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Sample records for significantly higher hair

  1. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  2. Higher spin black holes with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-10-21

    We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent “soft Heisenberg hair”-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin-N, many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W{sub 3} algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call “higher spin black flowers”, are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W-algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.

  3. Ineffective higher derivative black hole hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kevin; Mashiyane, James Junior

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the possibility that the Schwarzschild black hole may not be the unique spherically symmetric vacuum solution to generalizations of general relativity, we consider black holes in pure fourth order higher derivative gravity treated as an effective theory. Such solutions may be of interest in addressing the issue of higher derivative hair or during the later stages of black hole evaporation. Non-Schwarzschild solutions have been studied but we have put earlier results on a firmer footing by finding a systematic asymptotic expansion for the black holes and matching them with known numerical solutions obtained by integrating out from the near-horizon region. These asymptotic expansions can be cast in the form of trans-series expansions which we conjecture will be a generic feature of non-Schwarzschild higher derivative black holes. Excitingly we find a new branch of solutions with lower free energy than the Schwarzschild solution, but as found in earlier work, solutions only seem to exist for black holes with large curvatures, meaning that one should not generically neglect even higher derivative corrections. This suggests that one effectively recovers the nonhair theorems in this context.

  4. Black Hole Hair in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chao; Chen Yixin; Li Jianlong

    2010-01-01

    We study the property of matter in equilibrium with a static, spherically symmetric black hole in D-dimensional spacetime. It requires that this kind of matter has an equation of state ω = p r /ρ = -n/(n + 2k), k, n epsilon N (where n > 1 corresponds to a mixture of vacuum matter and 'hair' matter), which seems to be independent of D. However, when we associate this result with specific models, we find that these hairy black holes can live only in some special dimensional spacetime: (i) D = 2 + 2k/n while the black hole is surrounded by cosmic strings, which requires D is even or D epsilon N, depending on the value of n, this is consistent with some important results in superstring theory, it might reveal the relation between cosmic string and superstring in another aspect; (ii) the black hole can be surrounded by linear dilaton field only in 4-dimensional spacetime. In both cases, D = 4 is special. We also present some examples of such hairy black holes in higher dimensions, including a toy model with negative energy density. (general)

  5. Higher-spin flat space cosmologies with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC,Santo André, S.P. (Brazil); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Riegler, Max [Université libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, Campus de la Plaine,1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Wutte, Raphaela [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-08

    We present and discuss near horizon boundary conditions for flat space higher-spin gravity in three dimensions. As in related work our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the solutions independently of the charges. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is given by a set of û(1) current algebras. The associated charges generate higher-spin soft hair. We derive the entropy for solutions that are continuously connected to flat space cosmologies and find the same result as in the spin-2 case: the entropy is linear in the spin-2 zero-mode charges and independent from the spin-3 charges. Using twisted Sugawara-like constructions of higher-spin currents we show that our simple result for entropy of higher-spin flat space cosmologies coincides precisely with the complicated earlier results expressed in terms of higher-spin zero mode charges.

  6. Higher-order Skyrme hair of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto

    2018-05-01

    Higher-order derivative terms are considered as replacement for the Skyrme term in an Einstein-Skyrme-like model in order to pinpoint which properties are necessary for a black hole to possess stable static scalar hair. We find two new models able to support stable black hole hair in the limit of the Skyrme term being turned off. They contain 8 and 12 derivatives, respectively, and are roughly the Skyrme-term squared and the so-called BPS-Skyrme-term squared. In the twelfth-order model we find that the lower branches, which are normally unstable, become stable in the limit where the Skyrme term is turned off. We check this claim with a linear stability analysis. Finally, we find for a certain range of the gravitational coupling and horizon radius, that the twelfth-order model contains 4 solutions as opposed to 2. More surprisingly, the lowest part of the would-be unstable branch turns out to be the stable one of the 4 solutions.

  7. The significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable growth of interest in problems of environmental pollution from industrial and agricultural substances and the harmful impact of such pollution on human health. There has been an increasing interest in using hair mineral analysis for biological monitoring of human population exposure to environmental mineral pollutants. This is because hair has some ideal attributes for such purposes. It can be collected by simple, non-invasive methods, and is easily sampled and stored. Concentrations of most of the toxic trace elements, i.e. mercury and lead, in scalp hair are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in body fluids or other easily accessible tissues. In addition, mineral elements in hair can easily be determined with good precision and sensitivity by nuclear as well as conventional methods of chemical analysis. Despite these apparent advantages of using hair as a biomonitor, serious uncertainty existed, and to some extent still exist, as to the meaningful interpretation of human hair mineral data in environmental health studies. The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), which is the subject of this report, has attempted to tackle this problem by promoting a variety of studies (as distinct from routine monitoring) to investigate the quantitative relationships between internal body burdens of a number of elements of environmental health significance and their respective concentrations in hair. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Significance of elemental analysis of hair as a means of detecting environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, J.; Machida, K.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation of metal concentrations in hair with those in the critical organs was investigated by tracer studies using 51 Cr, 203 Hg, 75 Se, 109 Cd, and 65 Zn in mice. The accumulation of these elements in organs of the mouse (including hair) during acute contamination was confirmed. Chronic studies to observe stable zinc and cadmium concentrations in various organs of the mouse at different ages manifested clear differences between zinc and cadmium accumulation patterns. The tracer study data on metal concentrations in 11 organs and those obtained by chemical analysis were compared. In the case of zinc, the correlation between the two is high, irrespective of the age of the mice; for cadmium no correlation was present in young mice but a correlation was seen in mice at ages of 19 weeks or more. Thus, the age-dependent variation of metals in organs is another factor that has been considered. Values for concentrations of several metals in critical organs and hair were compiled from the literature and compared. These studies led to the following conclusions: Hair is a reasonable indicator of mercury and chromium contamination, as these elements are readily deposited into hair and stay a comparatively long time. The time-dependent shifts of zinc and selenium in hair reflected their kinetics in the whole body, though their concentrations in hair were not higher than those in other organs. Hair was found to be a poor indicator of cadmium contamination, as the concentration of cadmium in hair was not parallel to that in the critical organs of the same mouse

  9. Black holes with gravitational hair in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalon, Andres; Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio

    2011-01-01

    A new class of vacuum black holes for the most general gravity theory leading to second order field equations in the metric in even dimensions is presented. These space-times are locally anti-de Sitter in the asymptotic region, and are characterized by a continuous parameter that does not enter in the conserve charges, nor it can be reabsorbed by a coordinate transformation: it is therefore a purely gravitational hair. The black holes are constructed as a warped product of a two-dimensional space-time, which resembles the r-t plane of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, times a warp factor multiplying the metric of a D-2-dimensional Euclidean base manifold, which is restricted by a scalar equation. It is shown that all the Noether charges vanish. Furthermore, this is consistent with the Euclidean action approach: even though the black hole has a finite temperature, both the entropy and the mass vanish. Interesting examples of base manifolds are given in eight dimensions which are products of Thurston geometries, giving then a nontrivial topology to the black hole horizon. The possibility of introducing a torsional hair for these solutions is also discussed.

  10. Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

  11. Diagnostic significance of elements in hair with esophageal cancer by computerized pattern recognition and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Yin; Liu Pingsheng; Zhang Peiqun; Dong Yulan; Yang Zhenjun; Wu Yue; Li Jingxiu

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 12 elements in 414 hair samples of male adults from esophageal cancer group(ECG), serious esophagus epithelial cell hyperplasia group (SEECHG) and normal control group (NCG) were determined by PIXE. By at t-test it is found that significant differences exist for 10 elements (Si, S, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb and Sr) between ECG and NCG and for 9 elements (Si, P, S, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn) between SEECHG and NCG. The three types of persons mentioned above were classified by Mahalanobis distance discriminatory analysis (one of the computerized pattern recognition methods). The results show that the ratio of correct classification is around 72%, suggesting that this may become a promising method for the early diagnosis of esophageal cancer

  12. Distribution and significance of trace element pollutants in hair of the Iraqi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahristani, H.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.

    1979-01-01

    Hair is an excellent indicator of man's exposure to trace element environmental pollutants. Several hundred human head-hair samples were randomly collected from various regions of Iraq representing the general population. These were analysed by thermal neutron activation analysis and the following elements were instrumentally determined: Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ag, Cd, Sb, La, Au, Hg, Th and U. The average concentrations of these elements and the frequency distributions among the population are given and compared with concentrations from other regions of the world. Except for Br, the elemental concentrations determined for this population are, in general, similar to those reported for other areas. The low consumption of sea foods in Iraq is perhaps the cause of this anomaly. For certain population groups, high levels of Hg, Au, Cr and Se have been measured and the causes are discussed. In certain cases when exposure to a pollutant has taken place, it is shown that the biological half-life of the element in man can be determined by following the concentration variation along the hair strand. The ratio of the concentration in hair to the average body concentration as well as the total body-burden of the element are also determined from these curves. For methylmercury, the average biological half-life in man was found to be 72 days and the ratio of concentration in hair to average body concentration to be 137. (author)

  13. Clinical and Pathogenetic Significance of Osteoassociated Microelements in the Joint Diseases. Report II: Microelementosis in the Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The relevance. Microelementosis (imbalance of certain microelements in the body, ME is considered as one of the most important clinical and pathogenetic components of degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases. ME can play the role of co-factors involved in the processes of articular inflammation. Objective. To study the levels in the hair and to assess the clinical and pathogenetic significance of osteoassociated ME (cobalt — Co, copper — Cu, iron — Fe, lithium — Li, manganese — Mn, lead — Pb, strontium — Sr, zinc — Zn at a variety of arthritis — rheumatoid (RA, chlamydia-induced (ReA, psoriatic (PsA, gouty (PA and osteoarthritis (OA. Material and methods. There were 262 patients under observation, among them 89 persons suffered from RA, 31 — ReA, 35 — PsA, 49 — GA and 58 — OA. The distribution of males and females in these groups was 1 : 2, 2 : 1, 1 : 1, 11 : 1, 1 : 3, respectively, the average age of the patients was 47, 34, 42, 48 and 58 years old, while the duration of clinical manifestations of disease was 10, 4, 11, 7 and 12 years. ME in the hair was examined by atomic absorption spectrometer with electrographite atomizer «SolAAr-Mk2-MOZe». Results. All patients with arthritis are prone to have microelementosis in hair. All nosological forms of joint pathology are associated with a significant decrease of Mn level in hair, when the level of Pb and Fe accumulated. Only RA was characterized by the absence of changes in the hair level of Co, PsA — of Cu, PA — Li and Sr. If, in comparison with healthy persons, the PA proceeds with an increased concentration level of Zn in the hair, the OA is characterized by an increased level of ME, that has a certain differential diagnostic value. There is either direct relationship between the hair and blood serum indexes (Mn, Pb or multi-directional (Fe ones. Microelement blood composition depends on the activity level, clinical and laboratory signs of disease, the

  14. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  16. Spatial model of the gecko foot hair: functional significance of highly specialized non-uniform geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-06

    One of the important problems appearing in experimental realizations of artificial adhesives inspired by gecko foot hair is so-called clusterization. If an artificially produced structure is flexible enough to allow efficient contact with natural rough surfaces, after a few attachment-detachment cycles, the fibres of the structure tend to adhere one to another and form clusters. Normally, such clusters are much larger than original fibres and, because they are less flexible, form much worse adhesive contacts especially with the rough surfaces. Main problem here is that the forces responsible for the clusterization are the same intermolecular forces which attract fibres to fractal surface of the substrate. However, arrays of real gecko setae are much less susceptible to this problem. One of the possible reasons for this is that ends of the seta have more sophisticated non-uniformly distributed three-dimensional structure than that of existing artificial systems. In this paper, we simulated three-dimensional spatial geometry of non-uniformly distributed branches of nanofibres of the setal tip numerically, studied its attachment-detachment dynamics and discussed its advantages versus uniformly distributed geometry.

  17. Hydrogels from feather keratin show higher viscoelastic properties and cell proliferation than those from hair and wool keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Yussef; Bandara, Nandika; Ullah, Aman; Wu, Jianping

    2018-09-01

    Hydrogel prepared from keratin shows potential applications in tissue engineering. However, the importance of the keratin sources has not been considered. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the rheological (storage modulus), physical (porosity, pore size, swelling capacity, and water contact angle) and in vitro cell compatibility of hydrogel scaffolds prepared from various keratin sources. Keratins were characterized by means of their molecular weight, amino acid composition, thermal and conformational properties. Hydrogels from chicken feather keratins demonstrated substantially higher storage modulus (G') than hair and wool keratin hydrogels. However, higher swelling capacity (>3000%) was determined in hair and wool over feather keratin (1500%) hydrogels. Our results suggest that small molecular weight and β-sheet conformation of feather keratin (~10 kDa) facilitated the self-assembly of rigid hydrogels through disulfide bond re-oxidation. Whereas, high molecular weight (10-75 kDa) stretchable α-helix conformation in hair and wool keratins resulted in weaker hydrogels. The cell cultures using fibroblasts showed the highest proliferation rate on chicken feather keratin hydrogel scaffolds. After 15 days of culture, partial breakdown of keratin fibers was observed. Results indicate that stiffer avian keratins can be used to fabricate more mechanically robust biomaterials than mammalian keratins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  19. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  20. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  2. Hair Removal

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    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  3. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  4. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  5. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  6. Nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair, evaluation of the significance of elemental deposition in hair to uptake and distribution in the body. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study attempts to correlate the level in hair of Cd, a major trace pollutant, vis-a-vis the element concentration in internal tissues and organs of experimental rats using the radioisotope tracer technique. In acute experiments rats were administered single i.v. injections of 109 Cd or sup(115m)Cd at different doses. In the chronic exposure experiments rats were fed inactive Cd as CdCl 2 and were later administered 109 Cd via i.v. injection at various intervals following the CdCl 2 supply. Synchronised hair cycles in rats were induced by plucking in both groups of experiments. Sections of hair were found to reflect the amount of Cd present in blood at the time of their growth, and this Cd level was proportional to the administered Cd dose. The study does not, however, show a direct relationship between the Cd level in hair and the respective element concentration in such critical organs as liver and kidneys. Under the conditions of chronic exposure the Cd content in hair was also observed to be proportional to the level of intake, and the significance of this proportionality appears to vary with the duration of exposure

  7. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  8. Is there any relationship between decreased AgNOR protein synthesis and human hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz, R; Tasdemir, S; Dogan, H

    2012-11-01

    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated proteins (AgNORs) play roles in cell proliferation and a variety of diseases. We attempted to determine whether decreased NOR protein synthesis causes human hair loss. We studied 21 healthy males who suffered hair loss on the frontal/vertex portion of the head. Hair root cells from normal and hair loss sites were stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per site were evaluated and the AgNOR number and NORa/TNa proportions of individual cells were determined using a computer program. The cells from normal sites had significantly higher AgNOR counts than those from hair loss sites. Also, the cells from the normal sites had significantly higher NORa/TNa than cells from the hair loss sites. In the normal sites, the cells demonstrated more NOR protein synthesis than cells in hair loss sites. Therefore, decreased NOR protein synthesis appears to be related to hair loss in humans.

  9. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  10. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  11. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Loss of normal anagen hair in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpazhooh, M; Mahmoudi, H R; Rezakhani, S; Valikhani, M; Naraghi, Z S; Mohammadi, Y; Habibi, A; Chams-Davatchi, C

    2015-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a known cause of loss of 'normal' anagen hair; that is, shedding of intact anagen hairs covered by root sheaths. However, studies on this subject are limited. To investigate anagen hair shedding in patients with PV, and ascertain its association with disease severity. In total, 96 consecutive patients with PV (new patients or patients in relapse) who were admitted to the dermatology wards of a tertiary hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, PV phenotype, disease severity and presence of scalp lesions were recorded. A group of 10-20 hairs were pulled gently from different areas of the scalp (lesional and nonlesional skin) in all patients, and anagen hairs were counted. Disease severity was graded according to Harman score. Anagen hair was obtained by pull test in 59 of the 96 patients (61.5%), of whom 2 had normal scalp. The mean ± SD anagen hair count was 5.9 ± 7.6 (range 0-31). In univariate analysis, anagen hair loss (P hair count was significantly higher in the severe (mean 6.83 ± 7.89) than the moderate (mean 1.06 ± 1.94) subgroup (P hair loss (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05-1.28, P hair loss was an independent predictor of the disease severity. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  14. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  16. Significance of fingernail and toenail mercury concentrations as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury exposure in relation to segmental hair mercury concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing M; Domingo, José L; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of mercury (Hg) concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition for detecting prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). Total Hg concentrations were measured in 54 paired samples of fingernails, toenails, maternal blood, and maternal hair (1cm incremental segments from the scalp toward the tip) collected at 4th weeks of (early) pregnancy, and the same specimens and cord blood collected at parturition. Strong correlations were observed between Hg concentrations in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy (r=0.923, pMercury concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition represented strong correlations with those in cord blood (r=0.803, pMercury in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy reflected the maternal Hg body burden level approximately 5 months retroactively. At parturition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails also showed strong correlations with those in cord blood. In addition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails at parturition reflected more recent MeHg exposure, compared with those at early pregnancy. These results suggest that fingernails and toenails at parturition are useful biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure for mothers and fetuses, especially during the third-trimester of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (P EOCl EPOCl <0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  18. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  19. The Association Between Men's Sexist Attitudes and Facial Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Dixson, Barnaby J

    2016-05-01

    Facial hair, like many masculine secondary sexual traits, plays a significant role in perceptions of an array of sociosexual traits in men. While there is consensus that beards enhance perceptions of masculinity, age, social dominance, and aggressiveness, the perceived attractiveness of facial hair varies greatly across women. Given the ease with which facial hair can be groomed and removed entirely, why should some men retain beards and others choose to remove them? We hypothesized that men with relatively sexist attitudes would be more likely to allow their facial hair to grow than men with less sexist attitudes. Men from the USA (n = 223) and India (n = 309) completed an online survey measuring demographic variables, ambivalent sexism, and facial hair status. After controlling for demographic variables, men with facial hair were significantly higher in hostile sexism than clean-shaven men; hostile sexism was a significant predictor of facial hair status over and above demographic variables; and facial hair was more frequent among ambivalent and hostile sexists than among benevolent and non-sexists. It is suggested that sexist men choose to grow facial hair because it maximizes sexual dimorphism and augments perceived masculinity and dominance.

  20. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  1. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  2. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  3. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  4. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Eight-month Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Roberta; Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO ® ; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19-63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO ® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p oil treatment group was better than each of the other two treatment groups by at least 117.6 percent and 234.9 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 316.5 percent and 312 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively, thereby achieving the primary efficacy objective. Subjects favored the

  5. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  6. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair - significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1984 - September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinova, L [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    1988-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to establish a possibility to use hair as a monitor for internal body burden with toxic metals. For this purpose samples of human organs (heart, spleen, liver, kidney) and hair were analysed by neutron activation analysis and radiochemical techniques for the determination of As, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Se, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na, S. 6 refs, 4 tabs.

  7. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  8. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  9. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  10. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in hair of obese and non-obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J; Sauvé, B; Tokmakejian, S; Koren, G; Van Uum, S

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis has been demonstrated to accurately reflect exposure to drug abuse, environmental toxins and exogenous hormones. We tested the feasibility of measuring cortisol and testosterone in hair of healthy and obese subjects. A modified immunoassay (ELISA) originally developed for saliva was used. Hair, urine and blood samples were collected from young non-obese and obese patients. Perceived stress (PSS) was measured using a validated questionnaire. There was no difference in PSS between non-obese and obese subjects. Hair cortisol levels were significantly correlated with weight (r = 0.27, p cortisol levels did not correlate with age or urinary cortisol. There was a negative correlation between hair testosterone and age (r = -0.47, p cortisol over hair testosterone (C/T) was higher in the obese group than in the young non-obese group. The C/T ratio correlated positively with age (r = 0.56, p cortisol levels increase, while hair testosterone levels decrease with obesity. The hair C/T ratio was significantly correlated with age, BMI and waist circumference better than hair cortisol or testosterone alone. As hair collection is non-invasive and is not influenced by moment-to-moment variations, the measurement of hormones in hair is a useful tool in research and possibly clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  12. The significance of mineral pollutants in hair for the assessment of the body burden and the concentration in the critical organs in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    If the content of an element in hair of an individual is used for the assessment of health risk of that person it is of special importance to know if the hair analytical data reflect the body burden or the content of the organ or tissues at risk. Ideally the content in hair should rise and fall in parallel to an increase or decrease of the body burden or the content in the critical organs. It was the aim of this project to study the transfer of Hg, methyl-mercury and Zn to hair and to compare it with the levels simultaneously observed in the total body and the relevant organs under controlled experimental conditions in an animal model. In addition, a similar study on As and the analyses of two experiments of a long term study on Cd exposure were also included. 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Skrivanek, O.; Umlaufova, M.; Hovorka, V.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  14. Determining trace element in hair of children with mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhilan; Gu Bomei; Jia Meixiang

    1992-01-01

    Seven trace elements in the hair come from 29 mental retardation children and 29 normal children have been analysed by INAA and XRF. There are significant differences for Fe and Sc between the two groups. The average value of Pb in the hair of the mental retardation children is higher than that of the normal children. Although Zn is very important for children growing, there is no significant difference between two children groups

  15. Polonium-210 concentration in the hair of 51 radium dial painters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkang, Zeng; Nanxiang, Li

    1984-07-01

    The /sup 210/Po concentration in the hair of 51 radium dial painters (one group of 29 male, and the another group of 22 female) was reported in this paper. It was found that the /sup 210/Po concentration in the hair of both the male and female painters were significantly higher than that of the controls. A correlation has also been observed between the /sup 210/Po concentration in the hair and the working ages of the male painters.

  16. Gel network shampoo formulation and hair health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J M; Brown, M A; Felts, T J; Hutton, H D; Vatter, M L; Whitaker, S; Wireko, F C; Styczynski, P B; Li, C; Henry, I D

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work was to create a shampoo formula that contains a stable ordered gel network structure that delivers fatty alcohols inside hair. X-ray diffraction (SAXS and WAXS), SEM and DSC have been used to confirm formation of the ordered Lβ gel network with fatty alcohol (cetyl and stearyl alcohols) and an anionic surfactant (SLE1S). Micro-autoradiography and extraction methods using GC-MS were used to confirm penetration of fatty alcohols into hair, and cyclic fatigue testing was used to measure hair strength. In this work, evidence of a stable Lβ ordered gel network structure created from cetyl and stearyl alcohols and anionic surfactant (SLE1S) is presented, and this is confirmed via scanning electron microscopy images showing lamella layers and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showing new melting peaks vs the starting fatty alcohols. Hair washed for 16 repeat cycles with this shampoo showed penetration of fatty alcohols from the gel network into hair as confirmed by a differential extraction method with GC-MS and by radiolabelling of stearyl alcohol and showing its presence inside hair cross-sections. The gel network role in delivering fatty alcohol inside hair is demonstrated by comparing with a shampoo with added fatty alcohol not in an ordered gel network structure. The hair containing fatty alcohol was measured via the Dia-stron cyclic fatigue instrument and showed a significantly higher number of cycles to break vs control. The formation of a stable gel network was confirmed in the formulated shampoo, and it was demonstrated that this gel network is important to deliver cetyl and stearyl alcohols into hair. The presence of fatty alcohol inside hair was shown to deliver a hair strength benefit via cyclic fatigue testing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  18. Perception of Hair Transplant for Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Kristin L; Ishii, Masaru; Joseph, Andrew; Su, Peiyi; Nellis, Jason; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    Hair transplant is among the most common cosmetic services sought by men, with more than 11 000 procedures performed in 2014. Despite its growing popularity, the effect of hair transplant on societal perceptions of youth, attractiveness, or facets of workplace and social success is unknown. To determine whether hair transplant improves observer ratings of age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability in men treated for androgenetic alopecia and to quantify the effect of hair transplant on each of these domains. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted from November 10 to December 6, 2015, using web-based surveys featuring photographs of men before and after hair transplant. One hundred twenty-two participants recruited through various social media platforms successfully completed the survey. Observers were shown 2 side-by-side images of each man and asked to compare the image on the left with the one on the right. Of 13 pairs of images displayed, 7 men had undergone a hair transplant procedure and 6 had served as controls. Observers evaluated each photograph using various metrics, including age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to understand the effect of hair transplant on observer perceptions. Planned posthypothesis testing was used to identify which variables changed significantly as a result of the transplant. Observer ratings of age (in number of years younger) and attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability (on a scale of 0 to 100; scores higher than 50 indicate a positive change). Of the 122 participants in the survey, 58 were men (47.5%); mean (range) age was 27.1 (18-52) years. The initial multivariate analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect for transplant (Wilks λ = 0.9646; P hair transplant on observers' perceptions of age (mean [SD] number of years younger, 3.6 [2.9] years; P hair transplant. Participants also

  19. Hair root diameter measurement as an indicator of protein deficiency in nonhospitalized alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregar, R R; Gordon, M; Whitney, E N

    1978-02-01

    Protein status of alcoholics admitted to a detoxification center was investigated with a view to adapting a hair root test for use in screening for protein deficiency. Hair root volume and hair root diameter had previously been shown to correlate well with hair root protein and to be sensitive indicators of protein deficiency. Hair root volumes in this study correlated well with mean maximum hair root diameters (n = 35, r = 0.9), which were simpler to measure, so diameter measurements were used. Mean maximum hair root diameters (range 0.02 to 0.19 mm) correlated with plasma RNase concentrations (range 6000 to 14,000 units/ml; n = 17, r = -0.7). Mean hair diameters of 84 alcoholics averaged 0.0864 +/- 0.0366 mm; those of 25 nonalcoholics were significantly greater: 0.100 +/- 0.0254 mm (P less than 0.05). Frequency of occurrence of hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less was significantly higher in 71 alcoholics (29.5%) than in 23 nonalcoholics (8.6%) matched by age. Mean hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less therefore can be used to signify protein deficiency where more expensive or technically demanding tests are not feasible. Protein deficiency occurs extensively in non hospitalized alcoholics. This method enables staff to single out those clients most likely to be in need of nutritional counseling and therapy.

  20. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  1. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  2. The prevalence of coeliac disease is significantly higher in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariné, M; Farre, C; Alsina, M; Vilar, P; Cortijo, M; Salas, A; Fernández-Bañares, F; Rosinach, M; Santaolalla, R; Loras, C; Marquès, T; Cusí, V; Hernández, M I; Carrasco, A; Ribes, J; Viver, J M; Esteve, M

    2011-02-01

    Some limited studies of coeliac disease have shown higher frequency of coeliac disease in infancy and adolescence than in adulthood. This finding has remained unnoticed and not adequately demonstrated. To assess whether there are age and gender differences in coeliac disease prevalence. A total of 4230 subjects were included consecutively (1 to ≥80 years old) reproducing the reference population by age and gender. Sample size was calculated assuming a population-based coeliac disease prevalence of 1:250. After an interim analysis, the paediatric sample was expanded (2010 children) due to high prevalence in this group. Anti-transglutaminase and antiendomysial antibodies were determined and duodenal biopsy was performed if positive. Log-linear models were fitted to coeliac disease prevalence by age allowing calculation of percentage change of prevalence. Differences between groups were compared using Chi-squared test. Twenty-one subjects had coeliac disease (male/female 1:2.5). Coeliac disease prevalence in the total population was 1:204. Coeliac disease prevalence was higher in children (1:71) than in adults (1:357) (P = 0.00005). A significant decrease of prevalence in older generations was observed [change of prevalence by age of -5% (95% CI: -7.58 to -2.42%)]. In the paediatric expanded group (1-14 years), a decrease of coeliac disease prevalence was also observed [prevalence change: -17% (95% CI: -25.02 to -6.10)]. The prevalence of coeliac disease in childhood was five times higher than in adults. Whether this difference is due to environmental factors influencing infancy, or latency of coeliac disease in adulthood, remains to be demonstrated in prospective longitudinal studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  4. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  5. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  6. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  7. External Stakeholders of Higher Education Institutions in Poland: Their Identification and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska-Piatek, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing changes in the management systems of higher education, the issue of higher education institutions' (HEIs) relationships with external stakeholders are of key importance. This article discusses this problem from the perspective of Polish higher education system. The aim of it is to answer the following questions: (1)…

  8. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  9. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. ASSESSING SELF-STUDY WORK’S SIGNIFICANT SKILLS FOR SUCCESSFUL LEARNING IN THE HIGHER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Milovanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the problem of organizing students’ independent work/self-study is not new, but the changes in the higher school for the last two decades show that the experience accumulated in the traditional educational model can be applied only when it is processed in the present-day conditions. The article analyses the innovative component of the educational process in terms of a significant increase in the volume of compulsory independent work in the university. Particular attention is paid to determining the levels of the formation of skills for independent work in terms of students’ readiness for its implementa¬tion. The aim of the research is to identify the most significant skills of independent work for successful study at the university. Materials and Methods: the research is based on general scholarly methods: analysis, comparison, generalisation. A questionnaire survey was carried out and a correlation analysis of the results was presented. The mathematical statistics methods in Excel application were u sed for processing the survey data. Results: the article focused on the relevance of formation the students’ ability to work independently in the learning process. Requirements for professionals recognize the need for knowledge and skills, but more importantly, the ability and readiness to complete this knowledge and be in a state of continuous education and self-education. In turn, readiness to self-education cannot exist without independent work. The ratio of students to work independently and their skills’ levels in this area of the gnostic, design, structural, organisational and communicative blocks were identified because o f the research. Discussion and Conclusions: the levels of the formation of the skills for independent work influence on the success of the learning. There is a correlation between indicators of achievement and the ability to work independently. Organisation and communication skills have significant

  11. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated dorsal skin of mice, gold thread or polyglycolic acid (PGA) thread, similarly to 5% minoxidil, significantly increased the number of hair follicles on day 14 after implantation. And, hair re-growth promotion in the gold threadimplanted mice were significantly higher than that in PGA thread group on day 11 after depilation. In particular, the skin tissue of gold thread-implanted mice showed stronger PCNA staining and higher collagen density compared with control mice. These results indicate that gold thread implantation can be an effective way to promote hair re-growth although further confirmatory study is needed for more information on therapeutic mechanisms and long-term safety. PMID:29399026

  12. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  13. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  14. Hair geochemical composition of children from Vilnius kindergartens as an indicator of environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraškevičius, Ričardas; Zinkutė, Rimantė; Gedminienė, Laura; Stankevičius, Žilvinas

    2017-05-23

    The research is based on analysis data of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn (metals) and S in the hair of 47 girls and 63 boys from eight Vilnius kindergartens and the distribution pattern of high metal concentrations and bioavailability in snow-cover dust, also dust samples from vents of characteristic pollution sources. The kindergartens were selected according to topsoil total contamination index and dust-related indices. Significantly higher Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations in the hair of girls (means are 1.1, 1.9, 1.3, 1.2 times higher) and the differences between hair of genders according to inter-element correlation and clustering were found. Analysis of Spearman correlation coefficients between metal concentrations in hair of each gender and dust metal concentrations or metal loading rates at their residence sites revealed that for Mn, Cu and Zn, they are insignificant, while for Cr, Ni, Pb and V, they are mainly significant positive (except V in female hair). The correlation of the contents of Cr, Ni and V in dust with respective concentrations in hair was more significant for boys (p polluted kindergartens in comparison with control. It was concluded that relationship between metal concentrations in hair and dust-related indices is more expressed for children's residence sites than for their kindergarten sites. The gender-based grouping and site-by-site study design are recommended in the studies of reflection of environmental exposure in hair.

  15. Organophosphate esters and phthalate esters in human hair from rural and urban areas, Chongqing, China: Concentrations, composition profiles and sources in comparison to street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Lu, Jun-Feng; Ma, Jing-Ye; Wang, Huan; Du, Xiao-Fan

    2018-06-01

    Human hair and street dust from rural and urban areas in Chongqing were collected to analyze Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Concentrations of OPEs in urban hair were significantly higher than those in rural hair, whereas PAEs concentrations in rural hair were significantly higher than those in urban hair. Different composition patterns of OPEs were observed in rural and urban hair, where tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris (butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the dominating analogues in rural hair, accounting for 62.1% of the OPEs burden, and tris (methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) exhibited a high contribution in urban hair, responsible for 51.3% of total OPEs, which differed from the composition profiles in corresponding street dust. Analogous composition patterns of PAEs were found in hair of both areas. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the most abundant analogues in hair samples, while DEHP was the predominant analogue in dust samples. No clear tendency was obtained between the increasing ages and the concentrations of both compounds. Most OPEs and PAEs congeners showed significantly positive correlation with one another in rural hair. On the contrary, different correlation patterns were observed in urban hair for OPEs and PAEs, indicating multiple or additional sources existed in urban areas. Significant correlations of OPEs and PAEs were found between hair and corresponding street dust samples, but poor correlations of OPEs and PAEs were observed between rural hair and rural indoor dust, suggesting that street dust may be a predominant exogenous source for human exposure to OPEs and PAEs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  17. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  18. [Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte-stimulating hormone expression in mouse hair follicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Jian-wei; An, Jing; Jiang, Xuan

    2006-12-01

    To observe the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) expression in C57BL/6J mouse hair follicles, and investigate the role of Tribulus terrestris extract in activation, proliferation, epidermal migration of dormant hair follicle melanocytes. The aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris was administered orally in specific pathogen-free C57BL/6J mouse at the daily dose equivalent to 1 g/1 kg in adult human, and the expression and distribution of MSH in the mouse hair follicles was observed with immunohistochemistry. The positivity rate of MSH expression in the hair follicle melanocytes was 75% in mice treated with the extract, significantly higher than the rate of only 18.75% in the control group (PTribulus terrestris can significantly increase MSH expression in the hair follicle melanocytes by activating tyrosinase activity and promoting melanocyte proliferation, melanine synthesis, and epidermal migration of dormant melanocytes.

  19. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  1. Solar cells from 120 PPMA carbon-contaminated feedstock without significantly higher reverse current or shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Coletti, G. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In a bid to drive down the cost of silicon wafers, several options for solar grade silicon feedstock have been investigated over the years. All methods have in common that the resulting silicon contains higher levels of impurities like dopants, oxygen, carbon or transition metals, the type and level of impurities depending on the raw materials and refining processes. In this work wafers from a p-type mc-Si ingot made with feedstock contaminated with 120 ppma of carbon have been processed into solar cells together with reference uncontaminated feedstock from semiconductor grade polysilicon with <0.4 ppma carbon. The results show that comparable reverse current, shunts, and efficiencies can be reached for both types of wafers. Gettering and defect hydrogenation effectiveness also did not deviate from the reference. Electroluminescence pictures do not show increased hotspot formation, even at -16V.

  2. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  3. Body to scalp: Evolving trends in body hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia.

  4. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  5. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  6. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  7. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, Christopher M.; Koller, Claudia E.; Rodger, John C.; MacFarlane, Geoff R.

    2009-01-01

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  10. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Christopher M. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Centre for the Risk Management of Bushfires, Institute for Conservation Biology and Law, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Koller, Claudia E. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Rodger, John C. [Marsupial Research Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); MacFarlane, Geoff R., E-mail: geoff.macfarlane@newcastle.edu.au [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  11. Neutron activation analysis of children's hair from Ongudai district of Altai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorina, D.Yu.; Kozyreva, M.S.; Batsevich, V.A.; Goryajnova, Z.I.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Frontas'eva, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study neutron activation analysis was used to determine short-lived isotopes (Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, V, Mn, Cu and I) in the hair of Altai children from four villages in Ongudai district of the Altai Republic. Data for 54 boys and 132 girls at the age of 7 to 17 were analyzed. Significantly higher content of sodium, aluminum and chlorine was observed in the hair of boys over girls. Concentrations of magnesium and calcium were significantly higher in the hair of girls. Iodine, copper, manganese and sulfur concentrations in the hair of boys and girls are close to each other, the differences between the sexes are not significant. Median concentrations of the studied elements in the hair of boys and girls were, respectively: Na - 75 and 50; Mg - 49 and 62; Al - 21 and 13; S - 41150 and 39850; Cl - 1020 and 390; Ca - 608 and 973; Mn - 1.1 and 0.82; Cu - 9; I - 0.2 g/g. It was shown that the high content of calcium and magnesium is observed in the hair of children living in rural areas with high hardness and salinity of drinking water. Iodine concentrations in the hair of studied cohort of children is low, especially in puberty

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  13. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  14. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G. Stetter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi.

  15. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-01-01

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 μg/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. ► We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. ► The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. ► High DDTs’ levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. ► The patients’ exposure to chemicals might have played a role in MND development.

  16. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzatzarakis, Manolis N. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might

  17. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  18. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  19. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  20. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  1. The impact of lifestyle factors on age-related differences in hair trace element content in pregnant women in the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Voronina, Irina; Terekhina, Olga; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Bohan, Tatiana G; Agarkova, Lyubov A; Kovas, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in the regulation of human reproduction, while advanced age may have a significant impact on trace element metabolism. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of lifestyle factors on age-related differences in hair trace element content in pregnant women in the third trimester. A total of 124 pregnant women aged 20–29 (n = 72) and 30–39 (n = 52) were ex- amined. Scalp hair trace element content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D (Perkin Elmer, USA) after microwave digestion. The results showed that the elder pregnant women had 36% (p = 0.009), 14% (p = 0.045), and 45% (p = 0.044) lower hair Zn, V, and Cd content, and 16% (p = 0.044) higher hair B levels – in comparison to the respective younger group values. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the age of the women had a significant influence on hair V and Zn levels. B content was also significantly influenced by age at first intercourse, smoking status, and specific dietary habits. None of the lifestyle factors were associated with hair Cd content in pregnant women. Hair V levels were also affected by following a special diet. Interestingly, alcohol intake did not have a significant impact on hair trace element content. These data indicate that lifestyle factors have a significant influence on age-related changes in hair trace elements during pregnancy that may impact the outcome of pregnancy.

  2. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M J Peters

    Full Text Available Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS], COPE, cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs, and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis. Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample

  3. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  4. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    10, hair decreased from average 21.26 ± 5.72 mm to 4.50 ± 0.83 mm. On the sheared side a hair growth of 26 mm was observed during the first two weeks, increasing to 40 mm for the next two weeks and at the end of 28 days there was still a significant difference (Z= -3.195; P= 0.001 for the non sheared hair (19.42 ± 7.33 mm and sheared hair (11.15 ± 3.23 mm. Such procedure was done by the beginning of August, still winter time. Using the blade size 30, sheared hair had an average of 4.76 ± 1.1 mm. A 24 mm hair growth was observed for the first two weeks and 20 mm for the next two weeks, decreasing its growth speed to 9 mm and after 57 days no significant difference was observed between sheared side (11.47 ± 5.61 mm and non sheared side (14.78 ± 8.06 mm, Z= -1.915; P= 0.055. Second cut was performed by  the beginning of October, spring time, period where there is a change of hair in European cattle  from winter season (thin and long hair to summer season (thick and short hair, starting on spring time. In this work we could observe the fast growing of hair when cut was done in winter time and the closer to the skin the better the benefits to the animals, as heat tolerance and fewer tick infestations. If shearing is done in spring time, it must be every 45-50 days.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metals on Occupationally Exposed Workers from Hair Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of human hair as a tool in assessing changes and abnormalities in human bodies has been increasing for last decades since it may reflect the health status or environmental condition of habitation or working place of individuals as well as population groups. Compared to other body tissue or fluids, hair provides an ease of elemental analysis especially in reflecting the long-term exposure. This research was conducted to determine the elemental content especially heavy metals, since they are bioaccumulated in human body organs and impact human health, in hair of workshop workers and traffic services officers as exposed groups and its comparison with control group and references data for assessing of occupational exposure. Thirty-five automotive workshop workers and 32 traffic services officers’ hair specimens were collected in Bandung, while hair specimens of the control group were collected from 43 healthy individuals. The elemental concentrations in hair specimen were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA for mercury and chromium, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS for lead and arsenic.  The accuracy of the method was evaluated using GBW 07601 human hair certified reference material (CRM and it was found to give good results in accordance with the certificate values. It was found that chromium, lead, and arsenic hair concentration in exposed groups (0.88, 10.7, and 0.051 mg/kg, respectively were higher than in control group (0.27, 4.52, and 0.045 mg/kg, respectively, while mercury hair concentration of traffic services officers were higher than control group but mercury hair concentration of automotive workshop workers were lower than in control group (1.41 mg/kg. The t-test statistical results shown that mercury concentrations in one exposed group did not differ significantly from the control, but other exposed groups showed otherwise. The level of mercury in hair is strongly attributed not only to environmental

  6. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  7. Quantification of hair cortisol concentration in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Tukan, Alyson N; Rigodanzo, Anna D; Reusch, Ryan T; Brasky, Kathleen M; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2018-06-04

    Quantifying cortisol concentration in hair is a non-invasive biomarker of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, and thus can provide important information on laboratory animal health. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and capuchins (Cebus apella) are New World primates increasingly used in biomedical and neuroscience research, yet published hair cortisol concentrations for these species are limited. Review of the existing published hair cortisol values from marmosets reveals highly discrepant values and the use of variable techniques for hair collection, processing, and cortisol extraction. In this investigation we utilized a well-established, standardized protocol to extract and quantify cortisol from marmoset (n = 12) and capuchin (n = 4) hair. Shaved hair samples were collected from the upper thigh during scheduled exams and analyzed via methanol extraction and enzyme immunoassay. In marmosets, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 2,710 to 6,267 pg/mg and averaged 4,070 ± 304 pg/mg. In capuchins, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 621 to 2,089 pg/mg and averaged 1,092 ± 338 pg/mg. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly different between marmosets and capuchins, with marmosets having higher concentrations than capuchins. The incorporation of hair cortisol analysis into research protocols provides a non-invasive measure of HPA axis activity over time, which offers insight into animal health. Utilization of standard protocols across laboratories is essential to obtaining valid measurements and allowing for valuable future cross-species comparisons. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hair analysis and its concordance with self-report for drug users presenting in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Oden, Neal; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    Secondary analysis using data from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network randomized trial (NCT # 01207791), in which 1285 adult ED patients endorsing moderate to severe problems related to drug use were recruited from 6 US academic hospitals. To investigate the utility of hair analysis in drug use disorder trials with infrequent visits, and its concordance with Timeline Follow Back (TLFB). This study compared the self-reported drug use on the TLFB instrument with the biological measure of drug use from hair analysis for four major drug classes (Cannabis, Cocaine, Prescribed Opioids and Street Opioids). Both hair analysis and TLFB were conducted at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-up visit and each covered a 90-day recall period prior to the visit. The concordance between the hair sample results and the TLFB was high for cannabis and street opioids, but was low to moderate for cocaine and prescribed opioids. Under-reporting of drug use given the positive hair sample was always significantly lower for the drug the study participant noted as their primary drug of choice compared with other drugs the participant reported taking, irrespective of whether the drug of choice was cannabis, cocaine, street opioids and prescribed opioids. Over-reporting of drug use given the negative hair sample was always significantly higher for the drug of choice, except for cocaine. This study extends the literature on hair analysis supporting its use as a secondary outcome measure in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  10. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    that proper hair growth can be expected after about 9 months after transplantation. Preoperative laboratory studies to be performed include Hb%, blood counts including platelet count, bleeding and clotting time (or prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, blood chemistry profile including sugar. Methods : Follicular unit hair transplantation is the gold standard method of hair transplantation; it preserves the natural architecture of the hair units and gives natural results. Mini-micro-grafting is a method hair transplantation involving randomly assorted groups of hairs, with out consideration of their natural configuration of follicular units, under loupe or naked eye examination. Mini-grafts consist of 4-5-6 hairs while micro-grafts consist of 1-3 hairs. Punch gives ugly cosmetically unacceptable results and should no longer be used. Patient Selection : Hair transplantation can be performed in any person with pattern hair loss, with good donor area, in good general health and reasonable expectations. Caution should be exercised in, very young patients whose early alopecia is still evolving, patients with Norwood grade VI or VII with poor density, patients with unrealistic expectations, and patients with significant systemic health problems. Medical therapy: Most patients will need concurrent medical treatment since the process of pattern hair loss is progressive and may affect the remaining hairs. Manpower : Hair transplantation is a team effort. Particularly, performing large sessions, needs a well trained team of trained assistants. Anesthesia: 2% lignocaine with adrenaline is generally used for anesthesia; tumescent technique is preferred. Bupivacaine has been used by some authors in view of its prolonged duration of action. Donor dissection : Strip dissection by single blade is recommended for donor area. Steromicroscopic dissection is recommended for dissection of hair units in follicular unit transplantation; mini-micro-grafting does not need

  11. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  12. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Caroline; Cheniti, Ahsène; Connétable, Sophie; Piccardi, Nathalie; Vincenzi, Colombina; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a frequent and distressing condition. To evaluate vs. control, the effects on hair loss of a 6-month supplementation with specific omega 3&6 and antioxidants. One hundred and twenty healthy female subjects participated in this 6-month, randomized, comparative study. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density evaluated on standardized photographs. Secondary endpoints included changes in telogen hair percentage and diameter distribution of anagen hair (>40 µm vs. ≤40 µm) measured by trichogram. Overall changes in hair density and diameter were also measured by trichometer and by subjects' self-assessment. After 6 months of treatment, photograph assessment demonstrated a superior improvement in the supplemented group (P hair percentage was significantly (P hair (>40 µm) increased compared to the control group. The trichometer index increased in the supplemented group, while it decreased in the control group. A large majority of supplemented subjects reported a reduction in hair loss (89.9% of subjects at 6 months), as well as an improvement in hair diameter (86.1%) and hair density (87.3%). A 6-month supplementation with omega 3&6 and antioxidants acts efficiently against hair loss in improving hair density and reducing the telogen percentage and the proportion of miniaturized anagen hair. Objectively measured improvements were confirmed by the subjects' perception of efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Superiority of dutasteride over finasteride in hair regrowth and reversal of miniaturization in men with androgenetic alopecia: A randomized controlled open-label, evaluator-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit J.S Shanshanwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride and dutasteride are inhibitors of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride inhibits both type I and type II 5-alpha-reductase while finasteride inhibits only the type II enzyme. As both isoenzymes are present in hair follicles, it is likely that dutasteride is more effective than finasteride. Aims: To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of dutasteride and finasteride in men with androgenetic alopecia. Methods: Men with androgenetic alopecia between 18 and 40 years of age were randomized to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride or 1 mg finasteride daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were hair counts (thick and thin in the target area from modified phototrichograms and global photography evaluation by blinded and non-blinded investigators. The secondary efficacy variable was subjective assessment using a preset questionnaire. Patients were assessed monthly for side effects. Results: Ninety men with androgenetic alopecia were recruited. The increase in total hair count per cm[2] representing new growth was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 223 hair; at 24 weeks- 246 hair compared to finasteride group (baseline- 227 hair; at 24 weeks- 231 hair. The decrease in thin hair count per cm[2] suggestive of reversal of miniaturization was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 65 hair; at 24 weeks- 57 hair compared to finasteride group (baseline- 67 hair; at 24 weeks- 66 hair. Both the groups showed a similar side effect profile with sexual dysfunction being the most common and reversible side effect. Limitations: Limitations include the short duration of the study (6 months, the small sample size and the fact that it was an open-label study. Conclusions: Dutasteride was shown to be more efficacious than finasteride and the side-effect profiles were comparable.

  14. Effects of topical application of EGCG on testosterone-induced hair loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Young; Up No, Sun; Kim, Min Ho; Kim, Hei Sung; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effect of topical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on testosterone (T)-induced hair loss in mice. Marked hair loss was observed at the T-injected site, and topical EGCG significantly reduced the hair loss (P hair loss by apoptosis of the hair follicles rather than through the androgen metabolic pathway and also saw that T-induced apoptosis of hair follicles was reduced by topical EGCG. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  16. Non-invasive method distinguishes chronic telogen effluvium from mild female pattern hair loss: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Caroline; Teixeira, Fernanda; Ferraro, Daniela A; Soares, Tania C B; Moraes, Aparecida M; Cintra, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    The distinction between chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is important because of their different prognosis and treatment. Non-invasive methods have been described to be useful in differentiating FPHL from CTE. This prospective study investigated the use of the washing method to differentiate CTE from mild FPHL. Twenty patients with CTE and 17 with FPHL were recruited and followed for 18 months. The diagnosis was established through clinical, laboratory, and histological studies. The patients were asked to abstain from washing their hair for 5 days and then shampoo and collect all hair shed in the process. Hair shafts were then counted and divided into two groups: up to 3 cm in length or longer. In the CTE group, the mean hair count was high (438), and in all cases, hairs comprised hairs, the higher was the density of terminal follicles seen histologically. The CTE group presented a greater number of patients with serum iron values <70 μg/dl. Ferritin levels ranged from 6.98 to 128.33, average of 66.65 (CTE), and 16.5-304.8, average of 114.97 ng/ml (FPHL), but no significant differences were found. The washing test can be useful to avoid biopsy procedures. Iron serum levels are possibly an additional parameter that may improve CTE diagnosis if combined with an earlier test. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead in human hair as healthy indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kherbik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and Lead level were examined in hair of patients and healthy donors. Hair sample were collected and analyzed for their contents of the trace metals (Cd, Pb) by Voltammetry. It was found that the existence of Cadmium and Lead in the hair was significantly higher in the patients (19.7 μg/g - 38.2 μg/g) for lead, (0.4 μg/g - 2.1 μg/g) for cadmium. On the other hand, the healthy had lower concentration (7.8 μg/g - 8.8 μg/g) for Lead, (0.2 μg/g - 0.3 μg/g) for cadmium. In this study, hairs were analyzed to find the effect these elements on health. Correlation coefficients between the levels of the elements in hair found in this study showed that hair is a good indicator of Cadmium and Lead in the hair. The method is applicable as a tool for monitoring pollution level of groups.(author)

  18. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  19. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  20. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  1. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  2. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  3. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  4. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Blanco, Ignacio; Menéndez, Manuel; Rodrigo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter

  6. Laser and Light Treatments for Hair Reduction in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV-VI: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayne, Rachel A; Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel E; Aldahan, Adam S; Nouri, Keyvan

    2018-04-01

    Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells. Many prospective and retrospective studies have been conducted with laser and light hair-removal devices, but most exclude patients with darkly pigmented skin, considering them a high-risk group for unwanted side effects, including pigmentation changes, blisters, and crust formation. We reviewed the published literature to obtain studies that focused on hair reduction for darker skin types. The existing literature for this patient population identifies longer wavelengths as a key element of the treatment protocol and indicates neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), diode, alexandrite, and ruby lasers as well as certain intense pulsed light sources for safe hair reduction with minimal side effects in patients with FST IV-VI, so long as energy settings and wavelengths are appropriate. Based on the findings in this review, safe and effective hair reduction for patients with FST IV-VI is achievable under proper treatment protocols and energy settings.

  7. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  8. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  9. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  10. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  11. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  12. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  13. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  14. Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N = 47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42 ± 14.19 μg of Ni, 8.94 ± 13.1 μg of Cr, and 131 ± 279 μg of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy.

  15. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roccia

    2017-12-01

    In 1995 the European Union (UE recognised the artificial hair implant as a legitimate medical treatment and outlined the rules related to that procedure. In 1996, biocompatible fibres (Biofibre® produced by Medicap® Italy were approved by the UE Authorities and by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA as medical devices for hair implant. An effective medical protocol was developed during the following years to provide correct guidelines for appropriate treatment, and to reduce possible related complications. Automatic Biofibre® hair implant represents the last achievement in this hair restoration technique with significant advantages for the patients.

  17. Hair Loss Following The Topiramate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ghafoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetics, hormone profiles and other physiologic factors can cause hair loss. Medication induced hair loss is an occasional side effect of many psychopharmaceuticals. It can reduce medication compliance if not discovered and treated. We present a 18 year old female with migraine headache who developed hair loss after 3 months of receiving topiramate treatment. CASE REPORT: 18 year old female had been suffering from headache visited in psychiatric clinic. She agreed to a treatment with topiramate (50mg per day for Migraine headache. 3 months later, the patient complained of significant hair loss. Topiramate tapered to 25 mg/day and stopped. Hair loss stopped after topiramate withdrawal. Two weeks after reintroduction of topiramate, hair loss developed again. The medication was stopped and hair loss stopped again. CONCLUSION: Topiramate can cause hair loss. Although the condition is not life-threatening, a decrease in medication compliance can cause recurrence of the underlying disease. It is necessary to ask the patient at visits about it.

  18. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  19. The influence of physical activity on hair toxic and essential trace element content in male and female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina P; Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the current study is to estimate the effect of different physical activity levels on hair trace element content in male and female students. A total of 113 students (59 women and 54 men) of P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russia) took part in the current investigation. According to the level of the physical activity, all students were divided into three groups: high, medium, and low physical activity. Essential and toxic metal content (μg/g) in hair samples was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D + NWR213 (Perkin-Elmer, USA). The obtained data show that hair iodine, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and tin levels are not related to physical activity in male and female students. At the same time, increased physical activity is associated with decreased hair copper, vanadium, bismuth, and mercury content in comparison to the low physical activity groups. Students with higher physical activity are also characterized by significantly higher hair cobalt, iron, manganese, selenium, cadmium, lithium, and lead concentrations. Finally, statistical analysis has revealed maximal gender differences in hair trace element content in the high physical activity groups, whereas in the low activity groups, the hair metal concentrations were nearly similar in females and males.

  20. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  1. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Jang, S.G.; Chung, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 10 4 -10 6 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  5. Ratchet effect for nanoparticle transport in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Matthias; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Netz, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    The motion of a single rigid nanoparticle inside a hair follicle is investigated by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. The cuticular hair structure is modeled as a periodic asymmetric ratchet-shaped surface. Induced by oscillating radial hair motion we find directed nanoparticle transport into the hair follicle with maximal velocity at a specific optimal frequency and an optimal particle size. We observe flow reversal when switching from radial to axial oscillatory hair motion. We also study the diffusion behavior and find strongly enhanced diffusion for axial motion with a diffusivity significantly larger than for free diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  8. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  9. [Mercury in the hair of pregnant and lactating Chilean mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, C G; Rodríguez, A A; Barrios, C A; Jaramillo, V H; Gras, N T; Becerra, J; Núñez, E; Reyes, O C

    1995-11-01

    Mercury-containing industrial waste has been released into the coastal waters of the Eighth Region of Chile for around two decades. This study, carried out from 1991 to 1993, sought to measure mercury concentrations in the hair of pregnant and lactating women from villages near the coast and in the interior of the region in order to examine the relationship between the concentration of mercury and seafood consumption. The survey questionnaire used in 1991 to determine seafood consumption did not ask about the frequency of consumption of fish, shellfish, and algae but only whether the women who were pregnant or breast-feeding consumed a minimum of one fish-based meal per week. The questionnaire used in 1992 and 1993 asked about the daily and weekly consumption of seafood in general (fish, shellfish, and algae). Spectrophotometry was used to determine the total mercury concentration in samples of 100 mg of hair from 153 pregnant and lactating women in 11 fishing villages of the Eighth Region where seafood is regularly consumed. None of the women had occupational exposure to mercury. Total mercury concentration was also determined in hair samples from a control group composed of 26 pregnant and lactating women from Pinto and El Carmen, villages in the interior of the same region where seafood was rarely eaten. The arithmetic mean of the total mercury concentration in hair was 1.81 mg/kg of body weight for the study group (standard deviation [SD] 1.52) and 0.42 mg/kg for the control group (SD 0.15)--a statistically significant difference (P mercury concentration in hair was significantly higher in women who indicated that they ate fish seven or more times per week; in those who said they ate fish, shellfish, or algae five or more times per week; and in those who had lived 20 or more years in their village. No statistically significant differences were found when the results were analyzed by age.

  10. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then…

  11. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  13. Trace element distribution in the hair of some sickle cell anemia patients and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluwole, A.F.; Asubiojo, O.I.; Adekile, A.D.; Filby, R.H.; Bragg, A.; Grimm, C.I.

    1990-01-01

    Hair samples of some young sickle cell anemia (SCA) and Control patients in Nigeria were analyzed for 12 elements, viz, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Co, Cu, Br, As, Sb, Na, and Sc, using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). With the exception of Cu, which was found to be significantly higher in the hair of SCA patients (at the 0.05 level of the t-test), there were generally no significant differences in elemental concentrations within the two groups. A preliminary study of the elemental contents of the fingernails of the same subjects showed a higher abundance of most of the elements in nail than in hair. These preliminary results were compared with similar studies form some other parts of the world

  14. Fluorine-induced apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-hui; Li, Xiao-li; Yang, Zhuang-qun; Xu, Min

    2010-12-01

    Fluoride is an essential trace element for human body; however, exposure to high amounts of fluoride has been documented to be correlated with an increasing risk of hair loss. To date, little is known about the mechanism(s) of how fluoride affects hair follicles. Here, we demonstrated that middle (1.0 mmol/L) and high (10.0 mmol/L) concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) significantly inhibited hair follicle elongation in vitro, but low NaF (0.1 mmol/L) showed little influence. Moreover, treatment with high levels of NaF resulted in a marked increase in terminal dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the outer layer of the outer root sheath, the dermal sheath, and the lower bulb matrix surrounding dermal papilla. Furthermore, the enhanced apoptosis was coupled with an increased oxidative stress manifested as higher malondialdehyde content. Additionally, the presence of selenium considerably antagonized the effects of middle NaF on hair follicles, with regard to either the suppression of hair growth or the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, exposure to high levels of fluoride compromises hair follicle growth and accelerate cell apoptosis in vitro. The toxicity of fluoride can be reduced by selenium, at least partially via the suppression of intracellular oxidative stress.

  15. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Thinning hair and hair loss: Could it be female pattern hair loss? Female pattern hair loss: Without treatment, female ... can I tell if I have female pattern hair loss? It’s best to make an appointment to ...

  16. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  17. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  18. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  19. Hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress in the 2011 Libyan war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etwel, Fatma; Russell, Evan; Rieder, Michael J; Van Uum, Stan H; Koren, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    There is a substantial body of research that utilizes saliva cortisol levels to examine wartime stress; however, there is a paucity of literature that utilizes hair cortisol levels, which allows for long-term assessment of chronic stress, to investigate the stress of war. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in hair cortisol concentrations before, during, and after the 2011 Libyan war. This study examined hair cortisol concentrations of young adult women who were living in Tripoli, Libya during the 2011 war. The participants were recruited at the campus of Tripoli University. Participants needed to have at least 24 cm of hair and to have resided in Tripoli before, during and after the 2011 Libyan war. Hair was sectioned to reflect 3 month windows of cortisol exposure corresponding to periods before, during and after the war. Hair cortisol concentrations were quantified using a modified salivary ELISA test. The women were also asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale pertaining to the post-war period. Median hair cortisol concentrations in the post-war period (226.11 ng/g; range 122.95-519.85 ng/g) were significantly higher than both the pre-war (180.07 ng/g; 47.13-937.85 ng/g) and wartime (186.65 ng/g; 62.97-771.79 ng/g) periods (Pwar period appears to have been more stressful than the war itself. This is consistent with the fact that during the war the civilian participants were not directly involved with warfare, nor were they targeted by the international coalition fighting Gaddafi. In contrast, the post-war period was characterized by chaos and total lack of authority, with the participants exposed to injury, lack of food and destruction. This study documents the utility of hair cortisol levels to retrospectively assess stress before, during, and after an armed conflict.

  20. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  2. Current status of accreditation for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moeller, Manfred; Kronstrand, Robert

    2008-03-21

    At the annual meeting of the Society of Hair Testing in Vadstena, Sweden in 2006, a committee was appointed to address the issue of guidelines for hair testing and to assess the current status of accreditation amongst laboratories offering drug testing in hair. A short questionnaire was circulated amongst the membership and interested parties. Fifty-two responses were received from hair testing laboratories providing details on the amount and type of hair tests they offered and the status of accreditation within their facilities. Although the vast majority of laboratories follow current guidelines (83%), only nine laboratories were accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 for hair testing. A significant number of laboratories reporting that they were in the process of developing quality systems with a view to accrediting their methods within 2-3 years. This study provides an insight into the status of accreditation in hair testing laboratories and supports the need for guidelines to encourage best practice.

  3. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  4. Tiger hair morphology and its variations for wildlife forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitika Kitpipit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiger population has dramatically decreased due to illegal consumption and commercialisation of their body parts. Frequently, hair samples are the only evidence found in the crime scene. Thus, they play an important role in species identification for wildlife forensic investigation. In this study, we provide the first in-depth report on a variety of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tiger guard hairs (24 hairs per individual from four individuals. The proposed method could reduce subjectivity of expert opinions on species identification based on hair morphology. Variations in 23 hair morphological characteristics were quantified at three levels: hair section, body region, and intra-species. The results indicate statistically significant variations in most morphological characteristics in all levels. Intra-species variations of four variables, namely hair length, hair index, scale separation and scale pattern, were low. Therefore, identification of tiger hairs using these multiple features in combination with other characteristics with high inter-species variations (e.g. medulla type should bring about objective and accurate tiger hair identification. The method used should serve as a guideline and be further applied to other species to establish a wildlife hair morphology database. Statistical models could then be constructed to distinguish species and provide evidential values in terms of likelihood ratios.

  5. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  6. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  7. Study on correlation of trace elements in human hair and internal organs by nuclear methods. A final report of the co-ordinated research programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1985 - October 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuandi, Cheng [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research

    1988-12-31

    Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn, by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements Se, Na, Mg, Cl, Br, S, Cr, Co, and Rb and by PIXE to determine Fe, Ca and Mn. 15 refs, 22 figs, 10 tabs.

  8. Study on correlation of trace elements in human hair and internal organs by nuclear methods. A final report of the co-ordinated research programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1985 - October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuandi

    1988-01-01

    Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn, by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements Se, Na, Mg, Cl, Br, S, Cr, Co, and Rb and by PIXE to determine Fe, Ca and Mn. 15 refs, 22 figs, 10 tabs

  9. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  10. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  11. LSD1 is Required for Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Cai, Chengfu; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-05-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) plays an important role in complex cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. It has recently been demonstrated that during development, downregulation of LSD1 inhibits cell proliferation, modulates the expression of cell cycle regulators, and reduces hair cell formation in the zebrafish lateral line, which suggests that LSD1-mediated epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the development of hair cells. However, the role of LSD1 in hair cell regeneration after hair cell loss remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the effect of LSD1 on hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced hair cell loss. We show that the LSD1 inhibitor trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) significantly decreases the regeneration of hair cells in zebrafish after neomycin damage. In addition, immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that 2-PCPA administration suppresses supporting cell proliferation and alters cell cycle progression. Finally, in situ hybridization shows that 2-PCPA significantly downregulates the expression of genes related to Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf activation. Altogether, our data suggest that downregulation of LSD1 significantly decreases hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced hair cell loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus, LSD1 plays a critical role in hair cell regeneration and might represent a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hearing loss.

  12. Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers…

  13. Accreditation and Its Significance for Programs of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Antony E.

    The development of minimum standards in higher education through the evolution of accreditation in specialized disciplines, and standard setting in criminology and criminal justice education are examined. The very different experiences with the concept of accreditation encountered in the fields of public administration and law are considered. Law…

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals and As in liver, hair, femur, and lung of Persian jird (Meriones persicus) in Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Manoochehr; Hamidian, Amir Hossein; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Ashrafi, Sohrab; Mirjalili, Seyyed Ali Ashghar; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2016-02-01

    Rodents frequently serve as bioindicator to monitor the quality of the environment. Concentrations of 11 elements (Cd, Co, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Sr, Ni, and Cr) were investigated and compared in liver, hair, femur, and lung of the Persian jird (Meriones persicus) from Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran. Metals were determined in different tissues of 39 individuals of Persian jird, collected by snap trap in 2014 from five areas of Darreh Zereshk copper mine. Samples were prepared by wet digestion method, and the contents of elements were analyzed with ICP-OES (VARIAN, 725-ES) instrument. Cadmium, Sb, and Co were below the limit of detection, and Mn and As were found only in hair and liver tissues. We detected the highest concentration of Cu, As, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni in hair in comparison with other tissues. Significant higher levels of Ti in femur and hair; Fe in liver and hair; Mn in liver; As in hair; Sr in lung; Cr in lung, hair, femur, and liver; Cu in femur; and Ni in liver and lung tissues were observed in females. Nearly all element concentrations in the tissues of Persian jird from flotation site, Darreh Zereshk and Hasan Abad villages and leaching site (mining areas) were higher than those from tailing dump site (reference site). We found the highest concentrations of As in liver and hair; Ni and Cr in liver, hair, and lung; and Sr in lung and hair tissues of Persian jird in leaching site. We tried to specify the status of elements before fully exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine by using bioindicator species. Based on our achievements, initial activities did not strongly pollute the surrounded environment of the mine. The high abundance of Persian jird as well as their several proper features makes them a suitable species for biomonitoring programs especially for further studies will be performed after full exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine.

  15. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  16. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  17. Measuring environmental stress in East Greenland polar bears, 1892-1927 and 1988-2009: what does hair cortisol tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Rigét, F F; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Muir, D C G; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Eulaers, I; Jaspers, V L B; Eens, M; Covaci, A; Dietz, R

    2012-09-15

    Hair sampled from 96 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) over the periods 1892-1927 and 1988-2009 was analyzed for cortisol as a proxy to investigate temporal patterns of environmental stress. Cortisol concentration was independent of sex and age, and was found at significantly higher (ppolar bear hair appears to be a relatively poor indicator of the animal's general POP load in adipose tissue. However, further investigations are warranted to explore the reasons for the temporal decrease found in the bears' hair cortisol levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  20. The evaluation of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se concentrations in the hair of South American camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Holasová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the content of trace elements in the hair of South American camelids and to evaluate the effect of coat colour, species, age, and sex on their concentration in the hair. The samples were collected from 77 animals – 23 llamas (Llama guanicoe f. gllama and 54 alpacas (Llama guanicoe f. pacos during a spring health check. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and selenium (Se by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We found the following concentrations (mean ± standard deviation; mg/kg dry matter in the llama hair: Cu 9.70 ± 4.69; Zn 145.20 ± 21.07; Mn 12.49 ± 10.14; Se 0.25 ± 0.14. In alpaca hair we found the following concentrations: Cu 10.22 ± 2.90; Zn 129.81 ± 19.01; Mn 12.67 ± 13.85; Se 0.48 ± 0.24. We found a significant difference between llamas and alpacas in Zn and Se concentrations in the hair. From all the evaluated factors we found that coat colour had the highest effect on Mn and Se concentration. Dark haired animals had significantly higher concentrations of these trace elements than other coloured groups. The evaluation of the concentration of trace elements in the hair of llamas has a potential to be used for the evaluation of long-term status of trace elements in the body; however, it is necessary to continue with experimental work in this area. Our findings can serve as a pilot study for further works in this field.

  1. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  2. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  4. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment by means of wood mice hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Leirs, Herwig; Blust, Ronny; Verhagen, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were measured in hair, kidney, liver, lung and muscle tissue of wood mice captured along a pollution gradient. We found positive relationships between cadmium concentrations in hair and all internal tissues. Hair lead concentrations were positively correlated with lead contents in kidney and liver. Age had a significant effect on cadmium accumulation in all tissues and hair. Apart from a very weak relationship between zinc concentrations in hair and liver, no significant relation between copper or zinc content in hair and any of the internal organs was observed. In summary, our observations suggest that hair of wood mice can be used for monitoring exposure to non-essential metals like cadmium and lead, but not to homeostatically regulated metals such as copper or zinc. - Positive relationships between wood mice hair and internal organs for Cd and Pb suggest that hair is a suitable monitoring tool for non-essential metals

  5. Hair Toxic Metal Concentrations and Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Sykes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg, among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in comparison to neurotypical controls. Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18 were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor’s Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory. CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs.

  6. Hair cortisol content in patients with adrenal insufficiency on hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan

    2011-06-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) require life-long replacement therapy with exogenous glucocorticoids. Several studies have shown impaired subjective health status in these patients as well as increased morbidity and mortality risk, which may be caused by glucocorticoid over-replacement. As a measure of long-term cortisol exposure, the usefulness of hair cortisol analysis in patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement therapy was investigated. Hair samples, demographics, medical history and perceived stress scale questionnaires were collected from 93 patients across North America diagnosed with primary or secondary AI. Sixty-two household partners served as a control group. Cortisol was measured in the proximal 2 cm of hair, representing the most recent 2 months of exposure. A modified enzyme immunoassay was used for the measurement of cortisol. The male patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the male controls (P cortisol content correlated significantly with glucocorticoid dose (r = 0·3, P cortisol content correlates with hydrocortisone (HC) dose in patients with AI. Our results suggest that some AI patients may be over-treated and hence may be at risk for the adverse effects of cortisol. Measurement of HC in hair may become a useful monitoring tool for long-term cortisol exposure in patients treated with glucocorticoids. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. FRATTO, Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms, those with dark, or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating, especially if they live in warm climates, because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate. However, experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent, or minimize heat stress, although it is not clear what properties do so. Here, we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers, which would create a lighter (in terms of weight coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative coo- ling. We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger, a species native to the United States and one that displays brown, grey or all-black pelage color, and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail. From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown, 9 black and 15 grey, and 1,720 hairs, we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs, but significant differences in hair fiber widths. Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner, but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker than the others. Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation, we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day. The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation, since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies. These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6: 731–736, 2011].

  8. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  10. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  11. A study of Polonium in human hair and in fur from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, H; Ranebo, Y.; Henriksson, F.; Rääf, C.L.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Human hair and hair from animals might serve as good indicators for internal contamination, allowing for the quantification of general environmental levels of certain radioactive elements. From a sampling, analytical and hygienic point of view it would be advantageous to study hair instead of urine and faeces samples. There have been several investigations concerning Polonium in hair. The purpose of this study was to investigate if hair from humans and fur from animals constitute as matrixes for the estimation of the body burden of 210 Po. Human hair taken from 26 individuals from Sweden was analyzed for its 210 Po content. The resulting activity concentration of 210 Po ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 Bq/kg for individuals between the ages of 3 to 32 years and range from 0.5 to 11.5 Bq/kg for individuals between the ages of 32 to 60. This is in agreement with results presented in other studies. The 210 Po in hair might be due to external contamination or in vivo build up from 210 Pb. To help quantify these sources of contamination a couple of human volunteers ingested known amounts of 209 Po (which does not exist in nature). Results from the study showed that 209 Po was rather rapidly detected in the hair samples Human hair consists of 45% Carbon, 7% Hydrogen, 28% Oxygen, 15% Nitrogen and 5% Sulphur. The central core consists of polypeptide chains with hydrogen and disulphide bindings. It is suggested that the sulphide binding is the reason for transfer of Polonium into the hair. Samples from horses; mane, fur, and tail showed activity concentration levels ranging from 6 to 17 Bq/kg, with no significant differences between the various sample types. Fur samples taken from Muskox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations, i.e. 260 Bq/kg. This was expected since the animal graze over vast surface and consumes large amounts of lichen. Deposited radionuclides accumulate in lichens. Fur samples taken from other animals i.e. moose, hare, wild boar, roe deer, and sheep (lamb

  12. Correlation of trace metals in hair and nails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benischek-Huber, I.; Benischek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn was studied in 350 hair and nail samples of 12 persons. Determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations are fluctuating significantly in the specimens. Correlation was found for these elements in hair and finger nails and for Pb in hair and toe nails. Zn and Cu are more stable, the ratios of contents in corresponding samples are within a small range. (author)

  13. Medical application of laser hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, Alwalled Hussein Ataalmannan

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser in medical treatment has become of paramount importance proportional to what has high therapeutic privileges such as speed and accuracy in penetrating tissues and high quality especially when used in hair removal which is the subject of our study, this laser operates cards may cause some change in the color of the skin when used in a manner that is correct ratio of the thermal impact force in the laser hair removal process, or if it is exposed directly to his eye. This study is a comparison between the physical properties of laser of lasers used in hair removal, according to previous studies to be the basis for the benefit of doctors who use lasers for hair removal. The aim of this study was to study the effect of laser hair removal using the Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength 1064 nm as well as the risks airing from the assessment. The aim of this study was to identify the appropriate laser energy that absorbed in the hair follicle with a dark color and the appropriate thermal effect occurs to vaporize the follicle cell, a 40 J/cm"2 is to be significant without side effects for healthy tissue. In this study doses for a few laser beam is considered when compared to previous studies. Laser danger to the patient during the operation increases with increasing laser energy emitted during treatment. Laser hair removal by the user and energy emitted by wavelength of the laser device also depends on the hair color and roughness as well as skin color. (Author)

  14. Sources of Inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people's choice of science in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a questionnaire including multiple-choice as well as open-ended questions about sources of inspiration for their educational choice. Using the conceptualisation of significant persons suggested by Woelfel and Haller, the respondents' descriptions of parents and teachers are presented in order to elaborate on the different ways these significant persons influence a STEM-related educational choice. Parents engaged in STEM themselves are models, making the choice of STEM familiar, and they help youngsters define themselves through conversation and support, thus being definers. Teachers are models by displaying how STEM might bring fulfilment in someone's life and by giving pupils a positive experience with the subjects. They help young people discover their STEM abilities, thus being definers. Celebrities are reported to have minor influence on STEM-related educational choices. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that interpersonal relationships are key factors in order to inspire and motivate a choice of STEM education. Implications for recruitment issues and for research on interpersonal influence are discussed. It is suggested that initiatives to increase recruitment to STEM might be aimed at parents and other persons in interpersonal relationships with youth as a target group.

  15. Segmental Analysis of Chlorprothixene and Desmethylchlorprothixene in Postmortem Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Kamilla Nyborg; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wicktor, Petra; Banner, Jytte; Linnet, Kristian

    2018-06-26

    Analysis of drugs in hair differs from their analysis in other tissues due to the extended detection window, as well as the opportunity that segmental hair analysis offers for the detection of changes in drug intake over time. The antipsychotic drug chlorprothixene is widely used, but few reports exist on chlorprothixene concentrations in hair. In this study, we analyzed hair segments from 20 deceased psychiatric patients who had undergone chronic chlorprothixene treatment, and we report hair concentrations of chlorprothixene and its metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene. Three to six 1-cm long segments were analyzed per individual, corresponding to ~3-6 months of hair growth before death, depending on the length of the hair. We used a previously published and fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the hair analysis. The 10th-90th percentiles of chlorprothixene and desmethylchlorprothixene concentrations in all hair segments were 0.05-0.84 ng/mg and 0.06-0.89 ng/mg, respectively, with medians of 0.21 and 0.24 ng/mg, and means of 0.38 and 0.43 ng/mg. The estimated daily dosages ranged from 28 mg/day to 417 mg/day. We found a significant positive correlation between the concentration in hair and the estimated daily doses for both chlorprothixene (P = 0.0016, slope = 0.0044 [ng/mg hair]/[mg/day]) and the metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene (P = 0.0074). Concentrations generally decreased throughout the hair shaft from proximal to distal segments, with an average reduction in concentration from segment 1 to segment 3 of 24% for all cases, indicating that most of the individuals had been compliant with their treatment. We have provided some guidance regarding reference levels for chlorprothixene and desmethylchlorprothixene concentrations in hair from patients undergoing long-term chlorprothixene treatment.

  16. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  17. Trace elements in the scalp hair of patients with alcohol induced psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, A.S.; Nagaraju, G.J.; Sarita, P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of essential trace elements play a major role in various metabolic pathways and in many diseases like autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric. This study is undertaken with an aim to evaluate the levels of different trace elements in the scalp hair samples of patients suffering from alcohol induced psychosis by particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). It is observed that Fe (p < 0.0005), Cu (p < 0.001) are significantly higher in the hair samples of alcohol induced psychosis patients compared to those in normals while concentrations of Mn (p < 0.005) and Zn (p < 0.0001) are lower. The concentrations of Co and Ni in the hair samples are found to be in consonance with the concentrations in the normals. (author)

  18. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  19. Variation of elemental concentration in hair of the Japanese in terms of age, sex and hair treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Koyama, M.; Shinogi, M.; Aoki, A.; Tomiyama, T.; Katayama, K.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human hair of the normal Japanese individuals to define the baseline levels of trace elements. A statistical analysis which is not influenced by detection limits, has been carried out to elucidate the variations of elemental concentrations in terms of age, sex and hair treatment. Correlation coefficients have been calculated between the logarithmic concentrations of the elements determined in the groups classified according to sex, age and hair treatment. Their significant levels have been evaluated. (author)

  20. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  1. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01–0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  2. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.

  4. Forensic Human Hair Examination and Comparison in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M

    2005-01-01

    Forensic hair examination and comparison is often undervalued as evidence. Significant information can be developed from a thorough microscopic examination and comparison of human and animal hairs that can assist criminal and civil investigations. Animal hairs can be distinguished easily from human hairs and often can be specified to a genus, species, or even breed. Human hairs often can be identified as to their body area origin and the racial ancestry of the person from whom they originated. Additionally, damage, disease, or cosmetic treatments can be identified and described. Finally, suitable hairs can be compared microscopically with known hair samples to determine if they could have come from the same source. This application is now being augmented by mitochondrial DNA analysis, which enhances the information already available from a microscopic examination of evidentiary hairs. Training and qualification of forensic hair examiners is crucial to the quality and reliability of forensic hair examinations. Many of the weaknesses in forensic hair examinations seen to date are a result of inadequate training of forensic hair examiners and a lack of understanding about the fundamental nature of the examination of hairs. Mitochondrial DNA offers a chance for the rehabilitation and validation of microscopical examination of human, and potentially animal, hairs. Copyright © 2005 Central Police University.

  5. Influence of functionalized silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and on the relationship with the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaud, Anne; Fieschi-Corso, Lara

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that silicones alter hair surface properties and that silicones have a significant impact on the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, such as visual appearance, combing performance and manageability of the hair. In order to fine-tune the chemistry of functionlized silicones for specific consumer benefits and hair types, we investigated the influence of silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and their correlation to hair volume. The incline plane fiber loop method, implemented with a high-precision motorized rotary stage, was used to quantify the fiber-fiber interactions. Low load static friction was studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, dose and chemical architecture. This information was related to the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, using virgin curly hair in high humidity.

  6. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  7. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Chemometric Evaluation of Elemental Imbalances in the Scalp Hair of Valvular Heart Disease Patients in Comparison with Healthy Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Asim; Shah, Munir H

    2018-01-01

    The present study deals with the plausible association between the trace elemental imbalances and the emergence of valvular heart disease (VHD). A total of 14 elements including Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn in the scalp hair of VHD patients and healthy donors were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrophometry employing wet acid digestion methodology. Median levels of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr in the scalp hair of patients were significantly higher compared to those of the healthy donors, while the median concentrations of K and Na were found to be considerably higher in the scalp hair of the healthy donors. In addition, substantially elevated Cu/Zn value in patients indicated the prevalence of inflammatory processes inside the body. The correlation coefficients among the elements in the hair of VHD patients were significantly diverse compared to those of the healthy donors. Multivariate statistical methods showed noticeably dissimilar apportionment of the elements in the two groups. Variations in the elemental levels were also observed with gender, habitat, dietary/smoking habits and occupations of both donor groups. Overall, the study revealed significant imbalances among the essential and toxic elements in the scalp hair of VHD patients compared to those of the healthy subjects.

  9. Reversal of the hair loss phenotype by modulating the estradiol-ANGPT2 axis in the mouse model of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yujiro; Obayashi, Yuko; Ono, Tomoji; Serizawa, Tetsushi; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2018-07-01

    Despite high demand for a remedy, the treatment options for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) are limited. FPHL is frequent in postmenopausal women. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which lack β-estradiol (E2) and manifest hair loss mimicking FPHL, E2 supplementation has been shown to increase hair density. However, the mechanism by which E2 exhibits its biological activity remains elusive. To identify the downstream targets of E2 in the context of FPHL pathophysiology and discover a potential therapeutic agent for the E2-dependent subtype of FPHL. Human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were cultured with E2, and a microarray analysis was performed to identify the genes regulated by E2. Using OVX mice, the identified gene product was intradermally administered and then quantitative image analysis of hair density was conducted. In silico analysis to link E2 and the identified gene was performed. Global gene expression and bioinformatics analyses revealed that the genes associated with the angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) pathway were upregulated by E2 in hDPCs. ANGPT2 was significantly downregulated in OVX mice than in sham-operated mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, hair density was higher in OVX mice treated with ANGPT2 than in control mice (P < 0.05). In silico analysis showed DNA sequences with high possibility of estrogen receptor binding in the promoter region of ANGPT2. The E2-ANGPT2 axis is present in hair follicles. ANGPT2 provides a strategy for the management of E2-dependent and postmenopausal subsets of FPHL. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  11. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  12. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  13. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  14. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  15. Vertex Accentuation in Female Pattern Hair Loss in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavalit Supsrisunjai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of hair loss seen in women is female pattern hair loss (FPHL, also known as female androgenetic alopecia. It affects the central part of the scalp, but spares the frontal hairline. Frontal accentuation was also described by Olsen. In Asian women, vertex thinning patterns are frequently developed, but there has been no report about vertex thinning pattern in female pattern hair loss. Objective: To find prevalence of vertex accentuation in female pattern hair loss (FPHL in Asian women. Methods: Scalp hair counting (n/cm2 were measured at 3 different areas; vertex, mid scalp and frontal area respectively by digital dermoscope (Dino digital AM-413T. Visual counting and photography were performed. Outcomes were evaluated by gross appearance of vertex thinning and/or hair density <120 /cm2 in any of 3 areas. Results: 143 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 45.54 years. Of the hair loss type, 36.4% were mid-scalp, 33.6% were vertex accentuation and 30.1% were frontal accentuation, respectively. Age was not significantly different among the 3 types of hair loss (P- value 0.859. Conclusion: Although the most common female pattern hair loss type is diffuse type (Ludwig type, vertex accentuation pattern is the second most common pattern in this study. This study is the first to mention “Vertex accentuation” to be another pattern for FPHL.

  16. Variability of hair coat and skin traits as related to adaptation in Criollo Limonero cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio; Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan P; Godoy, Rosario; Calles, Marcos; Iragorri, José L; Añez, Lauderys; Polanco, Miguel; Montero-Urdaneta, Merilio; Olson, Tim

    2011-03-01

    The variation in hair coat and skin histology traits of Criollo Limonero cattle was analyzed using 213 Criollo Limonero females. Skin biopsies were obtained from slick-haired (N=16) and normal-haired (N=14) animals. Measured traits included hair length (HL), color coat (CC), number of hair follicles per square centimeter (NHF), sweat glands per square centimeter (NSG), sweat glands size (SGS), sebaceous glands per square centimeter (NSBG), blood vessels per square centimeter (NBV), and thickness of epidermis (TE). Hair length differed (P0.05) were found between slick-haired and normal-haired animals in NHF (637 ± 164 vs 587 ± 144, respectively), NSG (556 ± 134 vs 481 ± 118, respectively), NSBG (408 ± 87 vs 366 ± 77, respectively), NBV (1628 ± 393 vs 1541 ± 346, respectively), and TE (1.24 ± 0.14 vs 1.32 ± 0.12, respectively). However, SGS was greater (PCriollo Limonero cattle are predominantly bayo-coated, slick-haired, with a reduced number of hair follicles relative to Zebu cattle, sweat and sebaceous glands in proportion to hair follicle numbers, and with a high blood flow irrigating the skin. There is a sub-group of red-coated animals with yellow or cream skin, thicker epidermis, and with a higher frequency of normal-haired animals. It appears that the slick hair gene has been favored by natural selection in this breed.

  17. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulling Biting, chewing or eating pulled-out hair Playing with pulled-out hair or rubbing it across ... of trichotillomania: Family history. Genetics may play a role in the development of trichotillomania, and the disorder ...

  18. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  19. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  20. Differential relationships between chronic hormone profiles in pregnancy and maternal investment in rhesus monkey mothers with hair loss in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Woodward, Ruth A; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is commonly used as an indicator of well being in primate facilities, yet it has been shown to also occur in otherwise healthy pregnant and postpartum females. There is significant variability in the incidence of hair loss during these important developmental periods, reasons for which remain unclear. We studied female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n = 47) with and without hair loss in pregnancy/postpartum. We hypothesized that, similar to previously published reports, pregnancy would result in an increased likelihood of hair loss, and that hair loss would be correlated with higher hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs). We further hypothesized that hair loss among pregnant females is related to differential maternal investment. We studied a subset of monkeys (n = 26) from mid-to-late pregnancy through peak lactation, some of which exhibited hair loss in the perinatal period (n = 15), and some of which did not (n = 11). We examined fetal measurements, infant birth weight, infant growth rate, and milk yield volume (MYV) in the first 30 days as indices of investment. We found that pregnant monkeys showed a greater incidence of hair loss across the study year (χ 2 (2)  = 6.55, P = 0.038), and that mothers with hair loss had significantly higher HCCs in pregnancy than those without (F (2,28)  = 3.8, P = 0.017, η p 2  = 0.21). HCCs in pregnancy were correlated with severity of hair loss in the neonatal period (r (37)  = 0.42, P = 0.008). Moreover, HCCs in pregnancy were positively correlated with infant birth weight (r (12)  = 0.56, P = 0.038), infant growth rate (r (12)  = 0.64, P = 0.014), and MYV (r (11)  = 0.85, P hair loss in some monkeys, especially during the birthing season, may be a signal of greater physiological stress during pregnancy and differential investment by mothers to their offspring. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22489, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  1. A study of relationship of element contents in human hair with some respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaolin; Wu Lanlan; Yuan Ling; Huang Liyun; Jia Zhanxiang; Chen Yang

    1994-01-01

    19 elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, Cu, Zn, etc., in hair of 65 patients with chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and cor-pulmonale diseases and 65 healthy people have been investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that the contents of Ca and Mg are lower and Fe, As and Co are higher in the hair of patients than in healthy persons. The contents of Ca and Mg are lower and Fe is higher in the hair of patients during attack periods of chronic bronchitis than in relaxed periods. The differences are significant (P<0.05-0.01). The content of Ca is closely related to that of Mg in hair (P<0.01). The contents of inorganic elements in the Chinese medicine cough and asthma capsule used to treat chronic bronchitis have been determined. The results show that the contents of elements Ca, Mg, Sr, etc., are higher in this medicine than the average amounts of these elements in 120 other Chinese medicines. (author) 15 refs.; 8 tabs

  2. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  3. The levels of bioelements in the saliva and hair of young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Troegubova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary and hair levels of bioelements, such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, chromium, and selenium, were investigated in 130 children and adolescents, including 35 swimmers, 47 hockey players, 20 fencers, and 28 schoolchildren who did not additionally go in for sports. Atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics of macro- and microelemental composition of the saliva and hair of young athletes. The investigation established that that all young athletes showed the high levels of potassium and selenium in their hair, those of selenium and chromium in the saliva, and a significantly low concentration of potassium in the saliva (p<0,05, reflecting the intensity of mineral exchange during physical exercises. Individual characteristics were found in the content of chemical elements in the test biological substrates in relation to the kind of sports: the salivary levels of calcium and magnesium were reduced and the hair level of iron was increased in fencers (p<0,05; and the field-hockey players had higher zinc values (p<0,05. Comparison of the hair and salivary concentrations of bioelements established that there was a statistically significant relationship for potassium (R=-0,72; p<0,001 and selenium (R=0,44; p=0,004. Non-invasive screening studies of salivary and hair minerals are recommended for the early diagnosis of an imbalance in macro- and microelements in young athletes. There is evidence that young athletes should be identified as a group of patients at risk for an imbalance of macro- and microelements.

  4. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    negative along the edges of the alopecia. Mycological examination from the skin capillitium was negative. The trichoscopy and skin biopsy of the parietotemporal region of the capillitium (Figure 3) confirmed trichotillomania. Laboratory tests (blood count, iron, ferritin, transferrin, selenium, zinc, vitamin B12, folic acid, serology and hormones of thyroid gland) were negative. We referred the girl for ophthalmologic and psychological examination. Ophthalmologic examination proved that there was no need to add any more diopters. The psychological examination provided us with a picture in which she drew her family (Figure 4). The strongest authority in the family was the mother because she looked after the girls for most of the day. She was in the first place in the picture. The father had longer working hours and spent more time outside the home. He worked as a long vehicle driver. He was in the second place in the picture. There was sibling rivalry between the girls, but the parents did not notice this problem and preferred the older daughter. She was successful at school and was prettier (slim, higher, curly brown hair, without spectacles). Our 11-years-old patient noticed all these differences between them, but at her level of mental development was not able to cope with this problem. She wanted to be her sister's equal. The sister is drawn in the picture in the third place next to father, while the patient's own figure was drawn larger and slim even though she was obese. Notably, all three female figures had very nice long brown hair. It seemed that the mother and our patient had better quality of hair and more intense color than the sister in the drawing. The only hairless person in the picture was the father. The girl did not want to talk about her problems and feelings at home. Then it was confirmed that our patient was very sensitive, anxious, willful, and withdrawn. She was interested in her body and very perceptive of her physical appearance. From the

  6. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  7. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  8. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  9. Relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair of people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that some metals possess many adverse health effects. Recently, certain elements have been identified as essential trace elements that play an important role in the genesis and progression of several diseases. Some toxic metals have also been shown to be elevated in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. The status of trace elements in diabetes patients is also influenced by their diet, drugs administered and, to a large extent, by environmental factors. Pollutants due to the presence of toxic metals in environment not only enter the body by breading, water, and foodstuff accumulates in hair, but they could be adsorbed directly on the hair from environment. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair samples of diabetic women from Tehran (Iran. The study population consisted of 100 women between 30 to 70 years of age from Tehran. The hair samples were washed with 1% (w/v (DDTC, 0.1M HCL and deionized water. Afterwards, the hair sample dried in oven at 70° C for 5 hours and then digested the next day. Dry ashing digestion procedure was carried out. The concentration of elements was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis confirmed that mean concentrations of lead and nickel did not differ significantly from the control group. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cr and Zn were significantly decreased in scalp hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Hair Cd level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Values of Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between these elements.

  10. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01

    Hair thickness is more important than hair density in the appearance of baldness in male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Adenosine improves hair loss by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hair growth efficacy and safety of topical adenosine in men with AGA. A lotion containing either adenosine or niacinamide was administered to the scalps of 102 Japanese men twice daily for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized study. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists who assessed the quality of the hair and by calculating the percentages of vellus-like and thick hairs among the vertex hairs, as well as hair density. Adenosine was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to niacinamide in terms of global improvement of AGA, increase in the percentage of thick hairs (at least 60 μm) and self-assessment of hair thickness by the study participants. No causal adverse event due to the adenosine lotion was observed. These data indicate that adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with AGA, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Geometric classification of scalp hair for valid drug testing, 6 more reliable than 8 hair curl groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mkentane

    Full Text Available Curly hair is reported to contain higher lipid content than straight hair, which may influence incorporation of lipid soluble drugs. The use of race to describe hair curl variation (Asian, Caucasian and African is unscientific yet common in medical literature (including reports of drug levels in hair. This study investigated the reliability of a geometric classification of hair (based on 3 measurements: the curve diameter, curl index and number of waves.After ethical approval and informed consent, proximal virgin (6cm hair sampled from the vertex of scalp in 48 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Three raters each scored hairs from 48 volunteers at two occasions each for the 8 and 6-group classifications. One rater applied the 6-group classification to 80 additional volunteers in order to further confirm the reliability of this system. The Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter rater agreement.Each rater classified 480 hairs on each occasion. No rater classified any volunteer's 10 hairs into the same group; the most frequently occurring group was used for analysis. The inter-rater agreement was poor for the 8-groups (k = 0.418 but improved for the 6-groups (k = 0.671. The intra-rater agreement also improved (k = 0.444 to 0.648 versus 0.599 to 0.836 for 6-groups; that for the one evaluator for all volunteers was good (k = 0.754.Although small, this is the first study to test the reliability of a geometric classification. The 6-group method is more reliable. However, a digital classification system is likely to reduce operator error. A reliable objective classification of human hair curl is long overdue, particularly with the increasing use of hair as a testing substrate for treatment compliance in Medicine.

  12. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  13. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  14. Enhancement of cell wall protein SRPP expression during emergent root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Takada, Natsuki; Sato, Ryosuke; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-10-03

    SRPP is a protein expressed in seeds and root hairs and is significantly induced in root hairs under phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. Root hairs in the knockout mutant srpp-1 display defects, i.e., suppression of cell growth and cell death. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of SRPP during cell elongation of root hairs and compared the transcript levels in several mutants with short root hairs. The mRNA level was increased in wild-type plants and decreased in mutants with short root hairs. Induction of SRPP expression by Pi starvation occurred one or two days later than induction of Pi-deficient sensitive genes, such as PHT1 and PHF1. These results indicate that the expression of SRPP is coordinated with root hair elongation. We hypothesize that SRPP is essential for structural robustness of the cell walls of root hairs.

  15. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  16. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  17. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  18. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  20. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Govarts, Eva; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van De Mieroop, Els; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and urinary

  1. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  2. Significant determinants of academic performance by new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. The case of the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Moncada Mora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the significant determiners of academic performance of new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. A description and correlation of the variables were undertaken to formalize the probabilistic model that confirms the positive, negative, individual and global effects.

  3. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood pressure of omnivorous and semi-vegetarian postmenopausal women and their relationship with dietary and hair concentrations of essential and toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Sevillano, M I; Larrea Marín, T; González-Muñoz, M J

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain the relationships between mineral consumption, hair mineral content, and blood pressure. The study involved 26 postmenopausal women from enclosed religious communities, 14 were semi-vegetarians and 12 were omnivores. Mineral dietary assessment was performed using a 14-d precise weight method and Food tables. Hair mineral levels were measured by means Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to find out the variables that affected most blood pressure. In general terms, the omnivorous diet contained a significantly higher mineral content than the semi-vegetarian one. The mineral intake from both diets implied no health risk to the women studied, as their estimated daily intake (EDI) of toxic elements such as Cd and Pb was lower than their respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of these minerals. Hair of the semi-vegetarians contained higher amounts of Al (p < 0.01), Ba (p < 0.01), K (p < 0.001), Na (p < 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Mn (p < 0.01) but lower levels of Ca (p < 0.05) and Zn (p < 0.05) than that of their omnivorous counterparts. The omnivores presented significantly higher systolic (p < 0.01) and diastolic (p < 0.05) pressures than the semi-vegetarians. Levels of hair Co (R² = 0.328; p = 0.032) and hair K (R² = 0.409; p = 0.014)) were explicative for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Several dietary mineral and hair contents were higher in semi-vegetarian women suggesting that the hair is an important mineral excretion via contributing to maintain blood pressure at low levels.

  5. A new path in defining light parameters for hair growth: Discovery and modulation of photoreceptors in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscone, Serena; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Raafs, Bianca; Bikker, Jan W; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Farjo, Nilofer; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2017-09-01

    Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches. The functional significance of Opsin 3 was assessed by silencing its expression in the hair follicle cells followed by a transcriptomic profiling. Proprietary LED-based devices emitting two discrete visible wavelengths were used to access the effects of selected optical parameters on hair growth ex vivo and outer root sheath cells in vitro. The expression of OPN2 (Rhodopsin) and OPN3 (Panopsin, Encephalopsin) was detected in the distinct compartments of skin and anagen hair follicle. Treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of blue light with 453 nm central wavelength significantly prolonged anagen phase in hair follicles ex vivo that was correlated with sustained proliferation in the light-treated samples. In contrast, hair follicle treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of 689 nm light (red light) did not significantly affect hair growth ex vivo. Silencing of OPN3 in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells resulted in the altered expression of genes involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis, and abrogated stimulatory effects of blue light (3.2 J/cm 2 ; 453 nm) on proliferation in the outer root sheath cells. We provide the first evidence that (i) OPN2 and OPN3 are expressed in human hair follicle, and (ii) A 453 nm blue light at low radiant exposure exerts a positive effect on hair growth ex vivo, potentially via interaction with OPN3. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:705-718, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  6. Lifetime Exposure to Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events and Hair Cortisol in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  7. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (pcortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Characteristics and phenomenology of hair-pulling: an exploration of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, P L; van Kradenburg, J; Niehaus, D J; Stein, D J

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to detail the demographic and phenomenological features of adult chronic hair-pullers. Key possible subtypes were identified a priori. On the basis of the phenomenological data, differences between the following possible subtypes were investigated: hair-pullers with and without DSM-IV trichotillomania (TTM), oral habits, automatic versus focused hair-pulling, positive versus negative affective cues prior to hair-pulling, comorbid self-injurious habits, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and tics. Forty-seven participants were drawn from an outpatient population of chronic adult hair-pullers. A structured interview that focused on hair-pulling and associated behaviors was administered to participants. Six of the participants (12.8%) were male, and 41 (87.7%) were female. A large number of hair-pullers (63.8%) had comorbid self-injurious habits. A greater proportion of male hair-pullers had comorbid tics when compared with females. Certain subgroups of chronic hair-pullers (e.g., hairpullers with or without automatic/focused hair-pulling, comorbid self-injurious habits, and oral habits) were found to differ on a number of phenomenological and hair-pulling characteristics. However, differences between other possible subgroups (e.g., hair-pullers with or without DSM-IV TTM, comorbid OCD, and negative versus positive affective cues) may reflect greater severity in hair-pulling symptomatology rather than distinct subtypes of chronic hair-pulling. The findings of the present study also indicated that chronic hair-pulling (even in cases where DSM-IV criteria for TTM were not met) has a significant impact on quality of life. The present study provided limited support for the existence of possible subtypes of chronic hair-pulling. Recommendations are made for further investigations into such subtypes. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  9. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  10. Greying of the human hair: a worldwide survey, revisiting the '50' rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhard, S; Lozano, I; Loussouarn, G

    2012-10-01

    While numerous papers have reported on the biological mechanisms of human hair pigmentation and greying, epidemiological descriptions of both natural hair colour and the greying process, worldwide, remain scarce. To assess hair colour and greying in a large world sample of human subjects, and to revisit the validity of the 50/50/50 rule of thumb, which states that 'at age 50 years, 50% of the population has at least 50% grey hair'. The natural hair colour of 4192 healthy male and female volunteers was assessed using a sensorial expert evaluation through the comparison of each volunteer's hair with standard swatches. Hair colour was studied according to age, gender and ethnic or geographical origin. Overall we observed that between 45 and 65 years of age, 74% of people were affected by grey hair with a mean intensity of 27%. Men harboured significantly more grey hair than women. Both age at onset and rate of greying with age appeared to be clearly linked to ethnic/geographical origin. Subjects of Asian and African descent showed less grey hair than those of caucasian origin, at comparable ages, confirming previously reported data. Calculating the percentage of people showing at least 50% grey hair coverage at age 50 years leads to a global range of 6-23%, according to ethnic/geographical origin and natural hair colour: well below that expressed by the '50' rule of thumb. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult bullfrogs were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 (mu) M gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence of absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest sterocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier times than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the same sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  12. Resveratrol attenuates CoCl2-induced cochlear hair cell damage through upregulation of Sirtuin1 and NF-κB deacetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to investigate the effects of hypoxia on cochlear hair cell damage, and to explore the role of sirtuin1 in hypoxia-induced hair cell damage. Cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 4 rats were used in this study. Hypoxia was induced by treating cochlear explants with CoCl2. Cochlear cultures were treated with CoCl2 alone or in combination with the sirtuin1 activator resveratrol and the sirtuin1 inhibitor sirtinol. Hair cell damage was identified by phalloidin staining and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of sirtuin1 and acetylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. Low concentrations of CoCl2 (100-200 μM did not cause an obvious change in the number and morphology of hair cells, whereas higher concentrations of CoCl2 (300-400 μM induced swelling of hair cells, accompanied by cell loss. Increased sirtuin1 expression was induced by CoCl2 at 100 to 200 μM, but not at 400 μM. NF-κB acetylation was significantly increased in explants treated with 400 μM CoCl2. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented CoCl2-induced hair cell loss and acetylation of NF-κB. The protective effect of resveratrol was significantly reduced by sirtinol. CoCl2 induces hair cell damage in organotypic cochleae cultures. Resveratrol attenuates CoCl2-induced cochlear hair cell damage possibly via activation of sirtuin1, which deacetylates NF-κB.

  13. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  14. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed δ 13 C, δ 15 N and Hg in hair from Japanese whale meat-eaters and non-eaters. ► The δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in whale meat-eaters were higher than those in non-eaters. ► The Hg concentration in whale meat-eaters was higher than that in non-eaters. ► A positive correlation was seen between δ 15 N and Hg in whale meat-eaters. ► Consumption of whale meat may increase δ 15 N, δ 13 C and Hg in the scalp hair. -- Abstract: We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and Hg concentration. The average δ 15 N and δ 13 C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and −18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and −18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in scalp hair

  16. Mild perinatal adversities moderate the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol: Evidence for differential susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, Dafna A; Rippe, Ralph C A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Noppe, Gerard; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; van den Akker, Erica L T; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-04-01

    It has been shown that following exposure to mild perinatal adversity, children have greater susceptibility to both the negative and positive aspects of their subsequent environment. In a large population-based cohort study (N = 1,776), we investigated whether mild perinatal adversity moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and children's hair cortisol levels, a biomarker of chronic stress. Mild perinatal adversity was defined as late preterm birth (gestational age at birth of 34-37 weeks, 6 days) or small for gestational age (birth weight between the 2.5th and 10th percentile for full term gestational age). Harsh parenting was assessed by maternal self-report at 3 years. Children's hair cortisol concentrations were measured from hair samples collected at age 6. There were no significant bivariate associations between mild perinatal adversities and harsh parenting and hair cortisol. However, mild perinatal adversities moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol levels. Children with mild perinatal adversity had lower cortisol levels if parented more harshly and higher cortisol levels in the absence of harsh parenting than children who did not experience mild perinatal adversity. These results provide further evidence that mild perinatal adversity is a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment by means of wood mice hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beernaert, Joke; Sheirs, Jan; Leirs, Herwig

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were measured in hair, kidney, liver, lung and muscle tissue of wood mice captured along a pollution gradient. We found positive relationships between cadmium concentrations in hair and all internal tissues. Hair lead concentrations were positively...... correlated with lead contents in kidney and liver. Age had a significant effect on cadmium accumulation in all tissues and hair. Apart from a very weak relationship between zinc concentrations in hair and liver, no significant relation between copper or zinc content in hair and any of the internal organs...... was observed. In summary, our observations suggest that hair of wood mice can be used for monitoring exposure to non-essential metals like cadmium and lead, but not to homeostatically regulated metals such as copper or zinc....

  18. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.); Gwynn, J.; Zaborska, A.; Gaefvert, T. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Henricsson, F. (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  19. Distribution of metal and metalloid elements in human scalp hair in Taiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuen; Wang, Yuzhe; Meng, Fanjian; Li, Lifen; Wu, Shan; Mei, Xiaohui; Li, Hua; Zhang, Guixiang; Wu, Daishe

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the levels of metal and metalloid elements (As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in scalp hair samples collected from 161 people of different age and gender groups living in the six districts of Taiyuan, an industrial city with rich coal reserve in Shanxi province in China. Levels of most elements in the hair were high in the 26-40 age groups and increased with the length of residence. Calcium, Cr, Mg, Ni and Zn levels in the females' hair were significantly higher than those in the males' (p industrial and non-industrial districts because most of industry factories are in the upper wind position in Taiyuan, and contamination is prone to spread to non-industrial districts. The principal component analysis indicates that the main sources of these elements are mining activities, the neighboring stainless steel industry, and coal combustion. These results indicate that the industrial activities primarily contribute to the metal and metalloid pollution in Taiyuan, whereas numerous factors caused the metals accumulation in hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and Characterization of a Novel Bio-inspired Hair Flow Sensor Based on Resonant Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Yang, B.; Wang, Q. H.; Lu, C. F.; Hu, D.

    2018-03-01

    Flow sensors inspired by the natural hair sensing mechanism have great prospect in the research of micro-autonomous system and technology (MAST) for the three-dimensional structure characteristics with high spatial and quality utilization. A novel bio-inspired hair flow sensor (BHFS) based on resonant sensing with a unique asymmetric design is presented in this paper. A hair transducer and a signal detector which is constituted of a two-stage micro-leverage mechanism and two symmetrical resonators (double ended tuning fork, DETF) are adopted to realize the high sensitivity to air flow. The sensitivity of the proposed BHFS is improved significantly than the published ones due to the high sensitivity of resonators and the higher amplification factor possessed by the two-stage micro-leverage mechanism. The standard deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process is chosen to fabricate the proposed BHFS. The experiment result demonstrates that the fabricated BHFS has a mechanical sensitivity of 5.26 Hz/(m/s)2 at a resonant frequency of 22 kHz with the hair height of 6 mm.

  1. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Henricsson, F.

    2010-03-01

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210 Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210 Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210 Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210 Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  3. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM). Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes'), whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels') in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  5. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Endlein

    Full Text Available Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM. Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes', whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels' in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  6. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  7. Impact of the breeding region and the season on the content of the selected mineral elements in the hair of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of dairy cows. The research material was made up of 114 polish Holstein-Friesians breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland: Kombinat Rolny Sp. z o. o. - Kietrz (the opolskie province, Hodowla Zarodowa Zwierząt Sp. z o.o. - Knyszyn (the podlaskie province and Ośrodek Hodowli Zarodowej Sp. z o.o. - Osięciny (the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. The animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering the division into nutrition groups. The hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, right behind the coastal arch. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na and K was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The study revealed seasonal variations in the content of mineral elements in the hair of dry cows and a region-dependent differentiation. The highest content of the quantity elements in question was found in the hair of the cows from Osięciny. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of cows from Osięciny was statistically significantly higher than in the hair collected in winter from the animals from Knyszyn and Kietrz. The lowest values of the determined elements were noted in the hair of cows bred in Knyszyn. The investigation of the correlation between the amounts of the elements, based on an analysis of all samples of hair, revealed a positive correlation between Na and K cations, as well as between Mg and Ca cations.

  8. Effects of sex on the levels of metals and metalloids in the hair of a group of healthy Spanish adolescents (13 to 16 years old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, Antonio; Del Carmen Lobo-Bedmar, Maria; González-Muñoz, Maria José

    2017-10-01

    Human biomonitoring can be a reliable tool to protect the health of the citizens of major urban environments. Human hair may be an invaluable specimen to determine chronic exposure to any environmental contaminant in an individual, especially in the young population. However, different factors including a lack of studies that have established reference values for metals and metalloids (trace elements) in human scalp hair make the use of this matrix controversial. A monitoring study was performed to establish possible normal or tentative reference values of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl and Zn in adolescents' (aged 13-16) hair who have lived since birth in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid region (Spain). Strict inclusion criteria were followed to study the effect of sex on the hair metal content, and the levels of the above contaminants were also studied in park topsoils from Alcalá de Henares. Scalp hair samples were collected from 96 healthy adolescents (28 boys and 68 girls), and reference values were calculated following the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn in hair of adolescents from Alcalá de Henares show a sex dependency, being significantly higher in female participants. Sex should be a factor taken into account when developing future reference values and hair metal content. Soil metal contamination was not correlated with the levels found in hair. To conclude, the values of metals and metalloids here analysed and discussed could be considered as tentative reference values for Spanish adolescents aged 13-16 years living in the Madrid region, and may be used to identify the level of exposure of adolescents in this Spanish region to the various metals and metalloids.

  9. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  10. A Hairy Situation: Laser Hair Removal after Oral Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2018-03-01

    To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.

  11. Normal LVEF measurements are significantly higher in females asassessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Eak Kyun

    1999-01-01

    Volume-LVEF relationship is one of the most important factors of automatic EF quantification algorithm from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT(gMPS) (Germano et al. JNM, 1995). Gender difference whereby normal LVEF measurements are higher in females assessed by gMPS (Yao et al. JNM 1997). To validate true physiologic value of LVEF vs sampling or measured error, various parameters were evaluated statistically in both gender and age matched 200 subjects (mean age= 58.41±15.01) with normal LVEF more than 50%, and a low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Correlation between LVEDVi(ml/m2) and LVEF was highly significant (r=-0.62, p<0.0001) with similar correlations noted in both male (r=-0.45, p<0.0001) and female (r=-0.67, p<0.0001) subgroups. By multivariate analysis, LV volume and stroke volume was the most significant factor influencing LVEF in male and female, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant negative correlation between LV volume and LVEF as measured by Tc-99m gated SPECT. Higher normal LVEF value should be applied to females as assessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

  12. Repair of traumatized mammalian hair cells via sea anemone repair proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Smith, Karen Müller; Watson, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls. In addition, RP-treated explants had significantly more normally structured hair bundles than time-matched traumatized control explants. Collectively, these results indicate that anemone-derived RPs assist in restoring normal function and structure of experimentally traumatized hair cells of the mouse cochlea. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Usefulness of TrichoScan professional in the evaluation of hair loss in females. Report of 180 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, V; Martín, J M; Sánchez, R; Ortega, C; Ricart, J M

    2011-09-01

    TrichoScan Professional is a computerized program used for digital measurement of hair growth and hair loss. The aim of our study was to undertake an evaluation with TrichoScan Professional of female patients consulting at our hospitals for hair loss. The purpose of our study was to determine whether TrichoScan was able to identify differences in hair parameters that would correlate with the pattern of alopecia or according to the age of the patients evaluated. One hundred-eighty women that consulted consecutively for loss of hair were included. Patients were aged between 8 and 85 years (mean age 36 years). Data including age, the number of hairs, hair density per square centimetre, anagen and telogen percentage and percentage of terminal and miniaturized hair were analysed. Results observed with TrichoScan were as below: number of hairs (mean 154.9; range 34-316). Hair density per square centimetre (mean 239; range 52-486). Hair in anagen phase (mean 62.4%; range 9-93%). Hair in telogen phase (mean 37.4%; range 7-91%). Terminal hair (mean 95.2%; range 82-100%). Vellus hair (mean 4.7%; range 0-17%). Pearson's correlation test was used to measure the strength of the association of age with the rest of parameters. The statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between age and both the number of hairs and the hair density per square centimetre. However, no significant correlation between age and rest of the parameters was observed. TrichoScan Professional may help to quantify hair density and in our sample, this was the only parameter showing a significant decrease according to age in various types of alopecia affecting the females. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  15. Determination of Mercury Daily Intake and Hair-to-Blood Mercury Concentration Ratio in People Resident of the Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.

  16. Sensory Hair Cells: An Introduction to Structure and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Duane R

    2018-06-18

    Sensory hair cells are specialized secondary sensory cells that mediate our senses of hearing, balance, linear acceleration, and angular acceleration (head rotation). In addition, hair cells in fish and amphibians mediate sensitivity to water movement through the lateral line system, and closely related electroreceptive cells mediate sensitivity to low-voltage electric fields in the aquatic environment of many fish species and several species of amphibian.Sensory hair cells share many structural and functional features across all vertebrate groups, while at the same time they are specialized for employment in a wide variety of sensory tasks. The complexity of hair cell structure is large, and the diversity of hair cell applications in sensory systems exceeds that seen for most, if not all, sensory cell types. The intent of this review is to summarize the more significant structural features and some of the more interesting and important physiological mechanisms that have been elucidated thus far. Outside vertebrates, hair cells are only known to exist in the coronal organ of tunicates. Electrical resonance, electromotility, and their exquisite mechanical sensitivity all contribute to the attractiveness of hair cells as a research subject.

  17. Women living with facial hair: the psychological and behavioral burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Michelle G; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan; Rustin, Malcolm H A; Clayton, William J

    2006-08-01

    While unwanted facial hair is clearly distressing for women, relatively little is known about its psychological impact. This study reports on the psychological and behavioral burden of facial hair in women with suspected polycystic ovary syndrome. Eighty-eight women (90% participation rate) completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning hair removal practices; the impact of facial hair on social and emotional domains; relationships and daily life; anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale); and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Women spent considerable time on the management of their facial hair (mean, 104 min/week). Two thirds (67%) reported continually checking in mirrors and 76% by touch. Forty percent felt uncomfortable in social situations. High levels of emotional distress and psychological morbidity were detected; 30% had levels of depression above the clinical cut off point, while 75% reported clinical levels of anxiety; 29% reported both. Although overall quality of life was good, scores were low in social and relationship domains--reflecting the impact of unwanted facial hair. Unwanted facial hair carries a high psychological burden for women and represents a significant intrusion into their daily lives. Psychological support is a neglected element of care for these women.

  18. Effects of crossbreeding indigenous Hair Goat with Saanen on carcass measurements and meat quality of kids under an intensive production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Alper; Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Kaptan, Cuneyt; Hanoglu, Hulya; Yildirir, Mesut

    2009-08-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the effect of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of purebred Hair Goat, Saanen x Hair Goat (F(1) and B(1)) kids under an intensive production system. In total, 24 kids were slaughtered at the age of approximately 133 days. Kids were fattened for 56 days immediately after weaning. Hot carcass weights were 6.78, 7.61 and 7.02 kg and dressing percentages were 49.71, 49.27 and 48.78%, respectively (P > 0.05). Differences between genotypes for carcass measurements and indexes were not significant. Effect of genotype on pH measurements, drip loss, water holding capacity, cooking loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat lightness values at 0 h, 1 h and 1 day after cutting were higher in crossbred kids than Hair Goat kids (P meat samples of Hair goat kids at 0 h, 1 h and 1 day measurements (P meat sensory characteristics, except tenderness. Panelists gave lower scores for meat tenderness to F(1) and B(1) crosses compared to purebred Hair Goat kids. In conclusion, higher meat lightness values of crossbred kids, at particularly B(1) level, might have a positive effect on the consumer choices.

  19. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  20. Pharmacological criteria that can affect the detection of doping agents in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Ludes, B

    2000-01-10

    When positive drug results are reported, a common interpretive question posed is whether or not it is possible to put a quantitative finding into context. A standard answer to this inquiry is that a positive hair testing result can be interpreted as meaning that the donor has chronically or repetitively used the drug identified in the hair, but that chronic or repetitive are not defined in the same way for all individuals. The Society of Hair Testing published on June 16, 1999, a consensus opinion on the use of hair in doping situations. However, although accepted in most courts of justice, hair analysis is not yet recognised by the International Olympic Committee. To be considered as a valid specimen for doping control, some issues still need to be addressed. The scientific community has demonstrated significant concern over the proper role that hair drug testing should serve in toxicological applications. Among the unanswered questions, five are of critical importance: (1) What is the minimal amount of drug detectable in hair after administration? (2) What is the relationship between the amount of the drug used and the concentration of the drug or its metabolites in hair? (3) What is the influence of hair color? (4) Is there any racial bias in hair testing? (5) What is the influence of cosmetic treatments? The present report documents scientific findings on these questions, with particular attention to the applications of hair in doping control.

  1. Guided genetic screen to identify genes essential in the regeneration of hair cells and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Huang, Sunny C; Pettie, Kade; Idol, Jennifer; Rissone, Alberto; Jimenez, Erin; Sinclair, Jason W; Slevin, Claire; Varshney, Gaurav K; Jones, MaryPat; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Huang, Haigen; Sood, Raman; Lin, Shuo; Burgess, Shawn M

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise for both degenerative diseases and traumatic tissue injury which represent significant challenges to the health care system. Hearing loss, which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, is caused primarily by a permanent loss of the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear known as hair cells. This failure to regenerate hair cells after loss is limited to mammals, while all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested were able to completely regenerate these mechanosensory receptors after injury. To understand the mechanism of hair cell regeneration and its association with regeneration of other tissues, we performed a guided mutagenesis screen using zebrafish lateral line hair cells as a screening platform to identify genes that are essential for hair cell regeneration, and further investigated how genes essential for hair cell regeneration were involved in the regeneration of other tissues. We created genetic mutations either by retroviral insertion or CRISPR/Cas9 approaches, and developed a high-throughput screening pipeline for analyzing hair cell development and regeneration. We screened 254 gene mutations and identified 7 genes specifically affecting hair cell regeneration. These hair cell regeneration genes fell into distinct and somewhat surprising functional categories. By examining the regeneration of caudal fin and liver, we found these hair cell regeneration genes often also affected other types of tissue regeneration. Therefore, our results demonstrate guided screening is an effective approach to discover regeneration candidates, and hair cell regeneration is associated with other tissue regeneration.

  2. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1982-01-01

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24 Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  3. Semicircular canals circumvent Brownian Motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500...... nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above...... differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (

  4. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  5. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  6. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methadone and Metabolites in Hair of Methadone-Assisted Pregnant Women and Their Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K; Goodwin, Robert S; Rock, Colleen M; Jones, Hendrée E; Johnson, Rolley E; Wilkins, Diana G; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-01-01

    Methadone is the recommended pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women. The primary aims of this study were to determine whether a dose-concentration relationship exists between cumulative maternal methadone dose, methadone and metabolite concentrations in maternal hair during pregnancy and whether maternal hair methadone and metabolite concentrations predict neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods Hair specimens were collected monthly from opioid-dependent mothers enrolled in methadone treatment and 4 of their infants. Hair specimens were segmented (3cm), washed (maternal hair only) and analyzed for methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrroline (EMDP) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results There was large inter-subject variability and no dose-concentration relationship for cumulative methadone dose and methadone, EDDP, EMDP or total concentrations in hair. For individual women, a positive trend was noted for cumulative methadone dose and methadone and EDDP concentrations in hair. There was a positive linear trend for cumulative methadone dose and EDDP/methadone ratio in maternal hair, perhaps reflecting methadone’s induction of its own metabolism. Maternal methadone concentrations were higher than those in infant hair, and infant EDDP hair concentrations were higher than those in maternal hair. Maternal methadone dose, and methadone and EDDP hair concentrations were not correlated with peak infant neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) scores, days to peak NAS, duration of NAS, time to NAS onset, birth length, head circumference or amount of neonatal morphine pharmacotherapy. Maternal cumulative 3rd trimester methadone dose was positively correlated with infant birth weight. Conclusion Methadone and EDDP in pregnant women’s hair are markers of methadone exposure and do not predict total methadone dose, nor neonatal outcomes from in utero methadone exposure. PMID

  8. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; pEcstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  9. Nitrate induction of root hair density is mediated by TGA1/TGA4 and CPC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Javier; Contreras-López, Orlando; Álvarez, José M; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2017-10-01

    Root hairs are specialized cells that are important for nutrient uptake. It is well established that nutrients such as phosphate have a great influence on root hair development in many plant species. Here we investigated the role of nitrate on root hair development at a physiological and molecular level. We showed that nitrate increases root hair density in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that two different root hair defective mutants have significantly less nitrate than wild-type plants, suggesting that in A. thaliana root hairs have an important role in the capacity to acquire nitrate. Nitrate reductase-null mutants exhibited nitrate-dependent root hair phenotypes comparable with wild-type plants, indicating that nitrate is the signal that leads to increased formation of root hairs. We examined the role of two key regulators of root hair cell fate, CPC and WER, in response to nitrate treatments. Phenotypic analyses of these mutants showed that CPC is essential for nitrate-induced responses of root hair development. Moreover, we showed that NRT1.1 and TGA1/TGA4 are required for pathways that induce root hair development by suppression of longitudinal elongation of trichoblast cells in response to nitrate treatments. Our results prompted a model where nitrate signaling via TGA1/TGA4 directly regulates the CPC root hair cell fate specification gene to increase formation of root hairs in A. thaliana. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A study of trace element concentrations in human hair of some local populations in Japan. II. Inhabitants of a Japanese rural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, S.; Tsunoda, H.; Terai, M.; Yukawa, M.; Tomura, K.; Suzuki-Yasumoto, M.

    1979-01-01

    Hair, as a route by which many metals are excreted, has advantages over other tissues as an indicator of body burden. However, as few data exist on trace element concentrations in hair, a study was made on a rural population in Japan. Hair was collected from 107 residents engaged mainly in dairy farming in a rural area in the northern part of the country. Samples were taken from subjects who had been born and bred in the area which is believed to be free from environmental pollution. A large number of the families had lived there for generations. Nineteen trace elements were detected. The mean values for Hg in hair were 6.8+-2.9 ppm for males and 4.5+-2.7 ppm for females. There was a low statistical correlation between Hg and Se. The mean value for Cu in hair was 17+-7.2 ppm for males and 16+-5.7 ppm for females and that for Zn was 140+-61 ppm for males and 130+-63 ppm for females. A comparison of the mean values of the trace elements in the hair of the subjects aged 20-39 and 40-59 years showed significant differences for Mn in males and Mn and Br in females. A comparison of the findings for the two sexes showed that the concentrations of Mn, Mg, Ca and Br were much higher in females than in males. In contrast, the concentrations of Hg were higher in males than in females. It is suggested that the values obtained for the trace elements in the present study are examples of normal values for trace elements in hair of the Japanese populations. (author)

  11. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopic Hair Shaft Analysis in Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A; Reed, Ashley M; Rowan, Brandon J; Sorrells, Timothy; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M; Hood, Antoinette F; Salkey, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to compare the findings with those in unaffected controls. This is the second of a two-part study, the first of which used light microscopy as the modality and was previously published. Scanning electron microscopy was performed in a blinded manner on hair shafts from 65 subjects with seven types of ED syndromes and 41 unaffected control subjects. Assessment was performed along the length of the shaft and in cross section. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control subjects were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. SEM identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED and in control patients. When hairs with all types of ED were grouped together and compared with those of control patients, the difference in the presence of small diameter and shallow and deep grooves was statistically significant (p < 0.05). When the EDs were separated according to subtype, statistically significant findings were also seen. SEM is a possible adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. There are significant differences, with high specificity, between the hairs of individuals with ED and those of control subjects and between subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

  14. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA...... patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints....../physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline...

  15. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  16. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  17. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 5% Minoxidil: treatment for female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil is a Health Canada and US FDA-approved medication for hair loss in men and women. While 5% minoxidil foam has been approved for men since 2006, Health Canada and the FDA only approved 5% minoxidil foam for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in 2014. Recent Phase III clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of once daily 5% minoxidil foam for treatment of FPHL, where a significant change from baseline in the target area hair count was observed compared to placebo. Similar changes in hair count for 5% foam and twice daily 2% minoxidil solution established noninferiority of the 5% foam formulation. Five percent minoxidil foam provides an additional option for women with FPHL and will soon be available in Canada.

  19. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  20. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  1. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships Between Element Contents in Polish Children's and Adolescents' Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długaszek, Maria; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    Environment, sex, and age are the main factors which determine the elemental composition of hair. The objective of the study is to determine the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in girls' and boys' hair in five age groups (within 1-19-year range) corresponding to successive human ontogenesis phases as well as to evaluate the relationships between these elements. Quantitative analysis has been carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Experimental results were analyzed using classic and principal component (PCA) statistical analyses. In particular, differences between contents of particularly Ca, Mg, and Zn in girls' and boys' hair were found, and substantial differences between age groups were stated. In general, larger amounts of Ca, Mg, and Zn as compared to boys' hair have been observed for girls' hair and higher toxic element (Pb, Cd) contents for boys were measured in some age groups. An increasing trend was found for bioelements (Ca, Mg, Zn) both for girls and boys in all age groups, while for Cu and Fe content, changes are insignificant and even decreasing for teenagers. The most frequently correlating element pairs are Ca-Mg, Ca-Zn, Mg-Zn, and Pb-Cd. Classic and PCA statistics show, in general, a satisfactory consistence. The elemental composition of hair varies depending on the gender and age of children and young people.

  3. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  4. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  5. Innovative modified hair follicle harvesting technique with reverse rake scalp elevator for lower occipital donor area in follicular unit extraction hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharwade, Chandrakant Rambhau

    2016-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is one of the widely practiced minimally invasive follicular harvesting techniques employed during hair transplantation. FUE technique has an advantage of utilising lower occipital area and supra-auricular region as a safe donor area described by Unger, in addition to the standard occipital donor area used in strip method (follicular unit transplant). Despite its potential advantages such as rapid recovery, minimal scarring and reduced post-operative pain; its widespread acceptance is limited due to various factors in variable contribution like steeper learning curve and potentially higher follicular transection rates (FTRs). The main practical drawbacks in harvesting FUE from lower occipital donor region that lie inferior to the standard donor area, is its acute angle (10°-15°) of emergent hair from scalp skin, higher variance angle (15°-35°) between hairs below the skin and hair exit angle above the skin and comparatively loose scalp, preventing to provide stable platform for punching. Hair transplant surgeon faces difficulty in aligning and engaging the FUE punch leading to very high hair follicle transection rate, and therefore, it is not a preferred site for harvesting follicles in FUE. Authors description of modified technique using reverse rake scalp elevator helps in negating the acute angle of the hair follicles exit from scalp skin and reducing the variance angle between emergent hair and hair below the skin in lower occipital region thereby reducing FTR. Furthermore, an added advantage of reducing the overall operative time and surgeon fatigue, improve donor area healing, availability of a comparatively larger donor area which increases the confidence of the beginners. This method will be of help as it is easy to duplicate and follow by novice hair transplant surgeons and also for those who are routinely doing mega hair transplants sessions.

  6. Innovative modified hair follicle harvesting technique with reverse rake scalp elevator for lower occipital donor area in follicular unit extraction hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Rambhau Gharwade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is one of the widely practiced minimally invasive follicular harvesting techniques employed during hair transplantation. FUE technique has an advantage of utilising lower occipital area and supra-auricular region as a safe donor area described by Unger, in addition to the standard occipital donor area used in strip method (follicular unit transplant. Despite its potential advantages such as rapid recovery, minimal scarring and reduced post-operative pain; its widespread acceptance is limited due to various factors in variable contribution like steeper learning curve and potentially higher follicular transection rates (FTRs. The main practical drawbacks in harvesting FUE from lower occipital donor region that lie inferior to the standard donor area, is its acute angle (10°–15° of emergent hair from scalp skin, higher variance angle (15°–35° between hairs below the skin and hair exit angle above the skin and comparatively loose scalp, preventing to provide stable platform for punching. Hair transplant surgeon faces difficulty in aligning and engaging the FUE punch leading to very high hair follicle transection rate, and therefore, it is not a preferred site for harvesting follicles in FUE. Authors description of modified technique using reverse rake scalp elevator helps in negating the acute angle of the hair follicles exit from scalp skin and reducing the variance angle between emergent hair and hair below the skin in lower occipital region thereby reducing FTR. Furthermore, an added advantage of reducing the overall operative time and surgeon fatigue, improve donor area healing, availability of a comparatively larger donor area which increases the confidence of the beginners. This method will be of help as it is easy to duplicate and follow by novice hair transplant surgeons and also for those who are routinely doing mega hair transplants sessions.

  7. Concentrations of heavy metals in hair as indicators of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 80 hair samples were collected from 38% males and 62% females in Krakow, Poland. The hairs sampled for the analysis were washed in the water-acetone-water arrangement (three times. Subsequently the hair samples were wet mineralized in a closed system HNO3:H2O2 (6:1 in a microwave furnace. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were assessed by means of ICP-OES method. Obtained results of analysis of heavy metal concentrations in the hair of tested population of Krakow inhabitants evidence environmental hazard (beside professional hazardWe observed that the hair of females showed higher levels of zinc and cadmium. Hair analysis allows for an assessment of the natural environment contamination, which is particularly important for the research on populations inhabiting areas with different degree of pollution.

  8. Serum drug level-related sodium valproate-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnappa, Suresh K; Belhekar, Mahesh N

    2013-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a well-established treatment in epilepsy and mood disorders. Its utility is compromised by its adverse effects such as tremor, weight gain, hair loss, and liver dysfunction. Hair loss may occur when drug is used in higher dose. Drug-induced hair loss is diffused and non-scarring, which is reversible upon withdrawal. But there are no case reports showing relation between serum levels of valproate and occurrence of hair loss. So we took interest in reporting this case report.

  9. Levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with autism in Oman: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Said, Mona F; Deth, Richard C

    2013-02-01

    Toxic levels of heavy metals and low levels of essential minerals have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study documents the levels of heavy metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with ASD in Muscat, the urbanized capital of Oman, Muscat. The study included 27 children with ASD and 27 matched non-ASD controls. Parental interviews were held and dietary intake questionnaires completed in conjunction with the collection of hair samples. Analysis of heavy metals and essential minerals was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chi-square analysis and non-parametric Fisher's exact tests were used to assess statistical significance. Children with ASD had significantly higher levels of all 11 analyzed heavy metals in their hair samples (P minerals sulfur, sodium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iron, but lower levels of calcium and copper in their hair samples. This study corroborates data from previous studies in different parts of the world indicating the presence of elevated levels of heavy metals and selective depletion of essential minerals in the hair of children with ASD.

  10. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Pereira, M.L.; Ribeiro, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2006-01-01

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites

  11. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  12. Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 as a Novel Biomarker for Hair Loss Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yu Ri; Hwang, Sewon; Jeong, Seo Won; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2017-02-03

    Erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) is known to be involved in the inflammatory process via regulating the immune system in many cutaneous disorders, such as psoriasis and rosacea. However, the role of Erdr1 in various hair loss disorders remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative role of Erdr1 in alopecias. Skin samples from 21 patients with hair loss disorders and five control subjects were retrieved, in order to assess their expression levels of Erdr1. Results revealed that expression of Erdr1 was significantly downregulated in the epidermis and hair follicles of patients with hair loss disorders, when compared to that in the control group. In particular, the expression of Erdr1 was significantly decreased in patients with alopecia areata. We propose that Erdr1 downregulation might be involved in the pathogenesis of hair loss, and could be considered as a novel biomarker for hair loss disorders.

  13. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  14. Time course of cortisol loss in hair segments under immersion in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng; Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Shuang; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-02-18

    Hair cortisol is supposed to be a good biomarker of chronic stress. Major loss of hair cortisol in long-term exposure to environmental factors affected strongly its proper assessment of chronic stress in human. However, there was no research on time course of hair cortisol loss during the long-term exposure. Hair samples with longer than 1cm in the posterior vertex region were cut as close as possible to the scalp. The 1-cm hair samples were treated by ultraviolet irradiation or immersion in shampoo solution or water immersion at 40, 65 and 80°C. Hair cortisol content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation and immersion in shampoo solution and hot water gave rise to the significant cortisol loss in hair. Hair cortisol content was sharply decreased with water immersion duration during initial stage and slowly decreased in the following stage. The 2-stage loss process with water immersion duration modeled to some extent time course of hair cortisol loss in long-term exposure to external environments. Cortisol from hair samples closest to the scalp in the posterior vertex could represent more accurately central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M

    2017-01-01

    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  16. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  18. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  19. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  20. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; phairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  1. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    participants (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.28; moderate quality evidence). Only one study reported on quality of life (QoL) (260 participants), albeit inadequately (low quality evidence). There was an important increase of 13.18 in total hair count per cm² in the minoxidil group compared to the placebo group (95% CI 10.92 to 15.44; low quality evidence) in eight studies (1242 participants). There were 40/407 adverse events in the twice daily minoxidil 2% group versus 28/320 in the placebo group (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.87; low quality evidence). There was also no statistically significant difference in adverse events between any of the individual concentrations against placebo.Four studies (1006 participants) evaluated minoxidil 2% versus 5%. In one study, 25/57 participants in the minoxidil 2% group experienced moderate to greatly increased hair regrowth versus 22/56 in the 5% group (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.73). In another study, 209 participants experienced no difference based on a visual analogue scale (P = 0.062; low quality evidence). The assessments of the investigators based on three studies (586 participants) were in agreement with these findings (moderate quality evidence). One study assessed QoL (209 participants) and reported limited data (low quality evidence). Four trials (1006 participants) did not show a difference in number of adverse events between the two concentrations (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.20; low quality evidence). Both concentrations did not show a difference in increase in total hair count at end of study in three trials with 631 participants (mean difference (MD) -2.12, 95% CI -5.47 to 1.23; low quality evidence).Three studies investigated finasteride 1 mg compared to placebo. In the finasteride group 30/67 participants experienced improvement compared to 33/70 in the placebo group (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.37; low quality evidence). This was consistent with the investigators' assessments (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.90; low quality evidence). Qo

  2. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  3. Hair cortisol as a biological marker for burnout symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Marlene; Stalder, Tobias; Miller, Robert; Ludwig, Vera M; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome with negative impact on cognitive performance and mood as a consequence of long-term stress at work. It is further associated with increased risk for mental and physical diseases. One potential pathway to mediate chronic work-stress and adverse health conditions in burnout is through alterations in long-term glucocorticoid secretion. Here, we present cross-sectional data on hair cortisol/cortisone (hairF/hairE) concentrations and burnout from a population-based sample of the Dresden Burnout Study (DBS; N=314 hair samples). Burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion, cynical attitudes toward work, and reduced efficacy) were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). To control for potential confounds, depressivity was as well assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) screening instrument for major depression. The present findings indicate specific hypercortisolism in participants who suffer from burnout. No significant associations were found between depressivity and hairF/hairE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  5. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  6. Organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) in the serum and hair of pet cats and dogs: Biosentinels of indoor pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Nadeem; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Mehdi, Toufeer; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Javeed, Aqeel; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of different classes of organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) viz., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), bromophenols (BPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their metabolites were determined in cat and dog serum and hair samples from Pakistan. The major DDT metabolite, p,p′-DDE, was the major OHC in cat serum (N = 20) and ranged between 1 and 2150 ng/g lipid weight (lw). p,p′-DDE was not detected in dog serum (N = 16). In contrary to other OHCs, levels of ∑HO-PCBs were significantly higher in dog serum (median = 6.0 ng/g lw) than cat serum (median = 2.2 ng/g lw). Levels of most OHCs were significantly higher (p ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑PCB, with the highest concentrations being around 38 ng/g hair. In paired hair-serum cat samples (N = 12), ∑DDTs (r = 0.65, p = 0.001) were significantly correlated, while for all other OHCs no significant correlations (p < 0.001) were observed in both cats and dogs. Our findings on both hair and serum samples suggested that pet dogs do not bioaccumulate DDTs. Our results are also in agreement with the hypothesis that pets may serve as biosentinels for indoor pollution. This is the first study to document the presence of OHCs in pets from Pakistan and provides baseline information for future monitoring of OHCs in pets. - Highlights: ► Different classes of OHCs were analyzed in pet serum and hair from Pakistan. ► p,p′-DDE was the major pollutant in cat serum, but was < LOQ in dog serum. ► Except HO-PCBs all other classes of OHCs were higher in cat than in dog serum. ► Three of the novel BFRs were detected in pet hair samples. ► Most of OHCs were present at higher levels in cats than humans from the same region

  7. Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara Canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Khezri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its sub­urbs.Methods: Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran and examined for the pres­ence of T. canis eggs.Results: T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs showed a contamina­tion rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was va­ried from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger. Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05.Conclusions: This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considera­ble number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment.

  8. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K; Deng, Huihua

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol concentrations were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Work stress was measured using the effort-reward imbalance scale. The ratio of effort to reward showed significantly positive association with hair cortisol concentration. The cortisol concentration in the system increases with the effort-reward imbalance. Measurement of hair cortisol can become a useful biomarker of chronic work stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Because You're Worth It: Women's daily hair care routines in contemporary Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hielscher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hair care is a significant international industry – estimated to be worth over £1.44 billion in contemporary Britain (Mintel 2015. Given this, it is perhaps not so surprising to learn that British women spend on average £40,000 on their hair over a lifetime (Sharkey 2014. However, despite women's preoccupation with hair, social science research has paid little attention to this area (McCracken 1997; Cox 1999. Most previous studies have examined the changing nature of styles and fashion, offering valuable insights into its symbolic, ritualistic and religious nature and in turn demonstrating the conspicuous aspects of hair (Cox 1999; Biddle-Perry and Cheang 2008. While the public nature of hair has been documented, what is rarely explored is the private world of hair care, often part of a wider network of day-to-day domestic routines (Shove 2003.

  10. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  11. White piedra of scalp hair by Trichosporon inkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Kriplani, Dimple; Miskeen, Autar Kishen; Patel, Bharti; Torsekar, Raghunandan Govind

    2011-01-01

    White piedra is a rare fungal infection of hair and is reported to be all the more rare on scalp. Trichosporon inkin is usually associated with white piedra of pubic hair. We report a case of white piedra of scalp hair caused by T. inkin. This is the first case reported from India and the fifth case reported worldwide. A 50-year-old Muslim female presented with white knots over scalp hair. Diagnosis of Trichosporon was made by examining KOH mounts of epilated hair and Lactophenol Cotton Blue preparations of the growth in culture. Automated mini-API test (for biochemical profiles) and Electronmicroscopy studies (for cell wall structures) helped in identification of the species. Mini-API test was also positive for Cryptococcus curvatus which could be due to similarity in biochemical and physiological properties of the two species. Absence of C. curvatus on culture further supports this view. Topical antifungal therapy resulted in clinical clearance within 2 months. Higher incidence of scalp white piedra is observed in Muslim females; contributing factor being the custom of using a veil, leading to higher humidity and limited sunlight exposure.

  12. Human exposure to brominated flame retardants through dust in different indoor environments: Identifying the sources of concentration differences in hair from men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Dong, Zheng; Wang, Ying; Bao, Junsong; Yan, Yijun; Liu, Anming; Jin, Jun

    2018-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can accumulate in humans and are associated with adverse health effects. The study was conducted to determine the differences in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardant (Alt-BFR) concentrations between men and women. We analyzed hair samples from 14 male and 20 female university students, paired dust samples from their dormitories (10 for males and 8 for females), and six dust samples from university teaching buildings. The total PBDE concentrations in hair from females were significantly (three times) higher (p = 0.012) than that from males (means 372 and 109 ng/g, respectively). The mean total PBDE concentrations in classroom and dormitory dust were 36100 and 2012 ng/g, respectively. The PBDE patterns were different in the male and female hair samples, as were the patterns in the classroom and dormitory dust. There are no reports concerning human exposure to BFRs through dust that was assessed considering academic and residential environments simultaneously. The differences between BFR exposure for males and females and the differences between BFR concentrations in hair samples from males and females were consistent for 71.4% of the compounds. However, using only dormitory dust in the calculations gave consistent differences only for 28.6% of the compounds, suggesting that the BFR concentration differences in hair were mainly because females spent much more time than males in classrooms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesotherapy and platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Gökdemir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss often significant impact on quality of life, including loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. However, treatment of hair loss is frustrating for both patients and doctors. Mesotherapy and platelet-rich plasma have recently become advertised method for the treatment of different types of alopecia. The efficacy of these methods in hair loss is controversial in view of lack of documented evidence. It was reviewed the data about the efficacy, safety and treatment protocols of mesotherapy and platelet-rich plasma in patients with hair loss.

  14. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  15. Mammalian keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs) subgenomes: disentangling hair diversity and adaptation to terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Maldonado, Emanuel; Vasconcelos, Vítor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-09-10

    Adaptation of mammals to terrestrial life was facilitated by the unique vertebrate trait of body hair, which occurs in a range of morphological patterns. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), the major structural hair shaft proteins, are largely responsible for hair variation. We exhaustively characterized the KRTAP gene family in 22 mammalian genomes, confirming the existence of 30 KRTAP subfamilies evolving at different rates with varying degrees of diversification and homogenization. Within the two major classes of KRTAPs, the high cysteine (HS) subfamily experienced strong concerted evolution, high rates of gene conversion/recombination and high GC content. In contrast, high glycine-tyrosine (HGT) KRTAPs showed evidence of positive selection and low rates of gene conversion/recombination. Species with more hair and of higher complexity tended to have more KRATP genes (gene expansion). The sloth, with long and coarse hair, had the most KRTAP genes (175 with 141 being intact). By contrast, the "hairless" dolphin had 35 KRTAPs and the highest pseudogenization rate (74% relative to the 19% mammalian average). Unique hair-related phenotypes, such as scales (armadillo) and spines (hedgehog), were correlated with changes in KRTAPs. Gene expression variation probably also influences hair diversification patterns, for example human have an identical KRTAP repertoire as apes, but much less hair. We hypothesize that differences in KRTAP gene repertoire and gene expression, together with distinct rates of gene conversion/recombination, pseudogenization and positive selection, are likely responsible for micro and macro-phenotypic hair diversification among mammals in response to adaptations to ecological pressures.

  16. Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Thanh; Fu Jianjie; Wang Yawei; Liao Chunyang; Tao Yongqing; Jiang Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 μg/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu >> Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 μg/g) was also found to be significantly higher compared to that in hair samples from control areas. Differences with age, gender, residence status and villages could be distinguished for most of the elements. The high levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were likely found to be originated from e-waste related activities, and specific sources were discussed. This study shows that human scalp hair could be a useful biomarker to assess the extent of heavy metal exposure to workers and residents in areas with intensive e-waste recycling activities. - Human scalp hair samples can be used to indicate environmental and occupational exposure of heavy metals due to intensive electronic waste recycling activities.

  17. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Beckmann, Michael; Cord, Anna F; Bindewald, Anja M

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  18. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants—Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Anna F.; Bindewald, Anja M.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants’ native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  19. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Václavík

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species and hair length (H. pilosella only. While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%, and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%. Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date were at

  20. Increased Hair Cortisol Concentrations and BMI in Patients With Pituitary-Adrenal Disease on Hydrocortisone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Andela, Cornelie D; Manenschijn, Laura; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic imperfections and lack of reliable biomarkers preclude optimal individual dosing of hydrocortisone replacement in adrenal insufficiency (AI). However, the clinical relevance of optimal dosing is exemplified by frequently occurring side effects of overreplacement and the dangers of underreplacement. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a retrospective biomarker for long-term cortisol exposure. We compared hair cortisol concentrations (CORT(hair)) of patients with primary or secondary AI on replacement therapy with those of patient controls with a pituitary disease without AI (PCs) and of healthy controls (HCs). In this cross-sectional study, hair samples and anthropometric data were collected in 132 AI patients (52 males), 42 PCs (11 males), and 195 HCs (90 males). The proximal 3 cm of hair were used. CORT(hair) were measured using an ELISA. CORT(hair) were higher in AI patients than in HCs and PCs (P AI patients demonstrated higher CORT(hair) than female patients (P AI patients had higher body mass index (BMI) than HCs (P AI.

  1. Hair cortisol and progesterone detection in dairy cattle: interrelation with physiological status and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2018-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , plaser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  3. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    regimen significantly outperforms commercial products that were tested containing a color protection claim. The proposed mechanism for the anti-fading action of hydrophobically modified polymers includes a cationic charge-reinforced hydrophobic barrier. This model is supported by evaluating the color fastness effect of several different polymer chemistries and by measuring hair surface hydrophobicity changes.

  5. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, W.; Dharmvanij, W; Chongkum, S.

    1998-01-01

    Hair samples from students aged between 7 to 22 years old were analysed by neutron activation analysis at nuclear research reactor TRR-1.M1. From qualitative analysis of short-lived isotopes, A1, V, Ca, I, Cl, Mn, and Na were found. The quantity of those elements can be classified into three groups. The first group is A1, Ca, Na and Cl with variance less than 10%. The second group is V and I with variance between 10% to 50% and the third group, Mn, two samples have concentration about 12 times higher than the others

  6. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  7. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Luciano O; Chesson, Lesley A; Bowen, Gabriel J; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-01-01

    Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization). Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13)C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰), and significantly higher δ(15)N (7.8 to 10.3‰) and δ(34)S (4.8 to 8.3‰) values than samples from the USA (δ(13)C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15)N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34)S: -1.2 to 9.9‰). Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13)C and δ(34)S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  8. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.A.; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed

  9. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  10. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano O Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization. Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰, and significantly higher δ(15N (7.8 to 10.3‰ and δ(34S (4.8 to 8.3‰ values than samples from the USA (δ(13C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34S: -1.2 to 9.9‰. Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13C and δ(34S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  11. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Johansen, Maria V

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly lower (psolium infected (4.7±3.0pg/mg) compared to control pigs (9.0±3.7pg/mg) prior to arrival at the research facility, however no significant difference was observed between the two groups at arrival and after approximately two weeks. Similar patterns were also observed for DHEA concentrations (infected pigs 253.9±82.3pg/mg, control pigs 387.7±116.4pg/mg) (p<0.001). Results showed that lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  13. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  14. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  15. Diffuse hair loss in an adult female: Approach to diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium (TE is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss in adult females. TE, along with female pattern hair loss (FPHL and chronic telogen effluvium (CTE, accounts for the majority of diffuse alopecia cases. Abrupt, rapid, generalized shedding of normal club hairs, 2-3 months after a triggering event like parturition, high fever, major surgery, etc. indicates TE, while gradual diffuse hair loss with thinning of central scalp/widening of central parting line/frontotemporal recession indicates FPHL. Excessive, alarming diffuse shedding coming from a normal looking head with plenty of hairs and without an obvious cause is the hallmark of CTE, which is a distinct entity different from TE and FPHL. Apart from complete blood count and routine urine examination, levels of serum ferritin and T3, T4, and TSH should be checked in all cases of diffuse hair loss without a discernable cause, as iron deficiency and thyroid hormone disorders are the two common conditions often associated with diffuse hair loss, and most of the time, there are no apparent clinical features to suggest them. CTE is often confused with FPHL and can be reliably differentiated from it through biopsy which shows a normal histology in CTE and miniaturization with significant reduction of terminal to vellus hair ratio (T:V < 4:1 in FPHL. Repeated assurance, support, and explanation that the condition represents excessive shedding and not the actual loss of hairs, and it does not lead to baldness, are the guiding principles toward management of TE as well as CTE. TE is self limited and resolves in 3-6 months if the trigger is removed or treated, while the prognosis of CTE is less certain and may take 3-10 years for spontaneous resolution. Topical minoxidil 2% with or without antiandrogens, finestride, hair prosthesis, hair cosmetics, and hair surgery are the therapeutically available options for FPHL management.

  16. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-01-01

    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  17. Melatonin increases anagen hair rate in women with androgenetic alopecia or diffuse alopecia: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Burmeister, G; Schmidt, H W; Elsner, P

    2004-02-01

    In addition to the well-known hormonal influences of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on the hair cycle, melatonin has been reported to have a beneficial effect on hair growth in animals. The effect of melatonin on hair growth in humans has not been investigated so far. To examine whether topically applied melatonin influences anagen and telogen hair rate in women with androgenetic or diffuse hair loss. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 40 women suffering from diffuse alopecia or androgenetic alopecia. A 0.1% melatonin or a placebo solution was applied on the scalp once daily for 6 months and trichograms were performed to assess anagen and telogen hair rate. To monitor effects of treatment on physiological melatonin levels, blood samples were taken over the whole study period. Melatonin led to a significantly increased anagen hair rate in occipital hair in women with androgenetic hair loss compared with placebo (n=12; P=0.012). For frontal hair, melatonin gave a significant increase in the group with diffuse alopecia (n=28; P=0.046). The occipital hair samples of patients with diffuse alopecia and the frontal hair counts of those with androgenetic alopecia also showed an increase of anagen hair, but differences were not significant. Plasma melatonin levels increased under treatment with melatonin, but did not exceed the physiological night peak. To the authors' knowledge, this pilot study is the first to show that topically applied melatonin might influence hair growth in humans in vivo. The mode of action is not known, but the effect might result from an induction of anagen phase.

  18. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  19. Regeneration of Murine Hair Follicles is Inhibited by Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ishihara, Yoshie; Inoue, Sonoe

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with 137 Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2). Irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and the induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs. There was a small, but not significant, change in the number of TRP2-positive melanocyte stem cells in the hair bulge region of the irradiated skin. These results suggest that low-dose rate γ-irradiation does not deplete melanocyte stem cells, but can damage stem cells and progenitors for both keratinocytes and melanocytes, thereby affecting the structure and pigmentation of regenerated hair follicles in the 2 nd anagen phase.

  20. Morphological and genetic identification and isotopic study of the hair of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss, 1810) from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, O. F.; Kirillova, I. V.; Shapiro, B.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.; Soares, A. E. R.; Levchenko, V. A.; Bertuch, F.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first detailed analyses of the preserved hair of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss, 1810). The hair was found in association with a skeleton that was recovered recently from perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia). We extract mitochondrial DNA from the hair to confirm its taxonomic identity, and perform detailed morphological analyses of the color and structure of the hair using light optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, we compare the cave lion hair to hair taken from the back and mane of an African lion. We find that cave lion hair is similar but not identical to that of the present-day lion. In addition to slightly different coloration, cave lions had a very thick and dense undercoat comprising closed and compressed wavy downy hair with a medulla. In addition, while the microstructures of the medulla and cortex of cave lion hair are similar in extinct and living lions, the cuticular scales of cave lion hair are higher than those in living lions, suggesting that cave lion hair is stronger and more robust than that of living lions. We hypothesize that the differences between cave lion hair and present-day lion hair may be due to adaptations of cave lions to the harsh climatic and environmental conditions of the Pleistocene Ice Ages.

  1. Hair as an indicator of environmental exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven human hair samples were taken from the Chinese residents of Hong Kong for the study of hair trace elemental level and environmental exposure. Absolute neutron-activation analysis and Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry were applied for the determination of the trace elemental level. After washing, each hair sample was air-dried at room temperature in acetone and water. The hair was weighed and encapsulated into the irradiation container. Typical sample weight was about 150 mg. The samples were irradiated at a neutron flux of 4.4x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Conditions of the irradiations and counting are tabulated. The trace element content of hair from a drug addict was found to be considerably different from other sampled peopie. Comparison of the normal concentrations of the trace elements of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong was made with those from people of various other national, socio-cultural and environmental backgrounds. It was found that together with a few other trace elements, Ni, Sr, Zr, and Hg content of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong show a higher level than those of the other sampled people. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  2. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  3. Hormones in infant rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) hair at birth provide a window into the fetal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele; Hedman, Curtis; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-04-01

    It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Taking advantage of this finding, our study utilized hair at birth to investigate if maternal parity affected fetal hormone exposure during late gestation. Hair was collected from primiparous and multiparous mother and infant monkeys at birth and used to determine steroid hormones embedded in hair while the infant was in utero. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technique was refined, which enabled the simultaneous measurement of eight hormones. Hormone concentrations were dramatically higher in neonatal compared to maternal hair, reflecting extended fetal exposure as the first hair was growing. Further, hair cortisone was higher in primiparous mothers and infants when compared to the multiparous dyads. This research demonstrates that infant hair can be used to track fetal hormone exposure and a panel of steroid hormones can be quantified from hair specimens. Given the utility in nonhuman primates, this approach can be translated to a clinical setting with human infants.

  4. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

  5. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  6. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  7. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  8. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  9. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  10. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  11. D-Cloprostenol enhances estrus synchronization in tropical hair sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alejandro Alavez; Villalvazo, Victor Manuel Meza; Arredondo, Emmanuel Sosa; Ramírez, Hugo Alonso Ramírez; Sevilla, Héctor Magaña

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of PGF2α (dinoprost tromethamine) and D-cloprostenol in a two-dose protocol for estrus synchronization in hair sheep during breeding season in Yucatán, México, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 61 cyclic hair sheep were divided into two groups: G1 (control n = 30), two doses of 50 μg of dinoprost tromethamine IM with 12 days between applications, and G2 (n = 31), two doses of 50 μg of D-cloprostenol IM at the same time interval. For determination of progesterone levels, 16 ewes from each group were randomly selected. In experiment 2, 70 cyclic hair sheep were assigned at the same treatments (G1 and G2, n = 35) and 48 h after the second application, the ewes in estrus were detected by two vasectomized rams. Sheep with detected estrus were inseminated, and 45 days after, pregnant animals were identified by ultrasonography. An exact Fisher's test was performed for the analysis of ewes in estrus (experiments 1 and 2) and number of pregnant ewes (experiment 2); for the comparison of time between end of treatment-estrus presentation, a survival analysis was used. Duration of estrus in hours was analyzed using a generalized mixed model (GLM) ANOVA whereas plasma progesterone concentrations were analyzed by non-linear regression. There were significant differences (P  0.05) in duration of estrus (G1, 42 + 6.1 h, vs G2, 41.1 + 11.2 h, experiment 1) and pregnancy in the ewes that presented estrus, and were inseminated (G1, 38.4% vs 52.1%, experiment 2). With regard to concentrations of progesterone, significant differences (P < 0.01) were found between treatments, and progesterone levels before the second application of D-cloprostenol were higher. In consideration of the results, it can be concluded that in a two-dose protocol of a luteolytic agent, more ewes presented estrus in response to D-cloprostenol compared to dinoprost tromethamine with similar pregnancy rates.

  12. Anti-dandruff Hair Tonic Containing Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisripipat, Wannee; Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Natural remedies for treating dandruff are becoming popular. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-head efficacy evaluation was conducted 30 Thai volunteers aged 20-60 years experiencing dandruff measured at level 3 on D-Squame® scale. An easy to use hair tonic containing essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) active against lipophilic yeasts was developed and then evaluated for efficacy and preference. The base formulation with the significantly highest preference (p lemongrass oil hair tonics with 5, 10, or 15% reduced dandruff significant (p lemongrass oil seems to be the most effective preparation. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Effect of Oil Application, Age, Diet, and Pigmentation on the Tensile Strength and Breaking Point of Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Natarajan, Karthika; Thilagavathi, G; Srinivas, C R

    2016-01-01

    Hair strength depends on various factors such as nutrition, environmental factors, sunlight, oiling, aging, conditioner, etc. To compare the tensile strength and breaking point of the hair shaft between (1) vegetarian and nonvegetarian. (2) Those who regularly apply and those who do not apply oil. (3) Pigmented and nonpigmented hair, (4) childhood and elderly. Hair fibers were mounted in tensile strength testing machine Zwick/Roell Z010 and gradual force was administered. The elongation of hair fiber in mm and the maximum force required to break the hair strand were recorded for each fiber. Elasticity of the children's hair was more than the elasticity of adult ( P = 0.05) although tensile strength in children hair was not statistically significant (>0.05). Similarly, the tensile strength was more among those who regularly consumed nonvegetarian food but the difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in other groups ( P > 0.05). Elasticity in children hair is statistically more than elderly hair although there is no significant change in tensile strength.

  14. [Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Pasian, N; Maréchal, C; Salanne, S; Debuisson, C; Grouteau, E

    2010-05-01

    Describe the epidemiology of tourniquet syndromes and a cohort of such children admitted to the pediatric emergency department (PED), analyze the family's social situation to detect neglect behaviors, and analyze subsequent hospital admissions. From 1st January 2003 to 31st May 2009 in the PED, all patients admitted for tourniquet syndrome were included in the study. The data collected were day and time of admission, age, sex, length of stay, medical coverage, type and location of the constrictive agent, therapeutic management, progression, and complications. PED social workers in relation with child protective services (CPS) recovered information on the family's social situation. During the study period, 57 children were registered. The mean number of admissions per year was 8 (range: 2-15). The mean age was 5.5+/-4 months. The toe was the most frequent location (95%). The penis was injured in 2 cases and labia majora in 1 case. The constrictive agent was often a hair (95%). One case of abuse was detected. The analysis of family social situations showed that 53% had no or incomplete medical coverage, 67% were already followed by CPS with extreme poverty or lived in dilapidated housing. Insufficient hygiene or neglect was found in 67% of the families with incomplete or no social coverage. The analysis of 2003-2007 period for later admissions identified that 15 accidents in the home occurred in 12 children. Among these families, 58% were already known by CPS for neglect behavior. Although most tourniquet syndromes seem accidental, this entity is often associated with a lack of hygiene. Several and distant locations (e.g., toes and genitals), multiple and/or separated knots, constrictive agents inconsistent with a safe environment for the child, and penile location in an infant require meticulous investigation because of a higher incidence of child neglect. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  16. Are concentrations of alkaline earth elements in maternal hair associated with risk of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Wang, Bin; Huo, Wenhua; Liu, Yingying; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-12-31

    The relationship between maternal intake of alkaline earth elements (AEEs) during the period of neural tube closure and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. We propose that AEE deficiency during the early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in the offspring. In this study, we recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women who delivered healthy infants (controls). The concentrations of four AEEs (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) in maternal hair sections that grew during early pregnancy were analyzed. Information on the dietary habits of the mothers was also collected by questionnaire. Higher concentrations of the four AEEs in hair had protective effects against the risk of total NTDs, with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (comparing groups separated by each median level) of 0.44 (0.28-0.68) for Mg, 0.56 (0.36-0.87) for Ca, 0.45 (0.28-0.70) for Sr, and 0.41 (0.26-0.65) for Ba. Significant negative dose-response trends were identified for the relationships between the four AEE concentrations in maternal hair and the risks of anencephaly and spina bifida, but not for encephalocele. The frequencies of maternal consumption of fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and meat or fish were positively correlated with the concentrations of AEEs in hair. We concluded that the maternal intake of AEEs may play an important role in preventing NTD formation in offspring, and that this intake is related to maternal dietary habits of consuming fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and fish or meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GC-MS/MS detects potential pregabalin abuse in susceptible subjects' hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Federica; Aroni, Kyriaki; Gili, Alessio; Sardella, Roccaldo; Bacci, Mauro; Lancia, Massimo; Natalini, Benedetto; Gambelunghe, Cristiana

    2018-06-01

    Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognised as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals. The other 140 patients had a history of opiate dependency and were monitored to assess compliance with methadone therapy. In view of determining pregabalin in hair samples, it was extracted in methanol, successfully derivatised to give the ethyl chloroformate derivative, and finally pregabalin was analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, intra- and inter-day precision, and accuracy of the quantification procedure were appraised. Pregabalin limits of detection and quantification were 30 pg/mg and 50 pg/mg, respectively. We found 10.7% of hair samples from methadone patients and 4.29% from occasional drug users were positive to pregabalin without medical prescription. The mean pregabalin concentration in hair was higher than in consumers with medical indications (1.45 ng/mg vs 0.74 ng/mg). These results suggest that pregabalin possesses a significant abuse potential particularly among individuals attending opiate dependence services and that pregabalin abuse is a serious emerging issue, which should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Light Wavelength Correlation on the Effect of Hair Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The use of laser light as a bio stimulator at certain wavelength is a new development in laser photonics and become an acceptable tool in medical therapy. It based on low power and low energy laser light. The effect of biological cells behaviour to low power laser light stimulates various studies in many areas such as for medical and cosmetic applications. This paper discusses some results of low power laser light that is used for stimulating the hair growth of skinned mouse by using an optically expanded low power laser light. The study indicates that the red light laser provide a significant growth of mouse hair with exposure duration of two hours daily for 24 consecutive days. Apart from that the green laser light is also used in this study; however result shows no significant influence to the growth of mouse hair in this light wavelength. (author)

  20. Toxic Metals Profiles in Hair Samples from Street Roaming Animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearson correlation matrix results in both goats and sheep hair, reveals that Cu and Co (r = 0.030) and Fe and Cu (r = 0.011) had significant (p<0.05) positive correlation. Lead and cadmium (r = 0.00), have zero correlation, while the remaining either had negative significant (p<0.05) correlation or were not correlated ...

  1. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  3. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XIII. Effect of structural factors on incorporation of drugs into hair: the incorporation rates of amphetamine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the incorporation mechanism of drugs from blood into hair, seven effects of structural factors on the incorporation rate (ICR) were studied using 32 amphetamine analogs: (1) effect of a straight chained N-alkyl group; (2) effect of benzene and furan ring at N-position; (3) effect of aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy groups; (4) effect of triple bond group at N-position; (5) effect of N-acyl group and ketone group; (6) effect of methylenedioxy and methoxy groups on benzene ring; and (7) comparison between phenyltertiarybutylamines and phenylisopropylamines. After shaving the back hair and i.p. administration of drugs to Dark-Agouti rats (5 mg/kg, 10 days, n = 3), the areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs) of drugs in the plasma and the concentrations in hair newly grown for 4 weeks were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ICRs represented by the ratios of hair concentrations to AUCs were compared with those of amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA). The ICRs of N-alkyl AP increased depending on the length of carbon branches from proton to propyl (C3 > C2 > C1 > H) at N-position. The compounds containing a benzene or furan ring at the N-position (benzphetamine, clobenzorex, norbenzphetamine, prenylamine, furfenorex, and norfurfenorex) had much higher ICRs than those of AP or MA, suggesting that a benzene or furan ring increases their ICRs. The ICRs of deprenyl, nordeprenyl, and fenproporex were significantly low, implying that triple bonds such as of a propargyl or cyano group serve as a negative factor for the ICRs. An ephedrine group (ephedrine, methylephedrine, phenylpropanolamine) showed slightly lower ICRs than the corresponding amphetamine group. However, a hydroxy group on benzene ring apparently decreased the ICRs. Methoxy and methylenedioxy groups on benzene ring distinctly increased their ICRs. The lack of basicity such as N-formyl MA, N-acetyl AP, and N-acetyl MA dramatically lowered their ICRs to

  4. Organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) in the serum and hair of pet cats and dogs: Biosentinels of indoor pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nadeem [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Malik, Riffat Naseem [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quiad-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mehdi, Toufeer [Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah [Department of Bio Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Javeed, Aqeel [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations of different classes of organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) viz., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), bromophenols (BPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their metabolites were determined in cat and dog serum and hair samples from Pakistan. The major DDT metabolite, p,p′-DDE, was the major OHC in cat serum (N = 20) and ranged between 1 and 2150 ng/g lipid weight (lw). p,p′-DDE was not detected in dog serum (N = 16). In contrary to other OHCs, levels of ∑HO-PCBs were significantly higher in dog serum (median = 6.0 ng/g lw) than cat serum (median = 2.2 ng/g lw). Levels of most OHCs were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cat serum than those found in human serum from the same region, in particular for ∑PBDEs (ranged 1–1280 ng/g lw). Significantly lower levels of OCPs (p < 0.05) were detected in dog serum than in human serum. The concentrations of ∑BPs were seven times higher in cat serum (median 112 ng/g lw) than dog serum (median 16 ng/g lw). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that NBFRs, e.g. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), were detected in cat and dog's hair. BTBPE had the highest detection frequency (30%) in the serum samples. In cat and dog hair samples, the order of importance of OHCs was ∑OCPs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑PCB, with the highest concentrations being around 38 ng/g hair. In paired hair-serum cat samples (N = 12), ∑DDTs (r = 0.65, p = 0.001) were significantly correlated, while for all other OHCs no significant correlations (p < 0.001) were observed in both cats and dogs. Our findings on both hair and serum samples suggested that pet dogs do not bioaccumulate DDTs. Our results are also in agreement with the hypothesis that pets may serve as biosentinels for indoor pollution. This is the first study to

  5. Relationships between affiliative social behavior and hair cortisol concentrations in semi-free ranging rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Hamel, Amanda F; Murphy, Ashley M; Byers, Kristen L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-10-01

    Sociality is a fundamental aspect of human behavior and health. One benefit of affiliative social relationships is reduced short-term levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), which are indicative of physiological stress. Less is known, however, about chronic GC production in relation to affiliative social behavior. To address this issue, we studied a semi-free ranging troop of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and collected hair samples to measure hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), as a measure of chronic GC production, during routine biannual exams. We collected social behavior (both aggressive and affiliative) and hair samples for 32 adult female rhesus macaques over one year (Experiment 1). Our results indicated that adult females who initiated higher levels of social affiliation had significantly lower levels of HCCs. Neither the initiation nor the receipt of aggression were significantly related to HCCs in this study. In a second experiment we studied 28 mother-infant dyads for the first 90days postpartum to examine mother-infant facial interactions (i.e. mutual gazing). We analyzed HCCs during weaning approximately one year later, which is a major transitional period. We found that infants that engaged in higher levels of mutual gazing in the first 90days postpartum had significantly lower levels of HCCs during weaning. Finally, we studied 17 infant rhesus macaques (13 males) to examine whether social behavior (such as play) in the first five months of life correlated with infant HCCs over those months (Experiment 3). We found that infant males that engaged in more social play had significantly lower levels of HCCs. By relying on an animal model, our study shows that affiliative social traits are associated with lower long-term GC production. Future research should address the complex interactions between social behavior, chronic GC production, and mental and physical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair analysis following chronic smoked-drugs-of-abuse exposure in adults and their toddler: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaseit Esther

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Over the past two decades, the study of chronic cocaine and crack cocaine exposure in the pediatric population has been focused on the potential adverse effects, especially in the prenatal period and early childhood. Non-invasive biological matrices have become an essential tool for the assessment of a long-term history of drug of abuse exposure. Case report We analyze the significance of different biomarker values in hair after chronic crack exposure in a two-year-old Caucasian girl and her parents, who are self-reported crack smokers. The level of benzoylecgonine, the principal metabolite of cocaine, was determined in segmented hair samples (0 cm to 3 cm from the scalp, and > 3 cm from the scalp following washing to exclude external contamination. Benzoylecgonine was detectable in high concentrations in the child's hair, at 1.9 ng/mg and 7.04 ng/mg, respectively. Benzoylecgonine was also present in the maternal and paternal hair samples at 7.88 ng/mg and 6.39 ng/mg, and 13.06 ng/mg and 12.97 ng/mg, respectively. Conclusion Based on the data from this case and from previously published poisoning cases, as well as on the experience of our research group, we conclude that, using similar matrices for the study of chronic drug exposure, children present with a higher cocaine concentration in hair and they experience more serious deleterious acute effects, probably due to a different and slower cocaine metabolism. Consequently, children must be not exposed to secondhand crack smoke under any circumstance.

  7. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  8. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coenzyme Q10 protects hair cells against aminoglycoside.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Sugahara

    Full Text Available It is well known that the production of free radicals is associated with sensory cell death induced by an aminoglycoside. Many researchers have reported that antioxidant reagents protect sensory cells in the inner ear, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an antioxidant that is consumed as a health food in many countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CoQ10 in mammalian vestibular hair cell death induced by aminoglycoside. Cultured utricles of CBA/CaN mice were divided into three groups (control group, neomycin group, and neomycin + CoQ10 group. In the neomycin group, utricles were cultured with neomycin (1 mM to induce hair cell death. In the neomycin + CoQ10 group, utricles were cultured with neomycin and water-soluble CoQ10 (30-0.3 µM. Twenty-four hours after exposure to neomycin, the cultured tissues were fixed, and vestibular hair cells were labeled using an anti-calmodulin antibody. Significantly more hair cells survived in the neomycin + CoQ10 group than in the neomycin group. These data indicate that CoQ10 protects sensory hair cells against neomycin-induced death in the mammalian vestibular epithelium; therefore, CoQ10 may be useful as a protective drug in the inner ear.

  10. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of complexity of the male and female sexual openings in Brachyura, which have been the source of uncertainties and conflicting opinions, are documented, together with a study of the morphologies of the coxal and sternal gonopores in both sexes, penises, spermathecae, and gonopods. The vulvae, male gonopores and penises are described among selected taxa of Eubrachyura, and their function and evolution examined in the context of a wide variety of mating behaviours. The location of female and male gonopores, the condition of the penis (coxal and sternal openings and modalities of protection), and related configurations of thoracic sternites 7 and 8, which are modified by the intercalation of a wide sternal part (thoracic sternites 7 and 8) during carcinisation, show evidence of deep homology. They represent taxonomic criteria at all ranks of the family-series and may be used to test lineages. Of particular significance are the consequences of the posterior expansion of the thoracic sternum, which influences the condition, shape, and sclerotisation of the penis, and its emergence from coxal (heterotreme) to coxo-sternal, which is actually still coxal (heterotreme), in contrast to a sternal emergence (thoracotreme). The heterotreme-thoracotreme distinction results from two different trajectories of the vas deferens and its ejaculatory duct via the P5 coxa (Heterotremata) or through the thoracic sternum (Thoracotremata). Dissections of males of several families have demonstrated that this major difference not only affects the external surface (perforation of the coxa or the sternum by the ejaculatory duct) but also the internal anatomy. There is no evidence for an ejaculatory duct passing through the articular membrane between the P5 coxa and the thoracic sternum in any Brachyura, even when the sternal male gonopore is very close to the P5 coxa. Trends towards the coxo-sternal condition are exemplified by multistate characters, varying from a shallow

  11. A study on human hair element content as monitor for trace elements pollution in Eg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.; Metwally, E.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element content in human is a suitable indicator of exposure to trace element pollutants. Concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from more than 23 individuals have been determined. The collected hair samples were classified into four groups collected from workers at nuclear research center and others far away from the center. Neutron activation analysis technique was used in the preset study. The data reported for trace elements content in different hair samples were discussed. Significant differences were observed for several elements levels. comparative studies demonstrated that the concentration of some elements in hair of exposed workers, are greater than those corresponding to non exposed workers. Also, there was no clear significant correlation between the elements content of different hair samples and the age of the donors

  12. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  13. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to hair cosmetic products by the French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Dornic, N; Roudot, A C

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic exposure data are limited in Europe and especially in France. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to hair cosmetics using recent consumption data (percentage of users, frequency of use and amount per use) generated for the French population (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for eleven hair products: liquid shampoo, dry shampoo, conditioner, hair mask, hair serum, hair oil, styling lacquer, styling gel, styling foam, styling wax and styling spray. Exposure was assessed by sex and by age classes in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. For liquid shampoo, conditioner and some styling products (gel, lacquer and foam), the levels of exposure were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for styling wax and styling spray were lower than SCCS values. Exposure was assessed for the first time for dry shampoo, hair mask, hair serum and hair oil products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. On the use of hair analysis to assess the influence of exposure to some toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The micro PIXE technique is an analytical method capable to measure trace element concentration distribution at ppm concentration level and at μm scale. This method opens the possibility to measure radial and longitudinal element distribution across and along hair samples. The incorporation of Cd and Pb in rat hair has been studied using two different analytical techniques, namely micro PIXE to measure the radial distribution of these elements across the hair root and in a section cut at 3 mm distance from the root, and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) to measure the distribution of these elements over different protein fractions prepared by other CRP participant. Hair samples from 12 persons were also analyzed with micro PIXE. Inter element effects were observed in this case, especially the negative correlation between Cu and Zn. Also the data indicate correlations between Zn concentration in hair and bone (positive) and hair and liver (negative). Cu shows the same behaviour. A large number of hair and whole blood samples from a group of school children was also analyzed. In this data set, it was observed that Pb concentration affects other elements. It turned out that Ca and Zn concentrations in hair were lower, while Cu values were higher in the samples with high Pb values. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  18. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  19. Efficacy and safety of 3% minoxidil versus combined 3% minoxidil / 0.1% finasteride in male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglertsampan, Chuchai

    2012-10-01

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride have been used to treat men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). There are concerns about side effects of oral finasteride especially erectile dysfunction. To compare the efficacy and safety of the 24 weeks application of 3% minoxidil lotion (MNX) versus combined 3% minoxidil and 0.1% finasteride lotion (MFX) in men with AGA. Forty men with AGA were randomized treated with MNX or MFX. Efficacy was evaluated by hair counts and global photographic assessment. Safety assessment was performed by history and physical examination. At week 24, hair counts were increased from baseline in both groups. However paired t-test revealed statistical difference only in MFX group (p = 0.044). Unpaired t-test revealed no statistical difference between two groups with respect to change of hair counts at 24 weeks from baseline (p = 0.503). MFX showed significantly higher efficacy than MNX by global photographic assessment (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in side effects between both groups. Although change of hair counts was not statistically different between two groups, global photographic assessment showed significantly greater improvement in the MFX group than the MNX group. There was no sexual side effect. MFX may be a safe and effective treatment option.

  20. Within-patient right-left blinded comparison of diode (810 nm) laser therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H; Ibbotson, S H; Dawe, R S; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H

    2008-10-01

    Excessive facial hair in women can cause significant psychological distress. A variety of treatment methods are available, including lasers and, more recently, intense pulsed light (IPL) sources. There are very few studies comparing laser and IPL devices. The purpose of our study was to compare a laser diode device with an IPL, using a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, controlled, study design. Hair counts were made, using coded close-up photographs. Treatments were carried out on three occasions at 6-week intervals, and a final assessment was made 6 weeks following the third treatment. Patient self-assessment was also included. Nine women were recruited, and seven completed the study. Average hair counts in a 16 cm(2) area before and after treatment were, respectively, 42.4 and 10.4 (laser), 38.1 and 20.4 (IPL), 45.3 and 44.7 (control). Both laser and IPL reduced the hair count substantially; laser vs control was significant at P=0.028, but IPL vs control had P=0.13, suggesting that more subjects or more treatments were required if statistical significance were to be achieved. Despite subjecting the patients to higher pain scores and more inflammation, laser was preferred by five patients; two preferred IPL and one had no preference.

  1. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  2. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  3. Research on design connotation of hair drier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    After the analysis and summary of the research on the design of hair drier system, the system design is focused on. Product system design is not only to study its entity, but also is recognized as the part, element and component with a systematic feature to deeply analyze the innovation way of product system design, which is taken as its concept to carry out the association analysis on the component elements of hair driers and the overall analysis and study on the system design process of hair dryers. The product life cycle is taken as the main goal, through system analysis, system synthesis and system optimization, to solve the problems of product design. It is of great practical significance.

  4. Utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol in a large statistically significant population. The positivity rate, the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of five amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, four opiates, methadone, buprenorphine, seven benzodiazepines, and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in 9488 non-treated and 1026 cosmetically treated (dyed or bleached) authentic hair samples was compared. Analytical methods used were accredited for forensic purposes at the cut-offs defined by the German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. Considering only the drug classes for which at least 10 positive samples were detected, the positivity rate in non-treated hair was highest for alcohol (4.50%; measured using EtG at concentrations ≥ 7 pg/mg hair), followed by THC (2.00%), cocaine (1.75%), and amphetamine (0.59%). While the 1st to 99th percentile range was significantly lower for drugs in treated, compared to non-treated hair, no significant change was observed for EtG. Additionally, no significant difference in the positivity rate was observed between treated hair and non-treated hair for both drugs and EtG. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the influence of cosmetic treatment, mainly dying, on the positivity rate for both drugs and EtG in hair samples submitted routinely for abstinence testing and the first to indicate that dyed and eventually bleached hair is not necessarily useless in detecting drugs and/or alcohol consumption, thus making coloured hair analysis still useful, often being the only possibility to prove such misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Trace elements and heavy metals in hair of stage III breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderli Cihan, Yasemin; Sözen, Selim; Oztürk Yıldırım, Sema

    2011-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to compare the hair levels of 36 elements in 52 patients with stage III breast cancer to those of an equal number of healthy individuals. Principal component and cluster analysis were used for source of identification and apportionment of heavy metals and trace elements in these two groups. A higher average level of iron was found in samples from patients while controls had higher levels of calcium. Both patients and controls had elevated levels of tin, magnesium, zinc, and sodium. Almost all element values in cancer patients showed higher dispersion and asymmetry than in healthy controls. Between the two groups, there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of silver, arsenic, gold, boron, barium, beryllium, calcium, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, cesium, gadolinium, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, scandium, selenium, and zinc (p heavy metals and trace elements in the hair of breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls. These results could be of significance in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. Nevirapine Concentration in Hair Samples Is a Strong Predictor of Virologic Suppression in a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv M Baxi

    Full Text Available Effective antiretroviral (ARV therapy depends on adequate drug exposure, yet methods to assess ARV exposure are limited. Concentrations of ARV in hair are the product of steady-state pharmacokinetics factors and longitudinal adherence. We investigated nevirapine (NVP concentrations in hair as a predictor of treatment response in women receiving ARVs. In participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, who reported NVP use for >1 month from 2003-2008, NVP concentrations in hair were measured via liquid-chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry. The outcome was virologic suppression (plasma HIV RNA below assay threshold at the time of hair sampling and the primary predictor was nevirapine concentration categorized into quartiles. We controlled for age, race/ethnicity, pre-treatment HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, and self-reported adherence over the 6-month visit interval (categorized ≤ 74%, 75%-94% or ≥ 95%. We also assessed the relation of NVP concentration with changes in hepatic transaminase levels via multivariate random intercept logistic regression and linear regression analyses. 271 women contributed 1089 person-visits to the analysis (median 3 of semi-annual visits. Viral suppression was least frequent in concentration quartile 1 (86/178 (48.3% and increased in higher quartiles (to 158/204 (77.5% for quartile 4. The odds of viral suppression in the highest concentration quartile were 9.17 times (95% CI 3.2-26, P < 0.0001 those in the lowest. African-American race was associated with lower rates of virologic suppression independent of NVP hair concentration. NVP concentration was not significantly associated with patterns of serum transaminases. Concentration of NVP in hair was a strong independent predictor of virologic suppression in women taking NVP, stronger than self-reported adherence, but did not appear to be strongly predictive of hepatotoxicity.

  7. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  8. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  9. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  10. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  11. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    showed that element adsorption or desorption occurs due to the dye. Analysis of hair samples collected from different regions of the head presented significant differences for the elements Fe, Sc, Se and Cr, indicating the importance of defining head regions for hair sample collection. Results of hair analysis from individuals residing in Sao Paulo metropolitan area showed individual differences for age, gender and natural hair color. Results obtained in this population also showed, that the mean element concentrations found are within the literature values. (author)

  12. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  13. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  14. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    ' and TCZ2 (5' – CCT CCA AGC AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3' primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07. The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined.

  15. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  16. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  17. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  18. Primary Teeth and Hair as Indicators of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishniashvili, T E; Suladze, N N; Margvelashvili, V V

    2016-01-01

    To study the influence of environmental pollution on the mineralization of dental hard tissues by using biosubstrates: teeth and hair. : At the first stage epidemiological survey was conducted in polluted and less polluted areas of Tbilisi (Georgia). We studied 525 children aged 3 and 4 years. Caries prevalence and intensity was defined by the methodology of World Health Organization. At the second stage the chemical elements content was studied in hair and teeth hard tissues of 24 children by X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy method. The prevalence of dental caries in the polluted region was 46%, caries intensity--1.92 (± 2.842). In the less polluted region prevalence was 37%, caries intensity--1.47 (± 2.571). These data are statistically reliable (p < 0.05). The study of hair and tooth tissues showed that the toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Sn, Ti) content in these tissues was higher in environmentally unfavorable than in favorable conditions. Hair and dental tissues can be used as indicators of environmental pollution. Our survey showed that toxic elements content in dental hard tissues was higher and the level of essential elements was less in polluted than in less polluted areas of Tbilisi.

  19. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  20. Application of neutron activation analysis for mercury species determination in scalp hair samples from Malaysia, Libya and Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.B.; Alakili, I.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the levels of total mercury and methylmercury in hair samples obtained from 400 Malaysian (Kuala Lumpur), Libyan (Benghazi) and Jordanian (Amman) donors. Results show that the level of total mercury in hair samples of the Malaysian group (3.38 mg x kg -1 ) was significantly higher than those of Libyan (0.81 mg x kg -1 ) and Jordanian groups (0.69 mg x kg -1 ). Likewise, a significant difference was found between the level of methylmercury of the Malaysian group (1.13 mg x kg -1 ) and those of the Libyan (0.04 mg x kg -1 ) and Jordanian groups (0.13 mg x kg -1 ). This difference could be attributed to the variation in life habits especially fish diet and to the local environment of each population. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between the level of total mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of the Libyan and Jordanian residents. (author)

  1. Trace element analysis of the scalp hair from pregnant women by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianzhou; Yao Huiying; Yuan Aina; Zhao Huiyang

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of a self-comparison method for each individual, a study on the changes of the elemental concentrations in the scalp hair from pregnant women before and after childbirth was made by PIXE. The hair samples were collected from 10 young mothers about 3 months after the delivery of their first child. In the control group, the hair samples from 11 normal girls were collected and analyzed in the same manner. Experimental results show that no significant changes of the trace element Cu and Zn concentrations in the hair correlated with pregnancy were observed while remarkable changes in the Ca, Fe and Mn concentrations in the hair before and after delivery were found. These results were compared with previously published data on the changes of the corresponding elements during pregnancy in serum

  2. Evaluation of poly-drug use in methadone-related fatalities using segmental hair analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    segmental hair analysis. The study included 99 methadone-related fatalities collected in Denmark from 2008 to 2011, where both blood and hair were available. The cases were divided into three subgroups based on the cause of death; methadone poisoning (N=64), poly-drug poisoning (N=28) or methadone poisoning...... combined with fatal diseases (N=7). No significant differences between methadone concentrations in the subgroups were obtained in both blood and hair. The methadone blood concentrations were highly variable (0.015-5.3, median: 0.52mg/kg) and mainly within the concentration range detected in living...... methadone users. In hair, methadone was detected in 97 fatalities with concentrations ranging from 0.061 to 211ng/mg (median: 11ng/mg). In the remaining two cases, methadone was detected in blood but absent in hair specimens, suggesting that these two subjects were methadone-naive users. Extensive poly...

  3. Laser-assisted hair removal for facial hirsutism in women: A review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Man

    2018-06-01

    Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been described as the common diagnosis for hirsutism in women. Facial hirsutism is by far the most distressing symptom of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. A statistically significant improvement in psychological well-being has been reported in patients with PCOS allocated for laser-assisted hair removal. The theory of selective photothermolysis has revolutionized laser hair removal in that it is effective and safe, when operated by sufficiently trained and experienced professionals. Long-pulsed ruby (694 nm), long-pulsed alexandrite (755 nm), diode (800-980 nm), and long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) are commercially available laser devices for hair removal most widely studied. This article will introduce the fundamentals and mechanism of action of lasers in hair removal, in a contemporary literature review looking at medium to long term efficacy and safety profiles of various laser hair removal modalities most widely commercially available to date.

  4. A Hospital-based Study to Determine Causes of Diffuse Hair Loss in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkud, Shashikant

    2015-08-01

    Diffuse hair loss is a common complaint encountered by dermatologists in their daily clinical practice. Hair loss in women is a distressing condition. Various underlying factors individually or in combination contribute to the pathogenesis. To determine causes of diffuse hair loss in women and to find the association between probable causes and relevant laboratory parameters, wherever applicable. One hundred and eighty women with diffuse hair loss were included in the study. Detailed history and clinical examination including hair pull test and hair microscopy were done in all study subjects. Specific laboratory investigations for determining iron deficiency anaemia, thyroid dysfunction and parasitic infestation were done. Among 180 patients, 116 (64.44%) had telogen effluvium, 28 (15.55%) had CTE, 21 (11.66%) had FPHL and 1 (0.55%) had AE. Fourteen patients (7.77%) had more than one aetiological diagnosis of diffuse hair loss. TE was the commonest type of diffuse hair loss. Incidence of TE and FPHL were highest in the age group of 21-30 years, whereas CTE in 30-40 years. Psychological stress and iron deficiency anaemia were the most common underlying aetiological factors for TE, which is statistically significant (phair loss is a multifactorial condition. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination and appropriate investigations help to identify the causative factors and treat them accordingly.

  5. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  6. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  7. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel -Latif, A.; EL- Bedewi, A.F.; Gad, A.; Mortada, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  8. Hair cortisol concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in children with adrenal insufficiency on hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Vliegenthart, J; Koper, J W; van den Akker, E L T

    2014-12-01

    Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with adrenal insufficiency needs to be tailored to the individual patient based on body composition and clinical signs and symptoms as no objective method for assessment of treatment adequacy is available. Current treatment regimens are often not satisfactory, which is shown by the adverse metabolic profile and doubled mortality rates in treated adrenal insufficiency patients. Measurement of cortisol concentrations in hair reflect the long-term systemic cortisol exposure and may be of use in refinement of hydrocortisone treatment. We aimed to study whether long-term cortisol (hydrocortisone) levels, as measured in scalp hair, are similar in children with adrenal insufficiency and healthy children. We set up a case control study, measuring anthropometric characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in 54 hydrocortisone substituted children with adrenal insufficiency (AI patients) in the age of 4-18 years and 54 healthy children matched for gender and age. Mean HCC were significantly higher in AI patients compared with healthy controls (mean 13·3 vs 8·2 pg/mg, P = 0·02). AI patients also had a higher BMI (P < 0·001) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0·02). HCC was significantly associated with BMI (P = 0·002) and WC (P = 0·002). HCC explained 13% of the difference in BMI and 29% of the difference in WC between AI patients and controls. Hydrocortisone-treated AI patients have increased HCC and adverse anthropometric characteristics compared with healthy controls. HCC measurement may be of value in identifying overtreatment and thereby improve hydrocortisone replacement therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of concordance between labelling and content of 52 hair dye products: overview of the market of oxidative hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Annarita; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Engfeldt, Malin; Young, Ewa; Persson, Lena; Foti, Caterina; Sörensen, Östen; Svedman, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Hair dyes contain strong allergens and are widely available. Correct labelling is a necessity in order to provide information about the contents. To compare the labelling and content of hair dyes. In total, 52 hair dyes, from 11 different countries, were bought over the counter. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used for the analysis of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (2,5-TDA), and three oxidation products of PPD. There was good agreement between labelling and content, although seven of the 52 products (13.5%) studied were incorrectly labelled. There were differences in the geographical use of PPD and 2,5-TDA; 2,5-TDA was more common in European products, while PPD was more common in products purchased outside Europe and was present in higher concentrations. All dyes purchased in Europe contained PPD and 2,5-TDA at levels within the limits defined by European legislation, however, levels were higher in some products purchased outside Europe. Only a small group of hair dyes sold in Europe were mislabelled. Further improvement in labelling, by providing the concentration of chemicals, may facilitate products to be purchased both locally and within the global market, when travelling or on the internet.

  11. LONG-TERM OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PENCONAZOLE AND TEBUCONAZOLE BY HAIR BIOMONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Moretto, Angelo; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2018-06-09

    Penconazole (PEN) and tebuconazole (TEB) are fungicides widely used in vineyards. The aim of this the study was to assess the suitability of hair to assess long-term exposure to PEN and TEB. Hair samples of agricultural workers exposed to PEN (AW-PEN, 18 subjects) or TEB (AW-TEB, 2 subjects) during the application of fungicides, agricultural workers relatives (AR, 4 subjects), and research staff technicians (RS, 5 subjects) were collected before (PRE-EXP) and after (POST-EXP) the application season. PEN in PRE-EXP samples was quantifiable in all AW and AR (medians from 1.4 to 7.9 pg/mg hair) and in one RS (1.4 pg/mg hair); PEN in POST-EXP samples was always quantifiable (medians from 2.6 to 23.7 pg/mg hair), with higher levels in AW. Comparing PRE- vs. POST-EXP samples, an increase in PEN level in AW and RS was found. TEB in PRE-EXP samples was quantifiable in most AW and AR (median from 2.1 to 15.5 pg/mg hair), but not in RS; TEB in POST-EXP samples was similarly quantifiable in AW and AR, and was quantifiable also in RS (from 1.4 to median of 141.3 pg/mg hair). Comparing PRE- vs. POST-EXP samples, an increase in TEB level in AW and RS was found. In AW, a positive correlation between the number of PEN treatments during the season and the POST-EXP level of PEN in hair was found (N = 8, Spearman rho = 0.794, p = 0.019). Our results suggest that PEN and TEB accumulate in hair during the agricultural season and that hair is a promising matrix for biomonitoring long-term exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. The possibility of using x-ray diffraction with hair to screen for pathologic conditions such as breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Veronica; Cookson, David

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian hair exhibits a complex structure on length scales ranging from a few to hundreds of Angstroms. High-quality synchrotron x-ray images have yielded new insight about the structure and packing of the intermediate keratinous filaments that represent the bulk of a hair's volume. When comparing human hair diffraction patterns from healthy individuals and breast cancer patients significant differences have been seen, raising the possibility that fiber diffraction may be useful as a screening technique for certain pathologic conditions

  14. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  15. Low density of membrane particles in auditory hair cells of lizards and birds suggests an absence of somatic motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, Christine; Forge, Andrew; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2004-11-08

    Hair cells are the mechanoreceptive cells of the vertebrate lateral line and inner ear. In addition to their sensory function, hair cells display motility and thus themselves generate mechanical energy, which is thought to enhance sensitivity. Two principal cellular mechanism are known that can mediate hair-cell motility in vitro. One of these is based on voltage-dependent changes of an intramembrane protein and has so far been demonstrated only in outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea. Correlated with this, the cell membranes of outer hair cells carry an extreme density of embedded particles, as revealed by freeze fracturing. The present study explored the possibility of membrane-based motility in hair cells of nonmammals, by determining their density of intramembrane particles. Replicas of freeze-fractured membrane were prepared from auditory hair cells of a lizard, the Tokay gecko, and a bird, the barn owl. These species were chosen because of independent evidence for active cochlear mechanics, in the form of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. For quantitative comparison, mammalian inner and outer hair cells, as well as vestibular hair, cells were reevaluated. Lizard and bird hair cells displayed median densities of 2,360 and 1,880 intramembrane particles/microm2, respectively. This was not significantly different from the densities in vestibular and mammalian inner hair cells; however, it was about half the density in of mammalian outer hair cells. This suggests that nonmammalian hair cells do not possess high densities of motor protein in their membranes and are thus unlikely to be capable of somatic motility. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2013-02-09

    Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss.

  17. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  18. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi eHe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, nonmammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA or valproic acid (VPA increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line.

  19. Hair penalties: The negative influence of Afrocentric hair on ratings of Black women's dominance and professionalism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R. Opie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women are penalized if they do not behave in a stereotype-congruent manner (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Heilman, 1983; 2001. For example, because women are not expected to be agentic they incur an agency penalty for expressing anger, dominance or assertiveness (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008; Eagly & Karau, 2002; Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012; Rudman, 1998; Rudman & Fairchild, 2004; Rudman & Glick, 1999, 2001. Yet, all women are not equally penalized (Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012. We make a novel contribution by examining how both White and Black evaluators respond to Black women’s dominance, in this case, whether Black women choose to wear Afrocentric or Eurocentric hairstyles. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted three experimental studies to examine the influence of target hairstyle and participant race on ratings of the target’s professionalism (Studies 1, 2 and 3 and dominance (Study 2. Study 1 was an online experimental study with 200 participants (112 females, 87 males, 1 missing gender; 160 Whites, 19 Blacks, 11 Latinos, 7 Asian Americans and 3 who identify as other; Mage= 35.5, SD = 11.4. Study 2 was an online experimental study with 510 participants (276 women, 234 males; 256 Blacks, 254 Whites; Mage = 41.25 years, SD = 12.21. Study 3 was an online experimental study with 291 participants (141 Blacks, 150 Whites, Mage= 47.5 years, SD = 11.66. Findings: Black, as compared to White, evaluators gave higher agency penalties to Black employment candidates when they donned Afrocentric versus Eurocentric hair, rating them as more dominant and less professional. Implications: The present research illustrates the significance of considering both target and evaluator race when examining the influence of agency, and specifically dominance, on ratings of professionalism.

  20. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  1. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  3. LncRNAs in Secondary Hair Follicle of Cashmere Goat: Identification, Expression, and Their Regulatory Network in Wnt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen L; Zhao, Su J; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Dang, Yun L; Cong, Yu Y; Xue, Hui L; Wang, Wei; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Zhu, Yan X; Yin, Rong H

    2018-07-03

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of eukaryotic transcripts. They are thought to act as a critical regulator of protein-coding gene expression. Herein, we identified and characterized 13 putative lncRNAs from the expressed sequence tags from secondary hair follicle of Cashmere goat. Furthermore, we investigated their transcriptional pattern in secondary hair follicle of Liaoning Cashmere goat during telogen and anagen phases. Also, we generated intracellular regulatory networks of upregulated lncRNAs at anagen in Wnt signaling pathway based on bioinformatics analysis. The relative expression of six putative lncRNAs (lncRNA-599618, -599556, -599554, -599547, -599531, and -599509) at the anagen phase is significantly higher than that at telogen. Compared with anagen, the relative expression of four putative lncRNAs (lncRNA-599528, -599518, -599511, and -599497) was found to be significantly upregulated at telogen phase. The network generated showed that a rich and complex regulatory relationship of the putative lncRNAs and related miRNAs with their target genes in Wnt signaling pathway. Our results from the present study provided a foundation for further elucidating the functional and regulatory mechanisms of these putative lncRNAs in the development of secondary hair follicle and cashmere fiber growth of Cashmere goat.

  4. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma and polydeoxyribonucleotide on female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Do-Young; Oh, Sang Ho; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) exerts positive therapeutic effects on hair thickness and density in patients with pattern hair loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-perifollicular autologous PRP and polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injections in treating female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Twenty FPHL patients were treated with a single session of PRP injection, followed by 12 sessions of PDRN intra-perifollicular injection, along the scalp at weekly intervals. Additionally, another 20 FPHL patients were treated with 12 sessions of PDRN injection only. Meanwhile, one half of the backs of two rabbits was injected with the PRP preparation, while the other half was injected with phosphate buffered saline as a control. Tissue samples from the rabbits were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Compared with baseline values, patients treated with PRP and PDRN injections exhibited clinical improvement in mean hair counts (23.2 ± 15.5%; p hair thickness (16.8 ± 10.8%; p hair counts (17.9 ± 13.2%; p hair thickness (13.5 ± 10.7%; p hair thickness than treatment with PDRN therapy alone (p = 0.031), but not in hair counts (p > 0.05). The pilot animal study revealed significant up-regulation of WNT, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor expression in rabbit skin treated with the PRP preparation, compared with control skin. In conclusion, intra-perifollicular injections of autologous PRP and/or PDRN generate improvements in hair thickness and density in FPHL patients. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Distinct roles of Eps8 in the maturation of cochlear and vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Spaiardi, Paolo; Zampini, Valeria; Contini, Donatella; Manca, Marco; Russo, Giancarlo; Prigioni, Ivo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2016-07-22

    Several genetic mutations affecting the development and function of mammalian hair cells have been shown to cause deafness but not vestibular defects, most likely because vestibular deficits are sometimes centrally compensated. The study of hair cell physiology is thus a powerful direct approach to ascertain the functional status of the vestibular end organs. Deletion of Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), a gene involved in actin remodeling, has been shown to cause deafness in mice. While both inner and outer hair cells from Eps8 knockout (KO) mice showed abnormally short stereocilia, inner hair cells (IHCs) also failed to acquire mature-type ion channels. Despite the fact that Eps8 is also expressed in vestibular hair cells, Eps8 KO mice show no vestibular deficits. In the present study we have investigated the properties of vestibular Type I and Type II hair cells in Eps8-KO mice and compared them to those of cochlear IHCs. In the absence of Eps8, vestibular hair cells show normally long kinocilia, significantly shorter stereocilia and a normal pattern of basolateral voltage-dependent ion channels. We have also found that while vestibular hair cells from Eps8 KO mice show normal voltage responses to injected sinusoidal currents, which were used to mimic the mechanoelectrical transducer current, IHCs lose their ability to synchronize their responses to the stimulus. We conclude that the absence of Eps8 produces a weaker phenotype in vestibular hair cells compared to cochlear IHCs, since it affects the hair bundle morphology but not the basolateral membrane currents. This difference is likely to explain the absence of obvious vestibular dysfunction in Eps8 KO mice. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  9. In 6- to 8-year-old children, hair cortisol is associated with body mass index and somatic complaints, but not with stress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    Hair cortisol measurement has become an increasingly accepted approach in endocrinology and biopsychology. However, while in adult research hair cortisol has been proposed as a relevant biomarker for chronic stress (and its adverse consequences), studies with children are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present exploratory study was to examine the associations between hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), stress, and a series of health-related outcomes in a sample of Swiss first grade schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 318 children (53% girls, M age =7.26, SD=0.35). Hair strands were taken near the scalp from a posterior vertex position, and HCCs were tested for the first 3-cm hair segment. Parents provided information about their children's age, gender, parental education, children's stress (recent critical life events, daily hassles), health-related quality of life, and psychosomatic complaints. Body composition, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured with established methods. In multiple regression analyses, higher HCCs were weakly associated with increased BMI in girls (β=0.22, pstress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Although small significant relationships were found between HCCs, BMI and somatic complaints, the findings of this exploratory study challenge the view that HCCs can be used as a reliable biomarker of recent critical life events, daily hassles, health-related quality of life, and cardiovascular health indicators in non-clinical young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  11. A preliminary study on calcium and other trace elements in hair of patients with breast cancer and fibrocystic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wendong; He Guangren; Xu Qingfeng; Qin Junfa

    1997-01-01

    The contents of Ca, Sr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cr and Ti in hair of 32 cases with breast cancer and 105 cases with fibrocystic disease have been measured by XRF. Compared with 55 normal female adults, the hair levels of Sr, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ca in breast cancer patients and the hair levels of Sr, Mn and Ca in fibrocystic disease patients were significantly decreased (P<0.01 or P<0.001). However, the hair contents of Zn, Ni and Cr in fibrocystic disease patients were dramatically increased (P<0.05)

  12. Loose anagen hair syndrome with diffuse woolly hair phenotype: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshdeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS is an underestimated cause of noncicatricial alopecia among children, manifesting as thin, sparse or fine hair. We report a case of LAHS clinically presenting as diffuse woolly hair, an association rarely described in the literature. In addition, we review the clinical as well as genetic link between these two enigmatic hair disorders and hypothesize that both may be associated in a yet unknown manner.

  13. [When hair starts to fall out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  14. A curious case of the necklace hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Samipa Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monilethrix is a rare autosomal dominant inheritable hair shaft defect with variable penetrance. The diagnosis is confirmed by the characteristic beaded appearance of the hair under light microscopy which occurs due to defective keratinization. We hereby describe a case of monilethrix syndrome with keratotic follicular papules, moniliform hair, and koilonychias in an 8-year-old Indian female child. A rare association of trichorrhexis nodosa was also noted in our case.

  15. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  16. Relationship between the level of essential metal elements in human hair and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Ying-Chen Chang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on epidemics have demonstrated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and mineral substances, such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, and vanadium, in human bodies. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were applied to evaluate the levels of selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in healthy individuals and CHD patients. Hair samples were collected from 42 healthy participants and 28 diagnosed CHD patients. Calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc levels in healthy individuals are significantly higher than the levels found in the patients (p < 0.01). Calcium/selenium ratio is also significantly higher in healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Based on the possible synergies and/or antagonisms of elements and their absorption and metabolism, magnesium/calcium, zinc/copper, and sodium/potassium ratios showed positive relevance (p < 0.01). (author)

  17. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser vs. intense pulsed light for hair removal in dark skin: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S A

    2012-02-01

    Although several lasers meet the wavelength criteria for selective follicular destruction, the treatment of darker skin phototypes is particularly challenging because absorption of laser energy by the targeted hairs is compromised by an increased concentration of epidermal melanin. To compare satisfaction level, safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) in axillary hair reduction in subjects with dark skin. The study design was a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, comparison of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and IPL. Fifty women (skin phototypes IV-VI) volunteered for removal of axillary hair. Five sessions at 4- to 6-week intervals were performed. Hair counts at both sides were compared at baseline and 6months after the last session. Final overall evaluations were performed by subjects and clinician at the end of the study. Satisfaction was scored for both devices. Thirty-nine women completed the study. At 6months, the decrease in hair counts on the laser side (79·4%, Pvs. pretreatment) was significantly (Pvs. pretreatment). Only temporary adverse effects were reported at both sides. Higher pain scores and more inflammation were reported with Nd:YAG laser; however, it was preferred by 29 volunteers (74%). Volunteers reported higher satisfaction score with Nd:YAG laser (PDark skin can be treated by both systems safely and effectively; however, long-pulsed (1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser is more effective as reported by both subjects and clinician. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  19. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  20. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Topical Valproate Solution for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kakunje

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is used regularly in the treatment of various seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis and off label in many other conditions. Alopecia or hair loss is cosmetic side effect of oral valproate administration. Hair loss with valproate is diffused, non-scarring and dose related. A large number of drugs may interfere with the hair cycle and produce hair loss. We have only a few drugs like Minoxidil, Finasteride used for hair regeneration and both have its own side effects and limitations. In contrast to oral ingestions of valproate causing hair loss, early experiments with topical Valproic acid cream showed hair regeneration. Valproic acid cream is currently unavailable in the market, alternatively, we do have valproate and divalproex solutions available in various strengths which have a potential to be used topically for hair regeneration. The side effects and cost of topical valproate solution could be much less than the available options in the market. Valproate solution topically has the potential to be used for hair growth.

  2. High-resolution synchrotron imaging shows that root hairs influence rhizosphere soil structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebernick, Nicolai; Daly, Keith R; Keyes, Samuel D; George, Timothy S; Brown, Lawrie K; Raffan, Annette; Cooper, Laura J; Naveed, Muhammad; Bengough, Anthony G; Sinclair, Ian; Hallett, Paul D; Roose, Tiina

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1.2 g cm -3 dry bulk density. Root hairs were visualised within air-filled pore spaces, but not in the fine-textured soil regions. We found that the genotype with root hairs significantly altered the porosity and connectivity of the detectable pore space (> 5 μm) in the rhizosphere, as compared with the no-hair mutants. Both genotypes showed decreasing pore space between 0.8 and 0.1 mm from the root surface. Interestingly the root-hair-bearing genotype had a significantly greater soil pore volume-fraction at the root-soil interface. Effects of pore structure on diffusion and permeability were estimated to be functionally insignificant under saturated conditions when simulated using image-based modelling. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  6. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  7. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  8. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, P; Weeke, B; Loewenstein, H [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10/sup 4/, 2 x 10/sup 4/, 2 x 10/sup 5/ dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A.

  9. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, P.; Weeke, B.; Loewenstein, H.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 5 dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A. (author)

  10. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  11. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child he