therapy on Parent-Child Relationship Stress at a Mental Health Training Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…

  8. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2012-02-01

    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  9. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of...

  10. The Impacts of Family Size on Investment in Child Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres-Delpiano, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Using multiple births as an exogenous shift in family size, I investigate the impact of the number of children on child investment and child well-being. Using data from the 1980 US Census Five-Percent Public Use Micro Sample, 2SLS results demonstrate that parents facing a change in family size reallocate resources in a way consistent with Becker's…

  11. Impact of the Journal of Child Neurology: 2002 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Roger A

    2003-11-01

    The Journal of Child Neurology (JCN) began in 1986 as a quarterly publication focused on child neurology and the related clinical pediatric neuroscience areas of pediatric neurosurgery, child psychiatry, pediatric neuroradiology, and developmental and behavioral pediatrics. As submitted material increased, JCN expanded in publication frequency and now appears monthly. Article quality has always been high and many articles have been frequently cited. Over the years, the ratings produced for the ISI Journal Citation Reports have identified JCN as a high-ranking pediatric journal based upon the impact factor value. Currently (year 2002 figures), JCN (with its impact factor of 1.338) ranks 24th out of 68 pediatric journals.

  12. Impact of child death on paediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Clare E; Wesley, Carla; Huckridge, Jaymie; Finn, Gabrielle M; Griksaitis, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of symptoms of acute stress reactions (ASR) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in paediatric trainees following their involvement in child death. A survey designed to identify trainees' previous experiences of child death combined with questions to identify features of PTSD. Quantitative interpretation was used alongside a χ 2 test. A p value of death of a child, although 190/284 (67%) had no training in child death. 118/248 (48%) of trainees were given a formal debrief session following their most recent experience. 203/251 (81%) of trainees reported one or more symptoms or behaviours that could contribute to a diagnosis of ASR/PTSD. 23/251 (9%) of trainees met the complete criteria for ASR and 13/251 (5%) for PTSD. Attending a formal debrief and reporting feelings of guilt were associated with an increase in diagnostic criteria for ASR/PTSD (p=0.036 and pdeath of a child. The feeling of guilt should be identified and acknowledged to allow prompt signposting to further support, including psychological assessment or intervention if required. Clear recommendations need to be made about the safety of debriefing sessions as, in keeping with existing evidence, our data suggest that debrief after the death of a child may be associated with the development of symptoms suggestive of ASR/PTSD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmian M. Bennett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  14. A Malay version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index: assessing validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zamros YM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p  Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.

  15. Defining and determining the significance of impacts: concepts and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Mattice, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The term impact is conceptually and mathematically defined to be the difference in the state or value of an ecosystem with versus without the source of impact. Some resulting problems associated with the measurement of impacts based on comparisons of baseline and operational data are discussed briefly. The concept of a significant adverse impact on a biological system is operationally defined in terms of an adverse impact which, according to a proposed decision-tree, justifies rejection of a project or a change in its site, design, or mode of operation. A gradient of increasing difficulty in the prediction of impacts exists as the scope of the assessment is expanded to consider long-term, far-field impacts with respect to higher levels of biological organization (e.g., communities or ecosystems). The analytical methods available for predicting short-term, near-field impacts are discussed. Finally, the role of simulation modeling as an aid to professional judgment in predicting the long-term, far-field consequences of impacts is considered, and illustrated with an example. (U.S.)

  16. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Impact on Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pella, Jeffrey E; Drake, Kelly L; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of a selective anxiety prevention program for offspring of clinically anxious parents on three domains of child functioning: (1) social, (2) familial, and (3) emotional/behavioral. Dyads were randomized into either the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 70) or Information Monitoring (IM; n = 66) comparison group. Multi-informant assessments were conducted at baseline, post intervention, and 6 and 12 months follow-ups. Random effects mixed models under the linear growth modeling (LGM) framework was used to assess the impact of CAPS on growth trajectories. Over time, children in the CAPS group had significantly lower anxiety, anxious/depressed symptoms, and lower total behavior problems (parent report), compared to children in IM group. The intervention did not impact other domains assessed (e.g., social functioning), which may be due to "floor effects" on these measures. Longitudinal follow-up data is needed to provide valuable information about this high risk population.

  18. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  19. First child's impact on parental relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    about how life together as a couple changed. At the same time, some experienced more conflicts with their partner than before giving birth, however, the majority did actually not. More than half felt their relationship linked to 'something bigger than themselves' or had had dreams on being a family......Background: The first child's birth is for most mothers a profound experience carrying the potential to change life orientations and values. However, little is known of how becoming a mother influences the existential dimensions of life within the parental relationship for example how motherhood...... may change how we view our partner and what we find important. The aim of this study was to explore how becoming a mother might change the parental relationship seen from the mother's perspective with a specific focus on dimensions related to existential meaning-making. Methods: In 2011, 499 Danish...

  20. The Impact of Gender Equality and ICT on Child Development: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcılar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study uses a cross-sectional data set collected in 2006 for 136 countries in order to examine the relationship between child development and its determinants, such as the gender equality, information communication technology (ICT, and institutional variables. We test whether the child development is related to gender equality, by using Gender Development Index (GDI and Child Development Index (CDI to take into account more than one dimension of gender equality and child development, respectively. The study finds that the impact of gender equality is most robust and significant variable in all regressions and its impact never disappears when control variables, such as the institutional quality and ICT, are incorporated into the regressions.

  1. Perceptions of self, significant others, and teacher-child relationships in indiscriminately friendly children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Eleonora; Bosmans, Guy; Doumen, Sarah; Minnis, Helen; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing research on indiscriminate friendliness in children, almost no research exists on social-cognitive deficits that are supposed to underlie indiscriminately friendly behavior. In this study, we compared indiscriminately friendly children with controls regarding their perceptions of self, reliability trust in significant others, and perceptions of the teacher-child relationship. Children's perceptions were compared in two samples: a sample of 33 likely cases for disinhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD) from special education for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (75.76% boys, Mage=8.52, 96.9% Caucasian, 33.3% and 45.5% of their mothers completed primary or secondary education, respectively) was matched on sex, age, and socio-economic status with a sample of 33 controls from general education. Children participated individually in several interviews assessing global and social self-concept, reliability trust in significant others, teacher-child relationship perceptions, and vocabulary. Parents and teachers completed a screening questionnaire for RAD and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Likely disinhibited RAD-cases showed more indiscriminate friendliness and more problem behavior in general according to their parents and teachers than controls. Furthermore, likely RAD-cases reported a more positive global self-concept, more reliability trust in significant others, and more dependency in the teacher-child relationship than controls. The results are in line with clinical observations of indiscriminately friendly children and findings in clinical samples of maltreated or attachment disrupted children but contrast hypotheses from developmental attachment research. Further research is needed to explain the more positive perceptions of indiscriminately friendly children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  3. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... note any other environmental documents related to it (§ 1501.7(a)(5)). If the assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may incorporate it by... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508...

  4. Impact of Ambient Humidity on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413

  5. Impacted Laryngeal Foreign Body in a Child: A Diagnostic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted laryngeal foreign body could lead to catastrophic consequences if appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are not promptly instituted. A case of 4‑year‑old child who presented with a 4‑day history of probable ingestion or aspiration of a pen part and history of occasional noisy breathing on exertion and ...

  6. The Impact and Effectiveness of the Child Support Grant in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the first time in South Africa's history, the Constitution compels the state to ensure the progressive realisation of a social security grant. The country's constitution commits the state to developing a comprehensive social security system for all South Africans. This study investigates the impact and effectiveness of the Child ...

  7. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Discovery on Caregivers and Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-Fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2017-06-01

    In this qualitative study with nonoffending caregivers of suspected child sexual abuse victims, we aimed to explore the perceived impact of sexual abuse discovery on caregivers and their families, and caregivers' attitudes about mental health services for themselves. We conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with 22 nonoffending caregivers of suspected sexual abuse victims <13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was reached. We found that caregivers experienced significant emotional and psychological distress, characterized by anger, depressed mood, and guilt, after learning that their child may have been sexually abused. We identified four specific sources of caregiver distress: concerns about their child, negative beliefs about their parenting abilities, family members' actions and behaviors, and memories of their own past maltreatment experiences. Some caregivers described worsening family relationships after discovery of their child's sexual abuse, while others reported increased family cohesion. Finally, we found that most caregivers in this study believed that mental health services for themselves were necessary or beneficial to help them cope with the impact of their child's sexual abuse. These results highlight the need for professionals working with families affected by sexual abuse to assess the emotional and psychological needs of nonoffending caregivers and offer mental health services. Helping caregivers link to mental health services, tailored to their unique needs after sexual abuse discovery, may be an acceptable strategy to improve caregiver and child outcomes after sexual abuse.

  8. The impact of child welfare legislation on domestic violence-related homicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kabir; Pacheco, Gail

    2018-05-01

    State-specific statutes providing legal consequences for perpetrating domestic violence in the presence of a child have been enacted across the United States between 1996 and 2012. This paper examines the impact of this child welfare legislation, using a difference-in-differences approach. We find a significant drop in domestic violence-related homicide rates, when considering a wide range of victim-offender relationships. However, this result does not hold for marital homicides, suggesting that for this subpopulation, the risk of reprisal and consequent reduction in reporting may be counterbalancing the hypothesized deterrent impacts of the legislation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  10. Measuring the impact of child protection through Activation States

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlaczek, Z; Bringer, JD; Cockburn, C; Nutt, G; Pitchford, A; Russell, K; Brackenridge, CH

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to “use the power of football to build a better future” (FA, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task, exacerbated by the dearth of measurement tools that exist for this purpose in sport. This article presents a new model of ‘Activation States’ that has been designed and...

  11. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  12. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  13. Bolide impacts and their significance in fossil fuel geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxby, J.D. (CSIRO Division of Coal Technology (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    One of the most dramatic scientific theories of the past ten years has been that a collision between the earth and a large meteor or bolide about 10 km in diameter caused mass extinctions of most of the then-existing species (including dinosaurs) at the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago. Controversy continues but, by and large, organic geochemists researching fossil fuels have not been active participants. Only recently has a relationship between kerogen and the all-important iridium anomaly been investigated (Schmitz et al., 1988). Sediment samples at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary contain anomalously high concentrations of iridium, an element whose abundance in the earth's crust is only one ten thousandth of that found in meteorites and presumably in other solar system debris. The purpose of this paper is to briefly raise some questions regarding the bolide impact theory as it affects coal and petroleum deposits. It may well be that organic geochemical evidence will be crucial in either supporting or refuting the impact hypothesis or one of its variations. Even if future research tends to favor widespread explosive volcanism, rather than bolide impacts, the significance of such catastrophic events to the formation and characteristics of fossil fuels needs to be assessed.

  14. Bolide impacts and their significance in fossil fuel geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxby, J D [CSIRO Division of Coal Technology (Australia)

    1989-01-01

    One of the most dramatic scientific theories of the past ten years has been that a collision between the earth and a large meteor or bolide about 10 km in diameter caused mass extinctions of most of the then-existing species (including dinosaurs) at the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago. Controversy continues but, by and large, organic geochemists researching fossil fuels have not been active participants. Only recently has a relationship between kerogen and the all-important iridium anomaly been investigated (Schmitz et al., 1988). Sediment samples at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary contain anomalously high concentrations of iridium, an element whose abundance in the earth's crust is only one ten thousandth of that found in meteorites and presumably in other solar system debris. The purpose of this paper is to briefly raise some questions regarding the bolide impact theory as it affects coal and petroleum deposits. It may well be that organic geochemical evidence will be crucial in either supporting or refuting the impact hypothesis or one of its variations. Even if future research tends to favor widespread explosive volcanism, rather than bolide impacts, the significance of such catastrophic events to the formation and characteristics of fossil fuels needs to be assessed.

  15. Permanent Housing for Child Welfare-Involved Families: Impact on Child Maltreatment Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; Schoeny, Michael

    2017-09-01

    A longitudinal randomized controlled trial tested whether access to permanent housing reduces child maltreatment among inadequately housed families under investigation for child abuse and neglect. The study followed homeless and child welfare-involved families randomly assigned to receive a referral for housing subsidies plus housing case management (n = 75, 196 children) or housing case management alone (n = 75, 186 children). Latent growth models examined change in caregiver-reported frequencies of psychological aggression, physical abuse, and neglect toward children at five time points across 2.5 years. Intent-to-treat analyses suggested treatment differences for minor assault and neglect that approached significance; families randomly assigned to permanent housing plus case management exhibited marginally greater declines compared to families referred for housing case management only. Caregiver psychological aggression remained high over time, regardless of treatment condition. No evidence indicated higher risk families benefitted more from permanent housing. Results show some promise of permanent housing and highlight the complex needs of homeless families under investigation for child maltreatment. Findings emphasize the importance of continued involvement from the child welfare system to connect families with important resources. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  16. Can volunteer community health workers decrease child morbidity and mortality in southwestern Uganda? An impact evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Brenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for community health workers to improve child health in sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Healthy Child Uganda implemented a volunteer community health worker child health promotion model in rural Uganda. An impact evaluation was conducted to assess volunteer community health workers' effect on child morbidity, mortality and to calculate volunteer retention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two volunteer community health workers were selected, trained and promoted child health in each of 116 villages (population ∼61,000 during 2006-2009. Evaluation included a household survey of mothers at baseline and post-intervention in intervention/control areas, retrospective reviews of community health worker birth/child death reports and post-intervention focus group discussions. Retention was calculated from administrative records. Main outcomes were prevalence of recent child illness/underweight status, community health worker reports of child deaths, focus group perception of effect, and community health worker retention. After 18-36 months, 86% of trained volunteers remained active. Post-intervention surveys in intervention households revealed absolute reductions of 10.2% [95%CI (-17.7%, -2.6%] in diarrhea prevalence and 5.8% [95%CI (-11.5%, -0.003%] in fever/malaria; comparative decreases in control households were not statistically significant. Underweight prevalence was reduced by 5.1% [95%CI (-10.7%, 0.4%] in intervention households. Community health worker monthly reports revealed a relative decline of 53% in child deaths (<5 years old, during the first 18 months of intervention. Focus groups credited community health workers with decreasing child deaths, improved care-seeking practices, and new income-generating opportunities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A low-cost child health promotion model using volunteer community health workers demonstrated decreased child morbidity, dramatic mortality trend declines and

  17. Significance and impact of nuclear research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this conference was to gather representatives of universities, research institutes, governmental agencies and industry, as well as IAEA staff, to report on and to assess the significance and impact of nuclear science and technology in developing countries. Thirty-four papers from 17 countries were presented, which are included in the proceedings, as well as reports of three workshops on ''Basic and applied research'', on ''The IAEA's involvement in the implementation of national nuclear programmes'', and on ''Policy and management issues''. The presentation of these reports clearly reflects the fact that all the nuclear activities involved in the programmes of industrialized countries are in progress in developing countries, i.e. most of the aspects of applications in the field of nuclear power, research reactors, food and agriculture, industry and earth sciences, and life sciences. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  18. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwang N Gildas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  19. Impact of information and communication technology on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2015-09-01

    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p child and the family domains, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.92, 0.89 and 0.78 for the total, child and family domains, respectively. The scale demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability for assessing the impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Impact of parenting practices on parent-child relationships in children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the

  3. Impact of a Child Life and Music Therapy Procedural Support Intervention on Parental Perception of Their Child's Distress During Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gabriela S; OʼConnor, Todd; Carey, Jessa; Vella, Adam; Paul, Audrey; Rode, Diane; Weinberg, Alan

    2017-02-21

    Child life specialists and music therapists have a unique and integral role in providing psychosocial care to pediatric patients and families. These professionals are trained to provide clinical interventions that support coping and adjustment and reduce the risk of psychological trauma related to hospital visits and health care encounters. The researchers devised a multimodal approach using a combined child life and music therapy intervention to address procedure-related distress in patients receiving intravenous (IV) placement in the pediatric emergency department. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this collaborative intervention by evaluating parental perception of their child's distress. This study was a prospective analysis investigating the impact of a child life and music therapy intervention on children aged 4 to 11 years old receiving an IV placement in the pediatric emergency department. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing scores between a 4-question pretest and subsequent 4-question posttest that asked the child's parent to evaluate how they anticipated their child would respond to the procedure, and then to evaluate how they perceived their child to have responded after the procedure. Qualitative data were collected in the form of open-ended comments, which were accommodated at the end of the posttest. Data were analyzed by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method for testing repeated ordinal responses and the PROC GENMOD procedure in the SAS system software. A total of 41 participants were enrolled in this study. Results of the statistical analysis revealed significant differences between all pre- and posttest scores (P music therapy intervention. Improvement was demonstrated across all 4 questions, suggesting that the child life and music therapy intervention supported healthy, adaptive coping and helped to minimize distress experienced by patients during IV placement. These results underscore the importance and potential clinical

  4. Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent-child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Beyond Social Constructionism: A Structural Analysis of the Cultural Significance of the Child Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the dominance of social constructionist theories of childhood by presenting a structural analysis of the child star as a recurrent, universal feature in the myths and legends of the world. The article argues that by conceptualising our understanding of children and childhood as being due solely to the socio-historical…

  6. Managing parental groups: personal impact of a group leadership course for child healthcare nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the experience and personal impact of a group leadership course for child healthcare nurses.BACKGROUND: During their child's first year, all parents in Sweden are invited to participate in parental groups within the child health service; however, only 49% choose to participate. Despite extensive experience, child healthcare nurses find managing parental groups challenging and express a need for training in group dynamics and group leadership.DESIGN: The stu...

  7. How immediate and significant is the outcome of training on diversified diets, hygiene and food safety? An effort to mitigate child undernutrition in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetha, Anitha; Tsusaka, Takuji W; Munthali, Timalizge W; Musukwa, Maggie; Mwangwela, Agnes; Kalumikiza, Zione; Manani, Tinna; Kachulu, Lizzie; Kumwenda, Nelson; Musoke, Mike; Okori, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the impacts of training on nutrition, hygiene and food safety designed by the Nutrition Working Group, Child Survival Collaborations and Resources Group (CORE). Adapted from the 21d Positive Deviance/Hearth model, mothers were trained on the subjects of appropriate complementary feeding, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices, and aflatoxin contamination in food. To assess the impacts on child undernutrition, a randomised controlled trial was implemented on a sample of 179 mothers and their children (<2 years old) in two districts of Malawi, namely Mzimba and Balaka. Settings A 21d intensive learning-by-doing process using the positive deviance approach. Malawian children and mothers. Difference-in-difference panel regression analysis revealed that the impacts of the comprehensive training were positive and statistically significant on the Z-scores for wasting and underweight, where the effects increased constantly over time within the 21d time frame. As for stunting, the coefficients were not statistically significant during the 21d programme, although the level of significance started increasing in 2 weeks, indicating that stunting should also be alleviated in a slightly longer time horizon. The study clearly suggests that comprehensive training immediately guides mothers into improved dietary and hygiene practices, and that improved practices take immediate and progressive effects in ameliorating children's undernutrition.

  8. A Short Review on Journal Impact Factor; Significance and Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Eisa Khajelou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact Factor (IF is considered as one of the most common subjects in academic environments. Individuals who would like to publish their productions and/or research results confront with various indicators, brands and labels that indicate relative importance, academic discipline and quality of journals. Diversity of the indicators induces confusion to select applicable journals and often, the authors would not be able to distinguish IF, ISI and their relations with the acceptance of the journal. Meanwhile, they have difficulties to find IF. Hence, this short paper aimed to provide useful information for authors to familiarize them with the concept of IF.​

  9. The Impact of Child Labor on Child’s Education: The Case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pipit Pitriyan

    2006-01-01

    Employing child as a labor is categorized as a violation to the human right. But it seems unavoidable in developing country to prevent children entering labor market. Many extensive literatures on the determinant of child labor have been found, but yet, there is limited research on the impact of children work on socioeconomic outcomes. This paper investigates the impact of child labor on child’s education by using the Indonesian Labor Survey/SAKERNAS 2002 data at the district level.

  10. The significance and impact of the new French electricity organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batail, J.

    2000-01-01

    The years 1996 to 1998 saw the introduction of 'internal electricity market' and 'internal gas market' directives. In France, the year 2000 has recently been marked by the enactment of the new electricity law and soon a gas law will also be brought into force. The issues are technical-economic, industrial, social and political. This article points out the particular nature of the 'power supply network industries', recalls the arguments presented during communal debates about electricity and explains the solutions that have resulted in agreement. Finally, it details the practical impact of the recent electricity law, aimed at revitalizing the electricity network by the introduction of competition, whilst clarify and consolidating the public service in a competitive context and equipping the energy policy with suitable tools for this new context. What is required is a balance between the advantages of moderate liberalization and a certain number features to which France adheres to i.e. the security of national supplies, the involvement of public authorities in the preparation for the collective and access to cheap electricity for all, etc. (authors)

  11. The Impact of Child Labor on Schooling Outcomes in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo

    2011-01-01

    Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…

  12. Congenital Heart Disease and Impacts on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alievi Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months. Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001. The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042, child's age (P=0.001 and income per capita (P=0.019. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up.

  13. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  14. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  15. Memories of significant episodes in child psychotherapy: an autobiographical memory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gerhard; Boalt Boethius, Siv; Svirsky, Liv; Carlberg, Gunnar

    2006-06-01

    In this study, child psychotherapists (N=31) were asked to retrieve emotionally valenced therapy episodes by using an autobiographical memory approach, with cue words to elicit specific therapy episodes (e.g. irritated, ashamed, loving, and elated). One group of teachers for the disabled (N=10) and one group of music therapists (N=9) were also tested and served as comparison groups. Results showed that all participants were able to retrieve memories of episodes. When asked to rate each memory, negative memories were returned to less often, and overall positive memories were rated as more easy to recall and more vivid. Memories derived from positive cue words were also judged to have a more positive compared with negative importance for outcome. Surprisingly, memories derived from the cue word irritated were seen as having more positive than negative importance for outcome. Finally, we checked memory specificity for each memory derived. A high degree of specificity was found overall (72-88%). In conclusion, cue words might be a useful way to generate specific memories of therapy episodes in future research.

  16. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  17. Can gravity waves significantly impact PSC occurrence in the Antarctic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Woollands

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A combination of POAM III aerosol extinction and CHAMP RO temperature measurements are used to examine the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the formation of Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs. POAM III aerosol extinction observations and quality flag information are used to identify Polar Stratospheric Clouds using an unsupervised clustering algorithm.

    A PSC proxy, derived by thresholding Met Office temperature analyses with the PSC Type Ia formation temperature (TNAT, shows general agreement with the results of the POAM III analysis. However, in June the POAM III observations of PSC are more abundant than expected from temperature threshold crossings in five out of the eight years examined. In addition, September and October PSC identified using temperature thresholding is often significantly higher than that derived from POAM III; this observation probably being due to dehydration and denitrification. Comparison of the Met Office temperature analyses with corresponding CHAMP observations also suggests a small warm bias in the Met Office data in June. However, this bias cannot fully explain the differences observed.

    Analysis of CHAMP data indicates that temperature perturbations associated with gravity waves may partially explain the enhanced PSC incidence observed in June (relative to the Met Office analyses. For this month, approximately 40% of the temperature threshold crossings observed using CHAMP RO data are associated with small-scale perturbations. Examination of the distribution of temperatures relative to TNAT shows a large proportion of June data to be close to this threshold, potentially enhancing the importance of gravity wave induced temperature perturbations. Inspection of the longitudinal structure of PSC occurrence in June 2005 also shows that regions of enhancement are geographically associated with the Antarctic Peninsula; a known mountain wave "hotspot". The

  18. The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, M

    1994-10-01

    Large rural-urban child mortality differentials in many developing countries suggest that rural families can improve their children's survival chances by leaving the countryside and settling in towns and cities. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in the late 1970s and 1980s. Results show that, before migration, children of migrant women had similar or slightly higher mortality risks than children of women who remained in the village. In the two-year period surrounding their mother's migration, their chances of dying increased sharply as a result of accompanying their mothers or being left behind, to levels well above those of rural and urban non-migrant children. Children born after migrants had settled in the urban area, however, gradually experienced much better survival chances than children of rural non-migrants, as well as lower mortality risks than migrants' children born in rural areas before migration. The study concludes that many disadvantaged urban children would probably have been much worse off had their mothers remained in the village, and that millions of children's lives may have been saved in the 1980s as a result of mothers moving to urban areas.

  19. 77 FR 34455 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Century of the Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, from on or about July 29, 2012, until on or... exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I...

  1. The impacts of institutional child sexual abuse: A rapid review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Tamara; Herbert, James Leslie; Arney, Fiona; Parkinson, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings. Consistent with child sexual abuse in other contexts, institutional child sexual abuse is found to be associated with numerous, pervasive and connected impacts upon the psychological, physical, social, educative and economic wellbeing of victims/survivors. Further, institutional child sexual abuse is associated with vicarious trauma at the individual, family and community level, and with impacts to the spiritual wellbeing of victims/survivors of abuse that occurs in religious settings. The identified literature suggests the trauma of institutional child sexual abuse may be exacerbated by the interplay of abuse dynamics in institutional settings, which may reduce or impede circumstances supporting disclosure, belief, support and protection from future harm. Acknowledging the limitations of the present study and the available evidence, this narrative synthesis provides insights into the complex impacts of institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of student pharmacist-delivered asthma education on child and caregiver knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer Padden; Marcotullio, Nicole; Skoner, David P; Lunney, Phil; Gentile, Deborah A

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of asthma education delivered by student pharmacists and to assess the impact of child and caregiver baseline asthma knowledge on asthma control in children. Student pharmacists developed and implemented asthma self-management education interventions for children and their caregivers and performed asthma screenings for children at a series of asthma camps. Eighty-seven children, ages 5-17 years, and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. A previously validated asthma questionnaire was modified to assess asthma knowledge among children and adults. Asthma knowledge increased significantly in children following participation in the education intervention (pasthma. A significant association was observed between caregiver baseline asthma knowledge and better asthma control in their children (p=0.019). The results of this study demonstrate that student pharmacist-delivered asthma education can positively impact asthma knowledge in children, and that caregivers' knowledge of asthma is strongly correlated with better asthma control in their children.

  3. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption from Commencement of Construction Requirements... has reached a Finding of No Significant Impact. II. Summary of the Environmental Assessment Background...

  4. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood Control Improvements to the Rio Grande... Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Significant Impact for Flood Control Improvements to the Rio Grande Canalization Project in Vado, New Mexico...

  5. Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child's health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdalla; Abdalla, Salma M; Jafer, Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Jihad; de Vries, Nanne

    2018-02-02

    To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  6. Children's and Parents' Ability to Tolerate Child Distress: Impact on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Robert R; Franklin, Martin; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Compton, Scott N; Tommet, Doug; Jones, Richard N; Garcia, Abbe; Freeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The present study explored the concept of tolerance for child distress in 46 children (ages 5-8), along with their mothers and fathers, who received family-based CBT for OCD. The study sought to describe baseline tolerance, changes in tolerance with treatment, and the predictive impact of tolerance on symptom improvement. Tolerance was rated by clinicians on a single item and the CY-BOCS was used to measure OCD severity. Descriptive results suggested that all participants had some difficulty tolerating the child's distress at baseline while paired t tests indicated large improvements were made over treatment (d = 1.2-2.0). Fathers' initial tolerance was significantly related to symptom improvement in a multivariate regression as were fathers' and children's changes in distress tolerance over the course of treatment. Overall, results provide support for examining tolerance of child distress including its predictive impact and potential as a supplemental intervention target.

  7. The Impact of a Child with Autism on the Bruneian Family System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen J.; Mundia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of parents' perspectives on family life with a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) and the socio-cultural context in which these families function was conducted. It has been suggested that the impact of a child with a developmental disability, like autism spectrum disorder, on the…

  8. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  9. The Impact of Child Care Subsidies on Child Well-Being: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, child care subsidies have become an integral part of federal and state efforts to move economically disadvantaged parents from welfare to work. Although previous empirical studies consistently show that these employment-related subsidies raise work levels among this group, little is known about the impact of subsidy receipt on child well-being. In this paper, we identify the causal effect of child care subsidies on child development by exploiting geographic variation in the d...

  10. Media Use and Child Sleep: The Impact of Content, Timing, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekweg, Kimberly; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Media use has been shown to negatively affect a child's sleep, especially in the context of evening use or with a television in the child's bedroom. However, little is known about how content choices and adult co-use affect this relationship. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of media content, timing, and use behaviors on child sleep. METHODS: These data were collected in the baseline survey and media diary of a randomized controlled trial on media use in children aged 3 to 5 years. Sleep measures were derived from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Media diaries captured time, content title, and co-use of television, video-game, and computer usage; titles were coded for ratings, violence, scariness, and pacing. Nested linear regression models were built to examine the impact of timing, content, and co-use on the sleep problem score. RESULTS: On average, children consumed 72.9 minutes of media screen time daily, with 14.1 minutes occurring after 7:00 pm. Eighteen percent of parents reported at least 1 sleep problem; children with a bedroom television consumed more media and were more likely to have a sleep problem. In regression models, each additional hour of evening media use was associated with a significant increase in the sleep problem score (0.743 [95% confidence interval: 0.373–1.114]), as was daytime use with violent content (0.398 [95% confidence interval: 0.121–0.676]). There was a trend toward greater impact of daytime violent use in the context of a bedroom television (P = .098) and in low-income children (P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Violent content and evening media use were associated with increased sleep problems. However, no such effects were observed with nonviolent daytime media use. PMID:21708803

  11. Media use and child sleep: the impact of content, timing, and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Michelle M; Liekweg, Kimberly; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2011-07-01

    Media use has been shown to negatively affect a child's sleep, especially in the context of evening use or with a television in the child's bedroom. However, little is known about how content choices and adult co-use affect this relationship. To describe the impact of media content, timing, and use behaviors on child sleep. These data were collected in the baseline survey and media diary of a randomized controlled trial on media use in children aged 3 to 5 years. Sleep measures were derived from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Media diaries captured time, content title, and co-use of television, video-game, and computer usage; titles were coded for ratings, violence, scariness, and pacing. Nested linear regression models were built to examine the impact of timing, content, and co-use on the sleep problem score. On average, children consumed 72.9 minutes of media screen time daily, with 14.1 minutes occurring after 7:00 pm. Eighteen percent of parents reported at least 1 sleep problem; children with a bedroom television consumed more media and were more likely to have a sleep problem. In regression models, each additional hour of evening media use was associated with a significant increase in the sleep problem score (0.743 [95% confidence interval: 0.373-1.114]), as was daytime use with violent content (0.398 [95% confidence interval: 0.121-0.676]). There was a trend toward greater impact of daytime violent use in the context of a bedroom television (P=.098) and in low-income children (P=.07). Violent content and evening media use were associated with increased sleep problems. However, no such effects were observed with nonviolent daytime media use. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. The Impact of the First Birth: Married and Single Women Preferring Childlessness, One Child, or Two Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of an examination of the impact of a first child on three groups of women: voluntarily childless wives and single women wanting to remain childless; mothers of one child by choice and single women who want an only child; and two-child mothers and single women who want to have two children. (Author/BL)

  13. Juices in the diet of a child and an adult: Their significance for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Juices are of great importance in human rational nutrition during the first years of life. In accordance with the generally accepted recommendations, they are introduced into the infant diet no earlier than 4 months of age, usually after the first complementary foods. Juices provide essential macro- and micronutrients for the infant, promote his/her adaptation to a new eating pattern, and play an important role in the formation of taste preferences and food programming. Juices are a source of vitamins (primarily vitamin C, some minerals (iron, fibers, and water. At the same time, juices contain significant amount of other organic compounds important for the human body, such as polyphenols that are an important component of plant products. They are present in vegetables and fruits, both fresh foods and drinks. Polyphenols include phenolic acid and flavonoids: flavonols (catechins and proanthocyanidines, anthocyanins, etc. Fruit juices contain an average of 34 mg/ 100 ml polyphenols and tomato juice does 69 mg/100 ml. Polyphenols play the most important role in the body’s antioxidant defense mechanisms. Their anti-atherogenic and anti-cancer effects (reducing the risk of myocardial infarction and that of lung and rectal cancers are shown in the long term.

  14. Child-rearing values : The impact of intergenerational class mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study contrasts two theoretical perspectives on the relationship between intergenerational class mobility and child-rearing values. According to the dissociative thesis, which describes social mobility as a disruptive experience leading to insecurity, social isolation, stress and frustration,

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions targeting sleep and their impact on child body mass index, diet, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Chai, Li Kheng; Williams, Christopher M; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-05-01

    This review aimed to examine the impact of interventions involving an explicit sleep component on child body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. A systematic search was undertaken in six databases to identify randomized controlled trials examining the impact of interventions with a sleep component on child BMI, dietary intake, and/or physical activity. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted assessing the impact of included interventions on child BMI. Of the eight included trials, three enforced a sleep protocol and five targeted sleep as part of multicomponent behavioral interventions either exclusively or together with nutrition and physical activity. Meta-analysis of three studies found that multicomponent behavioral interventions involving a sleep component were not significantly effective in changing child BMI (n = 360,-0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.18, 0.11], I(2)  = 0%); however, only one study included in the meta-analysis successfully changed sleep duration in children. There were some reported improvements to adolescent diet, and only one trial examined the impact on child physical activity, where a significant effect was observed. Findings from the included studies suggest that where improvements in child sleep duration were achieved, a positive impact on child BMI, nutrition, and physical activity was also observed. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconer Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the National Child Measurement Programme and key service providers from 5 primary care trusts (administrative bodies responsible for providing primary and secondary care services. We will conduct baseline questionnaires, followed by provision of weight feedback and 3 follow up questionnaires over the course of a year. Questionnaires will measure change in parental risk perception of overweight, health behaviours and health service use. Qualitative interviews will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to change. This study will produce preliminary data on National Health Service costs associated with weight feedback and determine which feedback approach (letter and letter plus telephone is more effective. Discussion This study will provide the first large scale evaluation of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback. Findings from this evaluation will inform future planning of the National Child Measurement Programme.

  17. The Impact of Family Unification Housing Vouchers on Child Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamit, Michael; Cunningham, Mary; Hanson, Devlin

    2017-09-01

    This study addresses whether providing housing vouchers through the Family Unification Program (FUP) to families involved in the child welfare system reduces child maltreatment and the need for child welfare services. The study uses child welfare administrative data on 326 children in Portland, Oregon, and 502 children in San Diego, California from the point at which their families were referred to the program through 18 months post-referral. Using a quasi-experimental waitlist comparison design, probit regressions show little impact of FUP on preventing child removal from home, but some positive impact on reunification among children already placed out of home. Hazard estimations show receipt of FUP speeds up child welfare case closure. Impacts on new reports of abuse and neglect are mixed, but point toward reduced reports. Low rates of removal among intact comparison families and high rates of reunification for children in out-of-home care suggest poor targeting of housing resources. Housing vouchers are being given to families not bearing the risks the program is intended to address. The presence of some positive findings suggests that housing vouchers might help reduce child welfare involvement if better targeting were practiced by child welfare agencies. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion: Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approaches to estimating and addressing the risk to children from fossil fuel combustion have been fragmented, tending to focus either on the toxic air emissions or on climate change. Yet developing children, and especially poor children, now bear a disproportionate burden of disease from both environmental pollution and climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. Objective: This commentary summarizes the robust scientific evidence regarding the multiple current and projected health impacts of fossil fuel combustion on the young to make the case for a holistic, child-centered energy and climate policy that addresses the full array of physical and psychosocial stressors resulting from fossil fuel pollution. Discussion: The data summarized here show that by sharply reducing our dependence on fossil fuels we would achieve highly significant health and economic benefits for our children and their future. These benefits would occur immediately and also play out over the life course and potentially across generations. Conclusion: Going beyond the powerful scientific and economic arguments for urgent action to reduce the burning of fossil fuels is the strong moral imperative to protect our most vulnerable populations. Citation: Perera FP. 2017. Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environ Health Perspect 125:141–148; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP299 PMID:27323709

  19. Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion: Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P

    2017-02-01

    Approaches to estimating and addressing the risk to children from fossil fuel combustion have been fragmented, tending to focus either on the toxic air emissions or on climate change. Yet developing children, and especially poor children, now bear a disproportionate burden of disease from both environmental pollution and climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. This commentary summarizes the robust scientific evidence regarding the multiple current and projected health impacts of fossil fuel combustion on the young to make the case for a holistic, child-centered energy and climate policy that addresses the full array of physical and psychosocial stressors resulting from fossil fuel pollution. The data summarized here show that by sharply reducing our dependence on fossil fuels we would achieve highly significant health and economic benefits for our children and their future. These benefits would occur immediately and also play out over the life course and potentially across generations. Going beyond the powerful scientific and economic arguments for urgent action to reduce the burning of fossil fuels is the strong moral imperative to protect our most vulnerable populations. Citation: Perera FP. 2017. Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environ Health Perspect 125:141-148; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP299.

  20. Burnout: Its Impact on Child Welfare Workers and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Srinika; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Female child welfare workers and their husbands participated in a study of burnout and the effects of work stress on family relations. Results indicated that greater feelings of burnout in the workers were associated with their depression, anxiety, and irritableness. These individuals were also likely to report lower marital satisfaction.…

  1. Forensic Impact of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…

  2. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  3. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels after treatment in patients with child bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels after treatment in patients with child bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels were determined with RIA in 40 patients with child bronchopneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels in patients with child bronchopneumonia was important for diagnosis and outcome prediction. (authors)

  5. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  6. Impact of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sharon; Croken, Barbara; al Hamdani, Abdul Hakim; Jibran, Fatima; al Makhlafi, Saed

    Nearly a decade after ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), more information is needed about how it is being used to advance children's rights. The Yemen CRC Impact Study is part of the International CRC Impact Study, a project of Radda Barnen/Swedish Save the Children. The study's focus is on how and whether the Yemeni…

  7. Economic Impact of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, Alex R; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Powell, Jennifer S

    2018-04-04

    This study evaluated the economics of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) by applying the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) cost-benefit model to data from a randomized effectiveness trial with 86 families (Swenson et al. in JFP 24:497-507, 2010b). The net benefit of MST-CAN, versus enhanced outpatient treatment, was $26,655 per family at 16 months post-baseline. Stated differently, every dollar spent on MST-CAN recovered $3.31 in savings to participants, taxpayers, and society at large. Policymakers and public service agencies should consider these findings when making investments into interventions for high-need families involved with child protective services.

  8. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of nutrition on child development at 3 years in a rural community of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Breast feeding has a positive effect on the overall development of the child and should be promoted in the present generation. In India, child malnutrition is responsible for a higher percentage of the country′s burden of disease. Undernutrition also affects cognitive and motor development and undermines educational attainment; and ultimately impacts on productivity at work and at home, with adverse implications for income and economic growth.

  10. Managing parental groups: personal impact of a group leadership course for child healthcare nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the experience and personal impact of a group leadership course for child healthcare nurses. During their child's first year, all parents in Sweden are invited to participate in parental groups within the child health service; however, only 49% choose to participate. Despite extensive experience, child healthcare nurses find managing parental groups challenging and express a need for training in group dynamics and group leadership. The study was designed as a controlled study with a pretest/post-test design where the participants form their own control group. A group leadership course was given to 56 child healthcare nurses and evaluated in a pre- and postintervention questionnaire, a course evaluation and an interview with the course leaders. The child healthcare nurses felt their group leadership skills were strengthened and the majority (96%) felt that the course had changed their way of leading parental groups. They felt that the group leader role had been clarified and that they had obtained several new tools to use in their groups. Clarifying the role of group leader and adding knowledge about group leadership and dynamics seems to have increased the self-confidence for child healthcare nurses in group leadership. Improved confidence in group management might motivate the child healthcare nurses to further develop parental groups to attract the parents who currently choose not to participate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Examining the impact of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Nick; Bratton, Sue C

    2014-07-01

    Research supports that child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy approach, has strong effects on participating parents and children. Some speculate that filial therapy improves the family system; however, minimal research exists to support this claim. Using a single-case design, researchers examined CPRT's impact on the functioning of 8 families. Results revealed that 6 families experienced statistically significant improvements in targeted areas of family functioning. Results from self-reported measures indicated that 7 families improved in family satisfaction, 4 in cohesion, 3 in communication, and 1 in flexibility. Observational measures also revealed improvements: 5 families in flexibility, 4 families in cohesion, and 4 families in communication. The results support that the benefits of CPRT may extend to the family system. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Evaluating the impact of child safety seat check-up events on parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ashley B; Jones, Ches; Nunez, Casandra

    2002-12-01

    Riding unrestrained is the greatest risk factor for death and injury among children in motor vehicles. Restraining a child can reduce the risk of death for that child by up to 71%. However, despite increased awareness, child safety seat usage rates are still disturbingly low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that child safety seat check-up events have on parental knowledge on child safety seats and installation. The subjects for this study were 101 parents/caregivers who attended child safety seat check-up events in northwest Arkansas from May 2000 through June 2001. A 20-item survey was conducted via the telephone. Results showed that the check-up events in northwest Arkansas have had an impact on self-efficacy. The participants of the events were primarily Caucasian and females in the 30-34 age group. Nine of 10 subjects scored in the high knowledge category. Conclusions are that check-up events do have an impact on parental knowledge and are accepted by the target group. Additionally, participants believed that car seats are of great importance and do protect their children in the event of a crash.

  13. Diagnostic practice and its impacts on parental health and child behaviour problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A

    2012-10-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis is a key point in developing a treatment plan for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little attention has been paid to the impacts of diagnostic practices on families, and the consequent impact on child outcomes. Parents' experiences during ASD diagnosis for their child can be stressful, and such stress can lead to parental ill health, child-behaviour problems, and poorer child outcomes following treatment. Thus, the conduct of diagnosis may be of particular importance for subsequent child outcomes and parental health. A lack of knowledge regarding best diagnostic practice may ultimately impair treatment efficacy and lead to increased health- and economic-burdens. Given this, the current article examines recent work concerning: parental experiences of ASD diagnoses; general health and psychological functioning of parents of newly-diagnosed children with ASD; aspects of the diagnostic process impacting on parental functioning; and the relationship of parental functioning to child outcomes. These are placed into the context of diagnostic best practice for ASD, and understanding the complex relationship between ASD and family variables.

  14. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in a child with disability: impact on parental quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen, M; Albers, L; Borchers, M; Haass, S; Gärtner, J; Schröder, S; Goldbeck, L; von Kries, R; Brockmann, K; Zirn, B

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress in genetic testing has facilitated obtaining an etiologic diagnosis in children with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) or both. Little is known about the benefits of diagnostic elucidation for affected families. We studied the impact of a genetic diagnosis on parental quality of life (QoL) using a validated semiquantitative questionnaire in families with a disabled child investigated by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We received completed questionnaires from 95 mothers and 76 fathers of 99 families. We used multivariate analysis for adjustment of potential confounders. Taken all 99 families together, maternal QoL score (percentile rank scale 51.05) was significantly lower than fathers' QoL (61.83, p = 0.01). Maternal QoL score was 20.17 [95% CI (5.49; 34.82)] percentile rank scales higher in mothers of children with diagnostic (n = 34) aCGH as opposed to mothers of children with inconclusive (n = 65) aCGH (Hedges' g = 0.71). Comparison of these QoL scores with retrospectively recalled QoL before aCGH revealed an increase of maternal QoL after diagnostic clarification. Our results indicate a benefit for maternal QoL if a genetic test, here aCGH, succeeds to clarify the etiologic diagnosis in a disabled child. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Compliance and Noncompliance in Anxious, Aggressive, and Socially Competent Children: The Impact of the Child's Game on Child and Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the Child's Game parenting intervention (Forehand & McMahon, 1981; McMahon & Forehand, 2003) on child compliance, noncompliance, and aversive behavior in 3 groups of 20 nonreferred preschool children identified as high on dimensions of anxiety/withdrawal, anger/aggression, or social competence. The impact…

  16. Developmental enamel defects and their impact on child oral health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Vargas-Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the impact of Developmental Enamel Defects (DED on Child Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (COHRQoL. A sample of 944 11- to 14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren was examined for the prevalence and severity of DED. The children completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14, and socioeconomic status was also collected using a questionnaire. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between DED and overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. The prevalence of DED was 19.7%. In general, children with DED did not indicate any decrease in self-perception. However, this condition was associated with an impact on the functional limitation domain. The presence of DED may cause negative impacts on a child's perception of oral health and on their daily performance.

  17. The Impact of Sex of Child on Breastfeeding in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2017-11-01

    Background Sex of child has been shown to impact breastfeeding duration in India, Australia, Scandinavia, Latin America, and, within the US, in a sample in Eastern Connecticut and in a separate sample of Indian and Chinese immigrants. Objectives The objective of this study is to examine differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration by sex of child across racial/ethnic groups in the US. Methods We used the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2010 and logistic regression to examine whether sex of child impacts breastfeeding initiation and duration for at least 8 weeks by women's racial/ethnic group. Results Among the 66,107 women in our sample representing 12 different race/ethnic groups, Hispanic women (n = 9049) had lower odds of breastfeeding initiation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.93) and breastfeeding duration (AOR = .87, 95% CI 0.80-0.96) if they have sons compared to Hispanic women who have daughters. Sex of child did not impact the odds of breastfeeding initiation or duration among any other race/ethnic group. Conclusion We have shown that, for Hispanics in the US, sex of child may have an impact on breastfeeding, a health behavior that has a variety of positive impacts on infants throughout their lives. Boys, relative to girls, were at a disadvantage in breastfeeding initiation and duration. Future work is necessary to unpack the mechanisms behind these findings. In particular, how sex of child impacts how mothers and fathers view the nutritional needs of their children and breastfeeding more broadly.

  18. The impact of patterns of trauma exposure among low income children with and without histories of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Abigail L; Handley, Elizabeth D; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has revealed a large prevalence of trauma experienced by children, creating high risk for the development of psychopathology. Research investigating the negative impacts of child maltreatment and other traumas has typically examined these experiences individually, controlling for co-occurring traumas, or has combined these experiences into a general variable of risk, thereby obscuring the complex relationships among environmental traumas and maltreatment. The current study expands on previous research by elucidating relationships between multiple contexts of overlapping traumas and maltreatment experienced by children, and by categorizing how these experiences join together to impact internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Participants included 316 maltreated children and 269 nonmaltreated children (M age = 9.4, SD = 0.88) who attended a summer day camp research program for low-income children. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified three differential patterns of trauma exposure across children: 1) community violence and loss; 2) pervasive trauma; and 3) low trauma. Covariate analyses demonstrated that child maltreatment was significantly associated with class membership, suggesting that maltreated children were more likely to experience diverse traumas extending beyond their maltreatment experiences (pervasive trauma class). A two-way analysis of variance also demonstrated that trauma latent class membership and child maltreatment each represented unique predictors of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, with each having an independent effect on symptomatology. This investigation provides unique insight into the differential impact of patterns of trauma exposure and child maltreatment, providing support for further research and clinical practice addressing multiple levels of a child's ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Social and Productive Impacts of Zambia's Child Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Seidenfeld, David; Davis, Benjamin; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence from dozens of cash transfer (CT) programs across the world suggests that there are few interventions that can match the range of impacts and cost-effectiveness of a small, predictable monetary transfer to poor families in developing countries. However, individual published impact assessments typically focus on only one…

  20. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Impact of maternal mental health on maternal-child interaction in attendees in a community health clinic in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu; Yewande O Oshodi; Elizabeth A Campbell; Mercy Eigbike; Kofoworola A Odeyemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. M...

  2. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Tam; Luis Huicho; Carlos A. Huayanay-Espinoza; María Clara Restrepo-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mor...

  3. Child/Adolescent's ADHD and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Family Impact and Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Lago-Urbano, Rocio; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Carmona-Márquez, José

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent-child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29%) and boys (90; 71%) aged 6-17 years old. Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents' variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems) and family-contextual variables (negative impact on family's social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support). Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a) negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother's stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b) the association between child and adolescent's ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children's conduct problems and by negative impact on family's social life, and not by children's emotional problems nor by mother's perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c) a pathway from child/adolescent's ADHD through children's conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family's social life to mother's parenting stress. Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent's and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD.

  4. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  5. Significant differences in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK: the role of deprivation and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, M; Rea, D M; King, P F; Brown, A E

    2018-04-03

    Nonresponsive maternal child-feeding interactions, such as restricting, pressurising and emotional feeding, can affect the ability of a child to self-regulate intake and increase the risk of becoming overweight. However, despite findings that South Asian and Black children living in the UK are more likely to be overweight, UK research has not considered how maternal child-feeding style might differ between ethnic groups. The present study aimed to explore variations in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK, taking into account associated factors such as deprivation and parenting style. Six hundred and fifty-nine UK mothers with a child who was aged 5-11 years old completed a questionnaire. Items included ethnicity and demographic data, as well as copies of the Child Feeding Questionnaire, Parental Feeding Styles Questionnaire and Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Significant differences in perceived responsibility (P = 0.002), restriction (P = 0.026), pressure to eat (P = 0.045), instrumental feeding (P = 0.000) and emotional feeding (P = 0.000) were found between the groups. Mothers from South Asian backgrounds reported higher levels of pressure to eat, emotional feeding and indulgent feeding styles, whereas mothers from Chinese backgrounds reported greater perceived responsibility and restriction. Mothers from Black and White British backgrounds were not significantly higher with respect to any behaviour. Maternal child-feeding style was also associated with deprivation and parenting style, although these did not fully explain the data. Understanding cultural factors behind maternal child-feeding style, particularly around pressurising and indulgent feeding behaviours, may play an important part in reducing levels of children who are overweight and obese in the UK. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Dyssynchrony and perinatal psychopathology impact of child disease on parents-child interactions, the paradigm of Prader Willi syndrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Guedeney, Antoine; Diene, Gwenaelle; Çabal-Berthoumieu, Sophie; Fichaux-Bourin, Pascale; Molinas, Catherine; Faye, Sandy; Valette, Marion; Bascoul, Céline; Cohen, David; Tauber, Maïthé

    2016-11-01

    transactional spiral. Dys-synchrony can be induced by children's pathology as well as parental pathology with emotional and developmental impact in the both cases. The PWS paradigm shows us the necessity to sustain early parents-child relationship to avoid establishment of a negative transactional pattern of interaction that can impact child's development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations on the Dependency and Criminal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Allan R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…

  8. The impact of a Caribbean home-visiting child development program on cognitive skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, W.; Rosemberg, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short-term impact evaluation of a home-visiting Early Child Development (ECD) program in the Caribbean aimed at vulnerable children from birth to three years. The analysis is based on a quasi-experimental research design including approximately four hundred children in

  9. Analysis of the Impacts of City Year's Whole School Whole Child Model on Partner Schools' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…

  10. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  11. Excluding the rural population: the impact of public expenditure on child malnutrition in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gajate-Garrido, Gissele

    2013-01-01

    Why is the urban-rural gap in child malnutrition increasing in Peru despite government efforts to improve the provision of public services? To answer this question, the impact of regional public expenditure in Peru on young children's nutritional outcomes is examined. To account for policy endogeneity, public expenditures are instrumented using unanticipated regional mining revenues. Even ...

  12. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  13. An epidemiological perspective on gastroenteritis in child day care centers : Assessment of impact and risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, R.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastroenteritis related to Dutch DCCs is substantial, particularly among the very young attendees. Attending a DCC roughly doubles a child’s probability of experiencing an episode of gastroenteritis that requires a visit to a general practitioner or hospital. A child might experience a

  14. Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rajmil (Luis); M.-J.F. de Sanmamed (María-José Fernandez); I. Choonara (Imti); T. Faresjö (Tomas); A. Hjern (Anders); A. Kozyrskyj (Anita); P.J. Lucas (Patricia); H. Raat (Hein); L. Séguin (Louise); N. Spencer (Nick); D. Taylor-Robinson (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children,

  15. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  16. a reflection on the impact of HIV discordance on child HIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cqq1a

    2010-05-09

    May 9, 2010 ... discordant couples with an HIV positive man is almost the same as that of discordant couples with an HIV positive woman [1]. There is a need to better analyze the impact of HIV sero-discordance in the context of pregnancy and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In general, PMTCT ...

  17. The impact of a parent-directed intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Shelley E; Cross, Donna S; Shaw, Thérèse M

    2008-11-01

    Given the likelihood of engaging in the hazardous use of tobacco and alcohol increases during teenage years, pre-adolescence is a critical time to implement prevention programmes. While social factors other than those associated with parenting play a role in determining a child's risk for initiation of tobacco and alcohol use, parents can have a significant influence on their children's decisions about these issues. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an in-home parent-directed drug education intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol. A group randomised intervention trial was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. Schools were selected using stratified random sampling and randomised to three study conditions. A total of 1201 parents of 10- 11-year-old children were recruited from 20 schools. The impact of a self-help intervention, comprised of five communication sheets containing information and activities designed to encourage parents to talk with their 10- 11-year-old child about issues related to smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, was assessed. Intervention-group parents were more likely to have spoken with their children, to have spoken more recently, to have engaged the child during the discussion and to have addressed the topics identified as being protective of children's involvement in tobacco and alcohol. In addition, the duration of talks about alcohol was longer than for parents in the comparison group. Parents of 10- 11-year-old children appear to be receptive to participating in a home-based drug-related educational intervention and the parent-directed intervention seems to have enhanced parent-child tobacco- and alcohol-related communication.

  18. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  19. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... will it cause a loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or historic resources. The... significantly impact unique characteristics of the geographic area such as historical or cultural resources... community. 10. The proposed action will result in the irretrievable loss of some individual salt cedar. The...

  20. Impact of child maltreatment on meaning in life in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Vidal, Sonia; Olié, Emilie; Hasler, Roland; Torriani, Catherine; Prada, Paco; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Perroud, Nader; Huguelet, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) worsens prognosis and quality of life in several psychiatric conditions. Meaning in life is a construct which relates to the sense of purpose that one can perceive in life, and is a key aspect of recovery in psychiatric patients. The lasting impact of CM on meaning in life and its mediating variables have not been studied in patients with chronic persistent psychiatric conditions. One hundred and sixty-six patients with bipolar disorder (N=35), psychotic disorder (N=73), anorexia nervosa (N=30) or borderline personality disorder (N=28) were assessed for meaning in life (revised version of the Life Regard Index (LRI-R)), for CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)) and for internalized/externalized psychopathology. CM was associated with a lower LRI score. Structural Equation Modeling showed that internalized psychopathology (depression, hopelessness and low self-esteem) was the main mediator of the impact of CM on meaning in life. The direct effect of CM on meaning in life was not significant. Having suffered from negligence or abuse during childhood is associated with lower meaning in life in adults with persistent and pervasive psychiatric disorders. Treating depressive symptoms and improving self-esteem may improve meaning in life in patients with severe mental disorders who were affected by CM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on child mortality, morbidity, and rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchauste, Lucia; Patzi, Maritza; Halvorsen, Kjetil; Solano, Susana; Montesano, Raul; Iñiguez, Volga

    2017-08-01

    The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in countries with high child mortality rates remains to be established. The RV1 rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Bolivia in August 2008. This study describes the trends in deaths, hospitalizations, and healthcare visits due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in rotavirus-related hospitalizations, among children rotavirus-related AGE was assessed using data from the active surveillance hospitals. Compared with the 2001-2008 pre-vaccine baseline, the mean number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations was reduced by 40.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-66.4%) among children rotavirus disease. Over the post-vaccine period, changes in rotavirus epidemiology were observed, manifested by variations in seasonality and by a shift in the mean age of those with rotavirus infection. The significant decrease in main AGE-related health indicators in children rotavirus vaccine provides evidence of a substantial public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in Bolivia, as a measure for protecting children against AGE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. THE IMPACT OF TRADE ON CHILD LABOR: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED SAARC AND ASEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossazana Ab-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have tended to investigate the relationship between trade and child labor under the traditional trade theories, while assuming that the trade in homogenous goods and the results show inconclusive evidence of a relationship. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the trade effects of differentiated goods on child labor in the setting of the new trade theory. This study attempts to investigate the trade-induced child labor effects (selection, scale and technique effects in selected Asian countries over the period from 1999 to 2013. The countries consist of the major South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC countries, namely: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and selected ASEAN countries, namely: Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, where child labor is most common. The results of this study confirm that the total impact of trade on child labor also needs to account for the selection effect, in addition to the scale and technique effects. The findings imply trade liberalization hampers the child labor market in the context of the trade in differentiated goods.

  3. Impact of a child's cancer disease on parents' everyday life: a longitudinal study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; Grönqvist, Helena; Pöder, Ulrika; von Essen, Louise; Lindahl Norberg, Annika

    2017-01-01

    A child's cancer disease may disrupt the daily life of the affected family for a long period. The aim was to describe restrictions on parents' leisure activities and work/studies during and after the child's treatment. This study used data from a cohort of mothers and fathers (n = 246) of children diagnosed with cancer. Data was collected five times from two months after diagnosis to one year after end of treatment. Reports of restrictions were evaluated over time, between mothers and fathers, and in relation to parent-reported child symptom burden (The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale) and partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version). Two (51%) and four (45%) months after diagnosis, about half reported that their leisure activities were restricted at least some of the time. Corresponding percentages for restrictions on work/studies were 84% and 77%. One year after end of treatment, the great majority reported that their leisure activities (91%) and/or work/studies (76%) were never/seldom restricted. During treatment, more mothers than fathers reported restrictions on work/studies all/most of the time. After end of treatment, gender was only related to reports of restrictions among parents not reporting partial PTSD. More parents who reported being restricted all/most of the time also reported partial PTSD and/or a greater symptom burden for the child. Parents report frequent restrictions on everyday life during treatment. One year after end of treatment, parents report only a limited impact of the child's cancer on their leisure activities and work/studies. More parents who report restrictions also report partial PTSD and/or a greater child symptom burden. The effect of gender on restrictions varies depending on reports of partial PTSD. Future studies of gender differences regarding the impact of a child's cancer on parents' everyday life should thus consider mothers' and fathers' level of psychological distress.

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Impact of prenatal care on postpartum child care

    OpenAIRE

    NWARU, BRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although prenatal care has come a long way to be regarded as a standard routine care in pregnancy since its formal organization in the early 20th century, with several modifications to its content, it is just of recent that considerable attention was drawn to questions about its effectiveness. This awareness has led to several evaluations of the impact of prenatal care. Initially, these assessments concentrated on the effect of prenatal care on the more traditional outcomes (b...

  6. The impact of postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms on child development: a population-based, 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthus-Niegel, S; Ayers, S; Martini, J; von Soest, T; Eberhard-Gran, M

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of very limited evidence, the present study aimed to prospectively examine the impact of maternal postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on four important areas of child development, i.e. gross motor, fine motor, communication and social-emotional development. This study is part of the large, population-based Akershus Birth Cohort. Data from the hospital's birth record as well as questionnaire data from 8 weeks and 2 years postpartum were used (n = 1472). The domains of child development that were significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms were entered into regression analyses. Interaction analyses were run to test whether the influence of postpartum PTSD symptoms on child development was moderated by child sex or infant temperament. Postpartum PTSD symptoms had a prospective relationship with poor child social-emotional development 2 years later. This relationship remained significant even when adjusting for confounders such as maternal depression and anxiety or infant temperament. Both child sex and infant temperament moderated the association between maternal PTSD symptoms and child social-emotional development, i.e. with increasing maternal PTSD symptom load, boys and children with a difficult temperament were shown to have comparatively higher levels of social-emotional problems. Examining four different domains of child development, we found a prospective impact of postpartum PTSD symptoms on children's social-emotional development at 2 years of age. Our findings suggest that both boys and children with an early difficult temperament may be particularly susceptible to the adverse impact of postpartum PTSD symptoms. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the mechanisms at work.

  7. The Impact of Household Participation in Community Based Organizations on Child Health and Education in Rural India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Mugdha; Katoch, Meghna; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper explores whether rural Indian households’ membership in community based organizations (CBOs) affect child human capital formation in terms of health and education. Using the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS), both OLS and IV models show that membership in one or more CBOs...... improves child educational performance. When considering specific CBOs, women’s groups (Mahila Mandal) emerge as being best at reducing child malnourishment while youth clubs are beneficial for both child health and education. Religious groups have a negative impact on child health but improve school...... performance. Caste associations have a detrimental effect on both health and education....

  8. Systematic Review of Chromium and Nickel Exposure During Pregnancy and Impact on Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne; Salzberg, Deborah C; Anderson, Anna Paige; Shaw, Timothy; Lead, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Some forms of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) are toxic, especially with chronic elevated exposure, and certain forms such as hexavalent chromium or nickel carbonyl were labeled as carcinogens. Since both metals are naturally occurring, and used in industrial processes, individuals may be exposed through ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation, or dermal contact. This study focused on the impact of toxic forms of Cr and Ni during pregnancy and outcomes in newborn and young children. A systematic literature review following "The Navigation Guide" was applied, and 16 reports that satisfied the inclusion criteria were scored. Six papers studied birth weight, prematurity, or gestational age: one found an association between Ni and small for gestational age, while another linked Ni with low birth weight; however, four reported no marked associations. Of six studies that examined birth defects, three found no significant associations; one noted an association between Ni and neural tube defects; one showed an association between Ni and structural birth defects; and one reported a weak effect for Cr exposure and musculoskeletal defects. In the remaining four studies, weak associations were found for hexavalent Cr and neuroblastoma, Ni and autism spectrum disorder, Cr and Ni and DNA damage, and Cr and lymphocyte damage. Among the studies that were rated as good for execution and reliability, there was weak evidence of an association between Ni and autism spectrum disorder and small for gestational age, but no significant association between Cr and a child outcome.

  9. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    survivors, there were. significant difference in the levels .... in therapy.4 Thus, primary caregivers seem to have ... groups. Strangely, market women and those at the health centre showed some unease ... The individual participant's scores are.

  10. The child's behavior during inhalational induction and its impact on the anesthesiologist's sevoflurane exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog-Niescery, Jennifer; Vogelsang, Heike; Bellgardt, Martin; Botteck, Nikolaj Matthias; Seipp, Hans-Martin; Bartz, Horst; Weber, Thomas Peter; Gude, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    Sevoflurane is commonly used for inhalational inductions in children, but the personnel's exposure to it is potentially harmful. Guidance to reduce gas pollution refers mainly to technical aspects, but the impact of the child's behavior has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to determine how child behavior, according to the Frankl Behavioral Scale, affects the amount of waste sevoflurane in anesthesiologists' breathing zones. Sixty-eight children aged 36-96 months undergoing elective ENT surgery were recruited for this prospective, observational investigation. After oral midazolam premedication (0.5 mg/kg body weight), patients obtained sevoflurane using a facemask with an inspiratory concentration of 8 Vol.% in 100% oxygen (flow 10 L/min). Ventilation was manually supported and a venous catheter was placed. The inspiratory sevoflurane concentration was reduced, and remifentanil and propofol were administered before the facemask was removed and a cuffed tracheal tube inserted. The child's behavior toward the operating room personnel during induction was evaluated by the anesthesiologist (Frankl Behavioral Scale: 1-2 = negative behavior, 3-4 = positive behavior). During induction mean (c¯mean) and maximum (c¯max), sevoflurane concentrations were determined in the anesthesiologist's breathing zone by continuous photoacoustic gas monitoring. Mean and maximum sevoflurane concentrations were c¯mean = 4.38 ± 4.02 p.p.m and c¯max = 70.06 ± 61.08 p.p.m in patients with positive behaviors and sufficient premedications and c¯mean = 12.63 ± 8.66 p.p.m and c¯max = 242.86 ± 139.91 p.p.m in children with negative behaviors and insufficient premedications (c¯mean: P max: P < .001). Negative behavior was accompanied by significantly higher mean and maximum sevoflurane concentrations in the anesthesiologist's breathing zone compared with children with positive attitudes. Consequently, the status of premedication influences the amount of sevoflurane

  11. Understanding the impact of the economic crisis on child health: the case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmil, Luis; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Taylor-Robinson, David; Spencer, Nick

    2015-10-14

    The objectives of the study were to explore the effect of the economic crisis on child health using Spain as a case study, and to document and assess the policies implemented in response to the crisis in this context. Serial cross-sectional data from Eurostat, the Spanish Health Interview Survey, and the database of childhood hospitalisation were analysed to explore impacts on child health, and key determinants of child health. A content analysis of National data sources/government legislation, and Spanish literature was used to describe policies implemented following the crisis. Unemployment rates in the general population (8.7% in 2005 and 25.6% in 2013), and children living in unemployed families (5.6% and 13.8%) increased in the study period. The percentage of children living under the poverty line, and income inequalities increased 15-20% from 2005 to 2012. Severe material deprivation rate has worsened in families with Primary Education, while the number of families attending Non-Governmental Organisations has increased. An impact on children's health at the general population level has not currently been detected; however an impact on general health, mental health and use of healthcare services was found in vulnerable groups. Investment in social protection and public policy for children showed a reduction as part of austerity measures taken by the Spanish governments. Despite the impact on social determinants, a short-term impact on child health has been detected only in specific vulnerable groups. The findings suggest the need to urgently protect vulnerable groups of children from the impact of austerity.

  12. Tuberculous brain abscess and subdural empyema in an immunocompetent child: Significance of AFB staining in aspirated pus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous brain abscess and subdural empyema are extremely rare manifestations of central nervous system tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of an 11-year-old immunocompetent child who developed temporal lobe abscess and subdural empyema following chronic otitis media. A right temporal craniotomy was performed and the abscess was excised. The Ziehl Nielsen staining of the aspirated pus from the temporal lobe abscess yielded acid fast bacilli. Prompt administration of antituberculous treatment resulted in complete recovery of the child. Even though the subdural abscess was not drained, we presume that to be of tubercular aetiology. Ours is probably the first case of brain abscess and subdural empyema due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis reported in the same child. This case is being reported because of its rarity and to stress the importance of routine staining for tubercle bacilli in all cases of brain abscess, especially in endemic areas, as it is difficult to differentiate tuberculous from pyogenic abscess clinically as well as histopathologically.

  13. Development and validation of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile - Preschool version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, R R; Sischo, L; Chinn, C H; Broder, H L

    2017-09-01

    The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) is a validated instrument created to measure the oral health-related quality of life of school-aged children. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preschool version of the COHIP (COHIP-PS) for children aged 2-5. The COHIP-PS was developed and validated using a multi-stage process consisting of item selection, face validity testing, item impact testing, reliability and validity testing, and factor analysis. A cross-sectional convenience sample of caregivers having children 2-5 years old from four groups completed item clarity and impact forms. Groups were recruited from pediatric health clinics or preschools/daycare centers, speech clinics, dental clinics, or cleft/craniofacial centers. Participants had a variety of oral health-related conditions, including caries, congenital orofacial anomalies, and speech/language deficiencies such as articulation and language disorders. COHIP-PS. The COHIP-PS was found to have acceptable internal validity (a = 0.71) and high test-retest reliability (0.87), though internal validity was below the accepted threshold for the community sample. While discriminant validity results indicated significant differences across study groups, the overall magnitude of differences was modest. Results from confirmatory factor analyses support the use of a four-factor model consisting of 11 items across oral health, functional well-being, social-emotional well-being, and self-image domains. Quality of life is an integral factor in understanding and assessing children's well-being. The COHIP-PS is a validated oral health-related quality of life measure for preschool children with cleft or other oral conditions. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  14. [The impact of experience in bearing child on the body mass index and obesity in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jian-qiang; Yin, Shi-an

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the relations of body mass index(BMI)and obese prevalence in differently aged women and explore the effective strategy for preventing obesity among adult Chinese women. This study was based on the data from 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey. The method of multi-steps cluster sampling was adopted. Total subjects including unmarried women (n = 2474), married women without the experience of childbearing (n = 10,816), and married and bearing-child women (n = 4103), were 17,393. In urban areas, the average body weights of unmarried, married and without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child were (53.7 +/- 9.0) kg, (57.6 +/- 9.4) kg and (54.5 +/- 8.5) kg respectively; the body weights of unmarried, married and without childbearing experience were significantly higher than that of the married with born-child women (t = 12.25, P unmarried, married without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child women were (21.1 +/- 3.3) kg/m(2), (22.8 +/- 3.4) kg/m(2) and (22.0 +/- 2.9) kg/m(2) respectively; the BMIs of married without childbearing experience and married with born-child women were significantly higher than that of unmarried women (t = 14.88, P unmarried, married without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child women were (52.3 +/- 7.8) kg, (55.3 +/- 8.6) kg and (52.8 +/- 8.1) kg respectively; the body weights of unmarried, the married with born-child women were significantly higher than that of married without childbearing experience (t = 11.67, P unmarried, married without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child women were (21.2 +/- 2.8) kg/m(2), (22.5 +/- 3.1) kg/m(2), and (21.8 +/- 3.0) kg/m(2) respectively; the BMIs of married and the married with born-child were significantly higher than that of unmarried women (t = 13.80, P unmarried women (18.1%) was higher than that of married without childbearing experience and married with born-child group (7.3% vs. 9.1%; comparing with married

  15. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  16. The impact of a child's special health care needs on maternal work participation during early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Kornstad, Tom; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif T; Landolt, Markus A; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2013-07-01

    Many women temporarily reduce work hours or stop working when caring for small children. However, mothers of children with special health care needs may face particular challenges balancing childrearing responsibilities and employment demands. This study examines how the work participation among mothers of children with special health care needs compares with that of mothers in general during early motherhood, focusing in particular on the extent of the child's additional health care needs. By linkage of the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with national registers on employment, child health care needs, and social background factors, 41,255 mothers employed prior to childbirth were followed until child age 3 years to investigate associations between the child's care needs and mother's dropping out of employment. In total, 16.3% of the formerly employed mothers were no longer employed at child age 3 years. Mothers of children with mild care needs did not differ from mothers in general, whereas mothers of children with moderate [Risk Ratio (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.80] and severe care needs [RR 2.19; 95% CI 1.67, 2.87] were at substantial risk of not being employed at follow-up. The impact of the child's health care needs remained strong also after adjusting for several factors associated with employment in general. Extensive childhood health care needs are associated with reduced short-term employment prospects and remain a substantial influence on mothers' work participation during early motherhood, irrespective of other important characteristics associated with maternal employment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986–2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. PMID:27056961

  18. Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that it has reviewed environmental assessments (EA's) and issued findings of no significant impact (FONSI's) relating to the 167 new drug applications (NDA's) and supplemental applications listed in this document. FDA is publishing this notice because Federal regulations require public notice of the availability of environmental documents.

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Most Significant Change: Source, Impact, and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, John E.; Rice, Linda J.; Dani, Danielle E.; Weade, Ginger; McKeny, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differences among significant changes in the practice of individual teachers. Seventeen US teachers were interviewed about the most successful change in their teaching career. The differences in teacher change were based primarily on the source and impact of the change. The sources of change were divided…

  20. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... (truck, rail, and marine). DLA Energy's implementation of a systemic change to the use of commercial..., Terrestrial, and Cultural Resources--Transport and storage of fuel products is highly regulated. DLA Energy's... of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact Regarding DLA Energy's...

  1. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  2. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...: I. Introduction The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the issuance of a license.... II. Finding of No Significant Impact Based on the analysis contained in this EA, the staff concluded... access the NRC's Agencywide Document Access and Management System (ADAMS), which provides text and image...

  3. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... . From this site, you can access the NRC's Agency Wide Document Access and Management System (ADAMS... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment for the University of Alaska... the release of an incinerator previously used at the Arctic Health Research Building for unrestricted...

  4. 76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    .... Ken Yale, of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment regarding the environmental...; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is..., the NRC performed an environmental assessment. Based on the results of the environmental assessment...

  5. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... license renewal. Staff considered the following environmental resource areas in its evaluation: Land use... Protection and Performance Assessment Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc...

  6. Parental perspectives on the financial impact of caring for a child with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Meredith; Tong, Allison; Craig, Jonathan C; Kim, Siah; Mackie, Fiona; McTaggart, Steven; Walker, Amanda; Wong, Germaine

    2015-03-01

    The economic consequences of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are severe for adult patients and their households, but the out-of-pocket expenses and economic burden of CKD and how this affects the caregivers of children with kidney disease are unclear. This study aims to describe parental perspectives on the financial impact of caring for a child with CKD. Face-to-face semistructured interviews. Parents of children with CKD from 3 pediatric nephrology centers in Australia. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. 27 parents of 26 children participated. We identified 5 themes: loss of freedom and control (prioritizing care, limiting occupational opportunities, and appreciating socioeconomic advantage), burden of sole responsibility (inability to rely on others, lack of respite, increased separation of family roles, and self-reliance), adapting for survival (vigilant budgeting, redefining normality and expectations, rechanneling resources to basic needs, and negotiating work flexibility), instability of circumstances (depleted capacity to work, unpredictability of child's health, burden of travel-related costs, imposition of debt, and domestic upheaval), and struggle in seeking support ("falling through the cracks" and unmet information needs). Few participants were fathers (n=5), and results may not be transferable to non-English-speaking caregivers because these participants were excluded. Parents focused their resources and attention on meeting the complex needs of their child. Inability to sustain employment due to focus on their child's care and both medical and nonmedical expenses were major contributors to the financial impact, with financial stress compounded by difficulties accessing government support. As a result, parents experienced profound financial and social instability and physical and psychological fatigue and exercised extreme financial vigilance. Increased access to respite and domestic support and financial and psychosocial interventions are suggested

  7. Resiliency as a mediator of the impact of sleep on child and adolescent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatburn A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex Chatburn,1,2 Scott Coussens,1,2 Mark J Kohler1,3 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Health Network, North Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Children’s Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods: A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results: Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. Keywords: resilience, behavior, internalizing, externalizing, anxiety, depression, sleep

  8. Improving metabolic parameters of antipsychotic child treatment (IMPACT) study: rationale, design, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Gloria M; Keeton, Courtney; Correll, Christoph U; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Hamer, Robert M; Sikich, Linmarie; Hazzard, Lindsey; Alderman, Cheryl; Scheer, Abigail; Mabe, Micah; Kapoor, Sandeep; Sheridan, Eva; Borner, Irmgard; Bussell, Kristin; Pirmohamed, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) stu...

  9. Systematic comparative and sensitivity analyses of additive and outranking techniques for supporting impact significance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Monterde-Diaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria-Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the significance of environmental impacts is one of the most important and all together difficult processes of Environmental Impact Assessment. This is largely due to the multicriteria nature of the problem. To date, decision techniques used in the process suffer from two drawbacks, namely the problem of compensation and the problem of identification of the 'exact boundary' between sub-ranges. This article discusses these issues and proposes a methodology for determining the significance of environmental impacts based on comparative and sensitivity analyses using the Electre TRI technique. An application of the methodology for the environmental assessment of a Power Plant project within the Valencian Region (Spain) is presented, and its performance evaluated. It is concluded that contrary to other techniques, Electre TRI automatically identifies those cases where allocation of significance categories is most difficult and, when combined with sensitivity analysis, offers greatest robustness in the face of variation in weights of the significance attributes. Likewise, this research demonstrates the efficacy of systematic comparison between Electre TRI and sum-based techniques, in the solution of assignment problems. The proposed methodology can therefore be regarded as a successful aid to the decision-maker, who will ultimately take the final decision

  10. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring

  11. Child welfare organizations: Do specialization and service integration impact placement decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carrie; Fluke, John; Fallon, Barbara; Mishna, Faye; Decker Pierce, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of the child welfare organization by testing the hypothesis that the characteristics of organizations influence decisions made by child protection staff for vulnerable children. The influence of two aspects of organizational structure on the decision to place a child in out-of-home care were examined: service integration and worker specialization. A theoretical framework that integrated the Decision-Making Ecology Framework (Baumann et al., 2011) and Yoo et al. (2007) conceptual framework of organizational constructs as predictors of service effectiveness was tested. Secondary data analysis of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2013 (OIS-2013) was conducted. A subsample of 4949 investigations from 16 agencies was included in this study. Given the nested structure of the data, multi-level modelling was used to test the relative contribution of case and organizational factors to the decision to place. Despite the reported differences among child welfare organizations and research that has demonstrated variance in the placement decision as a result of organizational factors, the structure of the organization (i.e., worker specialization and service integration) showed no predictive power in the final models. The lack of variance may be explained by the relatively low frequency of placements during the investigation phase of service, the hierarchical impact of the factors of the DME and the limited information available regarding the structure of child welfare organizations in Ontario. Suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of Teacher-Child Managed Whole-Group Language and Literacy Instruction on the Depth of Preschoolers' Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura M.; Emery, Alyssa A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the potential impacts of ongoing participation (twice weekly for 30 weeks) in teacher-child managed whole-group language and literacy instruction on prekindergarten children's social interaction with classmates. Teacher-child managed whole-group instruction that provides children with opportunities to engage…

  13. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  14. The impact of "Option B" on HIV transmission from mother to child in Rwanda: An interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimpaye, Monique; Kirk, Catherine M; Iyer, Hari S; Gupta, Neil; Remera, Eric; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Law, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    Nearly a quarter of a million children have acquired HIV, prompting the implementation of new protocols-Option B and B+-for treating HIV+ pregnant women. While efficacy has been demonstrated in randomized trials, there is limited real-world evidence on the impact of these changes. Using longitudinal, routinely collected data we assessed the impact of the adoption of WHO Option B in Rwanda on mother to infant transmission. We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of Option B on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rwanda. Our primary outcome was the proportion of HIV tests in infants with positive results at six weeks of age. We included data for 20 months before and 22 months after the 2010 policy change. Of the 15,830 HIV tests conducted during our study period, 392 tested positive. We found a significant decrease in both the level (-2.08 positive tests per 100 tests conducted, 95% CI: -2.71 to -1.45, p Option B in Rwanda contributed to an immediate decrease in the rate of HIV transmission from mother to child. This suggests other countries may benefit from adopting these WHO guidelines.

  15. Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A

    2011-12-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  17. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. section 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  19. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Runway 22 or on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards AFB. 17 On the basis of the findings of the Environmental Assessment, no significant impact to human...FLIGHT TEST CENTER Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space Page 5-3 Bowles, A.E., S. Eckert, L . Starke, E. Berg, L . Wolski, and...Numbers. Anne Choate, Laura 20 Pederson , Jeremy Scharfenberg, Henry Farland. Washington, D.C. September. 21 Jeppesen Sanderson, Incorporated 22

  1. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  2. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children: III. Parent-Child Communication and Child Adjustment, and Regression Analysis of Findings from Overall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    This is the third of a series of reports on the findings from a study directed at further understanding the impact of marital separation/divorce on children during the 12-month period following the parental separation. This paper reports on parent-child communication regarding cognitive preparation of children for the parental separation. (Author)

  3. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA's decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  4. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  5. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A prospective study of the impact of child maltreatment and friend support on psychological distress trajectory: From adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Daigneault, Isabelle; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Auclair, Julie; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Transition into adulthood is a critical developmental period that may be influenced by adverse life events as well as by protective factors. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different forms of child maltreatment experienced prior to age 14 (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence), and of friend support at age 14 on the psychological distress trajectory from age 14 to 24. Participants were 605 adolescents from the general population involved in a 10-year longitudinal study. Psychological distress was evaluated at ages 14, 16, 18 and 24. Child maltreatment prior to 14 years was retrospectively assessed at 14 and 24 years while perception of support from friends was evaluated at age 14. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that psychological distress followed a significant decreasing curvilinear trajectory, with participants reporting fewer distressing psychological symptoms after 18 years. All three forms of child maltreatment, as well as their cumulative effect, predicted more psychological distress over 10 years above and beyond the protective effect of support from friends. Higher support from friends at age 14 was related to lower distress at baseline andover 10 years, beyond the effect of child maltreatment. Self-report nature of all measures, attrition, and measures of child maltreatment forms. Psychological distress decreased during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results also revealed the detrimental impact of child maltreatment and the promotive role of friend support, which underscore the importance of early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  8. The impact of legalized abortion on child health outcomes and abandonment. Evidence from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrut, Andreea; Wolff, François-Charles

    2011-12-01

    We use household survey data and a unique census of institutionalized children to analyze the impact of abortion legalization in Romania. We exploit the lift of the abortion ban in December 1989, when communist dictator Ceausescu and his regime were removed from power, to understand its impact on children's health at birth and during early childhood and whether the lift of the ban had an immediate impact on child abandonment. We find insignificant estimates for health at birth outcomes and anthropometric z-scores at age 4 and 5, except for the probability of low birth weight which is slightly higher for children born after abortion became legal. Additionally, our findings suggest that the lift of the ban had decreased the number of abandoned children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from......, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the prespecified minimal important difference of 0.2 standard deviation. Parallel-forms reliabilities were very high (ICC = 0.85-0.93). Only one across-mode ICC was significantly lower than the same-mode ICC. Tests of validity...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...

  10. Significance of the impact of motion compensation on the variability of PET image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, M.; Bach, T.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Baltas, D.; Nestle, U.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.

    2018-03-01

    In lung cancer, quantification by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging presents challenges due to respiratory movement. Our primary aim was to study the impact of motion compensation implied by retrospectively gated (4D)-PET/CT on the variability of PET quantitative parameters. Its significance was evaluated by comparison with the variability due to (i) the voxel size in image reconstruction and (ii) the voxel size in image post-resampling. The method employed for feature extraction was chosen based on the analysis of (i) the effect of discretization of the standardized uptake value (SUV) on complementarity between texture features (TF) and conventional indices, (ii) the impact of the segmentation method on the variability of image features, and (iii) the variability of image features across the time-frame of 4D-PET. Thirty-one PET-features were involved. Three SUV discretization methods were applied: a constant width (SUV resolution) of the resampling bin (method RW), a constant number of bins (method RN) and RN on the image obtained after histogram equalization (method EqRN). The segmentation approaches evaluated were 40% of SUVmax and the contrast oriented algorithm (COA). Parameters derived from 4D-PET images were compared with values derived from the PET image obtained for (i) the static protocol used in our clinical routine (3D) and (ii) the 3D image post-resampled to the voxel size of the 4D image and PET image derived after modifying the reconstruction of the 3D image to comprise the voxel size of the 4D image. Results showed that TF complementarity with conventional indices was sensitive to the SUV discretization method. In the comparison of COA and 40% contours, despite the values not being interchangeable, all image features showed strong linear correlations (r  >  0.91, p\\ll 0.001 ). Across the time-frames of 4D-PET, all image features followed a normal distribution in most patients. For our patient cohort, the

  11. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind's parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children's anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother's total EQ and child's total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pauthoritative parenting style and mother's EQ (r=0.286; pauthoritative parenting style.

  13. Assessing the impact of caring for a child with Dravet syndrome: Results of a caregiver survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan D; Whittington, Melanie D; Kim, Chong H; VanderVeen, Gina R; Knupp, Kelly G; Gammaitoni, Arnold

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the impact of caring for a child with Dravet syndrome (DS) on caregivers. We surveyed DS caregivers at a single institution with a large population of patient with DS. Survey domains included time spent/difficulty performing caregiving tasks (Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale, OCBS); caregiver health-related quality of life (EuroQoL 5D-5L, EQ-5D); and work/activity impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, WPAI). Modified National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) questions were included to assess logistical challenges associated with coordinating medical care. Thirty-four primary caregivers responded, and 30/34 respondents completed the survey. From OCBS, providing transportation, personal care, and additional household tasks required the greatest caregiver time commitment; arranging for child care, communication, and managing behavioral problems presented the greatest difficulty. EuroQoL 5D-5L domains with the greatest impact on caregivers (0=none, 5=unable/extreme) were anxiety/depression (70% of respondents≥slight problems, 34%≥moderate) and discomfort/pain (57% of respondents≥slight problems, 23%≥moderate). The mean EQ-5D general health visual analogue scale (VAS) score (0=death; 100=perfect health) was 67 (range, 11-94). Respondents who scored caregiver health. On the WPAI, 26% of caregivers missed >1day of work in the previous week, with 43% reporting substantial impact (≥6, scale=1-10) on work productivity; 65% reported switching jobs, quitting jobs, or losing a job due to caregiving responsibilities. National Health Interview Survey responses indicated logistical burdens beyond the home; 50% of caregivers made ≥10 outpatient visits in the past year with their child with DS. Caring for patients with DS exerts physical, emotional, and time burdens on caregivers. Supportive services for DS families are identified to highlight an unmet need for DS treatments. Copyright

  14. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  15. Impacts of family and community violence exposure on child coping and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Esror Tamim; Shapiro, Ester R; Wainwright, Laurel D; Carter, Alice S

    2015-02-01

    An ecological stress process model was employed to explore relations between children's exposures to family and community violence and child mental health, and emotionally-regulated coping (ERC) as a protective factor among Latino, European-American, and African-American school-aged children (n = 91; girls, n = 50[54 %]) living in single-parent families who were either homeless and residing in emergency shelters or housed but living in poverty. Mothers reported domestic violence experiences and their child's history of physical/sexual abuse, community violence exposures, and mental health. Children reported on exposure to community violence, internalizing symptoms, and coping. The mental health impacts of multi-level violence exposures and ERC as a moderator of associations between violence exposures and child mental health was tested with structural equation modeling. Family abuse was uniquely associated with PTSD, and community violence with anxiety and aggression. Latent interaction tests revealed that ERC moderated relations between family abuse and anxiety, aggression and PTSD. Emotionally-regulated coping appears to play a protective role for children's mental health in contexts of violence exposure, offering opportunities for intervention and prevention.

  16. The problem of "significant risk": exploring the public health impact of criminalizing HIV non-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Using criminal law powers to respond to people living with HIV (PHAs) who expose sexual partners to HIV or transmit the virus to them is a prominent global HIV public policy issue. While there are widespread concerns about the public health impact of HIV-related criminalization, the social science literature on the topic is limited. This article responds to that gap in knowledge by reporting on the results of qualitative research conducted with service providers and PHAs in Canada. The article draws on a studies in the social organization of knowledge perspective and insights from critical criminology and work on the "medico-legal borderland." It investigates the role played by the legal concept of "significant risk" in coordinating criminal law governance and its interface with public health and HIV prevention. In doing so, the article emphasizes that exploring the public health impact of criminalization must move past the criminal law--PHA dyad to address broader social and institutional processes relevant to HIV prevention. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews, this article explores how criminal law governance shapes the activities of providers engaged in HIV prevention counseling, conceptualized as a complex of activities linking clinicians, public health officials, front-line counselors, PHAs, and others. It emphasizes three key findings: (1) the concept of significant risk poses serious problems to risk communication in HIV counseling and contributes to contradictory advice about disclosure obligations; (2) criminalization discourages PHAs' openness about HIV non-disclosure in counseling relationships; and (3) the recontextualization of public health interpretations of significant risk in criminal proceedings can intensify criminalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Evidence-Based Education Program For Adults About Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!” Significantly Improves Behaviours As Well As Attitudes And Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline

  18. The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this review was to elucidate the impact of child sexual abuse on all clinical phenomena that occur after the onset of bipolar disorder, including associated clinical features that are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Five databases were searched and supplemented with a hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Study quality was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers to reduce bias, minimize errors, and enhance the reliability of findings. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Eighteen studies that included a total of 2996 adults and youths with bipolar disorder and met the minimum quality criteria necessary to ensure objectivity and not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, child sexual abuse was strongly (and perhaps directly) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; whereas it was less strongly (and perhaps indirectly) related to suicide attempts, alcohol and/or drug abuse or dependence, psychotic symptoms, and an early age of illness onset. In regard to the association between child sexual abuse and other clinical variables concerning the course of bipolar disorder, evidence was scant or conflicting. Child sexual abuse is associated (either directly or indirectly) with some clinical phenomena that represent a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Although such a traumatic experience may directly affect the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of early sexual abuse on later suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and psychotic symptoms may operate through the mediating influences of certain psychopathological or neurobiological variables. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J. [The University of Sydney, Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Lidcombe, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  20. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  1. Artisanal fishing of spiny lobsters with gillnets — A significant anthropic impact on tropical reef ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Welter Giraldes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fishing activity with gillnets to capture the spiny lobster is a common practice along the coastal reefs of Brazil. This research aims to understand the impact that this artisanal fishing practice is having on the coastal reef systems analysing its associated fauna (bycatch and the stock of the target species Panulirus echinatus. The study compared an area which was subjected to intense gillnet fishing against one were the practice was absent. The analysis of target species using nocturnal visual census demonstrated a significantly higher number of P. echinatus at the site where gillnet use was virtually absent within three sampled habitats, fringe, cave and soft bottom. The analysis of bycatch species from artisanal fishermen’s gillnet landings recorded 4 lobster species and 10 crab species. These decapod species play an important ecological role as detritivores, herbivorous and first consumers within the reef ecosystem as well as being natural prey items for several reef fishes. The study concludes that this non-discriminatory fishing technique impacts directly on populations of P. echinatus, P. argus and P. laevicauda as well as other lobster and crab species which in-turn indirectly affects the ecological role of the tropical coastal reefs of Brazil.

  2. The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables, Social Support and Child Sex on Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini; Jonathan Tudge; Angela Helena Marin; Giana Bitencourt Frizzo; Rita de Cássia Sobreira Lopes

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES), of social support as perceived by mothers, and of their three-month-olds child's sex, on mother-infant and father-infant interaction. A total of 58 mothers and 52 fathers were observed interacting with their infants. Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed several significant differences, particularly regarding maternal behaviors. Mothers from the highest SES level both talked to and interpreted their infants' ...

  3. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-11-01

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  4. The impacts of health, education, family planning and electrification programs on fertility, mortality and child schooling in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirakartakusumah, M D

    1988-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of public health, family planning, education, electrification, and water supply programs on fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment decisions of rural households in East Java, Indonesia. The theoretical model assumes that parents maximize a utility function, subject to 1) a budget constraint that equates income with expenditures on children (including schooling and health inputs), and 2) a production function that relates health inputs to child survival possibilities. Public programs affect prices of contraceptives, schooling and health inputs, and environmental conditions that in turn affect child survival. Data are taken from the 1980 East Java Population Survey, the Socio-economic Survey, and the Detailed Village Census. The final sample consists of 3170 rural households with married women of childbearing age. Ordinary least squares and logit regressions of recent fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment on program and household variables yielded the following findings. 1) The presence of maternal and child health clinics reduced fertility but not mortality. 2) The presence of public health centers strongly reduced mortality but not fertility. 3) The presence of contraceptive distribution centers had no effect on fertility. 4) School attendance rates were influenced positively by the availability of primary and secondary schools. 5) Health and family planning programs had no effects on schooling. 6) The availability of public latrines reduced fertility and mortality. 7) The water supply variable did not affect the dependent variables when ordinary least squares techniques were applied but had statistically significant impact when logit methods were used. 8) Electricity supply had little effect on the dependent variables. 9) The mother's schooling had a strong positive correlation with children's schooling but no effect on fertility or mortality. 10) Household expenditures were related positively to school

  5. Impact of Ménière's Disease on Significant Others' Health and Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Pyykkő, Ilmari; Levo, Hilla; Kentala, Erna

    2018-01-01

    Ménière's disease (MD) is a chronic and, in part, intermittent illness that poses multiple challenges for both the physical and psychological well-being of patients, as well as on those around them. The patients face psychosocial consequences, which include disruptions to life goals, employment, income, relationships, leisure activities, and daily living activities that also influence their family members and friends. However, there is a limited understanding of the impact of MD on significant others (SOs). The current study was aimed at identifying how the SOs of patients with MD respond to different aspects of the impact of the disorder on health and life (i.e., psychological aspects, activities, participation, and positive aspects). The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. The study sample was 186 SOs of patients with MD who were recruited through Finnish Ménière's Federation. Participants completed a 25-item structured questionnaire focusing on different aspects of the impact of the disorder on health and life, and also provided some demographic information. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation, and K-means cluster analysis techniques. Examination of response patterns suggests that the disorder had, on average, a marginal effect on SOs' psychological aspects, activities, and participation as the SOs generally focused on complaints. Interestingly, SOs reported some positive consequences as a result of their partners' condition. The results show a limited association between SOs' demographic variables and response patterns. The Pearson's correlation suggested a strong association between the subscales psychological aspects, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Also, a weak negative correlation was observed among positive aspects and participation restrictions. The cluster analysis resulted in three clusters, namely, (1) "nonengaged," (2) "supportive," and (3) "concerned." The current study results

  6. The impact of family transitions on child fostering in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Monica J; Yeatman, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Despite the frequency of divorce and remarriage across much of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about what these events mean for the living arrangements of children. We use longitudinal data from rural Malawi to examine the effects of family transitions on the prevalence and incidence of child fostering, or children residing apart from their living parents. We find that between 7 % and 15 % of children aged 3-14 are out-fostered over the two-year intersurvey period. Although divorce appears to be a significant driver of child fostering in the cross-sectional analysis, it is not significantly associated with the incidence of out-fostering. In contrast, maternal remarriage has both a lagged and an immediate effect on the incidence of out-fostering. Furthermore, the likelihood of out-fostering is even higher among children whose mother remarried and had a new child during the intersurvey period. Using longitudinal data collected from living mothers rather than from children's current foster homes offers new insights into the reasons children are sent to live with others besides their parents.

  7. Impact of a child with congenital anomalies on parents (ICCAP questionnaire; a psychometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Monique

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to validate the Impact of a Child with Congenital Anomalies on Parents (ICCAP questionnaire. ICCAP was newly designed to assess the impact of giving birth to a child with severe anatomical congenital anomalies (CA on parental quality of life as a result of early stress. Methods At 6 weeks and 6 months after birth, mothers and fathers of 100 children with severe CA were asked to complete the ICCAP questionnaire and the SF36. The ICCAP questionnaire measures six domains: contact with caregivers, social network, partner relationship, state of mind, child acceptance, and fears and anxiety. Reliability (i.e. internal consistency and test-retest and validity were tested and the ICCAP was compared to the SF-36. Results Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 6 six a priori constructed subscales covering different psychological and social domains of parental quality of life as a result of early stress. Reliability estimates (congeneric approach ranged from .49 to .92. Positive correlations with SF-36 scales ranging from .34 to .77 confirmed congruent validity. Correlations between ICCAP subscales and children's biographic characteristics, primary CA, and medical care as well as parental biographic and demographic variables ranged from -.23 to .58 and thus indicated known-group validity of the instrument. Over time both mothers and fathers showed changes on subscales (Cohen's d varied from .07 to .49, while the test-retest reliability estimates varied from .42 to .91. Conclusion The ICCAP is a reliable and valid instrument for clinical practice. It enables early signaling of parental quality of life as a result of early stress, and thus early intervention.

  8. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D; Freeman, Olivia E; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania.

  9. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. It is likely that other confounding factors concomitantly affect outcomes in out-of-hours surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  10. Impact of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media on Child and Parental Quality of Life and Associated Productivity Loss in Malaysia: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Bruce; Hashim, Siti Sabzah Mohd; Prepageran, Narayanan; See, Goh Bee; Meier, Genevieve; Wada, Keiko; Coon, Cheryl; Delgleize, Emmanuelle; DeRosa, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) affects both child and parental quality of life (QoL). Data on QoL associated with AOM in Malaysia is sparse, and the burden of indirect costs have not been previously reported. To determine the effect of pediatric AOM on child and parental QoL in Malaysia and its economic impact (indirect costs). We utilized a set of QoL questionnaires (PAR-AOM-QOL, OM-6, and EQ-5D) combined with questions addressing work/productivity loss and financial costs associated with caring for a child during his or her illness in an observational, multicenter, prospective study. One hundred and ten AOM patients aged ≤5 years were included in the analysis. The majority of respondents were the patient's mother. Parental QoL was negatively affected for both emotional and daily disturbance scales, but the level of disturbance was low. Using OM-6, the greatest negative impact was on the child's QoL, followed by caregiver concerns, physical suffering, and emotional distress. Using EQ-5D, a moderately positive relationship between parents' emotional disturbance and daily disturbance, and a weak, negative correlation between parental emotional disturbance and parental health status was found. Parents with paid employment took an average of 21 h from work to care for their child, at an average cost of 321.8 Malaysian ringgit (US$97) in addition to their contribution to direct medical costs. Productivity losses whilst at work, uncompensated wage losses, and leisure time losses are also reported. This study found that AOM is associated with some negative impact on parental QoL and significant economic impact at both patient and societal levels. The findings provide useful data on healthcare resource utilization and disease burden of AOM in Malaysia.

  11. IMPACTS OF WETLAND DEGRADATION IN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN FLOOD CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwere Chidimma Loveline

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to provide the desired knowledge of role that wetlands play in reducing flood impacts. However, having witnessed the flood, the experience opened my eyes to the environmental challenges facing Niger Delta with respect to Wetlands degradation, poor perception of wetland values and functions, poor environmental practices and non-implementation of environmental regulations. This memorable experience rekindled the desire and motivation to seek a solution to wetland degradation with the aim of recognizing significance of wetlands at the centre of achieving both livelihood and biodiversity improvements to address coastal flooding problem.The study therefore concludes that wetlands are very significant in flood control and thus the conservation and restoration of wetlands, should put in place measures to reduce wetland destruction.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 177-184

  12. [The impact of cleft lip and palate on the parent-child relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollemund, B; Galliani, E; Soupre, V; Vazquez, M-P; Guedeney, A; Danion, A

    2010-09-01

    Cleft lips and palates (CLPs) are the most common human facial malformations. Depending on the ethnic and/or geographical origin of the studied populations, they can affect up to 1/500 newborns. The treatment of these patients is multidisciplinary because these malformations have not only aesthetic consequences but also functional consequences as the phonation, hearing, deglutition, mastication and ventilation are altered. These consequences can also be psychological since the building of the body image, the way others perceive it, is likely to be seriously altered. In Europe there are over 210 reference hospitals for children affected by CLP. Besides, about 190 different protocols were identified. So far no generic protocol was recognized by the medical community as a whole. This discrepancy can be explained by the fact that the aesthetic and functional result of a protocol cannot be accurately assessed before adulthood when the child's growth is complete. Patients presenting with CLP don't usually seem to present with any serious psychological or psychiatric pathology. Yet a close review of the related literature shows that disorders are actually described: behavioural troubles, anxiety, depression and esthetic dissatisfaction with one's face in children as well as in adults. The difficulty in interpreting these disorders lies in the various factors that are likely to impact this condition (family setting, importance and type of the cleft, surgery protocol, growth, social environment). A multidisciplinary examination of the face and a careful consideration of concerned families show the importance of the psychological context and the risks of a dis-harmonious structuring of the parents-child relationships on the child's development. The identification of the difficulties faced by these families, depending on the child's age, can be easily identified. Of course they can be identified at birth when the family first sees the child and later on at each stage of the

  13. 75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or different types of... impacts to historical and cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources...

  14. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 1: recommendations from the SPR Thoracic Imaging Committee regarding characterization, significance and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brody, Alan S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology (CH-1), Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Newman, Beverley [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-05-01

    No guidelines are in place for the follow-up and management of pulmonary nodules that are incidentally detected on CT in the pediatric population. The Fleischner guidelines, which were developed for the older adult population, do not apply to children. This review summarizes the evidence collected by the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) Thoracic Imaging Committee in its attempt to develop pediatric-specific guidelines. Small pulmonary opacities can be characterized as linear or as ground-glass or solid nodules. Linear opacities and ground-glass nodules are extremely unlikely to represent an early primary or metastatic malignancy in a child. In our review, we found a virtual absence of reported cases of a primary pulmonary malignancy presenting as an incidentally detected small lung nodule on CT in a healthy immune-competent child. Because of the lack of definitive information on the clinical significance of small lung nodules that are incidentally detected on CT in children, the management of those that do not have the typical characteristics of an intrapulmonary lymph node should be dictated by the clinical history as to possible exposure to infectious agents, the presence of an occult immunodeficiency, the much higher likelihood that the nodule represents a metastasis than a primary lung tumor, and ultimately the individual preference of the child's caregiver. Nodules appearing in children with a history of immune deficiency, malignancy or congenital pulmonary airway malformation should not be considered incidental, and their workup should be dictated by the natural history of these underlying conditions. (orig.)

  15. Trends in child sexual abuse cases referred for forensic examination in Southern Denmark from 2000 to 2011-Did the 'Tonder-case' have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, S.; Astrup, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005 a serious case of child sexual abuse from the region of Southern Denmark was revealed to the Danish public. The case became known as the 'Tonder-case'. It was the first in a series of 4-5 serious cases of child maltreatment in Denmark, cases which spurred heavy public debate. In this study...... all the cases of child sexual abuse referred for forensic examination in a 12 year period, a total of 368 cases, were systematically evaluated. In order to identify any trends that could be correlated to an impact of the 'Tonder-case', cases from 2000 to 2002 and cases from 2009 to 2011 underwent...... in the frequency of cases where children were placed in foster care prior to the examination. These results were countered by a significant decrease in the number cases police reported child sexual abuse in the same period. The possible impact that cases like the 'Tonder-case' and the following press coverage may...

  16. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements

  17. Low Fertility of Highly Educated Women: The Impact of Child Care Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Schrage, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Most studies of the negative correlation between fertility and education treat education as exogenously raising wages and the cost of child rearing, thus reducing fertility. I relax these assumptions in two respects. First, child costs don't increase with the value of time when external child care is used. Second, over a lifetime, education is endogenous. I model women's choice of education, fertility, and form of child care, allowing for economies of scale in parental child care. Compatibili...

  18. Preoperative immobility significantly impacts the risk of postoperative complications in bariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Rana M; Helm, Melissa; Gould, Jon C; Kindel, Tammy L

    2018-03-05

    Preoperative immobility in general surgery patients has been associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. It is unknown if immobility affects bariatric surgery outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of immobility on 30-day postoperative bariatric surgery outcomes. This study took place at a university hospital in the United States. The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program 2015 data set was queried for primary minimally invasive bariatric procedures. Preoperative immobility was defined as limited ambulation most or all the time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if immobile patients are at increased risk (odds ratio [OR]) for 30-day complications. There were 148,710 primary minimally invasive bariatric procedures in 2015. Immobile patients had an increased risk of mortality (OR 4.59, Pbariatric surgery outcomes. Immobile patients have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study provides an opportunity for the development of multiple quality initiatives to improve the safety and perioperative complication profile for immobile patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions: Scientific Basis, Evidence of Impact, and Implementation Considerations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  20. Impact of residential schooling and of child abuse on substance use problem in Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amélie; Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Paquette, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Residential schools were the institutions, in operation from the 19th century to the late 20th century, which Indigenous children in Canada were forced to attend. The literature shows that many young people who attended these institutions were victims of neglect and abuse. Negative psychological effects resulting from child abuse have been amply documented. However, very few studies on this subject have been carried out among Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate, for an Indigenous population in Quebec (Canada), the impact of residential schooling as well as self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse during childhood on the development of alcohol and drug use problems in adulthood. A total of 358 Indigenous participants were interviewed (164 men [45.8%] and 194 women [54.2%]). Alcoholism was evaluated using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Drug abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST). Child abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). Among the participants, 28.5% (n=102) had attended residential schools, 35.2% (n=121) reported having experienced sexual abuse, and 34.1% (n=117) reported having experienced physical abuse before adulthood. Results of the exact logistic regression analyses indicated that residential school attendance was linked to alcohol problems, while child abuse was related to drug use problems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the consequences of historical traumas related to residential schools to better understand the current situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagquist, Curt

    2016-02-01

    Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations. We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in Grade 6 and Grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure. The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0-0.05, compared to intact families. In Grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in Grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11-0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency. The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Impacts of community-based natural resource management on wealth, food security and child health in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil David

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioecono......Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates...... socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-indifferences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child...... health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared...

  3. The impact of conditional cash transfers on child health in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The review aimed to assess the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) in improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Seven electronic databases were searched for papers: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsychINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Academic Search Complete, and CSA Sociological Abstracts. The included studies comprised of randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies evaluating the impact of CCTs on child health. Due to the substantial heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted on the extracted data. Sixteen studies predominantly from Latin American countries met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes reported by the studies in relation to CCTs' effectiveness in improving child health were reduction in morbidity risk, improvement in nutritional outcomes, health services utilisation, and immunisation coverage. The review suggests that to a large extent, CCTs are effective in improving child health by addressing child health determinants such as access to health care, child and maternal nutrition, morbidity risk, immunisation coverage, and household poverty in developing countries particularly middle-income countries. Of importance to both policy and practice, it appears that CCTs require effective functioning of health care systems to effectively promote child health.

  4. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rajmil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses.

  5. Finding of No Significant Impact: Military Family Housing Revitalization Project Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    park, tennis courts, and basketball courts. Other amenities such as a clubhouse , bike trails, picnic areas, dog park, and community swimming pools...impacts result from “the incremental impact of actions when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions, regardless of what

  6. Infertility diagnosis has a significant impact on the transcriptome of developing blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallie, Blair R; Parks, Jason C; Griffin, Darren K; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2017-08-01

    Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)? The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis. Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development. Blastocysts created during infertility treatment from patients with specific infertility diagnoses (PCO, MF and UE) were analyzed for global transcriptome compared to fertile donor oocyte blastocysts (control). Surplus cryopreserved blastocysts were donated with patient consent and institutional review board approval. Female patients were infertility diagnosis: PCO (n = 50), MF (n = 50), UE (n = 50) and fertile donor oocyte controls (n = 50). Pooled blastocysts were lysed for RNA isolation followed by microarray analysis using the SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray. Validation was performed on significant genes of interest using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Transcription alterations were observed for all infertility etiologies compared to controls, resulting in differentially expressed genes: PCO = 869, MF = 348 and UE = 473 (P 2-fold). Functional annotation of biological and molecular processes revealed both similarities, as well as differences, across the infertility groups. All infertility etiologies displayed transcriptome alterations in signal transducer activity, receptor binding, reproduction, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. Blastocysts from PCO patients were also enriched for apoptotic genes while MF blastocysts displayed enrichment for genes involved in cancer processes. Blastocysts from couples with unexplained infertility displayed transcription alterations related to various disease states

  7. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock’s productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between “Malta fever” and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity. PMID:28817647

  8. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Sen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bi, Peng [Discipline of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Yang, Zhicong, E-mail: yangzc@gzcdc.org.cn [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiujun [School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Lifan [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Cazelles, Bernard [UMMISCO, UMI 209 IRD – UPMC, 93142 Bondy (France); Eco-Evolutionary Mathematic, IBENS UMR 8197, ENS, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yue, Tianxiang [State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kwan, Mei-Po [Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  9. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  10. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian; Zhou, Sen; Bi, Peng; Yang, Zhicong; Li, Xiujun; Chen, Lifan; Cazelles, Bernard; Yang, Jing; Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong; Yuan, Wenping; Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe; Yue, Tianxiang; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2016-01-01

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  11. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  12. Are stormwater pollution impacts significant in life cycle assessment? A new methodology for quantifying embedded urban stormwater impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa; Apul, Defne

    2018-09-15

    Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models do not explicitly incorporate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution. To address this issue, a framework to estimate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution over the lifetime of a system has been developed, laying the groundwork for subsequent improvements in life cycle databases and LCA modelling. The proposed framework incorporates urban stormwater event mean concentration (EMC) data into existing LCA impact categories to account for the environmental impacts associated with urban land occupation across the whole life cycle of a system. It consists of five steps: (1) compilation of inventory of urban stormwater pollutants; (2) collection of precipitation data; (3) classification and characterisation within existing midpoint impact categories; (4) collation of inventory data for impermeable urban land occupation; and (5) impact assessment. The framework is generic and can be applied to any system using any LCA impact method. Its application is demonstrated by two illustrative case studies: electricity generation and production of construction materials. The results show that pollutants in urban stormwater have an influence on human toxicity, freshwater and marine ecotoxicity, marine eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Among these, urban stormwater pollution has the highest relative contribution to the eutrophication potentials. The results also suggest that stormwater pollution from urban areas can have a substantial effect on the life cycle impacts of some systems (construction materials), while for some systems the effect is small (e.g. electricity generation). However, it is not possible to determine a priori which systems are affected so that the impacts from stormwater pollution should be considered routinely in future LCA studies. The paper also proposes ways to incorporate stormwater pollution burdens into the life cycle databases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. 75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. No changes... socioeconomic or environmental justice impacts associated with such proposed action. Therefore, there are no...

  14. Protection of children restrained in child safety seats in side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Locey, Caitlin M; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Maltese, Matthew R

    2010-10-01

    The performance of child restraint systems (CRS) in side impact motor vehicle crashes has been under study due to the injury and fatality burden of these events. Although previous research has quantified injury risk or described injured body regions, safety advances require an understanding of injury causation. Therefore, the objective was to delineate injury causation scenarios for CRS-restrained children in side impacts and document probable contact points in the vehicle interior. Two in-depth crash investigation databases, the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the Partners for Child Passenger Safety Study, were queried for rear-seated, CRS-restrained children in side impact crashes who sustained Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+ injury. These cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and engineers to describe injury patterns, injury causation, and vehicle components that contributed to the injuries. Forty-one occupants (average age, 2.6 years) met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-four were near side to the crash, 7 were far side, and 10 were center seated. The most common injuries were to the skull and brain with an increasing proportion of skull fracture as age increased. Head and spine injuries without evidence of head contact were rare but present. All thoracic injuries were lung contusions and no rib fractures occurred. Near-side head and face contacts points were along the rear vertical plane of the window and the horizontal plane of the window sill. Head and face contact points for center- and far-side occupants were along the edges of the front seat back and front seat head restraint. Head injuries are the target for injury prevention for children in CRS in side impact crashes. Most of these injuries are due to the contact; for near-side occupants, contact with the CRS structure and the door interior, for far- or center-seated occupants, contact with the front seat back. These data are useful in developing both educational and

  15. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children�s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Results. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother�s total EQ and child�s total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pparenting style and mother�s EQ (r=0.286; pbehavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (?=0.340; pbehavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother�s emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style. Key words:Anxiety, child behavior, parenting, pediatric dentistry. PMID:22926462

  16. Clinical impact of early diagnosis of autism on the prognosis and parent-child relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Susan N Brasher,3 Margaret Ansell4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 4Health Science Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD refers to a lifelong condition that usually appears in late infancy or early childhood, and is characterized by social and communication deficits that impede optimal functioning. Despite widespread research and greater public awareness, ASD has an unclear etiology and no known cure, making it difficult to acquire accurate and timely diagnoses. In addition, once an ASD diagnosis is made, parents find it challenging to navigate the healthcare system and determine which interventions are most effective and appropriate for their child. A growing body of evidence supports the value of early diagnosis and treatment with evidence-based interventions, which can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals with ASD as well as of their carers and families. Particularly noteworthy are early interventions that occur in natural surroundings and can be modified to address age-related goals throughout the lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: 1 provide readers with a brief background related to ASD; 2 describe commonly used screening instruments and tools for early diagnosis; 3 describe early interventions that have empirical support; and 4 discuss how the parent–child and family relationships can be affected through this process. This information can provide professionals with information they can use to assist families who make critical and potentially life-changing decisions for children with ASD. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, early diagnosis, early intervention, parent–child relationship

  17. 75 FR 27583 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... CFR 11.11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small vertical axis wind turbine... (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and Solar Installation at the Paul Simon Job Corps Center Located... impact. This notice serves as the Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind...

  18. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of... Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of a... have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding...

  19. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent... have been prepared by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to a proposed biological... review and analysis of environmental impacts associated with the proposed biological control program...

  20. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on the Education of Boys in Residential Care between 1950 and 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…

  1. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  2. Impact of Campus Child Care Director Leadership and Activities on the Internal Success and Integration of the Campus Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kerisa Ann; Bierlein Palmer, Louann

    2017-01-01

    This study captures data from nearly 200 university campus-based child care center directors across the United States. It reveals the impacts directors believe their centers have had on the broader internal university community (e.g. student retention, research, teacher training in early childhood education) and the extent to which directors…

  3. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA

  4. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands

  5. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane... insects, the Arundo scale and the Arundo wasp as biological control agents for the non-native and invasive... [[Page 71584

  6. Clinical impact of early diagnosis of autism on the prognosis and parent-child relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Kreider, Consuelo Maun; Brasher, Susan N; Ansell, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a lifelong condition that usually appears in late infancy or early childhood, and is characterized by social and communication deficits that impede optimal functioning. Despite widespread research and greater public awareness, ASD has an unclear etiology and no known cure, making it difficult to acquire accurate and timely diagnoses. In addition, once an ASD diagnosis is made, parents find it challenging to navigate the healthcare system and determine which interventions are most effective and appropriate for their child. A growing body of evidence supports the value of early diagnosis and treatment with evidence-based interventions, which can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals with ASD as well as of their carers and families. Particularly noteworthy are early interventions that occur in natural surroundings and can be modified to address age-related goals throughout the lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: 1) provide readers with a brief background related to ASD; 2) describe commonly used screening instruments and tools for early diagnosis; 3) describe early interventions that have empirical support; and 4) discuss how the parent-child and family relationships can be affected through this process. This information can provide professionals with information they can use to assist families who make critical and potentially life-changing decisions for children with ASD.

  7. Almost Psychiatry: The Impact of Teaching Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies to Undergraduate College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ursula; Di Bartolo, Christina A; Badin, Emily; Shatkin, Jess P

    2017-10-01

    The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) program is housed in a Liberal Arts undergraduate college of a large research university. Psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and social workers at the university's medical center teach the courses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which CAMS encourages graduates of the program to pursue a career in child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In 2015-2016, graduates of the CAMS program were invited to participate in a mixed methods study. In addition to statistical analyses, qualitative thematic analyses were performed to interpret free-text responses. Forty-five percent (314/702) of invited graduates completed the online survey. Interviews were conducted with 11% (34/314) of participants by study staff over the phone. Quantitative results suggested that 81% (149/185) of participants enrolled in educational programs after graduation due to an interest in CAMH. A significantly higher proportion of the total sample (t = 3.661, p graduation. Results of qualitative interviews with 34 participants uncovered five key themes unique to CAMS that may explain the program's influence on graduates' career choices and career development: practitioners-as-instructors, instructor mentorship, novel course content, experiential learning opportunities, and career training and skills. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that teaching college undergraduate students about CAMH encourages them to set career goals within the field. These findings suggest the utility of implementing similar programs at other undergraduate colleges.

  8. The impact of culture upon child rearing practices and definitions of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Anne M

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between a childhood history of abuse that a parent may have experienced and the cultural beliefs/factors that an individual may subscribe to with current parenting behaviors and attitudes. It was hypothesized that cultural factors would be more predictive of parenting behaviors and attitudes than ethnicity as a demographic label. Using a survey design, 150 parents of Hispanic, African American and European American descent participated. Participants completed the Conflict Tactics Scale, a Familism Scale, a Machismo Scale, a Valuing Children Scale, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and assigned seriousness ratings to vignettes depicting child maltreatment. A history of childhood abuse was found to be predictive of the use of both physical and verbal punishment by mothers, but not for fathers. Cultural factors/beliefs were predictive of fathers' parenting behaviors, but not mothers'. Ethnicity, as a demographic variable, continued to be a significant predictor of parenting behaviors and attitudes for all parents, controlling for cultural factors. The present study adds to our understanding of diverse parenting styles, of definitions of child abuse and neglect, and of ethnicity. The findings indicate that ethnicity is a complex factor, one demanding further examination with regard to its components.

  9. Does mass azithromycin distribution impact child growth and nutrition in Niger? A cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Amza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use on animals demonstrates improved growth regardless of whether or not there is clinical evidence of infectious disease. Antibiotics used for trachoma control may play an unintended benefit of improving child growth.In this sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assess anthropometry of pre-school children in a community-randomized trial of mass oral azithromycin distributions for trachoma in Niger. We measured height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC in 12 communities randomized to receive annual mass azithromycin treatment of everyone versus 12 communities randomized to receive biannual mass azithromycin treatments for children, 3 years after the initial mass treatment. We collected measurements in 1,034 children aged 6-60 months of age.We found no difference in the prevalence of wasting among children in the 12 annually treated communities that received three mass azithromycin distributions compared to the 12 biannually treated communities that received six mass azithromycin distributions (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.53 to 1.49.We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in stunting, underweight, and low MUAC of pre-school children in communities randomized to annual mass azithromycin treatment or biannual mass azithromycin treatment. The role of antibiotics on child growth and nutrition remains unclear, but larger studies and longitudinal trials may help determine any association.

  10. Adverse child health impacts resulting from food adulterations in the Greater China Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wai Chin; Chow, Chin Fung

    2017-09-01

    Food adulteration has a long history in human society, and it still occurs in modern times. Because children are relatively vulnerable to food adulterants, studying the health impacts of food adulteration on children is important. This article provides an overview of the child health impacts of food adulterants in two recent food adulteration incidents in the Greater China Region: (1) a plasticizer incident in Taiwan and (2) a 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine)-tainted milk incident in China. The involved food adulterants, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and melamine, are harmful to the hippocampus, kidneys, reproductive organs and immune system of children, and they also increase the risk of cancer. To detect food adulteration and to avoid further harm caused by food adulteration, simple screening methods have been developed, and they have recently emerged as a new focus area for research. This article also summarizes the simple screening methods used to analyse the aforementioned food adulterants and reports how governments reacted to the recent food incidents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yvonne; Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara

    2016-10-04

    Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban-rural residence. Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  12. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Tam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban–rural residence. Results Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Conclusions Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  13. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Afghanistan, while reducing spending without sacrificing critical national defense capabilities. The draft... military personnel to maximum increases of 3,000 at the Army's largest installations) was chosen for the... a total of 1,000 military personnel. The PEA analyzes the environmental impact of two Action...

  14. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Impact of a training model for the Child Development Evaluation Test in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Cruz-Ortiz, Leopoldo Alfonso; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Martain-Pérez, Itzamara Jacqueline; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Antillón-Ocampo, Fátima Adriana; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vargas-López, Guillermo; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) Test is a screening tool designed and validated in Mexico for the early detection of child developmental problems. For professionals who will be administering the test in primary care facilities, previous acquisition of knowledge about the test is required in order to generate reliable results. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of a training model for primary care workers from different professions through the comparison of knowledge acquired during the training course. The study design was a before/after type considering the participation in a training course for the CDE test as the intervention. The course took place in six different Mexican states from October to December 2013. The same questions were used before and after. There were 394 participants included. Distribution according to professional profile was as follows: general physicians 73.4%, nursing 7.7%, psychology 7.1%, nutrition 6.1% and other professions 5.6%. The questions with the lowest correct answer rates were associated with the scoring of the CDE test. In the initial evaluation, 64.9% obtained a grade lower than 20 compared with 1.8% in the final evaluation. In the initial evaluation only 1.8% passed compared with 75.15% in the final evaluation. The proposed model allows the participants to acquire general knowledge about the CDE Test. To improve the general results in future training courses, it is required to reinforce during training the scoring and interpretation of the test together with the previous lecture of the material by the participants. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of child malnutrition on the specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillol Florie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, preschool children represent the population most vulnerable to malaria and malnutrition. It is widely recognized that malnutrition compromises the immune function, resulting in higher risk of infection. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between malaria, malnutrition and specific immunity. In the present study, the anti-Plasmodium falciparum IgG antibody (Ab response was evaluated in children according to the type of malnutrition. Methods Anthropometric assessment and blood sample collection were carried out during a cross-sectional survey including rural Senegalese preschool children. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2003 at the onset of the rainy season. Malnutrition was defined as stunting (height-for-age P. falciparum whole extracts (schizont antigens was assessed by ELISA in sera of the included children. Results Both the prevalence of anti-malarial immune responders and specific IgG Ab levels were significantly lower in malnourished children than in controls. Depending on the type of malnutrition, wasted children and stunted children presented a lower specific IgG Ab response than their respective controls, but this difference was significant only in stunted children (P = 0.026. This down-regulation of the specific Ab response seemed to be explained by severely stunted children (HAZ ≤ -2.5 compared to their controls (P = 0.03, while no significant difference was observed in mildly stunted children (-2.5 P. falciparum Ab response appeared to be independent of the intensity of infection. Conclusion Child malnutrition, and particularly stunting, may down-regulate the anti-P. falciparum Ab response, both in terms of prevalence of immune responders and specific IgG Ab levels. This study provides further evidence for the influence of malnutrition on the specific anti-malarial immune response and points to the importance of taking into account child

  17. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbilali, H.; Capone, R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Lamberti, L.; Elferchichi, A.; Aboussaleh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  18. Impact of the sex of first child on the prognosis in secondary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, O B; Pedersen, B; Nielsen, H S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carriage of a male fetus often initiates maternal immunological reactions against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY) antigens, which, in theory, could result in subsequent recurrent miscarriage (RM). METHODS: Information about subsequent pregnancy outcome was procured among...... first-born had given birth to a second live infant compared with 76% of those who previously had had a female first-born (P = 0.01). Women in the former group had a significantly lower chance of having a second child than those in the latter (adjusted hazard ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0...... reproductive potential among women with secondary RM. Maternal immunization against HY antigens may be responsible for these findings....

  19. No Child Left Behind and the Impact of Kurt Heller’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz J. MONKS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB was signed into law on January 8 in the year 2002. This law had a significant influence on all aspects of American education from pre-kindergarten up to grade 12. The basic intention of the law was: all children should have to meet quality standards that are assessed each year. The consequence was that teachers concentrated their attention especially to the slow and difficult learners. Consequently the fast and talented learners were neglected and school became for them increasingly a place of boredom. Boredom can produce a negative school motivation, or even worse it can kill motivation. Heller, on the other side, contributed as teacher and scientist in a substantial way for more than 4 decades to the well-being of all children, especially the talented and gifted learners. Some of his prominent achievements are highlighted in this article.

  20. Adaptation and validation of Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance index in 11- 14-year-old Chilean school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Vera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The health condition of a population is often rated through clinical indicators. However, the psychological and social impact of diseases on quality of life has been noticed of late. Objective: to adapt, in cultural terms, the Child- Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP questionnaire in its self- administered form and evaluate its psychometric properties among Chilean teenagers aged 11-14 from the city of Licantén, Chile, in 2013. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on scales validation. Face validity was determined by experts opinion, criterion validity by correlation with measures of self-rated health and dental treatment needs, internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha, and temporal stability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for test- retest within a 10-day window. The sample consisted of 203 students aged 11 to 14 years from the urban sector of Licantén city. Results: Five experts determined proper face validity of the C-OIDP scale. Regarding criterion validity, statistically significance association (p<0.05 were found, positive for treatment need and negative for oral health satisfaction. Internal consistency scale showed an alpha=0.719, all items showed correlations of 0.32 to 0.54 with the rest of the scale. The temporal stability gave an ICC=0.82. . Conclusion: the cultural adaptation of the self-administered C-OIDP questionnaire for Chilean students aged 11 to 14 years showed adequate psychometric properties, so it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral health impact on quality of life in this population.

  1. The impact of significant other expressed emotion on patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Rebecca; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2014-09-01

    Previous literature has identified the importance of interpersonal processes for patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), particularly in the context of significant other relationships. The current study investigated expressed emotion (EE), examining the independent effects of critical comments and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in association with patient outcomes. Fifty-five patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Significant other EE status was coded from a modified Camberwell Family Interview. Patient outcomes (fatigue severity, disability, and depression) were derived from questionnaire measures. Forty-four patients (80%) completed follow-up questionnaires 6-months after recruitment. Significant other high-EE categorized by both high levels of critical comments and high EOI was predictive of worse fatigue severity at follow-up. High-critical EE was associated with higher levels of patient depressive symptoms longitudinally; depressive symptoms were observed to mediate the relationship between high critical comments and fatigue severity reported at follow-up. There were higher rates of high-EE in parents than in partners, and this was because of higher rates of EOI in parents. Patients with high-EE significant others demonstrated poorer outcomes at follow-up compared with patients in low-EE dyads. One mechanism for this appears to be as a result of increased patient depression. Future research should seek to further clarify whether the role of interpersonal processes in CFS/ME differs across different patient-significant other relationships. The development of significant other-focused treatment interventions may be particularly beneficial for both patients and significant others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Impact of Lesion Length on Functional Significance in Intermediate Coronary Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed at assessing the role of lesion length in predicting Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR value for physiological evaluation of intermediate coronary lesions.Methods: In the current study, 68 patients with 83 coronary lesions were enrolled. All of the patients in this study underwent routine coronary angiography, according to appropriate indications. To evaluate physiologically significant intermediate coronary stenosis (defined between 40% and 70% on visual estimation, the Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR study was performed and the Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA data were also assessed for measurement of lesion length. The correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also examined.Results: Eighty-three lesions were evaluated from 68 patients. Stenosis was considered physiologically significant when FFR was lower than 0.75. The FFR was significant in twelve lesions (14.5%. There was a negative correlation between FFR value and lesion length (r = -0.294 and P = 0.013. Moreover, lesion length in physiologically significant FFR group (21.07  ± 6.9 was greater than that of the non-significant FFR group (15.23 ± 6.5 (P value < 0.05. Furthermore, the correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also investigated, yet, there was only a positive correlation between FFR and Minimum Luminal Diameter (MLD values (r = 0.248 and P value = 0.04. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis for predicting the significant FFR value demonstrated that a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm was the best cut-off point for prediction of the significant FFR value with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 68.8%, respectively.Conclusions: There is a negative correlation between lesion length and FFR value in intermediate coronary lesions. In addition, a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm is the best cut- off point for prediction of significant FFR values.

  3. Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS. The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification, packing, storage and transport to foundry. Inventory analysis data were analyzed and finally converted to the functional unit, which has been defined as one ton of SFS. The resulting environmental impact of SFS production in endpoint is: consumption of natural resources 70.9%, ecosystem quality 18.2% and human health 10.9%. The following portions, with respective percentages, have the greatest overall effect on these results: diesel fuel consumption 32.4% and natural gas consumption 28.7%, electricity usage 17.2%, transport 12.2%, devastation caused by the SFS 5.35% and oil (engine, gear and hydraulic consumption 4.14%. The highest contributor to the diesel fuel consumption is the SFS exploitation. The overall effect of desiccation was 35.8% and was caused by high consumption of resources and electricity.

  4. Impact of childhood parent-child relationships on cardiovascular risks in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhongzheng; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Kiresich, Emily; Cordola Hsu, Amber; Lei, Xiaomeng; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Zhaoping; Xie, Bin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine prospective effects of the childhood parent-child relationships on the development of cardiovascular risks in adolescence. Using available 917 parent-child dyads from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991 to 2006), we analyzed the prospective effects of childhood parent-child relationships of Conflict and Closeness, as well as their categorized combinations (Harmonic, Dramatic, Hostile, and Indifferent) on the development of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SST/TST), body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), and heart rate (HR) during adolescence. We found that higher levels of Conflict in the relationship with mothers (slope=0.05, Pparent-child relationships on the development of cardiovascular risks during adolescence, and the effect was further modified by both parents' and child's gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mother’s Health Directly Impacts the Recovery Timeline of the Autistic Child

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalakshmi Kandaswamy

    2017-01-01

    The recent studies and a document publication by the NHF (Neurological Health Foundation) has revealed that the health condition of the Mother of a child with Autism DIRECTLY affects the ability of the autistic child to recover fully from the limiting symptoms of autism and other co-morbid conditions. Today, cutting-edge treatment modalities in autism based on the emerging science of Epigenetics and Applied Intentional Epigenetics are helping the autistic child to thrive free from the limitin...

  6. Impact of maternal mental health on maternal-child interaction in attendees in a community health clinic in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. Methodology: This is a descriptive clinic-based study. Eligible and consenting mothers are attending the child immunization clinic in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria participated. Consecutive mothers completed the interview questionnaires independently while those who were not literate had the questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Instruments used were a sociodemographic proforma, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Mother and Infant Attachment Scale (MIAS, and the Zung Depression Scale. Results: In total, ninety-eight women were enrolled, 66.3% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and mean age of 30.9 years (±5.1 standard deviation. Most were aged between 26 and 35 years (66.3%. Over 90% had at secondary school education or more. Over a 10 th (13.3% was unemployed and 96% married. The children were aged between 6 weeks and 1 year, males (63.1%, and females (46.9%, and the majority were born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (82.7%. A 10 th (10.2% of the women had probable psychiatric morbidity, 14.3% had scores suggestive of postpartum depression, and 18 (16.3% scored below average attachment in interaction with their children on the MIAS. There was an association found between reduced maternal-child attachment interaction and maternal depression (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: Emotional disorders, such as depression, in mothers can be associated reduced maternal-child interaction. It is important that integrated mental health

  7. Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to CAP-clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach

  8. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. RESULTS: Multigroup...... levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis.......PURPOSE: To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). METHODS: Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function...

  9. Child impact on family functioning: a multivariate analysis in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Katja; Jacob, Christian; Philipsen, Alexandra; Matthies, Swantje; Graf, Erika; Hennighausen, Klaus; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Weyers, Peter; Warnke, Andreas; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; von Gontard, Alexander; Hänig, Susan; Freitag, Christine; Sobanski, Esther; Schumacher-Stien, Martina; Poustka, Luise; Bliznak, Lucia; Becker, Katja; Holtmann, Martin; Colla, Michael; Gentschow, Laura; Kappel, Viola; Jaite, Charlotte; Jans, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    ADHD seriously impacts family functioning, even the more in families with simultaneous parental and child ADHD. The aim of the study was to examine associations between family impact of child ADHD and child, mother and family characteristics in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by ADHD. One hundred and forty-four mother-child pairs were assessed (children: mean age 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 73.6 % male). Family impact of child ADHD was rated by mothers using the Family Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with child and maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics such as employment, partnership status and number of children as predictors and FIQ subscores as criteria. Rates of variance explained by family variables were 49 % for negative feelings towards the child, 37 % for impact on partnership, 31 % for impact on social life and 27 % for impact on finances (p ADHD and co-morbid symptoms of the mother. The strongest independent predictor was oppositional defiant child behaviour. In ADHD multiplex families, mothers' perception of the impact of an ADHD child on its family can be explained to a substantial degree by child psychopathology, maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics. Although a cross-sectional design does not allow for causal interpretations, the findings of this study offer important targets for the treatment of ADHD in a family context pointing to the need for assessing and treating parental mental health and co-morbid symptoms besides ADHD core symptoms.

  10. The Impact of Robot Tutor Nonverbal Social Behavior on Child Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennedy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that interacting with social robots in educational contexts may lead to a greater learning than interactions with computers or virtual agents. As such, an increasing amount of social human–robot interaction research is being conducted in the learning domain, particularly with children. However, it is unclear precisely what social behavior a robot should employ in such interactions. Inspiration can be taken from human–human studies; this often leads to an assumption that the more social behavior an agent utilizes, the better the learning outcome will be. We apply a nonverbal behavior metric to a series of studies in which children are taught how to identify prime numbers by a robot with various behavioral manipulations. We find a trend, which generally agrees with the pedagogy literature, but also that overt nonverbal behavior does not account for all learning differences. We discuss the impact of novelty, child expectations, and responses to social cues to further the understanding of the relationship between robot social behavior and learning. We suggest that the combination of nonverbal behavior and social cue congruency is necessary to facilitate learning.

  11. Energy and traffic light labelling have no impact on parent and child fast food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke; Chapman, Kathy; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Wiggers, John

    2013-10-25

    Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12 years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique- either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Child/Adolescent’s ADHD and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Family Impact and Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Lago-Urbano, Rocio; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Carmona-Márquez, José

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent–child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29%) and boys (90; 71%) aged 6–17 years old. Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents’ variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems) and family–contextual variables (negative impact on family’s social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support). Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a) negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother’s stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b) the association between child and adolescent’s ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children’s conduct problems and by negative impact on family’s social life, and not by children’s emotional problems nor by mother’s perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c) a pathway from child/adolescent’s ADHD through children’s conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family’s social life to mother’s parenting stress. Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent’s and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:29312090

  13. Child/Adolescent’s ADHD and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Family Impact and Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Muñoz-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent–child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29% and boys (90; 71% aged 6–17 years old.Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents’ variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems and family–contextual variables (negative impact on family’s social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother’s stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b the association between child and adolescent’s ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children’s conduct problems and by negative impact on family’s social life, and not by children’s emotional problems nor by mother’s perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c a pathway from child/adolescent’s ADHD through children’s conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family’s social life to mother’s parenting stress.Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent’s and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD.

  14. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita

    2017-08-30

    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  15. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS OF AUTOMATION IN ASSET MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin L. Britton; David G. Atkinson

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of applying automation, a technological force in which computer systems can fulfill human tasks, into the asset management industry. The investigation explores a number of significant topics in which managers should begin contemplating, including workforce origination post automation, the primary skills necessary to facilitate augmentation, and how robo advisors could challenge an organization’s value proposition. The investigation was centered on Jupiter ...

  16. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  18. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  19. Impact of a new mandatory reporting law on reporting and identification of child sexual abuse: A seven year time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Lee, Xing Ju; Norman, Rosana E

    2016-06-01

    Child sexual abuse is widespread and difficult to detect. To enhance case identification, many societies have enacted mandatory reporting laws requiring designated professionals, most often police, teachers, doctors and nurses, to report suspected cases to government child welfare agencies. Little research has explored the effects of introducing a reporting law on the number of reports made, and the outcomes of those reports. This study explored the impact of a new legislative mandatory reporting duty for child sexual abuse in the State of Western Australia over seven years. We analyzed data about numbers and outcomes of reports by mandated reporters, for periods before the law (2006-2008) and after the law (2009-2012). Results indicate that the number of reports by mandated reporters of suspected child sexual abuse increased by a factor of 3.7, from an annual mean of 662 in the three year pre-law period to 2448 in the four year post-law period. The increase in the first two post-law years was contextually and statistically significant. Report numbers stabilized in 2010-2012, at one report per 210 children. The number of investigated reports increased threefold, from an annual mean of 451 in the pre-law period to 1363 in the post-law period. Significant decline in the proportion of mandated reports that were investigated in the first two post-law years suggested the new level of reporting and investigative need exceeded what was anticipated. However, a subsequent significant increase restored the pre-law proportion, suggesting systemic adaptive capacity. The number of substantiated investigations doubled, from an annual mean of 160 in the pre-law period to 327 in the post-law period, indicating twice as many sexually abused children were being identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Impacts of an Employer-Supported Child Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.

    2011-01-01

    Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…

  1. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  2. Do mother's and father's education condition the impact of parental divorce on child well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandemakers, J.J.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We

  3. Mental Health Screening in Child Care: Impact of a Statewide Training Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Boothe, Allison; Keyes, Angela; Rice, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Child care settings may provide an optimal setting for identification of early childhood mental health problems. However, little is known about child care providers' attitudes or knowledge about screening for children's mental health problems. Both attitudes and perceived knowledge could affect the successful implementation of mental health…

  4. Controlled Study of the Impact on Child Behaviour Problems of Intensive Interaction for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Abi; Reed, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Pupils with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) received 6 months of intensive interaction or treatment as usual. They were assessed for behaviour problems at the start and end of the period, and changes were related to child and parent factors. Intensive interaction did not offer any greater advantages to child behaviour than treatment as usual.…

  5. Impacts of caring for a child with the CDKL5 disorder on parental wellbeing and family quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yuka; Downs, Jenny; Wong, Kingsley; Anderson, Barbara; Epstein, Amy; Leonard, Helen

    2017-01-19

    Although research in this area remains sparse, raising a child with some genetic disorders has been shown to adversely impact maternal health and family quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate such impacts in families with a child with the CDKL5 disorder, a newly recognised genetic disorder causing severe neurodevelopmental impairments and refractory epilepsy. Data were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database to which 192 families with a child with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation had provided data by January 2016. The Short Form 12 Health Survey Version 2, yielding a Physical Component Summary and a Mental Component Summary score, was used to measure primary caregiver's wellbeing. The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale was used to measure family quality of life. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between child and family factors and the various subscale scores. The median (range) age of the primary caregivers was 37.0 (24.6-63.7) years and of the children was 5.2 (0.2-34.1) years. The mean (SD) physical and mental component scores were 53.7 (8.6) and 41.9 (11.6), respectively. In mothers aged 25-54 years the mean mental but not the physical component score was lower than population norms. After covariate adjustment, caregivers with a tube-fed child had lower mean physical but higher mean mental component scores than those whose child fed orally (coefficient = -4.80 and 6.79; p = 0.009 and 0.012, respectively). Child sleep disturbances and financial hardship were negatively associated with the mental component score. The mean (SD) Beach Center Family Quality of Life score was 4.06 (0.66) and those who had used respite services had lower scores than those who had not across the subscales. Emotional wellbeing was considerably impaired in this caregiver population, and was particularly associated with increased severity of child sleep problems and family financial difficulties. Family quality

  6. Significance of direct and indirect impacts of climate change on groundwater resources in the Olifants River basin: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhonjera, German K.; Dinka, Megersa O.

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers the extent and usefulness of reviewing existing literature on the significance of direct and indirect impacts of climate change on groundwater resources with emphasis on examples from the Olifants River basin. Here, the existing literature were extensively reviewed, with discussions centred mainly on the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and challenges in modelling climate change impacts on groundwater resources. Since in the hydrological cycle, the hydrological components such as evaporation, temperature, precipitation, and groundwater, are the major drivers of the present and future climate, a detailed discussion is done on the impact of climate change on these hydrological components to determine to what extent the hydrological cycle has already been affected as a result of climate change. The uncertainties, constraints and limitations in climate change research have also been reviewed. In addition to the research gaps discussed here, the emphasis on the need of extensive climate change research on the continent, especially as climate change impacts on groundwater, is discussed. Overall, the importance of conducting further research in climate change, understanding the significance of the impact of climate change on water resources such as groundwater, and taking actions to effectively meet the adaptation needs of the people, emerge as an important theme in this review.

  7. Isopycnal mixing by mesoscale eddies significantly impacts oceanic anthropogenic carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Pradal, Marie-Aude; Abernathey, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake varies across Earth System Models for reasons that have remained obscure. When varied within a single model, the lateral eddy mixing coefficient ARedi produces a range of uptake similar to the modeled range. The highest uptake, resulting from a simulation with a constant ARedi of 2400 m2/s, simulates 15% more historical carbon uptake than a model with ARedi = 400 m2/s. A sudden doubling in carbon dioxide produces a 21% range in carbon uptake across the models. Two spatially dependent representations of ARedi produce uptake that lies in the middle of the range of constant values despite predicting very large values in the subtropical gyres. One-dimensional diffusive models of the type used for integrated assessments can be fit to the simulations, with ARedi accounting for a substantial fraction of the effective vertical diffusion. Such models, however, mask significant regional changes in stratification and biological carbon storage.

  8. Significant impacts of nutrient enrichment on High Arctic vegetation and soils despite two decades of recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L. E.; Burns, N. R.; Woodin, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    We re-visit a unique field manipulation study in Svalbard to assess the long-term recovery of plant species composition, leaf tissue chemistry and total ecosystem carbon storage from nutrient enrichment. The experiment was established in 1991. The original aim was to quantify the 'critical load' of nitrogen (N) for tundra; that is, the minimum rate of N deposition affecting ecosystem structure and function. Dissolved N was applied to heath vegetation, both alone and in combination with phosphorous (P), during the growing season over three years. The rates of N addition were lower than in most other nutrient manipulation studies, and were designed to represent typical rates of deposition in the Scottish highlands (50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and maximum deposition rates experienced in the Arctic (10 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Significant changes in shrub cover, the greenness and N content of the moss layer, and the extent of ecosystem N saturation had occurred by the end of the treatment period. After 18 years of recovery without further treatment, we assessed primary productivity using CO2 flux measurements, and the 'greenness' of vegetation using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. We made destructive measurements of above- and below-ground carbon and nutrient stocks, quantified species composition and sampled leaf tissue for chemical analysis. Total carbon storage in organic soils and vegetation was c. 40 % lower in the plots treated with 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 compared to controls. Species composition in N treated plots also differed significantly, but there was no clear treatment effect on primary productivity. Where 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was applied in combination with P (at 5 kg P ha-1 yr-1 ), organic carbon storage was c. 70 % greater than controls, the vegetation was greener, and primary productivity higher. Effects of the treatments were also still clearly apparent in moss tissue nutrient status, even at the lower nitrogen application rate. Our results imply that the effects

  9. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical impact of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. A cytohistologic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousuebsakul, V; Knutsen, S M; Gram, I T; Akin, M R

    2000-01-01

    To assess the percentage of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cytologic diagnosis. From January 1994 to December 1995, 421 cervical Pap smears with a diagnosis of ASCUS were followed with cervical biopsies within three months. The ASCUS cytologic diagnosis was correlated with the histologic findings and stratified according to age group, previous abnormal history and cell type of ASCUS (squamoid vs. metaplastic). Histologic diagnosis showed that of ASCUS diagnoses, 13% were normal, 34% were reactive, 4.8% were atypical, 43% were low grade SIL, 4% were high grade SIL, 1% were carcinoma in situ, and none were invasive lesions. The patients in the youngest group, up to 25 years, demonstrated the highest percentage of SIL. Patients with a previous abnormal gynecologic history showed a higher percentage of SIL than those without an abnormal history. SILs were observed in 51.5% of squamoid ASCUS and 36.5% of metaplastic ASCUS. Forty-eight percent of females having an ASCUS diagnosis on Pap smears had SIL and thus a preneoplastic lesion. The highest percentage of SIL was found in females 25 years and younger. Our findings suggest that an ASCUS diagnosis warrants ongoing follow-up.

  11. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS OF AUTOMATION IN ASSET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Britton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the implications of applying automation, a technological force in which computer systems can fulfill human tasks, into the asset management industry. The investigation explores a number of significant topics in which managers should begin contemplating, including workforce origination post automation, the primary skills necessary to facilitate augmentation, and how robo advisors could challenge an organization’s value proposition. The investigation was centered on Jupiter Asset Management (JAM to support their preparations for automation, as well as to provide insight from the ‘grass roots’. Research centered on interviews with experienced individuals within automative and asset management. The findings identify that current entry level occupations with systematic, repetitive tasks in a fixed domain, will be automated. Placing a greater demand for analytical abilities in junior recruits as the cognitive understanding of what data represents is a weakness of artificial intelligence (AI thus strengthening augmentation between employees and technology. Automated investment profilers known as robo advisors will challenge the value proposition of organizations, such as JAM, which in time will need to be onboard with the technology to remain competitive within a growing millennial market. The paper concludes that there is an evident need for asset management firms to design training processes that blend enhanced senior level shadowing, with programmes focused on broadening juniors’ abilities to interpret and apply AI generated data through a series of newly identified skills.

  12. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  13. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  14. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp..., into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H...

  15. 75 FR 17161 - Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small Wind Turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at... the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center, 15710 Highway 385, Chadron, NE 69337. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  16. 75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at 15710 Highway... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps....11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job...

  17. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  18. Brief Report: Impact of Child Problem Behaviors and Parental Broad Autism Phenotype Traits on Substance Use among Parents of Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jordan L.; Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E.; Hull, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Simons Simplex Collection, the present study examined the impact of child externalizing behavior and parental broad autism phenotype traits on substance use among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 2,388). For both fathers and mothers, child externalizing behaviors predicted tobacco use (OR = 1.01 and OR =…

  19. Feasibility and impact of doctor-nurse task delegation in preventive child health care in the netherlands, a controlled before-after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, S. Janine; Damen, Maurice L W; Van Stel, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background  In the Netherlands a need is felt for more flexible Child Health Care services, both efficient and tailored to needs.We set up a study on impact and feasibility of task delegation to child health care nurses performing all regular checkups on children aged 2 months to 4 years. Abnormal

  20. The Temporal Impact of Economic Insecurity on Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad-Hiebner, Aislinn; Byram, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Economically insecure children experience 3-9 times more maltreatment than economically secure children. Although economic insecurity is associated with child physical abuse, neglect, and psychological maltreatment, there have been no systematic reviews dedicated to the relation between familial economic insecurity and child maltreatment. This is problematic because multiple forms of familial economic insecurity-including debt, material hardship, income, unemployment, and income transfers-are related to child maltreatment. These findings, however, are not causal or reliably replicated across studies. Until we identify the state of the evidence concerning the temporal association between economic insecurity and child maltreatment, our ability to reduce child maltreatment may be limited. In this systematic review (PROSPERO registration # CRD42017081445), we searched PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations, and the gray literature for English-language, peer-reviewed articles and dissertations published between 1970 and 2016. We synthesized evidence from 26 longitudinal studies on the temporal relation between economic insecurity and child maltreatment. Income losses, cumulative material hardship, and housing hardship were the most reliable predictors of child maltreatment. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  1. Significant impact of transient deterioration of renal function on dosimetry in PRRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Binnebeek, S.; Baete, K.; Terwinghe, C.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), with 90 Y-DOTATOC and 177 Lu-DOTATATE as most clinically used radiopeptides, is widely used in the management of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. With respect to radiation dosimetry, the kidneys are the critical organ for 90 Y-DOTATOC. Renal irradiation is significant because of reabsorption of the radiopeptide from the proximal tubuli and the resulting retention in the interstitium, mainly in the inner cortical zone. The high energy and consequently wide range in tissue of the yttrium-90 beta particle result in high absorbed doses to the kidney cortex and medulla. Accurate renal dosimetry can help minimizing radiation nephropathy. We report a case of a 69-year-old candidate for PRRT with an acceptable kidney function at the time of screening. When performing 111 In-octreotide pretreatment dosimetry 3 weeks later, we observed a drastic deterioration in kidney function, caused by undisclosed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug intake. The calculated kidney biological effective dose (BED) was 153 Gy after four projected cycles. PRRT was canceled as our full-course BED limit is 37 Gy and the patient was switched to morphine analgesics. Renal function normalized after 3 months and repeated dosimetry yielded an acceptable kidney BED of 28 Gy after four projected cycles (7 Gy/cycle). This case emphasizes that acute kidney insufficiency can yield toxic kidney doses in a single therapy cycle, with an inherent risk of persistent renal insufficiency. All clinical factors which might influence kidney function should be verified at screening and before PRRT administration. (author)

  2. Impact of a Short-Term Nutrition Education Child Care Pilot Intervention on Preschool Children's Intention To Choose Healthy Snacks and Actual Snack Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laura S; Gorin, Amy A; Mobley, Stacey L; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Novel interventions within child care settings are needed for childhood obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a short-term nutrition education pilot intervention on preschool-age children's snack food choices. Children ages 3-5 years (n = 49) from one child care setting participated in a short-term nutrition education intervention (nine 30-minute interactive lessons) taught over a 2-week period. Pre-post assessments included snack knowledge and snack preference questionnaires and an observed snack selection trial to allow children to choose between a healthy and unhealthy snack choice similar to the current food environment. Children's height and weight were measured and BMI z-scores calculated. Parental reports of demographics and child's food preferences were also collected at baseline. Children significantly improved their preference of healthier snacks (p = 0.03) and the ability to distinguish them (p = 0.03) from other snacks. However, they did not significantly improve (p > 0.05) their snack choice between a healthy and unhealthy choice immediately after the short-term nutrition education program. Children who were younger (p = 0.003) or who had higher nutrition knowledge scores (p = 0.002) were more likely to select the healthy snack after the intervention. This study provides evidence that a short-term nutrition education program improves preschool children's knowledge about healthy snacks, but does not translate to immediate healthier snack selections for all children. Future research should investigate the optimal duration of a nutrition education program in a child care setting and other external influences (parents, policy) most influential on snack choice and eventual obesity risk.

  3. Two-year impact of community-based health screening and parenting groups on child development in Zambia: Follow-up to a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Zanolini, Arianna; Banda, Bowen; Chipili, Mwaba Moono; Hughes, Robert C; Hamer, Davidson H; Fink, Günther

    2018-04-01

    Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258 caregiver-child dyads). Caregivers were eligible if they had a child 6 to 12 months old at baseline. In intervention clusters, caregivers were visited twice per month during the first year of the study by child development agents (CDAs) and were invited to attend fortnightly parenting group meetings. Parenting groups selected "head mothers" from their communities who were trained by CDAs to facilitate meetings and deliver a diverse parenting curriculum. The parenting group intervention, originally designed to run for 1 year, was extended, and households were visited for a follow-up assessment at the end of year 2. The control group did not receive any intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for primary outcomes measured at the year 2 follow-up: stunting and 5 domains of neurocognitive development measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III). In order to show Cohen's d estimates, BSID-III composite scores were converted to z-scores by standardizing within the study population. In all, 195/268 children (73%) in the intervention group and 182/258 children (71%) in the control group were assessed at endline after 2 years. The intervention significantly reduced stunting (56/195 versus 72/182; adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.92; p = 0.028) and had a significant positive impact on language (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27; p = 0.039). The intervention did not significantly impact cognition (β 0

  4. Two-year impact of community-based health screening and parenting groups on child development in Zambia: Follow-up to a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Rockers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia.We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads or control (15 clusters, 258 caregiver-child dyads. Caregivers were eligible if they had a child 6 to 12 months old at baseline. In intervention clusters, caregivers were visited twice per month during the first year of the study by child development agents (CDAs and were invited to attend fortnightly parenting group meetings. Parenting groups selected "head mothers" from their communities who were trained by CDAs to facilitate meetings and deliver a diverse parenting curriculum. The parenting group intervention, originally designed to run for 1 year, was extended, and households were visited for a follow-up assessment at the end of year 2. The control group did not receive any intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for primary outcomes measured at the year 2 follow-up: stunting and 5 domains of neurocognitive development measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III. In order to show Cohen's d estimates, BSID-III composite scores were converted to z-scores by standardizing within the study population. In all, 195/268 children (73% in the intervention group and 182/258 children (71% in the control group were assessed at endline after 2 years. The intervention significantly reduced stunting (56/195 versus 72/182; adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.92; p = 0.028 and had a significant positive impact on language (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27; p = 0.039. The intervention did not significantly impact

  5. IMPACT OF A COMPUTERISED OUTPATIENT PRESCRIPTION PRINTING SYSTEM (COPPS) ON MELATONIN PRESCRIBING IN A COMMUNITY CHILD HEALTH CLINIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Liz; Skingle, Jum

    2016-09-01

    COPPS is a computerised outpatient prescription printing system for WP10 prescriptions. It aims to improve the quality and safety of service, as patients will be provided with a legible, complete prescription to take to a community pharmacy of their choice. Patients requiring specialist medicines will have their medicines dispensed more promptly by the hospital pharmacy or medicines home care provider. The software ensures prescriptions contain all the required information to allow safe dispensing, reducing frequency of delays. Hospital pharmacy staff have more time to explain their medicines to patients, promoting shared decision making and improved adherence leading to better health outcomes and reduced waste and harm; provide information at the time of prescribing to increase adherence to agreed care pathways and prescribing practice. It facilitates attribution of prescribing, improves governance and is more easily audited and reported; capture the costs of medicines dispensed for out-patients which will be measured using information from the hospital pharmacy computer system and CASPA.The aim of this audit was to evaluate the effect the introduction of COPPS has had on compliance with the UHB formulary, local melatonin pathway and its impact on expenditure for melatonin within the community child health clinic. The pathway states that the starting dose is 2 mg Circadin® tablet or liquid melatonin 1 mg/1 ml if necessary for individual patients. Community Child Health prescribing data shows their highest expenditure is on melatonin. This was therefore chosen to test the impact of COPPS for a pilot study.Six months prescribing data (September 14-March 15) was obtained from COPPS. This was compared to data obtained for WP10's from hospital forms analysis for the same months the previous year (September 13-March 14) RESULTS: A 55% reduction was seen in the prescribing of non-formulary melatonin and a reduction in expenditure on melatonin by 18% or £16

  6. Providing care to a child with cancer: a longitudinal study on the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress during the first year after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkers, Esther; Tissing, Wim J E; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Kamps, Willem A; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress on the functioning of primary caregivers of children with cancer during the first year after a child's cancer diagnosis. Primary caregivers (N = 95, 100% mother, 86% response rate) of consecutive newly diagnosed paediatric cancer patients (0-18 years) completed measures of caregiving stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-reported health at diagnosis, and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. Results indicated a significant decrease in caregiving stress (especially during the first 3 months after diagnosis). Caregiving stress was predicted by single marital status and the ill child being the mother's only child. Multilevel analyses, controlled for socio-demographic and medical covariates, showed that, over time, the decline in caregiving stress was accompanied by a reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety. The amount of variance explained by caregiving stress was 53% for depressive symptoms, 47% for anxiety, and 3% for self-reported health. The present study suggests that caregiving stress is an important factor in understanding parental adjustment to childhood cancer. This offers possibilities for developing interventions aimed at preventing caregiving stress, and strengthening mothers' confidence in their ability to provide good care. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Macro-indicators of citation impacts of six prolific countries: InCites data and the statistical significance of trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of countries using (i a long publication window (1981 to 2010, (ii a differentiation in (broad or more narrow subject areas, and (iii allowing for the use of statistical procedures in order to obtain an insightful investigation of national citation trends across the years. Using four broad categories, our results show significantly increasing trends in citation impact values for France, the UK, and especially Germany across the last thirty years in all areas. The citation impact of papers from China is still at a relatively low level (mostly below the world average, but the country follows an increasing trend line. The USA exhibits a stable pattern of high citation impact values across the years. With small impact differences between the publication years, the US trend is increasing in engineering and technology but decreasing in medical and health sciences as well as in agricultural sciences. Similar to the USA, Japan follows increasing as well as decreasing trends in different subject areas, but the variability across the years is small. In most of the years, papers from Japan perform below or approximately at the world average in each subject area.

  8. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2010-07-21

    Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1) estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2) examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure) and control (no exposure) conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Norms related to appropriate age for sexual initiation and outcome expectations that communication

  9. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans W Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1 estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2 examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Methods Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure and control (no exposure conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Results Norms related to appropriate age for sexual

  10. Assessing the impact of remittances on child education in Ecuador: the role of educational supply constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Benedictis, Geovanna; Calfat, Germán; Jara, Karina

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the links between remittances and child education in Ecuador with special emphasis on the influences in supply conditions at the regional level. Our results point out to the favourable role of remittances on education, suggesting at the same time, the importance of an efficient basic infrastructure in the educational system, as a key element in fostering positive outcomes. The positive effect of remittances on child education is better understood within the context of public polici...

  11. The ecological impacts of primary education facilities based on a child-friendly neighborhood unit criteria in Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, E. F.; Putri, R. A.; Mulyanto; Handayani, N.

    2018-03-01

    A city should accommodate the citizen needs, especially for children. The absence of elementary school in a neighborhood unit (NU) will increase the use of transportation by children in the NU, every day at the same time. This activity will produce large quantities of - carbon dioxide (CO2) that can trigger climate change. This article aims at discovering the ecological impacts of CO2 emitted from the transportation used by children when commuting to their school, based on the conformity of each NU to the criteria of the a child-friendly city. Quantitative and spatial analysis techniques were employed in these four stages: (1) dividing the NU; (2) constructing the NU’s typology based on a child-friendly criteria; (3) identifying the characteristic of children movements in each NU when accessing their elementary school; and (4) analyzing the ecological impacts (in CO2 form). The result shows that 88.14% of CO2 emissions in Surakarta can be reduced by interventions through the fulfillment of all NU’s child-friendly criterias.

  12. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  13. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Assessing the validity of impact pathways for child labour and well-being in Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Lai, Lufanna CH; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    have a consistent theoretical foundation so the inventory results can be associated with a predictable damage or benefit to the AoP. This article uses two concrete examples from the work on SLCA to analyse to what extent this is the case in current practice. One considers whether indicators included...... exclusively with the type of indicators which are presently used in SLCA approaches. The second example shows that the mere fact that a child is working tells little about how this may damage or benefit the AoPs, implying that the normally used indicator; ‘incidence of child labour’ lacks validity in relation......, boundary setting issues. Conclusions The article shows that it is possible to assess the validity of the impact pathways in SLCA. It thereby point to the possibility of utilising the same framework that underpins the environmental LCA in this regard. It also shows that in relation to both of the specific...

  15. The effect of recovery coaches for substance-involved mothers in child welfare: impact on juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Siegel, Jonah A; Ryan, Joseph P

    2013-10-01

    Despite the documented relationship between parental substance abuse and youth delinquency, the effects of parental interventions on delinquency outcomes are unknown. Such interventions are particularly vital for families in the child welfare system who are at heightened risk for both parental substance involvement and youth delinquency. The current study tested the impact of intensive case management in the form of a recovery coach for substance-involved mothers on youth delinquency outcomes among a randomized sample of 453 families involved in a Title IV-E experimental waiver demonstration in Cook County, Illinois. In comparison to control group participants, families enrolled in the Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration experienced a lower rate of juvenile arrest, net of factors such as demographic characteristics, primary drug of choice, and time spent in substitute care. Findings support efforts to curb delinquency among child-welfare involved youth by providing recovery coaches to their substance abusing or dependent parents. © 2013.

  16. Impact of Child Life Services on Children and Families Admitted to Start the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Sutter, Lindsay; Doerrer, Sarah C; Haney, Courtney A; Turner, Zahava

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally the ketogenic diet is started as an inpatient admission to the hospital. Starting in January 2015, child life services were made formally available during ketogenic diet admissions to help families cope. One-page surveys were then provided to 15 parents on the day of discharge and again after 3 months. Every family believed that the child life services were helpful. Children who were developmentally appropriate/mildly delayed had higher parent-reported anxiety scores than those who were moderate to severely delayed (4.4 vs 1.0, P = .02). At 3 months, child life services were deemed very helpful for the parents (mean score: 8.9, range: 5-10), and were more helpful for the parent than the child (mean 6.2, range 1-10, P = .047). One of the most helpful services was a prior phone call to parents 1 week prior. In this small pilot study, child life involvement during the start of the ketogenic diet was highly useful.

  17. Impact of interspousal violence and maternal deprivation on a child's mental health: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyriuka A.N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case of an emotionally deprived child with some evidence of child neglect resulting from husband-wife violence and subsequent separation of parents. It also further confirms the long recognized fact that the most successful treatment of growth failure and weight loss due to psychosocial deprivation is restoration of a normal social environment. In particular, it highlights the need for a high index of suspicion and awareness on the part of medical personnel with regard to emotional disorders in children

  18. Communication between mother and her visually imapired child

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Communication between mother and child has a significant impact on the development of children's language skills. Blindness or visual impairment limits access to information from the environment, which may have a negative impact on the development of communication between mother and child. In my master's thesis I focused on how the communication between mother and child alters due to visual impairment. In the theoretical part I introduced the importance of visual input in communication and...

  19. The impact of different types of parental support behaviours on child physical activity, healthy eating, and screen time: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pyper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, 31.5 % of children are overweight or obese, putting them at an increased risk of chronic co-morbidities and premature mortality. Physical activity, healthy eating, and screen time are important behavioural determinants of childhood overweight and obesity that are influenced by the family environment, and particularly parents’ support behaviours. However, there is currently a limited understanding of which types of these support behaviours have the greatest positive impact on healthy child behaviours. This study aims to determine the relative contribution of different types of parental support behaviours for predicting the likelihood that children meet established guidelines for daily physical activity, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and recreational screen time. Methods A Computer Assisted Telephone Interview survey was used to collect data from a random sample of parents or guardians with at least one child under the age of 18 in Ontario (n = 3,206. Three multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict whether or not parents reported their child was meeting guidelines. Independent variables included parent and child age and gender, multiple indicators of parental support behaviours, and socio-demographic characteristics. Parental support behaviours were categorized post-hoc as motivational, instrumental, regulatory, and conditional based on an adapted framework. Results Controlling for all other factors in the model, several parental support behaviours were found to be significant predictors of children meeting established health guidelines. For example, conditional support behaviours including taking the child to places where they can be active (OR: 2.06; 95 % CI: 1.32-3.21, and eating meals as a family away from the TV (95 % CI: 1.15-2.41 were significant positive predictors of children meeting physical activity and fruit and vegetable guidelines, respectively. Conclusions Health

  20. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. The study results suggest that this position is developed by parents independently and on a rational basis. In accordance with the existential criterion mentioned above, characteristics of the educational position of parents indicate normality of their personality. It is shown that a balanced style of parenting contributes to developing child personality type with a dual, contradictory orientation for both children and their parents when solving life problems. Children with this type of personality, as well as their parents, manifest inherent willingness to compromise position towards the same existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. Thanks to a balanced style of parenting favourable personal prerequisites for the development of normal personality are shown. As balanced style of parenting contributes to the normal development of child personality, these children have lack personal prerequisites for emerging difficulties in social adaptation, and therefore in families with such style of solving parent-child problems, due to these difficulties are completely absent.

  1. Child-Centered Group Play Therapy: Impact on Social-Emotional Assets of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Ju; Ray, Dee C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of child-centered group play therapy (CCGPT) on social-emotional assets of kindergarten children and the therapeutic aspect of group sizes in CCGPT outcome. A total of 43 participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention or waitlist control groups. We used Parent and Teacher forms of Social…

  2. Family Processes in Child Anxiety: the Long-Term Impact of Fathers and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Parrigon, Kaela L; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated links between parent and child anxiety, and family process factors, over a 9 year period. Specifically, we examined the role of partner conflict, attachment security and parental autonomy granting in explaining changes in child, father, and mother anxiety symptoms. We utilized data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 661), from when target children were in first grade (6 years), fifth grade (10 years), and 15 years of age. We tested a longitudinal path model including both fathers and mothers, and found that the model was a good fit for the data. We also found that lower attachment security to fathers and a restriction of maternal autonomy granting predicted which children maintained anxiety into adolescence. Partner conflict explained the association between earlier and later parental anxiety, which is a novel finding in the literature. Together, these findings suggest that fathers play an important long-term role in child anxiety, alongside the role of mothers.

  3. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  4. Impact of child mortality and fertility preferences on fertility status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the effects of child mortality and fertility preference on fertility status in rural Ethiopia. Design: Case-referent where the cases were women with number of children ever born alive was less than five and controls were women with number of children ever born alive greater or equal to five.

  5. Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Schargrodsky, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    While most countries are committed to increasing access to safe water and thereby reducing child mortality, there is little consensus on how to actually improve water services. One important proposal under discussion is whether to privatize water provision. In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world,…

  6. Impact of the Boko Haram insurgency on the child's right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The article concludes by assessing how the Nigerian government has lived up to its obligations under international law to ensure the realisation of the child's right to education in the face of the insurgency in the North-eastern part of the ...

  7. Television's Child; The Impact of Television on Today's Children; What Parents Can Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norman S.

    Based on an extensive series of interviews with clinical psychiatrists and psychologists, educators, television executives, producers, performers, advertisers, parents, and children themselves, this book explores the effect of television on a child's values. It delves into the question of a relationship between violence on television and violent…

  8. Students' Evocative Impact on Teacher Instruction and Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona

    2015-01-01

    Classroom research has typically focused on the role of teaching practices and the quality of instruction in children's academic performance, motivation and adjustment--in other words, classroom interactions initiated by the teacher. The present article presents a model of classroom interactions initiated by the child, that is, the notion that a…

  9. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform on Teachers: The Case of "No Child Left Behind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason M.; Kovacs, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based reform is a trend affecting the educational systems of nations around the world, driven by desires to create educational systems suited to increasing economic productivity. In the USA, The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 includes goals of reducing achievement gaps and getting "highly qualified" teachers in all…

  10. Impact of Widowhood on Parent-Child Relations: Does Parents' Personality Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Manacy; Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated the extent to which the short-term effect of late life widowhood on parent-child relationships is moderated by 5 personality traits--Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experience--and how these interactive effects differ by gender. Data were from the Changing Lives of Older…

  11. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  12. The impact of child-resistant containers on the incidence of paraffin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest cause of accidental poisoning in the South African black paediatric population is paraffin ingestion. In this intervention study a specifically designed child-resistant container (CRG) was introduced to evaluate whether its use would decrease the incidence ofparaffin ingestion. CRCs were distributed to 20 000 ...

  13. Assessing the Impact of Conversational Overlap in Content on Child Language Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Elizabeth S.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Alarcon, Maria F.; Yannaco, Francis D.; Donnelly, Seamus

    2018-01-01

    When engaged in conversation, both parents and children tend to re-use words that their partner has just said. This study explored whether proportions of maternal and/or child utterances that overlapped in content with what their partner had just said contributed to growth in mean length of utterance (MLU), developmental sentence score, and…

  14. Child Maltreatment Reporting by Educational Personnel: Implications for Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krase, Kathryn Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    African American children are disproportionally overrepresented in the U.S. child protection system. Because educational personnel are a significant source of reports of suspected child maltreatment across the country and in all states, the present study examines the impact of these reports on racial disproportionality and disparity at the…

  15. Feasibility and Impact of Doctor-Nurse Task Delegation in Preventive Child Health Care in the Netherlands, a Controlled Before-After Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Janine Benjamins

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands a need is felt for more flexible Child Health Care services, both efficient and tailored to needs. We set up a study on impact and feasibility of task delegation to child health care nurses performing all regular checkups on children aged 2 months to 4 years. Abnormal findings were discussed with the attending child health care doctor. This article describes impact and feasibility of this task delegation from four viewpoints: competences of nurses; percentage of children assigned to the nurse; change in abnormal findings and referrals; experiences of professionals and parents.Two experiment teams and two control teams were compared before and after starting task delegation. Nurses in the experiment teams were trained to carry out regular checkups on healthy children. Assignment to the experiment schedule was a joint decision by doctor and nurse. Nursing competences were measured by means of questionnaires. Percentage of children assigned to the nurse and screening results of eyes, heart, hips, growth and development were extracted from the electronic health record. Difference in change was compared between experiment and control teams. Mann-Whitney tests and logistic generalized estimating equations were used to test for significance. Experiences of professionals and parents were evaluated through focus group interviews, which were subjected to a qualitative analysis.Nurses in the experiment regions showed improvement in medical screening skills. No difference in change was perceived in general nursing competences. In the experiment group, 69% of all children were assigned to the nurse. There were no significant differences in change in the percentages of abnormal findings or referrals in the experiment teams compared to the control teams, except for hips. Interviews showed that both doctors and nurses thought positively of the new working method, yet made some recommendations for improvements. Parents felt well-informed and

  16. Prevalence of Child Marriage and its Impact on the Fertility and Fertility Control Behaviors of Young Women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5

  17. Hemophilia in childhood: the impact of the disease on parent's participation in their child's education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane de Amorim Almeida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the limitations faced by the hemophiliac child, according to his/her parents, and how they deal with these limitations, and to verify how parents approach the problem of hemophilia with the child as well as their strategies for disciplining that child and their nonhemophiliac children. Methods: An exploratory descriptive research study with a quantitative approach carried out with 20 parents of hemophiliac children seen at the ambulatory of a medium size public hospital in the city of São Paulo. The data were collected by means of a structured interview, using a form with open-ended and closed questions. Rresults: All the parents (20; 100% reported talking to their children about hemophilia, especially as to the definition of the disease (19; 46,35% and the activities that should be avoided (eight; 19.50%. Most of them (17; 85% also reported talking about hemophilia with their other children. Eighteen parents (90% restricted participation in sports and physical activities for their hemophiliac child, including at school: 11 (55% prohibit participation in physical activities, and 12 (60% ban extracurricular activities. All the parents also reported raising the subject of their child’s hemophilia with the educational professionals at their child’s school. As to discipline, half of them (ten; 50% use different strategies for disciplining their hemophiliac and non-hemophiliac children. Cconclusions: All the parents are concerned with discussing the subject of hemophilia with the child, his/her siblings, and teachers at school, imposing limitations especially as to participation in sports and/or physical activities. Differences were noted as to the strategies used by the parents for the discipline of their hemophiliac and non-hemophiliac children.

  18. Assessing the Impact of U.S. Food Assistance Delivery Policies on Child Mortality in Northern Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nikulkov

    Full Text Available The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient country. The U.S.'s approach is exacerbated by a requirement that half of its transoceanic food shipments need to be sent on U.S.-flag vessels. We estimate the effect of these U.S. food assistance distribution policies on child mortality in northern Kenya by formulating and optimizing a supply chain model. In our model, monthly orders of transoceanic shipments and cash-based interventions are chosen to minimize child mortality subject to an annual budget constraint and to policy constraints on the allowable proportions of cash-based interventions and non-US-flag shipments. By varying the restrictiveness of these policy constraints, we assess the impact of possible changes in U.S. food aid policies on child mortality. The model includes an existing regression model that uses household survey data and geospatial data to forecast the mean mid-upper-arm circumference Z scores among children in a community, and allows food assistance to increase Z scores, and Z scores to influence mortality rates. We find that cash-based interventions are a much more powerful policy lever than the U.S.-flag vessel requirement: switching to cash-based interventions reduces child mortality from 4.4% to 3.7% (a 16.2% relative reduction in our model, whereas eliminating the U.S.-flag vessel restriction without increasing the use of cash-based interventions generates a relative reduction in child mortality of only 1.1%. The great majority of the gains achieved by cash-based interventions are due to their reduced cost, not their reduced delivery lead times; i.e., the reduction of shipping expenses allows for more food to be delivered

  19. Assessing the Impact of U.S. Food Assistance Delivery Policies on Child Mortality in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulkov, Alex; Barrett, Christopher B; Mude, Andrew G; Wein, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient country. The U.S.'s approach is exacerbated by a requirement that half of its transoceanic food shipments need to be sent on U.S.-flag vessels. We estimate the effect of these U.S. food assistance distribution policies on child mortality in northern Kenya by formulating and optimizing a supply chain model. In our model, monthly orders of transoceanic shipments and cash-based interventions are chosen to minimize child mortality subject to an annual budget constraint and to policy constraints on the allowable proportions of cash-based interventions and non-US-flag shipments. By varying the restrictiveness of these policy constraints, we assess the impact of possible changes in U.S. food aid policies on child mortality. The model includes an existing regression model that uses household survey data and geospatial data to forecast the mean mid-upper-arm circumference Z scores among children in a community, and allows food assistance to increase Z scores, and Z scores to influence mortality rates. We find that cash-based interventions are a much more powerful policy lever than the U.S.-flag vessel requirement: switching to cash-based interventions reduces child mortality from 4.4% to 3.7% (a 16.2% relative reduction) in our model, whereas eliminating the U.S.-flag vessel restriction without increasing the use of cash-based interventions generates a relative reduction in child mortality of only 1.1%. The great majority of the gains achieved by cash-based interventions are due to their reduced cost, not their reduced delivery lead times; i.e., the reduction of shipping expenses allows for more food to be delivered, which reduces

  20. The impact of natural disasters on child health and investments in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Liu, Jenny; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad

    2013-01-01

    There is growing concern that climate change will lead to more frequent natural disasters that may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health. In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80,000 children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters (EM-DAT). We find that exposure to a natural disaster in the past month increases the likelihood of acute illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory illness in children under 5 year by 9-18%. Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0.12-0.15 units, increases the likelihood of stunting and underweight by 7%, and reduces the likelihood of having full age-appropriate immunization coverage by nearly 18%. We also find that disasters' effects vary significantly by gender, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Employment and Perceived Stress: Their Impact on Children's Adjustment and Mother-Child Interaction in Young Divorced and Married Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of maternal employment, marital status, and perceived maternal stress on children's adjustment and mother-preschool child interaction in 104 married and 99 divorced families. Results indicated that maternal employment had little impact on these variables. Maternal stress, in form of divorce and daily maternal hassles, demonstrated…

  2. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  3. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p health outcome (r = -.33, p health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  4. The impact of internal displacement on child mortality in post-earthquake Haiti: a difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bradley; Halliday, Timothy J; Fan, Victoria Y

    2016-07-19

    The Haiti earthquake in 2010 resulted in 1.5 million internally displaced people (IDP), yet little is known about the impact of displacement on health. In this study, we estimate the impact of displacement on infant and child mortality and key health-behavior mechanisms. We employ a difference-in-differences (DID) design with coarsened exact matching (CEM) to ensure comparability among groups with different displacement status using the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The participants are 21,417 births reported by a nationally representative sample of 14,287 women aged 15-49. The main independent variables are household displacement status which includes households living in camps, IDP households (not in camps), and households not displaced. The main outcomes are infant and child mortality; health status (height-for-age, anemia); uptake of public health interventions (bed net use, spraying against mosquitoes, and vaccinations); and other conditions (hunger; cholera). Births from the camp households have higher infant mortality (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.15 to 4.75) and child mortality (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.10 to 5.00) than those in non-camp IDP households following the earthquake. These odds are higher despite better access to food, water, bed net use, mosquito spraying, and vaccines among camp households. IDP populations are heterogeneous and households that are displaced outside of camps may be self-selected or self-insured. Meanwhile, even households not displaced by a disaster may face challenges in access to basic necessities and health services. Efforts are needed to identify vulnerable populations to provide targeted assistance in post-disaster relief.

  5. The impact of parent-child interaction on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-02-04

    There is a vast amount of evidence from psychological studies that the amount of parent-child interaction affects the development of children's verbal skills and knowledge. However, despite the vast amount of literature, brain structural development associated with the amount of parent-child interaction has never been investigated. In the present human study, we used voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter density (rGMD) and examined cross-sectional correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and rGMD among 127 boys and 135 girls. We also assessed correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 106 boys and 102 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found negative effects of spending time with parents on rGMD in areas in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) via cross-sectional analyses as well as in the contingent areas of the right STG. We also confirmed positive effects of spending time with parents on the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. rGMD in partly overlapping or contingent areas of the right STG was negatively correlated with age and the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional analyses. Subsequent analyses revealed verbal parent-child interactions have similar effects on Verbal Comprehension scores and rGMD in the right STG in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These findings indicate that parent-child interactions affect the right STG, which may be associated with verbal skills. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352233-13$15.00/0.

  6. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determi...

  7. THE IMPACT OF EGO STATES OF PARENT, ADULT AND CHILD ON THE PROFESSIONAL CHOICE OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denitsa Alipieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article uses an empirical approach examining the role of ego-states in the choice of pedagogical professionals 174 students were involved in the study that aims to show the discrepancies of the states of Parent, Child and Adolescence for choice of speciality and future work. The study subjects were provided with a Transactional Analysis Questionnaire (TAQ, 2014 and Thomas – Killman Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI, 1974.

  8. Impact of war on child health in northern Syria: the experience of Médecins Sans Frontières.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiqari, Lana; Hoetjes, Maartje; Baxter, Louisa; Lenglet, Annick

    2018-03-01

    Few data are available to evaluate the impact of Syrian war on civilian population; to describe this impact on child health, this article uses data from Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Amsterdam's activities in Tal-Abyad and Kobane cities, northern Syria (2013-2016). Data were obtained from routine medical datasets and narrative reports, for out-patient clinics, immunisation, nutritional monitoring and assessments, and in-patient care, and were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Infections were the largest contributor to morbidity. The proportion of war on the health of children; • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF-OCA) has worked in northern Syria during different times since 2013. What is New • Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MSF's routine medical data and situtation reports show that one fifth of all consultations in children war, e.g. thalassemia.

  9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by increased fragility of various non-ossified tissues. It is usually ascertained due to abnormal skin texture, scarring complications, vascular fragility, or chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Sometimes, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome remains undetected until the patient, usually in the pediatric age, shows extensive or severe mucocutaneous injuries after only minor traumas. In this scenario, the misdiagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with child abuse is a possibility, as occasionally reported in the literature. Recently, more attention was posed by lay people between the possible association of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and bone fragility. Literature and personal experience show a strong association between Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, generalized joint hypermobility and reduced bone mass density in older children and adults, especially fertile women. The existence of a true increased risk of fracture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is still a matter of debate in children and adults with little and conflicting evidence. In case of suspected child abuse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is certainly on the differential for bruising, especially in EDS types with marked cutaneous and capillary involvement. In suspected child abuse cases, careful examination of the index case and her/his extended family is routine, as well as exclusion of other disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta. The hypothesis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as an alternative explanation for infantile fractures remains speculative. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Impact of socioeconomic and clinical factors on child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2010-11-01

    Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been increasingly assessed; however, few studies appraised the influence of socioeconomic status on COHRQoL in developing countries. This study assessed the relationship of COHRQoL with socioeconomic backgrounds and clinical factors. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of Santa Maria, a southern city in Brazil. Participants completed the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ(11-14)), their parents or guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status, and a dental examination provided information on the prevalence of caries, dental trauma and occlusion. The assessment of association used hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models. Higher impacts on COHRQoL were observed for children presenting with untreated dental caries (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07-1.35) and maxillary overjet (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.02-1.40). Socioeconomic factors also associated with COHRQoL; poorer scores were reported by children whose mothers have not completed primary education (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.17-1.44) and those with lower household income (RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.26). Poor socioeconomic standings and poor dental status have a negative impact on COHRQoL; reducing health inequalities may demand dental programmes and policies targeting deprived population.

  11. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N Al Dosari

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.

  12. The impact of the worldwide Millennium Development Goals campaign on maternal and under-five child mortality reduction: 'Where did the worldwide campaign work most effectively?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman

    2017-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990-2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub-Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as 'off-track', 'insufficient progress', or 'no progress' even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress.

  13. The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables, Social Support and Child Sex on Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES, of social support as perceived by mothers, and of their three-month-olds child's sex, on mother-infant and father-infant interaction. A total of 58 mothers and 52 fathers were observed interacting with their infants. Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed several significant differences, particularly regarding maternal behaviors. Mothers from the highest SES level both talked to and interpreted their infants' behavior more than did lowest SES mothers. Social support perceived as unsatisfactory was associated with a greater amount of touch and stimulation during mother-infant interaction and also more infant vocalization. Mothers and fathers tended to talk more to their same-sex infants, and fathers tended to kiss and caress their sons more than they did their daughters. These results suggest particularities in the mother-infant and fatherinfant interaction when the infant was three months old.

  14. From ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015: Significant changes and their impacts to aspiring organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y.; Wibisono, E.; Wahyudi, R. D.; Lio, Y.

    2017-11-01

    ISO 9001:2015 is the latest version of ISO Quality Management System standard that has been updated recently from ISO 9001:2008. It is necessary for all organizations that have implemented and been certified with ISO 9001:2008 to prepare the transition and upgrade their Quality Management System because the certification will expire by September 2018. This paper attempts to provide knowledge on the significant changes from ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015, what new requirements are added, and how they would impact the organizations. An exploratory and applied research was chosen as the research approach and aimed to explore what transition designs are needed to anticipate the changes as well as their impacts. The research applied a methodology of Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA) cycle into four organizations and their results were compared and discussed to explain the transition designs. Some qualitative methods such as observation and interview were used to collect the data. By addressing the new requirements, three transition designs that should be prepared are: (i) identifying needs from interested parties, (ii) analyzing internal and external factors of the organizations to formulate relevant strategies and quality objectives, and (iii) registering risks associated to business processes as well as organizational strategies.

  15. The Philani Mentor Mothers Intervention: Neighbourhood wide impact on child growth in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Hartley, Mary; le Roux, Ingrid; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not routine home visiting (by the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Project) influences the prevalence of stunted, wasted and underweight children in Cape Town peri-urban settlements. The study was a cross-sectional cohort in which weight and height measurements were collected for all children from 24 matched neighbourhoods; three years earlier 12 of these neighbourhoods were randomized to receive the home visiting intervention and 12 did not. The research took place at all households located within the 24 neighbourhoods in Khayelitsha and Mfuleni peri-urban settlements. Participants included 8715 children aged 0-6 years old (4694 intervention; 4021 control). A total of 41.3% of children were stunted, 3.1% were underweight and 1.4% were wasted. Children in the intervention group were significantly less likely to be underweight or severely underweight for age than children in the control group. While the rates of stunting were also significantly lower in intervention areas, the effect was not clinically significant, and no significant differences were found between the study arms on the prevalence of wasting. The Philani model is effective in the prevention and rehabilitation of underweight children. Philani could strengthen their intervention by focussing specifically on screening for child stunting in addition to underweight children. The results also suggests that efforts to address the long-term adverse effects of undernutrition require structural and economic transformation, in addition to socio-medical intervention.

  16. Do mother's and father's education condition the impact of parental divorce on child well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2014-03-01

    We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We argue that children of mothers with more years of education suffer less when their parents split up because better educated mothers may be better able to provide a safe and stable environment for their children after divorce. In addition, we argue that having a better educated father could either aggravate or reduce the effects of parental divorce. This is one of the first studies to simultaneously investigate the role of maternal, and paternal resources, and pre-divorce shared resources. Our analyses indicate that the effect of parental divorce on psychological well-being is reduced for better educated mothers and for families with more pre-divorce economic resources, but increased for better educated fathers. For academic test scores we find a protective effect of having a better educated father and higher pre-divorce social resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  18. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother about complementary food would significantly improve the nutritional status of the children in the intervention group compared to control. Meta-analyses were generated for change in weight and height by two methods. In the first instance, we pooled the results to get weighted mean difference (WMD which helps to pool studies with different units of measurement and that of different duration. A second meta-analysis was conducted to get a pooled estimate in terms of actual increase in weight (kg and length (cm in relation to the intervention, for input into the LiST model. Results After screening 3795 titles, we selected 17 studies for inclusion in the review. The included studies evaluated the impact of provision of complementary foods (±nutritional counseling and of nutritional counseling alone. Both these interventions were found to result in a significant increase in weight [WMD 0.34 SD, 95% CI 0.11 – 0.56 and 0.30 SD, 95 % CI 0.05-0.54 respectively and linear growth [WMD 0.26 SD, 95 % CI 0.08-0.43 and 0.21 SD, 95 % CI 0.01-0.41 respectively]. Pooled results for actual increase in weight in kilograms and length in centimeters showed that provision of appropriate complementary foods (±nutritional counseling resulted in an extra gain of 0.25kg (±0.18 in weight

  19. Web-based child pornography: The global impact of deterrence efforts and its consumption on mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M S

    2015-06-01

    Our study is the first to look at mobile device use for child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) consumption, and at the global impact of deterrence efforts by search providers. We used data from Google, Bing, and Yandex to assess how web searches for CSEM are being conducted, both at present and historically. Our findings show that the blocking efforts by Google and Microsoft have resulted in a 67% drop in the past year in web-based searches for CSEM. Additionally, our findings show that mobile devices are a substantial platform for web-based consumption of CSEM, with tablets and smartphones representing 32% of all queries associated with CSEM conducted on Bing. Further, our findings show that a major search engine not located in the United States, Yandex, did not undertake blocking efforts similar to those implemented by Google and Microsoft and has seen no commensurate drop in CSEM searches and continues to profit from ad revenue on these queries. While the efforts by Google and Microsoft have had a deterrence effect in the United States, searchers from Russia and other locations where child pornography possession is not criminalized have continued to use these services. Additionally, the same lax enforcement environment has allowed searchers from the United States to utilize Yandex with little fear of detection or referral to United States law enforcement from the Russian authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Touchpoints' by nurses: impact on maternal representations, child development, quality of mother-infant interaction, and mothers' perception of the quality of relationships with nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hélia

    2016-05-09

    To investigate the effect of implementing the Touchpoints methodology by nurses in the following variables: quality of mother-infant interaction; infant development; maternal representations of child temperament and mothers' perception of the quality of relationship with nurses. Quasi-experimental longitudinal study, including 86 child-mother dyads distributed equally for: Group with Intervention (GI) (n=43), Group without Intervention (GWI) (n=43). These groups belonged to paired samples according to the following criteria: maternal age; socio-economic class; family structure; child health; parents' physical or psychological health; twins; family's nationality; risk during pregnancy; baby APGAR. Paired samples with the same routine visits allowed comparing the impact of Touchpoints intervention on the above mentioned variables. The monitoring of the two groups took place in a period of between 11 and 24 months of children's life (four moments of assessment), being held two Touchpoints sessions in the GI at 12 and 18 months. Two Touchpoints interventions sessions were applied in the GI as follows: the first time, at 12 months; the second time, at 24 months, child age. The instruments used for data collection were: Schedule of Growing Skills II (SGS II); CARE-Index; Temperament Scale; Parent-Caregiver Relationship Scale - parents' version. Infant Locomotor development (p=.036) and maternal representations about the child and motherhood (Z=5.737; p=.019) improved in the GI. No significant results were found for mother-infant interaction in this direct comparison. Nevertheless, findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and infant cooperative behaviour increased from 12 to 24 months in the GI [t(41)=4.513; p<.001], whereas it decreased in the GWI (from 8.62 at 12 months to 8.40 at 24 months). The means of mothers' perceptions of Trust/Caring towards nurses in the GI were higher than in GWI after six months of the Touchpoints intervention [t(84)=2.146; p<.001; M_GI=34

  1. The Impact of Integrated Infant and Young Child Feeding and Micronutrient Powder Intervention on Feeding Practices and Anemia in Children Aged 6-23 Months in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Reerink, Ietje; Tucker Brown, Amal; Gnegne, Smaila; Ramalanjaona, Noelimanjaka; Nanama, Simeon; Duggan, Christopher P; Garg, Aashima

    2017-06-07

    This study assesses the impact of an integrated infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and micronutrient powder (MNP) intervention on children's risk of anemia and IYCF practices in Madagascar. Quantitative baseline and endline surveys were conducted in representative households with children 6-23 months from two districts, where an 18-month IYCF-MNP intervention was implemented. Relative risks comparing children's risk of anemia and maternal IYCF knowledge and practices at baseline versus endline, and also at endline among MNP-users versus non-users were estimated using log-binomial regression models. 372 and 475 children aged 6-23 months were assessed at baseline and endline respectively. Prevalence of anemia fell from 75.3% to 64.9% from baseline to endline ( p = 0.002); the reduction in the risk of anemia remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (ARR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.78, 0.95), p = 0.003). In endline assessments, 229 out of 474 (48.3%) of children had consumed MNPs. MNP-users had a lower risk of anemia (ARR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.74, 0.99), p = 0.04) than non-users, after controlling for child's dietary diversity and morbidity, maternal counseling by community-health-workers, and sociodemographic characteristics. Mothers interviewed at endline also had greater nutrition knowledge and were more likely to feed their children ≥4 food groups (ARR (95% CI): 2.92 (2.24, 3.80), p children's consumption of micronutrients and reducing risk of anemia. The addition of MNP does not negatively impact, and may improve, IYCF practices.

  2. Thresholds and criteria for evaluating and communicating impact significance in environmental statements: 'See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation and communication of the significance of environmental effects remains a critical yet poorly understood component of EIA theory and practice. Following a conceptual overview of the generic dimensions of impact significance in EIA, this paper reports upon the findings of an empirical study of recent environmental impact statements that considers the treatment of significance for impacts concerning landscape ('see no evil') and noise ('hear no evil'), focussing specifically upon the evaluation and communication of impact significance ('speak no evil') in UK practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria and thresholds, including the development of a typology of approaches applied within the context of noise and landscape/visual impacts. Following a broader discussion of issues surrounding the formulation, application and interpretation of significance criteria, conclusions and recommendations relevant to wider EIA practice are suggested

  3. The Stress Response and Adolescents’ Adjustment: The Impact of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents’ behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents’ physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income urban adolescents (51.8% girls). Findings suggested that heightened reactivity as indicated by cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure was associated with increased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. However, these findings were context dependent such that, for youth high in self-reported child maltreatment, heightened reactivity was associated with decreased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. Results highlight the importance of considering how context may condition the effect of stress reactivity on functioning during adolescence. PMID:22359225

  4. Measles Vaccination in the Presence or Absence of Maternal Measles Antibody: Impact on Child Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L.; Garly, May-Lill; Andersen, Andreas; Fisker, Ane B.; Claesson, Mogens H.; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C.; Benn, Christine S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. Methods. To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data from 2 previously published randomized trials of a 2-dose schedule with MV given at 4–6 months and at 9 months of age. In both trials antibody levels had been measured before early measles vaccination. Results. In trial I (1993–1995), the mortality rate was 0.0 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0–.52). In trial II (2003–2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal measles antibody and 14.5 per 1000 person-years without measles antibody (MRR, 0.29; 95% CI, .09–.91). Possible confounding factors did not explain the difference. In a combined analysis, children who had measles antibody detected when they received their first dose of MV at 4–6 months of age had lower mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07–.64) between 4–6 months and 5 years. Conclusions. Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4–6 months (earlier than currently recommended) and a booster dose at 9–12 months of age. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. PMID:24829213

  5. Providers perspectives on self-regulation impact their use of responsive feeding practices in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Speirs, Katherine E; Williams, Natalie A; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent A; Hatton-Bowers, Holly

    2017-11-01

    Supporting children's self-regulation in eating through caregivers' practice of responsive feeding is paramount to obesity prevention, and while much attention has been given to supporting children's self-regulation in eating through parents' responsive feeding practices in the home setting, little attention has been given to this issue in childcare settings. This qualitative study examines childcare providers' perspectives on using responsive feeding practices with young children (2-5years). Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers until saturation was reached. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The final sample included 18 providers who were employed full-time in Head Start or state-licensed center-based childcare programs, cared for children (2-5y), and were directly responsible for serving meals and snacks. Providers were primarily (67%) employed in childcare programs that served children from low-income families and received reimbursement for meals and snacks from the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program. Three factors emerged that shaped childcare providers' experiences using responsive feeding practices: the providers' perspectives about whether or not young children can self-regulate food intake, their understanding of Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) portion size regulations, and the availability of food at the center where they worked. Future research should examine how childcare providers' understanding of children's ability to self-regulate their food intake, the appropriate use of the CACFP regulations in relationship to serving sizes, and having food available to offer seconds promotes providers' use of responsive feeding practices in center-based childcare programs and children's dietary behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  7. The impact of an educational program on recognition, treatment and report of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Gatto, Antonio; Manganelli, Nunzia Pia; Ianniello, Francesca; Amodeo, Maria Elisa; Amato, Maria; Giardino, Ida; Chiaretti, Antonio

    2017-08-14

    Pediatricians play a crucial role in the identification and management of child abuse and neglect (CAN) but they often don't have a formal specialized training. We analysed retrospectively data about patients, 0 - 18 years of age, victims of CAN between 1 April 2005 and 30 April 2015. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary educational program, "CAN: prevention strategies, individuation and treatment", on the knowledge, case recognition, treatment and follow-up of physicians of Gemelli University Hospital in Rome, regarding physical, sexual abuse and neglect. This program, in 3 different editions biannually, respectively in May-July 2010, November-January 2012 and February-May 2014, was based on 4 sessions, each one of 2 days. Considering the number of victims of CAN between 2005 and 2015 we observed 66 cases of maltreatment. We divided the study population in 2 groups: group A, before the educational programs, patients evaluated from 1 April 2005 to 30 July 2010; group B, after the educational program from 1 August 2010 to 30 April 2015. We observed 23 children in group A and 43 children in group B with an improvement of 87%. Analyzing our data about sex, nationality, type of perpetrators, we found that: 37/66 (56%) of children were females compared to 29/66 (44%) males; 41/66 (62%) of children came from Italy compared to 25/66 (38%) of foreign children; 52/66 (79%) of the perpetrators of abuse were parents or family members compared to acquaintances 10/66 (15%) and to strangers 4/66 (6%). Considering the prevalence of CAN, the need to develop clinically competent clinicians and the improving of residency education in child maltreatment is imperative. Improving the clinical skills of pediatricians to identify and evaluate CAN may lead to reduce morbidity and mortality of these children.

  8. Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Simon J; Kovats, R Sari; Chalabi, Zaid

    2011-12-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that better quantify the potential impacts of climate change on population health. We developed a model for estimating future undernutrition that accounts for food and nonfood (socioeconomic) causes and can be linked to available regional scenario data. We estimated child stunting attributable to climate change in five regions in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2050. We used current national food availability and undernutrition data to parameterize and validate a global model, using a process-driven approach based on estimations of the physiological relationship between a lack of food and stunting. We estimated stunting in 2050 using published modeled national calorie availability under two climate scenarios and a reference scenario (no climate change). We estimated that climate change will lead to a relative increase in moderate stunting of 1-29% in 2050 compared with a future without climate change. Climate change will have a greater impact on rates of severe stunting, which we estimated will increase by 23% (central SSA) to 62% (South Asia). Climate change is likely to impair future efforts to reduce child malnutrition in South Asia and SSA, even when economic growth is taken into account. Our model suggests that to reduce and prevent future undernutrition, it is necessary to both increase food access and improve socioeconomic conditions, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  10. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  11. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.

  12. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011) will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre-post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child services and on the cost of scaling up m-health technology for

  13. Evaluating the impact of a community developed collaborative project for the prevention of early childhood caries: the Healthy Smile Happy Child project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Edwards, Jeanette M; Brothwell, Douglas J; Yakiwchuk, Carol A; Bertone, Mary F; Mellon, Bernadette; Ward, Jennifer; Ellis, Marion; Hai-Santiago, Khalida; Lawrence, Herenia P; Moffatt, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) project, a community-developed initiative promoting early childhood oral health in Manitoba, Canada. Specific aims were to assess improvements in caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours relating to early childhood oral health, and the burden of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). A serial cross-sectional study design was selected to contrast findings following the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) campaign in four communities with the previous baseline data. One community was a remote First Nation in northern Manitoba and another was a rural First Nation in southern Manitoba. The other two communities were urban centres, one of which was located in northern Manitoba. A community-development approach was adopted for the project to foster community solutions to address ECC. Goals of the HSHC program were to promote the project in each community, use existing community-based programs and services to deliver the oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities, and recruit and train natural leaders to assist in program development and to deliver the ECC prevention program. The HSHC coordinator worked with communities to develop a comprehensive list of potential strategies to address ECC. Numerous activities occurred in each community to engage members and increase their knowledge of early childhood oral health and ultimately lead them to adopt preventive oral health practices for their young children. Children under 71 months of age and their primary caregivers participated in this follow-up study. A -value ≤0.05 was statistically significant. 319 children (mean age 38.2±18.6 months) and their primary caregivers participated. Significant improvements in caregiver knowledge and attitudes were observed following the HSHC campaign, including that baby teeth are important (98.8%), that decay involving primary teeth can impact on health (94.3%), and the importance of a dental

  14. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-05-04

    In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer

  15. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  16. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  17. The Impact of Maternal, Child, and Family Characteristics on the Daily Well-Being and Parenting Experiences of Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Megan M.; Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Ekas, Naomi V.

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized a daily diaries method to explore the global factors that impact daily general affect and daily parenting interactions of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Eighty-three mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 3 and 13 years completed global assessments of maternal depressive…

  18. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  19. Providing care to a child with cancer: a longitudinal study on the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress during the first year after diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suikers, Esther; Tissing, Wim J.E.; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress on the functioning of primary caregivers of children with cancer during the first year after a child's cancer diagnosis. Methods Primary caregivers (N = 95, 100% mother, 86% response rate) of consecutive newly

  20. The Impact of Visual Communication on the Intersubjective Development of Early Parent?Child Interaction with 18- to 24-Month-Old Deaf Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Gerrit; Devise, Isabel; Jacquet, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that examined the impact of visual communication on the quality of the early interaction between deaf and hearing mothers and fathers and their deaf children aged between 18 and 24 months. Three communication mode groups of parent?deaf child dyads that differed by the use of signing and visual?tactile communication…

  1. The Impact of Multiple Types of Child Maltreatment on Subsequent Risk Behaviors among Women during the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Yoona; Ozonoff, Al; Van Wert, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of child maltreatment, independently and collectively, impact a wide range of risk behaviors that fall into three domains: sexual risk behaviors, delinquency, and suicidality. Cumulative classification and Expanded Hierarchical Type (EHT) classification approaches were used to…

  2. Parents' leisure: the impact of raising a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Deborah O'Mullan; Krishnagiri, Sheama

    2005-01-01

    A healthy and productive life depends upon the balance between work, leisure, and activities of daily living. Gaining or regaining that balance is a core concept within occupational therapy. Raising a child with special needs is one factor that challenges parents in achieving a balance. The purpose of this research was to describe factors that affect the leisure occupations of these parents. A qualitative approach was used in which in-depth interviews and the adapted Barth Time Construction were administered to four married couples that were raising children with Down syndrome who were between seven and nine years of age. Data was examined through content analysis. Results indicated that the parents of children with Down syndrome had limitations in time available for leisure, changes in types of leisure engaged in, and an increase in planning for leisure activities. Despite overall satisfaction with the manner in which they allocated their time, parents frequently noted the potential benefits of incorporating more leisure into their daily lives. Limitations of the study include type and size of sample.

  3. The impact of adverse child and adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Paulson, Robert I; Green, Carla A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of adverse childhood experiences and adverse adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illnesses. As part of a mixed-methods study of recovery from serious mental illnesses, we interviewed and administered questionnaires to 177 members of a not-for-profit health plan over a 2-year period. Participants had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder. Data for analyses came from standardized self-reported measures; outcomes included recovery, functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Adverse events in childhood and adulthood were evaluated as predictors. Child and adult exposures to adverse experiences were high, at 91% and 82%, respectively. Cumulative lifetime exposure to adverse experiences (childhood plus adult experiences) was 94%. In linear regression analyses, adverse adult experiences were more important predictors of outcomes than adverse childhood experiences. Adult experiences were associated with lower recovery scores, quality of life, mental and physical functioning and social functioning and greater psychiatric symptoms. Emotional neglect in adulthood was associated with lower recovery scores. Early and repeated exposure to adverse events was common in this sample of people with serious mental illnesses. Adverse adult experiences were stronger predictors of worse functioning and lower recovery levels than were childhood experiences. Focusing clinical attention on adult experiences of adverse or traumatic events may result in greater benefit than focusing on childhood experiences alone. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  5. Finding of No Significant Impact for Porposed Replacement of Senior Officers Quarters Project, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-08

    renovation from the four existing units would nearly equal tbe cost of reconstructing new lll’lils. No Action Alternative: tinder the11o action...cumulative impacts." 4.10 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN-TERM USES AND ENHANCEMENT OF LONG- TERM PRODUCTIVITY Preferred Action: Implementation of the preferred...Indirect and Cumulative Impacts ........................................................................ 24 3.10 Relationship between Short-Term Uses

  6. 78 FR 29201 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US LP Ethane Pipeline Project SUMMARY: The purpose of this... Impact on the proposed Vantage Pipeline US LP Ethane Pipeline Project. Under E.O. 13337, the Secretary of... petroleum, petroleum products, or other non-gaseous fuels to or from a foreign country. Vantage Pipeline US...

  7. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  8. Interfractional variation in bladder volume and its impact on cervical cancer radiotherapy: Clinical significance of portable bladder scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huanli; Jin, Fu; Yang, Dingyi; Wang, Ying; Li, Chao; Guo, Mingfang; Ran, Xueqi; Liu, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Yongzhong, E-mail: jfazj@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chongqing Cancer Institute, No. 181, Han Yu Road, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: A constant bladder volume (BV) is essential to direct the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors with precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in BV and their impact on cervical cancer RT and to assess the clinical significance of a portable bladder scanner (BS) in achieving a constant BV. Methods: A standard bladder phantom (133 ml) and measurements of actual urine volume were both used as benchmarks to evaluate the accuracy of the BS. Comparisons of BS with computed tomography (CT), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and an ultrasound diagnostic device (iU22) were made. Twenty-two consecutive patients with cervical cancer treated with external beam radical RT were divided into an experimental group (13 patients) and a control group (9 patients). In the experimental group, the BV was measured multiple times by BS pre-RT until it was consistent with that found by planning CT. Then a CBCT was performed. The BV was measured again immediately post-RT, after which the patient’s urine was collected and recorded. In the control group, CBCT only was performed pre-RT. Interfractional changes in BV and their impact on cervical cancer RT were investigated in both groups. The time of bladder filling was also recorded and analyzed. Results: In measuring the volume of the standard bladder phantom, the BS deviated by 1.4% in accuracy. The difference between the measurements of the BS and the iU22 had no statistical significance (linear correlation coefficient 0.96, P < 0.05). The BV measured by the BS was strongly correlated with the actual urine volume (R = 0.95, P < 0.05), planning CT (R = 0.95, P < 0.05), or CBCT (R = 0.91, P < 0.05). Compared with the BV at the time of CT, its value changed by −36.1% [1 SD (standard deviation) 42.3%; range, −79.1%–29.4%] in the control group, and 5.2% (1 SD 21.5%; range, −13.3%–22.1%) in the experimental group during treatment. The change in BV affected the target position in the superior–inferior (SI) direction

  9. The impact of metabolic syndrome on child weight outcomes in pediatric obesity program for Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are three to five times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Given the long term consequences of MetS, the growing number of children meeting criteria for MetS is concerning. In order to determine the impact of MetS on pediatric wei...

  10. The Impact of Child Labor and School Dropout on Human Capital: Gender Differences in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie

    This chapter, Chapter 2 in "the Economics of Gender in Mexico," uses retrospective household survey data from Mexico to assess the long-term impacts of school dropout and of working early in life, in terms of adult labor market returns. Through these data, it is possible to link adult wages to the ages at which individuals started…

  11. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  12. Designing programs to improve diets for maternal and child health: estimating costs and potential dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, William A; Rosettie, Katherine L; Kranz, Sarah; Danaei, Goodarz; Webb, Patrick; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-05-01

    Improving maternal and child nutrition in resource-poor settings requires effective use of limited resources, but priority-setting is constrained by limited information about program costs and impacts, especially for interventions designed to improve diet quality. This study utilized a mixed methods approach to identify, describe and estimate the potential costs and impacts on child dietary intake of 12 nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. These potential interventions included conditional livestock and cash transfers, media and education, complementary food processing and sales, household production and food pricing programs. Components and costs of each program were identified through a novel participatory process of expert regional consultation followed by validation and calibration from literature searches and comparison with actual budgets. Impacts on child diets were determined by estimating of the magnitude of economic mechanisms for dietary change, comprehensive reviews of evaluations and effectiveness for similar programs, and demographic data on each country. Across the 12 programs, total cost per child reached (net present value, purchasing power parity adjusted) ranged very widely: from 0.58 to 2650 USD/year among five programs in Ethiopia; 2.62 to 1919 USD/year among four programs in Nigeria; and 27 to 586 USD/year among three programs in India. When impacts were assessed, the largest dietary improvements were for iron and zinc intakes from a complementary food production program in Ethiopia (increases of 17.7 mg iron/child/day and 7.4 mg zinc/child/day), vitamin A intake from a household animal and horticulture production program in Nigeria (335 RAE/child/day), and animal protein intake from a complementary food processing program in Nigeria (20.0 g/child/day). These results add substantial value to the limited literature on the costs and dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive interventions targeting children in resource

  13. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2016-09-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate "single" on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child's treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child's diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child's diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child's siblings had gotten worse since their child's diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  14. Impact of caring for a child with cancer on single parents compared with parents from two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Impact of School-Based Child Centered Play Therapy on Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, and Teacher-Child Relationship Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pedro J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) with academically at-risk 1st graders. In this quasi-experimental design, twenty-one 1st grade students were assigned to the experimental group and 20 students were assigned to the no treatment control group. The children in the experimental group received two 30 minute…

  16. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil: The Evaluation of Impacts as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Anna R; Del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-06-01

    Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children's health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children's health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.

  17. Parameter study for child injury mitigation in near-side impacts through FE simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marianne; Pipkorn, Bengt; Lövsund, Per

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crash-related car parameters on head and chest injury measures for 3- and 12-year-old children in near-side impacts. The evaluation was made using a model of a complete passenger car that was impacted laterally by a barrier. The car model was validated in 2 crash conditions: the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the US New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) side impact tests. The Small Side Impact Dummy (SID-IIs) and the human body model 3 (HBM3) (Total HUman Model for Safety [THUMS] 3-year-old) finite element models were used for the parametric investigation (HBM3 on a booster). The car parameters were as follows: vehicle mass, side impact structure stiffness, a head air bag, a thorax-pelvis air bag, and a seat belt with pretensioner. The studied dependent variables were as follows: resultant head linear acceleration, resultant head rotational acceleration, chest viscous criterion, rib deflection, and relative velocity at head impact. The chest measurements were only considered for the SID-IIs. The head air bag had the greatest effect on the head measurements for both of the occupant models. On average, it reduced the peak head linear acceleration by 54 g for the HBM3 and 78 g for the SID-IIs. The seat belt had the second greatest effect on the head measurements; the peak head linear accelerations were reduced on average by 39 g (HBM3) and 44 g (SID-IIs). The high stiffness side structure increased the SID-IIs' head acceleration, whereas it had marginal effect on the HBM3. The vehicle mass had a marginal effect on SID-IIs' head accelerations, whereas the lower vehicle mass caused 18 g higher head acceleration for HBM3 and the greatest rotational acceleration. The thorax-pelvis air bag, vehicle mass, and seat belt pretensioner affected the chest measurements the most. The presence of a thorax-pelvis air bag, high vehicle mass, and a seat belt pretensioner all reduced the chest viscous criterion

  18. Inscriptions of violence: societal and medical neglect of child abuse--impact on life and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise

    2008-03-01

    A sickness history from General Practice will be unfolded with regard to its implicit lived meanings. This experiential matrix will be analyzed with regard to its medico-theoretical aspects. The analysis is grounded in a phenomenology of the body. The patient Katherine Kaplan lends a particular portrait to the dynamics that are enacted in the interface between socially silenced domestic violence and the theoretical assumptions of human health as these inform the clinical practice of health care. By applying an understanding of sickness that transcends the mind-body split, a concealed and complex logic emerges. This logic is embedded in a nexus of the impact of childhood abuse experience and the medical disinterest in subjective experiences and their impact on selfhood and health. Its core is twofold: the violation of embodiment resulting from intra-familial abuse and existential threat, and the embodiment of violation resulting from social rules and the theoretically blinded medical gaze. A considerable medical investment, apparently conducted in a correct and consistent manner as to diagnostic and therapeutic measures, results in the complete incapacitation of a young physician.

  19. Two food-assisted maternal and child health nutrition programs helped mitigate the impact of economic hardship on child stunting in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Shannon; Maluccio, John A; Myers, Caitlin K; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Rigorous evaluations of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs are stymied by the ethics of randomizing recipients to a control treatment. Using nonexperimental matching methods, we evaluated the effect of 2 such programs on child linear growth in Haiti. The 2 well-implemented programs offered the same services (food assistance, behavior change communication, and preventive health services) to pregnant and lactating women and young children. They differed in that one (the preventive program) used blanket targeting of all children 6-23 mo, whereas the other (the recuperative program) targeted underweight (weight-for-age Z score effects on height-for-age Z scores (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ growth in a time of deteriorating economic circumstances.

  20. The cost and impact of the interim federal health program cuts on child refugees in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea; Caudarella, Alexander; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Chan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    On June 30, 2012, Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) funding was cut for refugee claimant healthcare. The potential financial and healthcare impacts of these cuts on refugee claimants are unknown. We conducted a one-year retrospective chart review spanning 6 months before and after IFHP funding cuts at The Hospital for Sick Children, a tertiary care children's hospital in Toronto. We analyzed emergency room visits characteristics, admission rates, reasons for admission, and financial records including billing from Medavie Blue Cross. There were 173 refugee children visits to the emergency room in the six months before and 142 visits in the six months after funding cuts. The total amount billed to the IFHP program during the one-year of this study was $131,615. Prior to the IFHP cuts, 46% of the total emergency room bills were paid by IFHP compared to 7% after the cuts (pinstitution in the country increased.

  1. The economic impact of work and family issues: child care satisfaction and financial considerations of employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poms, Laura Wheeler; Botsford, Whitney E; Kaplan, Seth A; Buffardi, Louis C; O'Brien, Alison S

    2009-10-01

    This article introduces the role of financial considerations into work-family research by considering the costs and benefits of employed mothers' child care satisfaction. Data from 2 samples offer empirical support for the addition of a fourth factor to a current measure of child care satisfaction so that the measure reflects mothers' satisfaction not only with caregiver attentiveness, communication, and dependability but also with child care-related financial considerations. This article also discusses relationships between child care satisfaction and work-family conflict and job satisfaction for this population. The results of this study provide both organizations and child care providers with a broader picture of the concerns that employed mothers face as they search for reliable, affordable child care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of School Design and Arrangement on Learning Experiences: A Case Study of an Architecturally Significant Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Deirdre Lyne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of architectural design and arrangement on the learning experiences of students. Specifically, it examined how school design and arrangement foster interactions and relationships among students and adults relevant to integral learning experiences. This case study was limited to the breadth of knowledge…

  3. Revisiting the child health-wealth nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Adnan M S

    2016-12-01

    The causal link between a household's economic standing and child health is known to suffer from endogeneity. While past studies have exemplified the causal link to be small, albeit statistically significant, this paper aims to estimate the causal effect to investigate whether the effect of income after controlling for the endogeneity remains small in the long run. By correcting for the bias, and knowing the bias direction, one can also infer about the underlying backward effect. This paper uses an instrument variables two-stage-least-squares estimation on the Young Lives 2009 cross-sectional dataset from Andhra Pradesh, India, to understand the aforementioned relationship. The selected measure of household economic standing differentially affects the estimation. There is significant positive effect of both short-run household expenditure and long-run household wealth on child stunting, with the latter having a larger impact. The backward link running from child health to household income is likely an inverse association in our sample with lower child health inducing higher earnings. While higher average community education improved child health, increased community entertainment expenditure is found to have a negative effect. While policies catered towards improving household wealth will decrease child stunting in the long run, maternal education and the community play an equally reinforcing role in improving child health and are perhaps faster routes to achieving the goal of better child health in the short run.

  4. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. It's not as simple as it sounds: Problems and solutions in accessing and using administrative child welfare data for evaluating the impact of early childhood interventions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L.; Ayoub, Catherine; Dym Bartlett, Jessica; Furrer, Carrie; Von Ende, Adam; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Klevens, Joanne; Nygren, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in using administrative data collected by state child welfare agencies as a source of information for research and evaluation. The challenges of obtaining access to and using these data, however, have not been well documented. This study describes the processes used to access child welfare records in six different states and the approach to combining and using the information gathered to evaluate the impact of the Early Head Start program on children's involvement with the child welfare system from birth through age eleven. We provide “lessons learned” for researchers who are attempting to use this information, including being prepared for long delays in access to information, the need for deep understanding of how child welfare agencies record and code information, and for considerable data management work for translating agency records into analysis-ready datasets. While accessing and using this information is not easy, and the data have a number of limitations, we suggest that the benefits can outweigh the challenges and that these records can be a useful source of information for policy-relevant child welfare research. PMID:26744551

  6. The Impact of Family Engagement and Child Welfare Services on Maltreatment Re-reports and Substantiated Re-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Tamara; Zhang, Saijun

    2017-08-01

    Despite decades of debate about the most effective ways to intervene with families reported to child protective services (CPS), little evidence exists regarding the types of services or approach that reduce children's risk of additional maltreatment. The current study used data collected during a statewide experimental evaluation of CPS to examine the impact of numerous service variables, family engagement, and family characteristics on the risk of maltreatment re-reports and substantiated re-reports among families initially reported for neglect and risk of harm. The sample included 4,868 families with screened-in reports that were randomly assigned to receive either an investigation or an assessment. The results of the Cox regression analyses found that service duration, intensity, and breadth were unrelated to maltreatment re-report or substantiated re-reports, but caseworker ratings of the service-need match were associated with both. The provision of domestic violence services was related to decreased risk of maltreatment re-reports. Increased levels of family engagement were associated with lowered risk of both maltreatment re-reports and substantiated re-reports. Once the effects of services, engagement, and family characteristics were taken into account, CPS response pathway (investigation or assessment) had no relationship to maltreatment re-reports or substantiated re-reports.

  7. Impact of caregiver incentives on child health: Evidence from an experiment with Anganwadi workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Masters, William A

    2017-09-01

    This paper tests the effectiveness of performance pay and bonuses among government childcare workers in India. In a controlled study of 160 ICDS centers serving over 4000 children, we randomly assign workers to either fixed bonuses or payments based on the nutritional status of children in their care, and also collect data from a control group receiving only standard salaries. In all three study arms mothers receive nutrition information. We find that performance pay reduces underweight prevalence by about 5 percentage points over 3 months, and height improves by about one centimeter. Impacts on weight continue when incentives are renewed and return to parallel trends thereafter. Fixed bonuses are less expensive but lead to smaller and less precisely estimated effects than performance pay, especially for children near malnutrition thresholds. Both treatments improve worker effort and communication with mothers, who in turn feed a more calorific diet to children at home. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Deployment on Parental, Family and Child Adjustment in Military Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Aralis, Hilary; Sinclair, Maegan; Kiff, Cara; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Mustillo, Sarah; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2016-12-01

    Since 9/11, military service in the United States has been characterized by wartime deployments and reintegration challenges that contribute to a context of stress for military families. Research indicates the negative impact of wartime deployment on the well being of service members, military spouses, and children. Yet, few studies have considered how parental deployments may affect adjustment in young children and their families. Using deployment records and parent-reported measures from primary caregiving (N = 680) and military (n = 310) parents, we examined the influence of deployment on adjustment in military families with children ages 0-10 years. Greater deployment exposure was related to impaired family functioning and marital instability. Parental depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with impairments in social emotional adjustment in young children, increased anxiety in early childhood, and adjustment problems in school-age children. Conversely, parental sensitivity was associated with improved social and emotional outcomes across childhood. These findings provide guidance to developing preventive approaches for military families with young children.

  9. The cost and impact of the interim federal health program cuts on child refugees in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Evans

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: On June 30, 2012, Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP funding was cut for refugee claimant healthcare. The potential financial and healthcare impacts of these cuts on refugee claimants are unknown. METHODS: We conducted a one-year retrospective chart review spanning 6 months before and after IFHP funding cuts at The Hospital for Sick Children, a tertiary care children's hospital in Toronto. We analyzed emergency room visits characteristics, admission rates, reasons for admission, and financial records including billing from Medavie Blue Cross. RESULTS: There were 173 refugee children visits to the emergency room in the six months before and 142 visits in the six months after funding cuts. The total amount billed to the IFHP program during the one-year of this study was $131,615. Prior to the IFHP cuts, 46% of the total emergency room bills were paid by IFHP compared to 7% after the cuts (p<0.001. INTERPRETATION: After the cuts to the IFHP, The Hospital for Sick Children was unable to obtain federal health coverage for the vast majority of refugee claimant children registered under the IFHP. This preliminary analysis showed that post-IFHP cuts healthcare costs at the largest tertiary pediatric institution in the country increased.

  10. Environmental Assessment with Finding of No Significant Impact (EA/FONSI) for New Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    communities. The major compositional trend of the vegetation over time is toward an increased density of conifers , especially in the Montane zone...important plant or animal species; interfered substantially with wildlife movement or reproductive behavior; resulted in a substantial infusion of...with wildlife movement or reproductive behavior. The MAFT site is adjacent to know PMJM habitat. Potential impacts to vegetation would not be

  11. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  12. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs

  13. Significant clinical impact and prognostic stratification provided by FDG-PET in the staging of oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, Cuong P.; Demitriou, Helen; Thompson, Anne; Williams, David; Thomas, Robert J.S.; Weih, LeAnn; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical impact of FDG-PET in staging oesophageal cancer and whether this information improves prognostic stratification. Impact was based on comparison of a prospectively recorded pre-PET plan with post-PET treatment in 68 consecutive patients undergoing primary staging. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. FDG-PET findings impacted on the management of 27/68 patients (40%): in 12 therapy was changed from curative to palliative and in three from palliative to curative, while in 12 other patients there was a change in the treatment modality or delivery but not in the treatment intent. The median survival was 21 months, with post-PET stage and treatment intent both strongly associated with survival (p<0.001). Conventional stage was not able to clearly stratify this population. The use of FDG-PET for primary staging of oesophageal cancer changed the clinical management of more than one-third of patients and provided superior prognostic stratification compared with conventional investigations. (orig.)

  14. Child slavery and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Hill, R.J.; Hania, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Child slavery and child labour deny children their God-given dignity and freedom, and their right to education. Catholic Social Teaching is unequivocal in resolute condemnation of child slavery and child labour, in all of their forms.

  15. Impact of Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy on Child Nutritional Status in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Saima, Umme; Goni, Md Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between maternal household decision-making autonomy and children's nutritional status using data from 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses are restricted to 2056 currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years who had at least 1 birth 5 years preceding the survey. Theoretically relevant predictors of children's nutritional status including maternal autonomy are analyzed to identify factors significantly associated with children's nutritional status using stepwise logistic regression. Results indicate that 34.8% children are stunted, 16.1% are wasted, and 45.9% children are underweight. Children whose mothers participated in making all household decisions are 15%, 16%, and 32% significantly less likely to be stunted (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.98), underweight (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98), and wasted (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.52-0.90), respectively, than mothers who did not participate in making any decision. Increasing maternal decision-making autonomy may reduce the prevalence of malnourished children as well as contribute to have a healthier future generation. © 2015 APJPH.

  16. Perception of Primary School Teachers Regarding Impact of Child Labour on Universalization of Education at Primary Level at District Bannu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sayyed Farooq; Ghazi, S. R.; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Irfanullah

    2016-01-01

    Child labour has emerged as a serious, widespread and rapid growing problem in many parts of the world. Child labour is a socio-economic issue, which not only wrecks the social growth but also damages the moral fabrics of our society. The on hand paper not only highlights this very issue but also have a close look at its major inverse affect on…

  17. The impact of the Big Five personality traits on reports of child behavior problems by different informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, G.; Veerman, J.W.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared ratings of a standardized sample of child behavior problems across informants and examined the effects of informant personality traits on child behavior ratings by mothers, teachers, and group-care workers. Participants were 55 clinic-referred children, aged 6–12 years.

  18. The Impact of the Big Five Personality Traits on Reports of Child Behavior Problems by Different Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; De Bruyn, Eric E.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared ratings of a standardized sample of child behavior problems across informants and examined the effects of informant personality traits on child behavior ratings by mothers, teachers, and group-care workers. Participants were 55 clinic-referred children, aged 6-12 years. All informants watched and rated the same 17-min…

  19. An Examination of the Impact of an Assistive Technology Device on the Quality of Adult/Young Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain greater understanding of the potential benefits of assistive technology (AT) devices on young children's social development. Specifically, changes to the quality of the adult/young child social interactions as a function of the child's access to and use of his/her personal AT device was examined. Using a…

  20. Do mother’s and father’s education condition the impact of parental divorce on child well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandemakers, J.J.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We

  1. Of PCOS symptoms, hirsutism has the most significant impact on the quality of life of Iranian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Bahri Khomami

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome.A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15-49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life.The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients' health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001.The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations.

  2. Of PCOS symptoms, hirsutism has the most significant impact on the quality of life of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome. A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15-49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life. The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients' health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001). The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations.

  3. The impact of general anesthesia on child development and school performance: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneuer, Francisco J; Bentley, Jason P; Davidson, Andrew J; Holland, Andrew Ja; Badawi, Nadia; Martin, Andrew J; Skowno, Justin; Lain, Samantha J; Nassar, Natasha

    2018-04-27

    the specific effects of general anesthesia and the impact of the underlying health conditions that prompt the need for surgery or diagnostic procedures is required, particularly among children exposed to long duration of general anesthesia or with repeated hospitalizations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Child Bride and Child Sex: Combating Child Marriages in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the basis of child marriages in Northern Nigeria. It is an Islamic practice rooted in the interpretation of the Quran. Significantly, the caveat that copulation should be delayed until such girls are mature is often ignored as these child brides are engaged in sex. This paper analyzes the report of a Senator in ...

  5. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylenga, Christine H; Cummings, Vonda J; Ryan, Ken G

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stressors impact marine larval growth rates, quality and sizes. Larvae of the Antarctic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were raised to the D-larvae stage under temperature and pH conditions representing ambient and end of century projections (-1.6°C to +0.4°C and pH 7.98 to 7.65). Previous observations using light microscopy suggested pH had no influence on larval abnormalities in this species. Detailed analysis of the shell using SEM showed that reduced pH is in fact a major stressor during development for this species, producing D-larvae with abnormal shapes, deformed shell edges and irregular hinges, cracked shell surfaces and even uncalcified larvae. Additionally, reduced pH increased pitting and cracking on shell surfaces. Thus, apparently normal larvae may be compromised at the ultrastructural level and these larvae would be in poor condition at settlement, reducing juvenile recruitment and overall survival. Elevated temperatures increased prodissoconch II sizes. However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species.

  6. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine H Bylenga

    Full Text Available Environmental stressors impact marine larval growth rates, quality and sizes. Larvae of the Antarctic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were raised to the D-larvae stage under temperature and pH conditions representing ambient and end of century projections (-1.6°C to +0.4°C and pH 7.98 to 7.65. Previous observations using light microscopy suggested pH had no influence on larval abnormalities in this species. Detailed analysis of the shell using SEM showed that reduced pH is in fact a major stressor during development for this species, producing D-larvae with abnormal shapes, deformed shell edges and irregular hinges, cracked shell surfaces and even uncalcified larvae. Additionally, reduced pH increased pitting and cracking on shell surfaces. Thus, apparently normal larvae may be compromised at the ultrastructural level and these larvae would be in poor condition at settlement, reducing juvenile recruitment and overall survival. Elevated temperatures increased prodissoconch II sizes. However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species.

  7. The environmental impact of mine wastes - roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, M.; Pedersen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Mine wastes constitute a potential source of contamination to the environment, as heavy metals and acid are released in large amounts. A great variety of microorganisms has been found in mine wastes and microbiological processes are usually responsible for the environmental hazard created by mine wastes. However, microorganisms can also be used to retard the adverse impact of mine wastes on the environment. Conventionally, the mine drainage as well as the waste itself can be treated with alkali to increase pH and precipitate metals. The main drawback of this method is that it has to be continuously repeated to be fully effective. There may also be negative effects on beneficial microorganisms. Several other treatment methods have been developed to stop weathering processes thereby reducing the environmental impact of mine wastes. The other main approach is to treat the drainage water. Various methods aim at using microorganisms for this in natural or engineered systems. Recently, much interest has been focused on the use of natural or artificial wetlands for treatment. In general, the activity of microorganisms is neglected in the design of mine waste treatment systems, and the treatments are created merely from a technical point of view. This can result in situations where unexpected microbial processes take over, and, in the worst scenario, the overall effect is opposite to the desired

  8. Impact of parental catastrophizing and contextual threat on parents' emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Line; Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Goubert, Liesbet

    2012-03-01

    Limited research has addressed processes underlying parents' empathic responses to their child's pain. The present study investigated the effects of parental catastrophizing, threatening information about the child's pain, and child pain expression upon parental emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain. A total of 56 school children participated in a heat pain task consisting of 48 trials while being observed by 1 of their parents. Trials were preceded by a blue or yellow circle, signaling possible pain stimulation (i.e., pain signal) or no pain stimulation (i.e., safety signal). Parents received either neutral or threatening information regarding the heat stimulus. Parents' negative emotional responses when anticipating their child's pain were assessed using psychophysiological measures- i.e., fear-potentiated startle and corrugator EMG activity. Parental behavioral response to their child's pain (i.e., pain attending talk) was assessed during a 3-minute parent-child interaction that followed the pain task. The Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) was used to assess children's facial pain expression during the pain task. Results indicated that receiving threatening information was associated with a stronger parental corrugator EMG activity during pain signals in comparison with safety signals. The same pattern was found for parental fear-potentiated startle reflex, particularly when the child's facial pain expression was high. In addition, parents who reported high levels of catastrophizing thought about their child's pain engaged, in comparison with low-catastrophizing parents, in more pain-attending talk when they received threatening information. The findings are discussed in the context of affective-motivational theories of pain. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis on Child Labor and its Impact on Child’s Right to Education with an Emphasis on International program on Elimination of Child Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Talaie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Child Labour is a phenomenin not any more acceptable in the modern world, mainly because it deprives children of their childhood and because it is harmful to their physical and mental growth.Different factors such as poverty, lack or non-enforcement of regulations lead to child labour. Child labour has different consequences such as physical, mental and social consequences. Deprivation of a child from education leads to social, mental and emotional damages; in addition to depriving the child from his/her future capabilities in life, it results in social disorders and damages in a long-term period and it incurs high costs on society. So, in this article, causes and consequences of child labour and the role of education in eliminating child labour and development of their personality will be addressed and the goals and objectives of International Programme on Child Labour will be analyzed. کار کودک پدیده‌ای است که در جهان امروز قابل‌پذیرش نیست آن ‌هم بدان دلیل که کودکان را از دوران کودکی‌ خود محروم ساخته و برای رشد فیزیکی و روانی آن‌ها زیان‌آور است. عوامل گوناگونی همچون فقر و خلاءهای قانونی منجر به کار کودک می‌گردند. کار کودکان پیامدهای مختلفی همچون پیامدهای منفی فیزیکی، روانی و اجتماعی با خود به همراه دارد. کودک به ‌عنوان یک انسان دارای حقوق اساسی و مشترک با سایر انسان‌ها هست. از سوی دیگر محرومیت از تحصیل هر کودک می‌تواند آسیب عاطفی، ذهنی و اجتماعی را برای وی به همراه داشته باشد، کودک را از قابلیت‌های زندگی آینده‌اش محروم نموده، در بلندمدت نیز موجب افزایش آسیب‌ها و ن

  10. The impact of unemployment cycles on child and maternal health in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Gimenez, Lucas G; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of economic cycles in Argentina on infant and maternal health between 1994 and 2006, a period that spans the major economic crisis in 1999-2002. We evaluate the effects of province-level unemployment rates on several infant health outcomes, including birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth rate, and hospital discharge status after birth in a sample of 15,000 infants born in 13 provinces. Maternal health and healthcare outcomes include acute and chronic illnesses, infectious diseases, and use of prenatal visits and technology. Regression models control for hospital and year fixed effects and province-specific time trends. Unemployment rise reduces fetal growth rate particularly among high educated parents. Also, maternal poverty-related infectious diseases increase, although reporting of acute illnesses declines (an effect more pronounced among low educated parents). There is also some evidence for reduced access to prenatal care and technology among less educated parents with higher unemployment. Unemployment rise in Argentina has adversely affected certain infant and maternal health outcomes, but several measures show no evidence of significant change.

  11. The impact of greenspace and condition of the neighbourhood on child overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkwijk, Annemarie A H; van der Zwaard, Babette C; Nijpels, Giel; Elders, Petra J M; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-02-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity has been associated with environmental, parenting and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. This paper assesses the influence of the amount of green space, accessibility to a garden and neighbourhood condition on being overweight/obese. It investigates whether parental behaviours moderate or mediate this influence and evaluates the interaction of SES with environmental context. 6467 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study living in England were analysed. We estimated logistic regressions to examine the initial association between environment and overweight. Subsequently, parenting determinants comprising: food consumption, physical activity, rules and regularity were evaluated as moderators or mediators. Lastly SES related variables were tested as moderators or mediators of the associations. Statistically significant associations were found between low levels of green space, no access to a garden, run down area and childhood overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] respectively: 1.14 (1.02-1.27), 1.35 (1.16-1.58), 1.22 (1.05-1.42)]. None of the parental constructs mediated or moderated the relationships between environment and childhood overweight/obesity. Including SES, parental education moderated the effect of environmental context. Specifically, among lower educated households lack of garden access and less green space was associated with overweight/obesity; and among higher educated households poor neighbourhood condition influenced the probability of overweight/obesity respectively: 1.38 (1.12-1.70) OR 1.38, 95% CI (1.21-1.70). This study suggests that limits on access to outdoor space are associated with future childhood overweight/obesity although the ways in which this occurs are moderated by parental education level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Child-Oral impacts on daily performances: A socio dental approach to assess prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in South Indian school children of Bangalore city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological well-being of children and their families. Oral health and dental treatment may have an impact on eating, speaking and appearance, thereby affecting quality of life. Thus, there has been a greater focus on the measurement of quality of life as a complement to the clinical measures. Objective: The aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in south Indian school children using Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index as a measure of oral health related quality of life. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among the six government, and six private school children aged 11-12 years, of Karnataka, South India randomly selected as cluster, and all their 563 children were invited to participate. A cross culturally adapted and validated oral health-related quality of life measure; Child-OIDP was used to assess oral impacts. Results: The common perceived oral health problems were tooth ache reported by 342 children, a sensitive tooth reported by 230 children, tooth decay - hole in the tooth reported by 226 children. Eating was the most common performance affected (68.3%. The severity of impacts was high for eating and cleaning mouth and low for the study and social contact performances. Conclusion: The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life of school children of Karnataka aged 11-12 years. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating. Toothache, a sensitive tooth, tooth decay and bleeding gums contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.

  13. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  14. Economic significance of noxious insects in pine stands under the permanent impact of the industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierpinski, Z

    1970-01-01

    Studies revealed that numerous species of noxious insects, particularly those from the group of so-called harassing and secondary pests, found favorable conditions for their development in areas under permanent impact of industrial air pollution. The most numerous and most important species in pine stands is Exoteleia dodecella L., the larvae of which at first mine needles, then destroy the buds. Feeding by this pest causes deformations as a result of which younger trees acquire a shrubby form, while older ones are umbrella-shaped. Among the primary pests, Acantholyda nemoralis Thoms. and sometimes Lymantria monacha L., may occur more abundantly in the areas containing little industrial emissions. In older stands secondary pests which could be divided into two groups were of great economic importance. The first group includes Phaenops cyanea F., Pissodes piniphilus Hbst., and Paururus juvencus L. which infest trees in gappy stands, strongly thinned ones, and those adjoining industrial plants.

  15. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  16. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  17. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project

  18. Living with an inborn error of metabolism detected by newborn screening-parents' perspectives on child development and impact on family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Haege, Gisela; Glahn, Esther M; Hoffmann, Georg F; Lindner, Martin; Burgard, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism is regarded as highly successful by health professionals. Little is known about parents' perspectives on child development and social impact on families. Parents of 187 patients with metabolic disorders detected by newborn screening rated child development, perceived burdens on child and family, and future expectations on a questionnaire with standardized answers. Parental ratings were compared with standardized psychometric test results. Regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with extent of perceived burden. In 26.2% of patients, parents perceived delays in global development and/or specific developmental domains (physical, social, intellectual, language). Parents expected normal future development in 95.7%, and an independent adult life for their child in 94.6%. Comparison with psychometric test results showed that parents of children with cognitive impairments tended to overrate their child's abilities. Mild/medium burden posed on the family (child) by the metabolic disorder was stated by 56.1% (48.9%) of parents, severe/very severe burden by 19.3% (8.6%). One third of families reported financial burden due to the metabolic disorder. Dietary treatment and diagnoses with risk for metabolic decompensation despite treatment were associated with higher perceived burden for the family. Disorders rated as potentially very burdensome by experts were not rated accordingly by parents, demonstrating different perspectives of professionals and parents. Although newborn screening leads to favourable physical and cognitive outcome, living with a metabolic disorder may cause considerable stress on patients and families, emphasizing the need for comprehensive multidisciplinary care including psychological and social support.

  19. Differential Impacts of an Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Program Based on Child Marriage Status in Rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire (2010-2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n = 682). For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13-.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N = 480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR = .54; 95% CI = .28-1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25-.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20-.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings-only counterparts. Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. 76 FR 30397 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    .... The NRC staff considered the following environmental resource areas in its evaluation: Air quality... concludes that the proposed action will not result in a significant effect on the quality of the human... North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. The PDR reproduction contractor will copy documents...

  1. Exploring the impact of marital relationship on the mental health of children: Does parent-child relationship matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunkai; Jiang, Shan; Fan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiunv

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between marital relationships and parent-child relationships on children's mental health. Participants included 19,487 students from the 2013-2014 baseline China Education Panel Survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the data and results revealed that marital and parent-child relationships positively affected children's mental health. Parent-child relationship also played a mediating role between marital relationship and children's mental health. The unique contributions of this study and its theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  2. The impact of North Atlantic wind and cyclone trends on European precipitation and significant wave height in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M; Valente, Maria A; Trigo, Isabel F; Miranda, Pedro M A; Ramos, Alexandre M; Paredes, Daniel; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    An analysis of the frequency of cyclones and surface wind velocity for the Euro-Atlantic sector is performed by means of an objective methodology. Monthly and seasonal trends of cyclones and wind speed magnitude are computed and trends between 1960 and 2000 evaluated. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in the western Mediterranean (Greenland and Scandinavia), particularly in December, February, and March. Seasonal and monthly analysis of wind magnitude trends shows similar spatial patterns. We show that these changes in the frequency of low-pressure centers and the associated wind patterns are partially responsible for trends in the significant height of waves. Throughout the extended winter months (October-March), regions with positive (negative) wind magnitude trends, of up to 5 cm/s/year, often correspond to regions of positive (negative) significant wave height trends. The cyclone and wind speed trends computed for January-March are well matched by the corresponding trends in significant wave height, with February being the month with the highest trends (negative south of lat 50 degrees N up to -3 cm/year, and positive up to 5 cm/year just north of Scotland). Trends in European precipitation are assessed using the Climatic Research Unit data set. The results of the assessment emphasize the link with the corresponding tendencies of cyclone frequencies. Finally, it is shown that these changes are associated, to a large extent, with the preferred phases of major large-scale atmospheric circulation modes, particularly with the North Atlantic Oscillation, the eastern Atlantic pattern, and the Scandinavian pattern.

  3. Significant human impact on the flux and δ(34)S of sulfate from the largest river in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming

    2015-04-21

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4(2-)) flux and sulfur stable isotope composition (δ(34)S) yield information on the sources and processes affecting sulfur cycling on different spatial and temporal scales. However, because pristine preindustrial natural baselines of riverine SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S cannot be directly measured, anthropogenic impact remains largely unconstrained. Here we quantify natural and anthropogenic SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S for North America's largest river, the Mississippi, by means of an exhaustive source compilation and multiyear monitoring. Our data and analysis show that, since before industrialization to the present, Mississippi River SO4(2-) has increased in flux from 7.0 to 27.8 Tg SO4(2-) yr(-1), and in mean δ(34)S from -5.0‰, within 95% confidence limits of -14.8‰ to 4.1‰ (assuming normal distribution for mixing model input parameters), to -2.7 ± 1.6‰, reflecting an impressive footprint of bedrocks particular to this river basin and human activities. Our first-order modern Mississippi River sulfate partition is 25 ± 6% natural and 75% ± 6% anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, anthropogenic coal usage is implicated as the dominant source of modern Mississippi River sulfate, with an estimated 47 ± 5% and 13% of total Mississippi River sulfate due to coal mining and burning, respectively.

  4. The impact of visual communication on the intersubjective development of early parent-child interaction with 18- to 24-month-old deaf toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Gerrit; Devisé, Isabel; Jacquet, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that examined the impact of visual communication on the quality of the early interaction between deaf and hearing mothers and fathers and their deaf children aged between 18 and 24 months. Three communication mode groups of parent-deaf child dyads that differed by the use of signing and visual-tactile communication strategies were involved: (a) hearing parents communicating with their deaf child in an auditory/oral way, (b) hearing parents using total communication, and (c) deaf parents using sign language. Based on Loots and colleagues' intersubjective developmental theory, parent-deaf child interaction was analyzed according to the occurrence of intersubjectivity during free play with a standard set of toys. The data analyses indicated that the use of sign language in a sequential visual way of communication enabled the deaf parents to involve their 18- to 24-month-old deaf infants in symbolic intersubjectivity, whereas hearing parents who hold on to oral-only communication were excluded from involvement in symbolic intersubjectivity with their deaf infants. Hearing parents using total communication were more similar to deaf parents, but they still differed from deaf parents in exchanging and sharing symbolic and linguistic meaning with their deaf child.

  5. The two-child limit for Universal Credit and Child Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Richard Machin explores the background to, and likely impact of, the two-child limit on the child element in Universal Credit and the Child Tax Credit, which was introduced by the Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016

  6. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  7. Skipping of meals has a significant impact on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+ y) nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A M; Ovesen, L

    2004-01-01

    In spite of a high prevalence of undernutrition among old nursing home residents, studies have generally reported a mean intake of energy sufficient to cover the mean estimated energy requirement. This discrepancy could be due to skipping of meals and hence periods of insufficient energy intake too intermittent to be identified, when mean results are presented. To examine the significance of skipping of (part of) meals on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+y) nursing home residents. Participants were 132 nursing home residents (84 (82-85) y). They were characterised according to activity of daily living-functions (ADL-functions), cognitive performance, intake of energy and protein (4-days dietary record), skipping of meals, energy and protein balance, and nutritional status (body mass index (BMI)). The participants had an energy intake, which was significantly higher than the estimated energy requirement (p eat or only had desert at one or more meals during the 4-day registration period. Participants who were skipping meals had a lower BMI, energy and protein intake (all p <0.001) and a higher prevalence of negative protein balance (p <0.01), than the other residents. More focus should be given to individualized nutritional assessment in order to discover the cause to this problem and target individuals who could be helped by nutritional intervention.

  8. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C: clinical significance and impact on interferon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Muratori, Luigi; Verucchi, Gabriella; Attard, Luciano; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco

    2003-11-15

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSAs) in 47 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive children with abnormal alanine transaminase levels and analyzed the association between NOSAs and virus level, genotype, human leukocyte antigen status, and interferon (IFN) response. Forty-two hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive children and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy children served as control subjects. NOSAs were found in 34% of the HCV-positive children, 12% of the HBV-positive controls, and none of the healthy control subjects. Liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) was detected in 11% of the HCV-positive children but in none of the controls. The HCV load was significantly higher in NOSA-negative than in NOSA-positive children. HCV genotype distribution and human leukocyte antigen alleles were similar, irrespective of NOSA status. Long-term response to IFN therapy was achieved by 18% of the NOSA-positive and 55% of the NOSA-negative subjects. Two LKM1-positive children developed acute, self-limited hepatocellular necrosis while receiving IFN therapy. NOSAs are frequently present in children with hepatitis C, who are less likely to benefit from IFN therapy.

  9. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    OpenAIRE

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...

  10. Television and Content Censorship: The Impact of Violent Content on the Developmental Stages in the Personality of the Nigerian Child

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Okim-Alobi; Ogbu, Silk

    2017-01-01

    Erik Erikson’s theorization of the psychosocial developmental stages of humans, reveal the fragility of children with special attention to their biological and psychosocial characterization. The adolescent age is the period where the child is adventurous, curious and eager to explore, as he becomes fascinated with the media and begins to try out behaviours and lifestyles of his opinion leaders. The Nigerian child is more or less enthralled about foreign movies, shows and musical videos charac...

  11. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  12. Significant impact of electrical storm on mortality in patients with structural heart disease and an implantable cardiac defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Nitta, Takashi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Furushima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Naoki; Toyoshima, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akihiko; Mitamura, Hideo; Okumura, Ken; Ohe, Tohru; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2018-03-15

    Electrical storm (E-Storm), defined as multiple episodes of ventricular arrhythmias within a short period of time, is an important clinical problem in patients with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) including cardiac resynchronization therapy devices capable of defibrillation. The detailed clinical aspects of E-Storm in large populations especially for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), however, remain unclear. This study was performed to elucidate the detailed clinical aspects of E-Storm, such as its predictors and prevalence among patients with structural heart disease including DCM. We analyzed the data of the Nippon Storm Study, which was a prospective observational study involving 1570 patients enrolled from 48 ICD centers. For the purpose of this study, we evaluated 1274 patients with structural heart disease, including 482 (38%) patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 342 (27%) patients with DCM. During a median follow-up of 28months (interquartile range: 23 to 33months), E-Storm occurred in 84 (6.6%) patients. The incidence of E-Storm was not significantly different between patients with IHD and patients with DCM (log-rank p=0.52). Proportional hazard regression analyses showed that ICD implantation for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (p=0.0001) and QRS width (p=0.015) were the independent risk factors for E-storm. In a comparison between patients with and without E-Storm, survival curves after adjustment for clinical characteristics showed a significant difference in mortality. E-Storm was associated with subsequent mortality in patients with structural heart disease including DCM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R

    2017-01-01

    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  14. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Hungry Horse--Columbia Falls line rebuild and relocation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has identified a need to rebuild the Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 115,000-volt (115-kV) transmission line to 230-kV. This line supplies power to customers in the area of Columbia Falls, Montana, and integrates generation at the US Bureau of Reclamation's (USBR) Hungry Horse Dam into BPA's transmission grid. There are several problems with the existing system. The Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 1 15-kV line is 45 years old and requires excessive maintenance. The USBR has decided to replace their aging 115-kV transformers at the dam with 230-kV transformers, which also would increase their operational flexibility. With the small conductor size and voltage of the line presently being used, significant amounts of energy are lost as the power moves across the line. Transformer failure at Hungry Horse Dam has led to joint planning between BPA and the USBR. (USBR and the US Forest Service are cooperating agencies on the proposed project.) The proposal to eliminate the 115-kV equipment and convert to 230-kV operation was the least costly of the options studied. By rebuilding the line, maintenance costs (and time required for outages) would be reduced. The increased generation at the USBR dam would be safely and consistently transmitted over the improved system, and less energy would be lost from the line, a cost and energy savings

  15. The Impact on locomotor skills in children. The promotion of significant Knowledge supported by the use of videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caviativa Yaneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on attentional processes and their relationship to the maturation of locomotor patterns involved in the use of some types of video games. For this reason, the aim of this study is to identify the influence of the practice of virtual reality games in attentional processes related to the jump motor pattern in children of 5 years. The research was conducted by a quantitative study design using SPSS crosstabulation longitudinal observational period with a pre-test, post-test and a control group. There are few studies on the effect of virtual reality games in the development of locomotor patterns, the study is consistent with research that finds positive effects of this type of games in learning motor activities. In this investigation it was found According to statistical chi-square can conclude that the development of motor skills SI influences meaningful learning of children, Most children engaged in meaningful learning, but they have a necessary guide or a process to follow, according to research must always be supervised by an adult sometimes do not need any supervision, in addition to the significant knowledge not articulated with educational processes guided by the teacher before the motor skills expected

  16. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  17. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  18. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. Methods/design: A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011 will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre–post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. Conclusions: The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child

  19. Residual pathological stage at radical cystectomy significantly impacts outcomes for initial T2N0 bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Capitanio, Umberto; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Lotan, Yair; Schoenberg, Mark P; Amiel, Gilad E; Lerner, Seth P; Sonpavde, Guru

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesized that in patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection a lower residual cancer stage (P1N0 or less) at radical cystectomy may correlate with improved outcomes relative to those with residual P2N0 disease. We analyzed 208 patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection whose tumors were organ confined at radical cystectomy (P2 or lower, pN0). None received perioperative chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier as well as univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed the effect of residual pT stage at radical cystectomy on recurrence and cancer specific mortality rates. Covariates consisted of age, gender, grade, lymphovascular invasion, carcinoma in situ, number of lymph nodes removed and year of surgery. Residual pT stage at radical cystectomy was P0 in 24 (11.5%) patients, Pa in 9 (4.3%), PCIS in 22 (10.6%), P1 in 35 (16.8%) and P2 in 118 (56.7%). Median followup of censored patients was 55.7 months for recurrence and 52.1 months for cancer specific mortality analyses. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of patients with P0/Pa/PCIS, P1 and P2 stage disease were 100%, 85% and 75%, respectively. The 5-year cancer specific survival rates for the same cohorts were 100%, 93% and 81%, respectively. On multivariable analysis the effect of residual stage P1 or lower at radical cystectomy achieved independent predictor status for recurrence (adjusted HR 0.20, p = 0.002) and cancer specific mortality (adjusted HR 0.24, p = 0.02). Down staging from initial T2N0 bladder cancer at transurethral bladder tumor resection to lower stage at radical cystectomy significantly reduces recurrence and cancer specific mortality. Further validation of this finding is warranted.

  20. Linking high parity and maternal and child mortality: what is the impact of lower health services coverage among higher order births?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveldt, Emily; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Stover, John

    2013-01-01

    A number of data sets show that high parity births are associated with higher child mortality than low parity births. The reasons for this relationship are not clear. In this paper we investigate whether high parity is associated with lower coverage of key health interventions that might lead to increased mortality. We used DHS data from 10 high fertility countries to examine the relationship between parity and coverage for 8 child health intervention and 9 maternal health interventions. We also used the LiST model to estimate the effect on maternal and child mortality of the lower coverage associated with high parity births. Our results show a significant relationship between coverage of maternal and child health services and birth order, even when controlling for poverty. The association between coverage and parity for maternal health interventions was more consistently significant across countries all countries, while for child health interventions there were fewer overall significant relationships and more variation both between and within countries. The differences in coverage between children of parity 3 and those of parity 6 are large enough to account for a 12% difference in the under-five mortality rate and a 22% difference in maternal mortality ratio in the countries studied. This study shows that coverage of key health interventions is lower for high parity children and the pattern is consistent across countries. This could be a partial explanation for the higher mortality rates associated with high parity. Actions to address this gap could help reduce the higher mortality experienced by high parity birth.

  1. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Parents in the Transition into Higher Education: Impact on Dynamics in the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hees, Valérie; Roeyers, Herbert; De Mol, Jan

    2018-05-02

    This study examined how 34 senior students and first-year college students with autism spectrum disorder, their mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 26) navigate the higher education transition, and how this context impacts on dynamics in the parent-child relationships. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles. Both parties were confronted with an abundance of challenges and experienced strong feelings of ambivalence, stress and anxiety. Differences in perspectives occurred regarding the construction of adulthood, the acquisition of autonomy, disclosure and subscribing to support services. These differences caused tensions in the parent-child relationship, hindering the transformation of the relationship into an adult-like mutual relationship. Clinical implications are extrapolated on the basis of these findings.

  2. Impact of chronic illness timing and persistence at school entry on child and parent outcomes: Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Barnett, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and timing of child chronic illness at school entry; associations with child learning, behavior and health-related quality of life and parent mental health at ages 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 to 11 years; and cumulative health care costs. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children were aged 4 to 5 years at wave 1, with data collection every 2 years. Parent-reported timing of child chronic illness at school entry was categorized into 4 chronic illness groups based on changes between waves 1 and 2: none, resolving, incident and persistent. Child outcomes included: parent-reported quality of life, parent- and teacher-reported behavior, teacher-reported child learning, teacher-reported child-teacher relationship, directly assessed nonverbal and verbal cognition and parent self-reported mental health. Linear regression, adjusted for gender and socioeconomic position, was used to quantify longitudinal associations between chronic illness timing at school entry with outcomes at age 6 to 7 years, 8 to 9 years and 10 to 11 years. Of the 4983 children enrolled in the study, chronic illness data was available for 4464 children (89.6%) at both waves 1 and 2. From wave 1, 6.1% had a condition that persisted until wave 2, while 14.1% had a condition that resolved. Furthermore, 4.7% had a newly emerging condition at wave 2. Compared with the no chronic illness group, children with persistent or emerging chronic illness during school entry had the poorest outcomes (except father's mental health) at all time points, while children with resolving conditions had smaller differences. Child chronic illness at school entry is associated with poorer longitudinal child and maternal outcomes. Therefore, future research should aim to determine the risk and protective factors that contribute to the poorer child and parent outcomes experienced in this growing population. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric

  3. Facing Spousal Cancer During Child-Rearing Years: Do Social Support and Hardiness Moderate the Impact of Psychological Distress on Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C

    Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.

  4. The emotional child witness: effects on juror decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alexia; Quas, Jodi A; Cleveland, Kyndra C

    2014-01-01

    Despite wide variations in child witness behavior while on the stand, little research has focused on how that behavior influences jurors' perceptions of the child's credibility or the case itself. In the current study, the impact of a child's emotional displays on credibility judgments and verdict preferences was examined in jury-eligible college students and jurors released from jury duty. No significant differences emerged in perceptions or verdicts based on whether a child was shown as crying or not while participants read a transcript of the child's testimony. However, participants who rated the child as more emotional (regardless of whether the image showed a crying child) were more likely to render guilty verdicts, were more certain of guilt, and found the child more credible and the defendant less credible than participants who rated the child as less emotional. Also, when the child was perceived as low in emotion, older children were rated as less credible than younger children. The results have implications for understanding how children's emotional displays and jurors' perceptions of children's emotionality influence decisions in sexual abuse cases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Impact of industrialization: comparative study of child health in four sites from medieval and postmedieval England (A.D. 850-1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mary E

    2002-11-01

    The morbidity and mortality profiles of 831 non-adult skeletons from four contrasting sites in medieval and postmedieval England were compared to assess whether urbanization and later industrialization, had a detrimental effect on the health of the inhabitants. Failure in the population's ability to adapt to these environments should be evident in the higher rates of mortality, retarded growth, higher levels of stress, and a greater prevalence of metabolic and infectious disease in the urban groups. Non-adult skeletons were examined from Raunds Furnells in Northamptonshire, from St. Helen-on-the-Walls and Wharram Percy in Yorkshire, and from Christ Church Spitalfields in London. Results showed that a greater number of older children were being buried at the later medieval sites and that the skeletal growth profiles of the medieval urban and rural children did not differ significantly. A comparison of the growth profiles of St. Helen-on-the-Walls (urban) and Spitalfields (industrial) showed that the Spitalfields children were up to 3 cm shorter than their later medieval counterparts. At Spitalfields, cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasias occurred during the first 6 months of life, and 54% of the non-adults had evidence of metabolic disease. It is argued that differences in the morbidity and mortality of non-adults from urban and rural environments did exist in the past, but that it was industrialization that had the greatest impact on child health. Environmental conditions, urban employment, socioeconomic status, and changes in weaning ages and infant feeding practices contributed to differences in health in rural, urban, and industrial environments. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The Impact of a Management Protocol on the Outcomes of Child Abuse in Hospitalized Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, C. H.; So, K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the outcomes of children hospitalized for suspected child abuse before and after the implementation of a management protocol in a hospital in Hong Kong. Study period: Two 2-year periods before (1994-1995) and after (2002-2003) the implementation of the protocol in 1998. Methods: This is a retrospective hospital chart review in…

  7. Impact of Stepping Stones Triple P on Parents with a Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVoorhis, Richard W.; Miller, Kenneth L.; Miller, Susan M.; Stull, Judith C.

    2015-01-01

    The Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program (Stepping Stones Triple P; SSTP) was designed for caregivers of children with disabilities to improve select parental variables such as parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and parental competency, and to reduce parental stress and child problem behaviors. This study focused on SSTP training for…

  8. The Perceived Impact of a Child Maltreatment Report from the Perspective of the Domestic Violence Shelter Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising…

  9. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  10. Interventions to significantly improve service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission continuum of care: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrazo, Alexandra C; Firth, Jacqueline; Amzel, Anouk; Sedillo, Rebecca; Ryan, Julia; Phelps, B Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Despite the success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes, low uptake of services and poor retention pose a formidable challenge to achieving the elimination of vertical HIV transmission in low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review summarises interventions that demonstrate statistically significant improvements in service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants along the PMTCT cascade. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed studies. Outcomes of interest included uptake of services, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) such as initiation, early infant diagnostic testing, and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. Interventions that led to statistically significant outcomes were included and mapped to the PMTCT cascade. An eight-item assessment tool assessed study rigour. CRD42017063816. Of 686 citations reviewed, 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Ten studies detailed maternal outcomes and seven studies detailed infant outcomes in PMTCT programmes. Interventions to increase access to antenatal care (ANC) and ART services (n = 4) and those using lay cadres (n = 3) were most common. Other interventions included quality improvement (n = 2), mHealth (n = 1), and counselling (n = 1). One study described interventions in an Option B+ programme. Limitations included lack of HIV testing and counselling and viral load monitoring outcomes, small sample size, geographical location, and non-randomized assignment and selection of participants. Interventions including ANC/ART integration, family-centred approaches, and the use of lay healthcare providers are demonstrably effective in increasing service uptake and retention of HIV-positive mothers and their infants in PMTCT programmes. Future studies should include control groups and assess whether interventions developed in the context of earlier 'Options' are

  11. Impacts of Reinsurance Operations on Significant Items of the Financial Statements of Commercial Insurance Companies According to Czech Accounting Legislation and International Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Gláserová; Eva Vávrová

    2015-01-01

    The principal aim of the paper is to determine the impact of reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies, in accordance with the relevant accounting legislation, for certain significant items of the financial statements. In actual fact, the reinsurance operations affect the profit of a commercial insurance company, following the financial statements. The prerequisite for fulfilling the objective of the paper is to analyse the accounting legislation for reinsurance operations in c...

  12. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. Methods A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of ...

  13. Impact of Perceived Stress, Anxiety-Depression and Social Support on Coping Strategies of Parents Having A Child With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussé, Véronique; Czernecki, Virginie; Denis, Pierre; Stilgenbauer, Jean-Louis; Deniau, Emmanuelle; Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have indicated that raising a child with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) could be considered a stressful experience. Thus our study aimed to assess the impact of perceived stress (i.e. parental cognitive perception of their child's disorder) and social support (number of people surrounding the subject providing support) on coping strategies-defined as processes of restoring balance between excessive demands and inadequate resources-of parents having a child with GTS. Twenty-eight parents of 21 patients with GTS (aged 6 to 16years) completed questionnaires on perceived stress (ALE Scale), social support (SSQ6), coping strategies (WCC-R) and anxiety-depression (HAD). Principal component analysis showed a negative correlation between social support on one side and perceived stress and anxiety/depression on the other. Problem- and emotion-focused coping both correlated with social support, all of them being independent from perceived stress and anxiety/depression. Hierarchical ascendant classification showed three clusters of individuals in our parents' groups: i) those having high scores in perceived stress and anxiety-depression; ii) those having high scores in social support associated with low scores in perceived stress; iii) parents having lower than average scores on both problem- and emotion- focused coping and social support. Our results reinforce the need for developing training programs for parents with GTS children to better understand and tolerate the disorder to decrease their stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mothers with breast cancer: A mixed-method systematic review on the impact on the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Rita; Brandão, Tânia; Matos, Paula Mena

    2018-02-01

    To systematically review and integrate the findings from quantitative and qualitative studies on parenting and parent-child relationships in families where mothers had breast cancer (BC). Ten different databases were searched from inception to January 2016. All authors assessed these data independently. Full-text, peer-reviewed articles exploring parenting and/or mother-child relationships in families where the mother had BC, regardless of cancer stage, were considered for inclusion. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. From 116 studies, 23 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Five of them were quantitative, 15 were qualitative, and 1 study used a mixed-method approach. Most studies analysed the mother's perceptions about the experience of having BC in parenting and in the parent-child relationship. The majority of studies explored experiences and perspectives on the parent-child relationship in mothers with minor children, although a minority of studies included adult children. Additionally, a few studies (17%) addressed perceptions and experiences of women with advanced stage cancer. Three main themes were found: priorities and concerns of patients, decision-making processes about sharing the diagnosis with their children, and mother-child relationship and parenting after mother's diagnosis. Findings indicated that the diagnosis of BC is accompanied by an array of challenges that affect parental roles and parenting. Further studies are needed to explore these issues more sensitively. For now, however, the evidence suggests that the families of women with BC, and particularly the women themselves, may benefit from informal and formal support aimed at helping them cope effectively with this challenging life event. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The impact of the State Children's Health Insurance Program's unborn child ruling expansions on foreign-born Latina prenatal care and birth outcomes, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Jonathan; Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha; Bronstein, Janet; Foster, E Michael; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2015-07-01

    The 2002 "unborn child ruling" resulted in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion for states to cover prenatal care for low-income women without health insurance. Foreign-born Latinas who do not qualify for Medicaid coverage theoretically should have benefited most from the policy ruling given their documented low rates of prenatal care utilization. This study compares prenatal care utilization and subsequent birth outcomes among foreign-born Latinas in six states that used the unborn child ruling to expand coverage to those in ten states that did not implement the expansion. This policy analysis examines cross-sectional pooled US natality data from the pre-enactment years (2000-2003) versus post-enactment years (2004-2007) to estimate the effect of the UCR on prenatal care utilization and birth outcome measures for foreign-born Latinas. Then using a difference-in-difference estimator, we assessed these differences across time for states that did or did not enact the unborn child ruling. Analyses were then replicated on a high-risk subset of the population (single foreign-born Latinas with lower levels of education). The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy expansion increased PNCU over time in the six enacting states. Foreign-born Latinas in expansion enacting states experienced increases in prenatal care utilization though only the high-risk subset were statistically significant. Birth outcomes did not change. The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy was associated with enhanced PNC for a subset of high-risk foreign-born Latinas.

  17. Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Jared W; Shanahan, Meghan E; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Lanier, Paul; Daniels, Julie L; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-12-01

    Health informatics projects combining statewide birth populations with child welfare records have emerged as a valuable approach to conducting longitudinal research of child maltreatment. The potential bias resulting from linkage misspecification, partial cohort follow-up, and outcome misclassification in these studies has been largely unexplored. This study integrated epidemiological survey and novel administrative data sources to establish the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project. Using these data we evaluated and quantified the impact of non-linkage misspecification and single source maltreatment ascertainment use on reported maltreatment risk and effect estimates. The ALCANLink project integrates the 2009-2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) sample with multiple administrative databases through 2014, including one novel administrative source to track out-of-state emigration. For this project we limited our analysis to the 2009 PRAMS sample. We report on the impact of linkage quality, cohort follow-up, and multisource outcome ascertainment on the incidence proportion of reported maltreatment before age 6 and hazard ratios of selected characteristics that are often available in birth cohort linkage studies of maltreatment. Failure to account for out-of-state emigration biased the incidence proportion by 12% (from 28.3% w to 25.2% w ), and the hazard ratio (HR) by as much as 33% for some risk factors. Overly restrictive linkage parameters biased the incidence proportion downwards by 43% and the HR by as much as 27% for some factors. Multi-source linkages, on the other hand, were of little benefit for improving reported maltreatment ascertainment. Using the ALCANLink data which included a novel administrative data source, we were able to observe and quantify bias to both the incidence proportion and HR in a birth cohort linkage study of reported child maltreatment. Failure to account for out

  18. The impact of antenatal care, iron-folic acid supplementation and tetanus toxoid vaccination during pregnancy on child mortality in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Abir

    Full Text Available Appropriate antenatal care (ANC is an important preventive public health intervention to ensure women's and newborn health outcomes. The study aimed to investigate the impact of ANC, iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation and tetanus toxoid (TT vaccination during pregnancy on child mortality in Bangladesh.A cross-sectional study of three datasets from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011 were pooled and used for the analyses. A total weighted sample of 16,721 maternal responses (5,364 for 2004; 4,872 for 2007 and 6,485 for 2011 was used. Multivariate logistic models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to examine the impact of ANC, IFA supplementation and TT vaccination during pregnancy on the death of a child aged 0-28 days (neonatal, 1-11 months (post-neonatal and 12-59 months (child.Multivariable analyses revealed that the odds of postnatal and under-5 mortality was lower in mothers who had ANC [Odds Ratio (OR = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 0.43-0.85], IFA supplementation [OR = 0.66, 95% CI: (0.45-0.98] and ≥2 TT vaccinations (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.49-0.78 for post-natal mortality; and for under-5 mortality, any form of ANC (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51-0.93, IFA supplementation (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94 and ≥2 TT vaccinations (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36-0.69. When combined, TT vaccination with IFA supplementation, and TT vaccination without IFA supplementation were protective across all groups.The study found that ANC, IFA supplementation, and TT vaccination during pregnancy reduced the likelihood of child mortality in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that considerable gains in improving child survival could be achieved through ensuring universal coverage of ANC, promoting TT vaccination during pregnancy and IFA supplementation among pregnant women in Bangladesh.

  19. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  20. Longitudinal Impact of a Randomized Clinical Trial to Improve Family Function, Reduce Maternal Stress and Improve Child Outcomes in Families of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Shervin S; Leo, Michael C; Brennan, Eileen M; Sellmaier, Claudia; Kendall, Judy; Houck, Gail M

    2018-02-23

    Objective Evaluate the efficacy of a 12 month nursing case-management intervention over a period of 18 months, 6 months after the end of intervention, for families of children attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Mother and child dyads were enrolled to participate in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Children were 4-18 years old. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months or 6 months after the termination of direct intervention. Longitudinal analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were conducted to assess change in study outcomes relating to family function, maternal stress, and child behavior over the 18 month period. Results Compared to control families, some family function outcomes were moderately improved in the intervention group. In particular, intervention families demonstrated substantial improvement in implementing family behavior controls (p value = 0.038) and improvement in family satisfaction (not statistically significant p = 0.062). Although there was improvement in the overall family function measure there was not a statistically significant difference between groups. Maternal stress and child behavior outcomes were not significantly different between control and intervention groups by the end of the intervention. Conclusions for Practice Addressing ADHD is complex and requires the assessment of comorbidities that might exacerbate negative behavior. Our findings support the latest American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines to use behavioral therapy as the first line of treatment in young children. Nursing case-management interventions that provide direct family education and improve family function, especially with respect to providing structure and behavior control, may complement and facilitate behavioral therapy for treatment of ADHD and improving child behavior.

  1. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  2. Parents' Death and its Implications for Child Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Atrash, Hani K.

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of child mortality is a global public health priority. Parents can play an important role in reducing child mortality. The inability of one or both parents to care for their children due to death, illness, divorce or separation increases the risk of death of their children. There is increasing evidence that the health, education, and socioeconomic status of mothers and fathers have significant impact on the health and survival of their children. We conducted a literature review to e...

  3. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  7. The impact of prenatal care quality on neonatal, infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2017-04-01

    The impact of the quality of prenatal care on child mortality outcomes has received less attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study endeavoured to explore the effect of the quality of prenatal care and its individual components on neonatal, infant and under-five mortality. The empirical analysis uses data from the three most recent waves of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 1999, 2005/06 and 2010/11. The results indicate that a one-unit increase in the quality of prenatal care lowers the prospect of neonatal, infant and under-five mortality by approximately 42.33, 30.86 and 28.65%, respectively. These findings remained roughly the same even after adjusting for potential mediating factors. Examining the effect of individual prenatal care components on child mortality revealed that women who receive information on possible complications arising during pregnancy are less liable to experience a neonatal death. Similarly, women who had blood pressure checks and tetanus immunizations were less likely to experience an infant or under-five death. We did not find any statistically meaningful impact on child mortality outcomes of blood and urine sample checks, iron tablet consumption, and the receipt of malarial tablets. Overall, our results suggest the need for public health policymakers to focus on ensuring high-quality prenatal care to enhance the survival prospects of Zimbabwe's infants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The social service divide: service availability and accessibility in rural versus urban counties and impact on child welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Stone, Warren

    2008-01-01

    An empirical study of 75 counties in a state found that social services are more available and accessible in urban versus rural counties, signaling a need for public policy addressing service allocation. The study also found a relationship between the accessibility of intensive family preservation services and reentry into foster care, a child welfare outcome. Implications for achieving outcomes affecting safety, permanence, and well-being of children are discussed.

  9. A Responsive Parenting Intervention: The Optimal Timing Across Early Childhood For Impacting Maternal Behaviors And Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Guttentag, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler–preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective–emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants’ development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention do...

  10. United Nations Impact on Child Soldier Use in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: 1999-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    remained at large at the time of writing ( Malinowski 2008). Psychological Effects and Indoctrination Some works defined the psychological effect of...imprisonment. Biyoyo subsequently escaped from prison and remained at large at the time of writing ( Malinowski 2008). From a purely judicial...Armed Conflict on Children. Report of the expert of the Secretary General, New York: United Nations. Malinowski , Tom. 2008. Child Soldiers

  11. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  12. The impact of the worldwide Millennium Development Goals campaign on maternal and under-five child mortality reduction: ‘Where did the worldwide campaign work most effectively?’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. Objective: We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. Design: Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990–2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. Results: The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990–2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub-Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. Conclusions: Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as ‘off-track’, ‘insufficient progress’, or ‘no progress’ even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress. PMID:28168932

  13. Prevalence of oral impacts and validity of the Child-Oral Impacts on DailyPerformance (OIDP: pilot study of 10-11 year-old children in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP assesses the impacts of oral health problems on the daily activities ofchildren. Objectives of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the Child-OIDP for use among Italian children and provide initialevidence on its reliability and validity in a sample of 10-11 year-olds. Materials and Method: The Italian Child-OIDP was administered to a convenience sample of 10-11-year-old 5th graders of“Giò Leonardo di Bona” Public School in Cutro (Italy. Informed positive consent was sought and obtained from the participants’parents. Analyses were performed using SAS statistical package; reliability testing referred to internal consistency that was evaluatedusing the Cronbach’s alpha, alpha if item deleted, and inter-item and item-total correlation coefficients. Result: To provide initial evidence for the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Italian Child-OIDP, we invited 103 10-11-year-old schoolchildren and 97 participated in the study (response rate = 94.2%, 50 boys (51.5% and 47 girls (48.5%.Almost all children (95.87% reported that they had experienced at least one problem with their teeth or mouth in the past 3months. All item-total correlation were above 0.20 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.59. Higher Child-OIDP scores were significantlyassociated with worse perceptions in terms of oral health, general health and satisfaction with oral health status, but not withperceived dental treatment needs. Analyses were performed using SAS statistical package; reliability testing referred to internalconsistency that was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha, alpha if item deleted, and inter-item and item-total correlationcoefficients. Conclusion: Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Italian children. Initialevidence of its psychometric properties was promising, but future studies should be conducted to fully evaluate its

  14. Evaluating the Impact of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences Using the Most Significant Change Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Susan C; Nyaude, Shemiah; Challender, Amelia; Aagaard, Eva; Velez, Christine; Hakim, James

    2017-09-01

    In medical education, evaluating outcomes from programs intended to transform attitudes or influence career trajectories using conventional methods of monitoring is often difficult. To address this problem, the authors adapted the most significant change (MSC) technique to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences. In 2014-2015, the authors applied the MSC to systematically examine the personal significance and level of positive transformation that individuals attributed to their MEPI participation. Interviews were conducted with 28 participants nominated by program leaders. The authors coded results inductively for prevalent themes in participants' stories and prepared profiles with representative quotes to place the stories in context. Stakeholders selected 9 themes and 18 stories to illustrate the most significant changes. Six themes (or outcomes) were expected, as they aligned with MEPI goals-becoming a better teacher, becoming a better clinician, increased interest in teaching, increased interest in research, new career pathways (including commitment to practice in Zimbabwe), and improved research skills. Three themes were unexpected-increased confidence, expanded interprofessional networks, and improved interpersonal interactions. The authors found the MSC to be a useful and systematic evaluation approach for large, complex, and transformative initiatives like MEPI. The MSC seemed to encourage participant reflection, support values inquiry by program leaders, and provide insights into the personal and cultural impacts of MEPI. Additional trial applications of the MSC technique in academic medicine are warranted.

  15. The impact of integrated prevention and treatment on child malnutrition and health: the PROMIS project, a randomized control trial in Burkina Faso and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Becquey, Elodie; Zongrone, Amanda; Le Port, Agnes; Khassanova, Regina; Coulibaly, Lazare; Leroy, Jef L; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

    2017-03-09

    Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM) in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage) of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM) model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS) study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM). The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i) repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii) a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of implementation of the intervention guided by country

  16. The impact of integrated prevention and treatment on child malnutrition and health: the PROMIS project, a randomized control trial in Burkina Faso and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. Methods/Design The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM. The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of

  17. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  18. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment. The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  19. The impact of the social and physical environments on parent-healthcare provider relationships when a child dies in PICU: Findings from a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen

    2017-12-30

    This study explores the influences of the paediatric intensive care environment on relationships between parents and healthcare providers when children are dying. It forms part of a larger study, investigating parental experiences of the death of their child in intensive care. Constructivist grounded theory. Four Australian paediatric intensive care units. Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six bereaved parents. Data were analysed using the constant comparison and memoing techniques common to grounded theory. The physical and social environment of the intensive care unit influenced the quality of the parent-healthcare provider relationship. When a welcoming, open environment existed, parents tended to feel respected as equal and included members of their child's care team. In contrast, environments that restricted parental presence or lacked resources for parental self-care could leave parents feeling like 'watchers', excluded from their child's care. The paediatric intensive care unit environment either welcomes and includes parents of dying children into the care team, or demotes them to the status of 'watcher'. Such environments significantly influence the relationships parents form with healthcare staff, their ability to engage in elements of their parental role, and their experiences as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children.

  1. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  2. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  3. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  4. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  5. The impact of drug resistance on the risk of tuberculosis infection and disease in child household contacts: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Vera; Snow, Kathryn; Mandalakas, Anna M; Schaaf, H Simon; Du Preez, Karen; Hesseling, Anneke C; Seddon, James A

    2017-08-29

    The relative fitness of organisms causing drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. We compared the risk of TB infection and TB disease in young child household contacts of adults with confirmed DS-TB and MDR-TB. In this cross-sectional analysis we included data from two community-based contact cohort investigation studies conducted in parallel in Cape Town, South Africa. Children <5 years of age with household exposure to an infectious TB case were included between August 2008 to June 2011. Children completed investigation for TB infection (tuberculin skin test) and TB disease (symptom evaluation, chest radiograph, bacteriology) in both studies using standard approaches. The impact of MDR-TB exposure on each covariate of TB infection and TB disease was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Of 538 children included, 312 had DS-TB and 226 had MDR-TB exposure. 107 children with DS-TB exposure had TB infection (34.3%) vs. 101 (44.7%) of children with MDR-TB exposure (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-3.12). A total of 15 (6.6%) MDR-TB vs. 27 (8.7%) DS-TB child contacts had TB disease at enrolment (aOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.97). Our results suggest a higher risk of TB infection in child contacts with household MDR-TB vs. DS-TB exposure, but a lower risk of TB disease. Although potentially affected by residual confounding or selection bias, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of impaired virulence in MDR-TB strains in this setting.

  6. The impact of primary healthcare in reducing inequalities in child health outcomes, Bogotá – Colombia: an ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosquera Paola A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colombia is one of the countries with the widest levels of socioeconomic and health inequalities. Bogotá, its capital, faces serious problems of poverty, social disparities and access to health services. A Primary Health Care (PHC strategy was implemented in 2004 to improve health care and to address the social determinants of such inequalities. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the PHC strategy to reducing inequalities in child health outcomes in Bogotá. Methods An ecological analysis with localities as the unit of analysis was carried out. The variable used to capture the socioeconomic status and living standards was the Quality of Life Index (QLI. Concentration curves and concentration indices for four child health outcomes (infant mortality rate (IMR, under-5 mortality rate, prevalence of acute malnutrition in children under-5, and vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus were calculated to measure socioeconomic inequality. Two periods were used to describe possible changes in the magnitude of the inequalities related with the PHC implementation (2003 year before - 2007 year after implementation. The contribution of the PHC intervention was computed by a decomposition analysis carried out on data from 2007. Results In both 2003 and 2007, concentration curves and indexes of IMR, under-5 mortality rate and acute malnutrition showed inequalities to the disadvantage of localities with lower QLI. Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT vaccinations were more prevalent among localities with higher QLI in 2003 but were higher in localities with lower QLI in 2007. The variation of the concentration index between 2003 and 2007 indicated reductions in inequality for all of the indicators in the period after the PHC implementation. In 2007, PHC was associated with a reduction in the effect of the inequality that affected disadvantaged localities in under-5 mortality (24%, IMR (19% and acute

  7. The impact of primary healthcare in reducing inequalities in child health outcomes, Bogotá-Colombia: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Paola A; Hernández, Jinneth; Vega, Román; Martínez, Jorge; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2012-11-13

    Colombia is one of the countries with the widest levels of socioeconomic and health inequalities. Bogotá, its capital, faces serious problems of poverty, social disparities and access to health services. A Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy was implemented in 2004 to improve health care and to address the social determinants of such inequalities. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the PHC strategy to reducing inequalities in child health outcomes in Bogotá. An ecological analysis with localities as the unit of analysis was carried out. The variable used to capture the socioeconomic status and living standards was the Quality of Life Index (QLI). Concentration curves and concentration indices for four child health outcomes (infant mortality rate (IMR), under-5 mortality rate, prevalence of acute malnutrition in children under-5, and vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) were calculated to measure socioeconomic inequality. Two periods were used to describe possible changes in the magnitude of the inequalities related with the PHC implementation (2003 year before - 2007 year after implementation). The contribution of the PHC intervention was computed by a decomposition analysis carried out on data from 2007. In both 2003 and 2007, concentration curves and indexes of IMR, under-5 mortality rate and acute malnutrition showed inequalities to the disadvantage of localities with lower QLI. Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccinations were more prevalent among localities with higher QLI in 2003 but were higher in localities with lower QLI in 2007. The variation of the concentration index between 2003 and 2007 indicated reductions in inequality for all of the indicators in the period after the PHC implementation. In 2007, PHC was associated with a reduction in the effect of the inequality that affected disadvantaged localities in under-5 mortality (24%), IMR (19%) and acute malnutrition (7%). PHC also contributed approximately 20

  8. The significance of climate change in the Netherlands. An analysis of historical and future trends (1901-2020) in weather conditions, weather extremes and temperature-related impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.

    2005-07-01

    A rigorous statistical analysis reveals changes in Dutch climate that are statistically significant over the last century. Annually averaged temperatures have increased by 1.5 about 0.5 degrees Centigrade; the number of summer days has roughly doubled from 14 about 5 to 27 about 9 days; annual precipitation has increased by 120 about 100 mm; and the number of extremely wet days has increased by about 40%, from 19 about 3 to 26 about 3 days. Several other changes in Dutch climate, such as spring temperatures rising more rapidly than winter temperatures, the increase of the coldest temperature in each year by 0.9 degrees Centigrade and the annual maximum day sum of precipitation, turn out to be not (yet) statistically significant. The changes in Dutch climate have already led to several statistically significant impacts. The length of the growing season has increased by nearly a month, and the number of heating-degree days, a measure for the energy needed for the heating of houses and buildings, has decreased by 14 about 5%. Projections of future temperature increase in 2020 based on the statistical analysis closely resemble projections based on climate models: temperatures continue to increase from 10.4 about 0.4 degrees Centigrade in 2003 to 10.7 about 0.6 degrees Centigrade in 2010 and 11.1 about 1.0 degrees Centigrade in 2020. The energy needed for heating of houses and buildings is expected to decrease further. This warming effect is expected to lower projections of future Dutch greenhouse-gas emissions by 3.5 Mton CO2 equivalents, which is relevant in the context of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, over the course of the 20th century the chance on an 'Elfstedentocht', an outdoor skating event in the Netherlands, has decreased from once every five years to once every ten years. Even though this impact change is not yet statistically significant, it resides 'on the edge' of significance: within a few years more evidence may

  9. Effect on maternal and child health services in Rwanda of payment to primary health-care providers for performance: an impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinga, Paulin; Gertler, Paul J; Binagwaho, Agnes; Soucat, Agnes L B; Sturdy, Jennifer; Vermeersch, Christel M J

    2011-04-23

    the greatest effect on those services that had the highest payment rates and needed the least effort from the service provider. P4P financial performance incentives can improve both the use and quality of maternal and child health services, and could be a useful intervention to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health. World Bank's Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program and Spanish Impact Evaluation Fund, the British Economic and Social Research Council, Government of Rwanda, and Global Development Network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Jack; Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-03-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1 ) preconception, 2 ) gestation and pregnancy, 3 ) lactation and suckling, and 4 ) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1 ) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2 ) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3 ) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4 ) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations

  11. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1) preconception, 2) gestation and pregnancy, 3) lactation and suckling, and 4) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations in global

  12. Self-reported interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are differentially associated with the process and outcome of depression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Inhibition of infection and transmission of HIV-1 and lack of significant impact on the vaginal commensal lactobacilli by carbohydrate-binding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; Mathys, Leen; Lebeer, Sarah; Noppen, Sam; Van Damme, Els J M; Tanaka, Haruo; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos; Balzarini, Jan

    2013-09-01

    A selection of carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs) with different glycan specificities were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against HIV infection and transmission, and their interaction with vaginal commensal bacteria. Several assays were used for the antiviral evaluation: (i) cell-free virus infection of human CD4+ T lymphocyte C8166 cells; (ii) syncytium formation in co-cultures of persistently HIV-1-infected HUT-78/HIV-1 and non-infected CD4+ SupT1 cells; (iii) DC-SIGN-directed capture of HIV-1 particles; and (iv) transmission of DC-SIGN-captured HIV-1 particles to uninfected CD4+ C8166 cells. CBAs were also examined for their interaction with vaginal commensal lactobacilli using several viability, proliferation and adhesion assays. The CBAs showed efficient inhibitory activity in the nanomolar to low-micromolar range against four events that play a crucial role in HIV-1 infection and transmission: cell-free virus infection, fusion between HIV-1-infected and non-infected cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virus to T cells. As candidate microbicides should not interfere with the normal human microbiota, we examined the effect of CBAs against Lactobacillus strains, including a variety of vaginal strains, a gastrointestinal strain and several non-human isolates. None of the CBAs included in our studies inhibited the growth of these bacteria in several media, affected their viability or had any significant impact on their adhesion to HeLa cell monolayers. The CBAs in this study were inhibitory to HIV-1 in several in vitro infection and transmission models, and may therefore qualify as potential microbicide candidates. The lack of significant impact on commensal vaginal lactobacilli is an important property of these CBAs in view of their potential microbicidal use.

  14. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  15. The impact of eliminating within-country inequality in health coverage on maternal and child mortality: a Lives Saved Tool analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Clermont

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequality in healthcare across population groups in low-income countries is a growing topic of interest in global health. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST, which uses health intervention coverage to model maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes such as mortality rates, can be used to analyze the impact of within-country inequality. Methods Data from nationally representative household surveys (98 surveys conducted between 1998 and 2014, disaggregated by wealth quintile, were used to create a LiST analysis that models the impact of scaling up health intervention coverage for the entire country from the national average to the rate of the top wealth quintile (richest 20% of the population. Interventions for which household survey data are available were used as proxies for other interventions that are not measured in surveys, based on co-delivery of intervention packages. Results For the 98 countries included in the analysis, 24–32% of child deaths (including 34–47% of neonatal deaths and 16–19% of post-neonatal deaths could be prevented by scaling up national coverage of key health interventions to the level of the top wealth quintile. On average, the interventions with most unequal coverage rates across wealth quintiles were those related to childbirth in health facilities and to water and sanitation infrastructure; the most equally distributed were those delivered through community-based mass campaigns, such as vaccines, vitamin A supplementation, and bednet distribution. Conclusions LiST is a powerful tool for exploring the policy and programmatic implications of within-country inequality in low-income, high-mortality-burden countries. An “Equity Tool” app has been developed within the software to make this type of analysis easily accessible to users.

  16. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

  17. Does integrating nonurgent, clinically significant radiology alerts within the electronic health record impact closed-loop communication and follow-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stacy D; Dalal, Anuj K; Sahni, V Anik; Lacson, Ronilda; Khorasani, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    To assess whether integrating critical result management software--Alert Notification of Critical Results (ANCR)--with an electronic health record (EHR)-based results management application impacts closed-loop communication and follow-up of nonurgent, clinically significant radiology results by primary care providers (PCPs). This institutional review board-approved study was conducted at a large academic medical center. Postintervention, PCPs could acknowledge nonurgent, clinically significant ANCR-generated alerts ("alerts") within ANCR or the EHR. Primary outcome was the proportion of alerts acknowledged via EHR over a 24-month postintervention. Chart abstractions for a random sample of alerts 12 months preintervention and 24 months postintervention were reviewed, and the follow-up rate of actionable alerts (eg, performing follow-up imaging, administering antibiotics) was estimated. Pre- and postintervention rates were compared using the Fisher exact test. Postintervention follow-up rate was compared for EHR-acknowledged alerts vs ANCR. Five thousand nine hundred and thirty-one alerts were acknowledged by 171 PCPs, with 100% acknowledgement (consistent with expected ANCR functionality). PCPs acknowledged 16% (688 of 4428) of postintervention alerts in the EHR, with the remaining in ANCR. Follow-up was documented for 85 of 90 (94%; 95% CI, 88%-98%) preintervention and 79 of 84 (94%; 95% CI, 87%-97%) postintervention alerts (P > .99). Postintervention, 11 of 14 (79%; 95% CI, 52%-92%) alerts were acknowledged via EHR and 68 of 70 (97%; 95% CI, 90%-99%) in ANCR had follow-up (P = .03). Integrating ANCR and EHR provides an additional workflow for acknowledging nonurgent, clinically significant results without significant change in rates of closed-loop communication or follow-up of alerts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impact of malaria interventions on child mortality in endemic African settings: comparison and alignment between LiST and Spectrum-Malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline; Hamilton, Matthew; Sanders, Rachel; Mahiané, Guy; Briët, Olivier J T; Smith, Thomas; Winfrey, William; Walker, Neff; Stover, John

    2017-11-07

    In malaria-endemic countries, malaria prevention and treatment are critical for child health. In the context of intervention scale-up and rapid changes in endemicity, projections of intervention impact and optimized program scale-up strategies need to take into account the consequent dynamics of transmission and immunity. The new Spectrum-Malaria program planning tool was used to project health impacts of Insecticide-Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) and effective management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU), among other interventions, on malaria infection prevalence, case incidence and mortality in children 0-4 years, 5-14 years of age and adults. Spectrum-Malaria uses statistical models fitted to simulations of the dynamic effects of increasing intervention coverage on these burdens as a function of baseline malaria endemicity, seasonality in transmission and malaria intervention coverage levels (estimated for years 2000 to 2015 by the World Health Organization and Malaria Atlas Project). Spectrum-Malaria projections of proportional reductions in under-five malaria mortality were compared with those of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia, for given (standardized) scenarios of ITN and/or CMU scale-up over 2016-2030. Proportional mortality reductions over the first two years following scale-up of ITNs from near-zero baselines to moderately higher coverages align well between LiST and Spectrum-Malaria -as expected since both models were fitted to cluster-randomized ITN trials in moderate-to-high-endemic settings with 2-year durations. For further scale-up from moderately high ITN coverage to near-universal coverage (as currently relevant for strategic planning for many countries), Spectrum-Malaria predicts smaller additional ITN impacts than LiST, reflecting progressive saturation. For CMU, especially in the longer term (over 2022-2030) and for lower-endemic settings (like Zambia), Spectrum-Malaria projects larger

  19. Impacts of Reinsurance Operations on Significant Items of the Financial Statements of Commercial Insurance Companies According to Czech Accounting Legislation and International Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of the paper is to determine the impact of reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies, in accordance with the relevant accounting legislation, for certain significant items of the financial statements. In actual fact, the reinsurance operations affect the profit of a commercial insurance company, following the financial statements. The prerequisite for fulfilling the objective of the paper is to analyse the accounting legislation for reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies. Attention will be devoted also to the method of accounting for reinsurance operations and their specific reporting in various parts of the financial statements of commercial insurance companies. The partial aim of this paper is to identify significant differences in the area of accounting of commercial insurance companies, based on the comparison of accounting practices of the issues examined in accordance with IAS/IFRS. In the conclusion, the authors will address the latest development of necessary steps in adopting the concept of IFRS 4 Phase II and accomplishing the process of the application of IFRS 4 Phase II to the accounts of commercial insurance companies.

  20. The significant impact of framing coils on long-term outcomes in endovascular coiling for intracranial aneurysms: how to select an appropriate framing coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Wataru; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The importance of a framing coil (FC)-the first coil inserted into an aneurysm during endovascular coiling, also called a lead coil or a first coil-is recognized, but its impact on long-term outcomes, including recanalization and retreatment, is not well established. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that the FC is a significant factor for aneurysmal recurrence and to provide some insights on appropriate FC selection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed endovascular coiling for 280 unruptured intracranial aneurysms and gathered data on age, sex, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphology, maximal size, neck width, adjunctive techniques, recanalization, retreatment, follow-up periods, total volume packing density (VPD), volume packing density of the FC, and framing coil percentage (FCP; the percentage of FC volume in total coil volume) to clarify the associated factors for aneurysmal recurrence. RESULTS Of 236 aneurysms included in this study, 33 (14.0%) had recanalization, and 18 (7.6%) needed retreatment during a mean follow-up period of 37.7 ± 16.1 months. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, p < 0.001), FCP < 32% (OR 3.54, p = 0.009), and VPD < 25% (OR 2.96, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with recanalization, while aneurysm size (OR 1.25, p < 0.001) and FCP < 32% (OR 6.91, p = 0.017) were significant predictors of retreatment. VPD as a continuous value or VPD with any cutoff value could not predict retreatment with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS FCP, which is equal to the FC volume as a percentage of the total coil volume and is unaffected by the morphology of the aneurysm or the measurement error in aneurysm length, width, or height, is a novel predictor of recanalization and retreatment and is more significantly predictive of retreatment than VPD. To select FCs large enough to meet the condition of FCP ≥ 32% is a potential relevant factor for better