WorldWideScience

Sample records for significantly higher grades

  1. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  2. GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. CARUTH,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.

  3. Prognostic significance of multiple kallikreins in high-grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, Kristen L.; Gianinni, Caterina; Decker, Paul A.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2015-01-01

    Kallikreins have clinical value as prognostic markers in a subset of malignancies examined to date, including kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in prostate cancer. We previously demonstrated that kallikrein 6 is expressed at higher levels in grade IV compared to grade III astrocytoma and is associated with reduced survival of GBM patients. In this study we determined KLK1, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9 and KLK10 protein expression in two independent tissue microarrays containing 60 grade IV and 8 grade III astrocytoma samples. Scores for staining intensity, percent of tumor stained and immunoreactivity scores (IR, product of intensity and percent) were determined and analyzed for correlation with patient survival. Grade IV glioma was associated with higher levels of kallikrein-immunostaining compared to grade III specimens. Univariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that elevated KLK6- or KLK7-IR was associated with poor patient prognosis. In addition, an increased percent of tumor immunoreactive for KLK6 or KLK9 was associated with decreased survival in grade IV patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with KLK6-IR < 10, KLK6 percent tumor core stained < 3, or KLK7-IR < 9 had a significantly improved survival. Multivariable analysis indicated that the significance of these parameters was maintained even after adjusting for gender and performance score. These data suggest that elevations in glioblastoma KLK6, KLK7 and KLK9 protein have utility as prognostic markers of patient survival. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1566-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  5. Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

  6. The Changing Landscape of Grading Systems in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven B.; Leidman, Mary Beth; Longcore, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The following study explores the landscape of grading systems utilised in higher education, focusing on the frequency of different types of assessment scales (including Straight Letter, Plus/Minus, and other alternative policies). Although numerous studies have explored the relationship between university grading system and student behaviour,…

  7. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  8. DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LEARNED-HELPLESSNESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LOWER GRADE AND HIGHER GRADE IN SALATIGA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Esti Ari Prasetya

    2013-06-01

    consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed, with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.

  9. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  10. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations.

  11. Attitudes towards Study Effort Response to Higher Grading Standards: Do Gender and Personality Distinctions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how gender and personality preferences affect student attitudes towards effort response to higher grading standards. Data collected from 150 economics and business students at a Scandinavian business school reveals that higher grading standards enhance effort and time devoted to learning to a higher degree…

  12. Flipped Classroom in Organic Chemistry Has Significant Effect on Students’ Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cormier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom as a form of active pedagogy in postsecondary chemistry has been developed during the last 10 years and has been gaining popularity with instructors and students ever since. In the current paradigm in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, it is widely recognized that active learning has significant positive effects on students’ grades. Postsecondary organic chemistry is a difficult course for students, and the traditional way of teaching does not foster students’ active involvement. Implementation of active pedagogy could increase students’ achievement in this course. However, few quantitative data are available on the impact of active pedagogy in general, or flipped classrooms in particular, on learning in organic chemistry at a postsecondary level. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the gain on final grade scores in organic chemistry after implementing a flipped classroom approach to promote active learning in this course. We encouraged students to be active by having them watch educational videos before each class and then having them work during class time on problems that focused on applying the concepts presented in the videos. Exams were the same as those completed by students in the traditional classrooms of our college. In an a posteriori analysis of our students’ grades, we compared final grades in traditional classrooms (control group, N = 66 and in flipped classrooms (experimental group, N = 151. The sample was stratified in three categories depending on students’ academic ability in college, from low-achieving to high-achieving students. Our results show that students in the experimental group have significantly higher final grades in organic chemistry than those in the control group, that is, 77% for students in the active classroom vs. 73% in the traditional classroom (p < 0.05. The effect was the greatest for low-achieving students, with final scores of 70% in

  13. Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

  14. Educating Grade 6 students for higher-order thinking and its influence on creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh Daher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Educating students for higher-order thinking provides them with tools that turn them into more critical thinkers. This supports them in overcoming life problems that they encounter, as well as becoming an integral part of the society. This students’ education is attended to by educational organisations that emphasise the positive consequences of educating students for higher-order thinking, including creative thinking. One way to do that is through educational programmes that educate for higher-order thinking. One such programme is the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT thinking programme. The present research intended to examine the effect of the participation of Grade 6 students in a CoRT programme on their creative thinking. Fifty-three students participated in the research; 27 participated in a CoRT programme, while 26 did not participate in such programme. The ANCOVA test showed that the students who participated in the CoRT programme outperformed significantly, in creative thinking, the students who did not. Moreover, the students in the CoRT programme whose achievement scores were between 86 and 100 outperformed significantly the other achievement groups of students. Furthermore, students with reported high ability outperformed significantly the other ability groups of students. The results did not show statistically significant differences in students’ creativity attributed to gender.

  15. Significant association of inflammation grade with the number of Langerhans cells in odontogenic keratocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of inflammation grade with the number of LCs in OKCs is found. The paucity of finding LCs in the lining epithelia of OKCs without inflammation indicates the loss of immunosurveillance ability against the OKC lining epithelial cells; this can explain why OKCs have aggressive clinical behavior, a great growth potential, and a high recurrence rate.

  16. Type 1 IGF Receptor Localization in Paediatric Gliomas: Significant Association with WHO Grading and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Florencia; Martin, Ayelen; Venara, Marcela; de Luján Calcagno, Maria; Mathó, Cecilia; Maglio, Silvana; Lombardi, Mercedes García; Bergadá, Ignacio; Pennisi, Patricia A

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear localization of insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) has been described as adverse prognostic factor in some cancers. We studied the expression and localization of IGF-1R in paediatric patients with gliomas, as well as its association with World Health Organization (WHO) grading and survival. We conducted a single cohort, prospective study of paediatric patients with gliomas. Samples were taken at the time of the initial surgery; IGF-1R expression and localization were characterized by immunohistochemistry (IHC), subcellular fractionation and western blotting. Tumours (47/53) showed positive staining for IGF-1R by IHC. IGF-1R nuclear labelling was observed in 10/47 cases. IGF-1R staining was mostly non-nuclear in low-grade tumours, while IGF-1R nuclear labelling was predominant in high-grade gliomas (p = 0.0001). Survival was significantly longer in patients with gliomas having non-nuclear IGF-1R localization than in patients with nuclear IGF-1R tumours (p = 0.016). In gliomas, IGF-1R nuclear localization was significantly associated with both high-grade tumours and increased risk of death. Based on a prospective design, we provide evidence of a potential usefulness of intracellular localization of IGF-1R as prognostic factor in paediatric patients with gliomas.

  17. Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…

  18. Programming experience promotes higher STEM motivation among first-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Moscatelli, Adriana; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-08-01

    The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes. First-grade children held stereotypes that boys were better than girls at robotics and programming but did not hold these stereotypes about math and science. Girls with stronger stereotypes about robotics and programming reported lower interest and self-efficacy in these domains. We experimentally tested whether positive experience with programming robots would lead to greater interest and self-efficacy among girls despite these stereotypes. Children were randomly assigned either to a treatment group that was given experience in programming a robot using a smartphone or to control groups (no activity or other activity). Girls given programming experience reported higher technology interest and self-efficacy compared with girls without this experience and did not exhibit a significant gender gap relative to boys' interest and self-efficacy. These findings show that children's views mirror current American cultural messages about who excels at computer science and engineering and show the benefit of providing young girls with chances to experience technological activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  20. Solar cells from 120 PPMA carbon-contaminated feedstock without significantly higher reverse current or shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Coletti, G. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In a bid to drive down the cost of silicon wafers, several options for solar grade silicon feedstock have been investigated over the years. All methods have in common that the resulting silicon contains higher levels of impurities like dopants, oxygen, carbon or transition metals, the type and level of impurities depending on the raw materials and refining processes. In this work wafers from a p-type mc-Si ingot made with feedstock contaminated with 120 ppma of carbon have been processed into solar cells together with reference uncontaminated feedstock from semiconductor grade polysilicon with <0.4 ppma carbon. The results show that comparable reverse current, shunts, and efficiencies can be reached for both types of wafers. Gettering and defect hydrogenation effectiveness also did not deviate from the reference. Electroluminescence pictures do not show increased hotspot formation, even at -16V.

  1. Automated discrimination of lower and higher grade gliomas based on histopathological image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Seyed Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histopathological images have rich structural information, are multi-channel in nature and contain meaningful pathological information at various scales. Sophisticated image analysis tools that can automatically extract discriminative information from the histopathology image slides for diagnosis remain an area of significant research activity. In this work, we focus on automated brain cancer grading, specifically glioma grading. Grading of a glioma is a highly important problem in pathology and is largely done manually by medical experts based on an examination of pathology slides (images. To complement the efforts of clinicians engaged in brain cancer diagnosis, we develop novel image processing algorithms and systems to automatically grade glioma tumor into two categories: Low-grade glioma (LGG and high-grade glioma (HGG which represent a more advanced stage of the disease. Results: We propose novel image processing algorithms based on spatial domain analysis for glioma tumor grading that will complement the clinical interpretation of the tissue. The image processing techniques are developed in close collaboration with medical experts to mimic the visual cues that a clinician looks for in judging of the grade of the disease. Specifically, two algorithmic techniques are developed: (1 A cell segmentation and cell-count profile creation for identification of Pseudopalisading Necrosis, and (2 a customized operation of spatial and morphological filters to accurately identify microvascular proliferation (MVP. In both techniques, a hierarchical decision is made via a decision tree mechanism. If either Pseudopalisading Necrosis or MVP is found present in any part of the histopathology slide, the whole slide is identified as HGG, which is consistent with World Health Organization guidelines. Experimental results on the Cancer Genome Atlas database are presented in the form of: (1 Successful detection rates of pseudopalisading necrosis

  2. Prospective trial of angiography and embolization for all grade III to V blunt splenic injuries: nonoperative management success rate is significantly improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R; Chang, Michael C; Hoth, J Jason; Mowery, Nathan T; Hildreth, Amy N; Martin, R Shayn; Holmes, James H; Meredith, J Wayne; Requarth, Jay A

    2014-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury is well accepted. Substantial failure rates in higher injury grades remain common, with one large study reporting rates of 19.6%, 33.3%, and 75% for grades III, IV, and V, respectively. Retrospective data show angiography and embolization can increase salvage rates in these severe injuries. We developed a protocol requiring referral of all blunt splenic injuries, grades III to V, without indication for immediate operation for angiography and embolization. We hypothesized that angiography and embolization of high-grade blunt splenic injury would reduce NOM failure rates in this population. This was a prospective study at our Level I trauma center as part of a performance-improvement project. Demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes were compared with historic controls. The protocol required all stable patients with grade III to V splenic injuries be referred for angiography and embolization. In historic controls, referral was based on surgeon preference. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012, there were 168 patients with grades III to V spleen injuries admitted; NOM was undertaken in 113 (67%) patients. The protocol was followed in 97 patients, with a failure rate of 5%. Failure rate in the 16 protocol deviations was 25% (p = 0.02). Historic controls from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were compared with the protocol group. One hundred and fifty-three patients with grade III to V injuries were admitted during this period, 80 (52%) patients underwent attempted NOM. Failure rate was significantly higher than for the protocol group (15%, p = 0.04). Use of a protocol requiring angiography and embolization for all high-grade spleen injuries slated for NOM leads to a significantly decreased failure rate. We recommend angiography and embolization as an adjunct to NOM for all grade III to V splenic injuries. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  4. ICT media design for higher grade of elementary school mathematics learning using CS6 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainil, M.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Hendri, S.

    2017-12-01

    Technological innovation contributes to the emerging of new possibilities to change the learning process. The development of technology could bring the higher quality of education through the integration of technology in the learning. The purpose of this research is to create an interactive multimedia using CS6 program for mathematics learning in higher grade of elementary school. It was a development research using ADDIE model which consists of analysis, design, and evaluation stages. It has successfully developed interactive multimedia in a form of learning CD used in the material of plane figures and solid figures. The prototype has been validated and then tested for the 4th grade of elementary schools. Two schools were involved and the students taught by utilizing the prototype, and then, in the end of learning, they are examined to determine the learning result. There were 72% of the students passed the examination as they classified at good and excellent categories. Finally, the use of CS6 program is promising to help the students learning plane and solid figure in mathematics learning.

  5. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item

  6. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M

    1987-01-01

    Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes...

  7. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Localization of higher grade tumor foci in potential candidates for active surveillance who opt for radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Eastham, James A.; Fine, Samson W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate actual intraprostatic location of higher graded tumor foci undetected via standard transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy amongst patients who would be clinically considered appropriate candidates for active surveillance (AS) but underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: We reviewed entirely-submitted and whole-mounted RP specimens from 169 men who were deemed appropriate for AS clinically, but opted for RP and were found to have higher grade tumors. For each case, tumor nodules were circled and color-coded in a grade-specific manner and digitally scanned to created tumor maps. The locations of tumor foci with Gleason grade ≥4 were stratified by specific sites: anterior, anterolateral, lateral only (not clearly anterior or posterior), posterior, and posterolateral area. Results: Of 169 patients, 86% had clinical stage T1c and 14% T2a. RP Gleason score 7 in all but two men. Higher-grade tumor foci were localized to: anterior (n=66, 39%), anterolateral (n=4, 2%), lateral only (not clearly anterior or posterior) (n=5, 3%), posterior (n=52, 31%), and posterolateral (n=42, 25%) prostate, respectively. Conclusions: Among patients deemed clinically appropriate for AS, higher-grade tumor foci missed by standard prostate biopsies were localized to both the anterior and posterior prostate, without predominance of a particular area. These findings lend additional support to performing repeat standard prostate biopsy in potential candidates for AS and should be considered in efforts to optimize current biopsy strategies for the selection of AS patients. PMID:24392439

  9. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  10. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  11. The prevalence of coeliac disease is significantly higher in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariné, M; Farre, C; Alsina, M; Vilar, P; Cortijo, M; Salas, A; Fernández-Bañares, F; Rosinach, M; Santaolalla, R; Loras, C; Marquès, T; Cusí, V; Hernández, M I; Carrasco, A; Ribes, J; Viver, J M; Esteve, M

    2011-02-01

    Some limited studies of coeliac disease have shown higher frequency of coeliac disease in infancy and adolescence than in adulthood. This finding has remained unnoticed and not adequately demonstrated. To assess whether there are age and gender differences in coeliac disease prevalence. A total of 4230 subjects were included consecutively (1 to ≥80 years old) reproducing the reference population by age and gender. Sample size was calculated assuming a population-based coeliac disease prevalence of 1:250. After an interim analysis, the paediatric sample was expanded (2010 children) due to high prevalence in this group. Anti-transglutaminase and antiendomysial antibodies were determined and duodenal biopsy was performed if positive. Log-linear models were fitted to coeliac disease prevalence by age allowing calculation of percentage change of prevalence. Differences between groups were compared using Chi-squared test. Twenty-one subjects had coeliac disease (male/female 1:2.5). Coeliac disease prevalence in the total population was 1:204. Coeliac disease prevalence was higher in children (1:71) than in adults (1:357) (P = 0.00005). A significant decrease of prevalence in older generations was observed [change of prevalence by age of -5% (95% CI: -7.58 to -2.42%)]. In the paediatric expanded group (1-14 years), a decrease of coeliac disease prevalence was also observed [prevalence change: -17% (95% CI: -25.02 to -6.10)]. The prevalence of coeliac disease in childhood was five times higher than in adults. Whether this difference is due to environmental factors influencing infancy, or latency of coeliac disease in adulthood, remains to be demonstrated in prospective longitudinal studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae

    2005-01-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients

  13. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients.

  14. External Stakeholders of Higher Education Institutions in Poland: Their Identification and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska-Piatek, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing changes in the management systems of higher education, the issue of higher education institutions' (HEIs) relationships with external stakeholders are of key importance. This article discusses this problem from the perspective of Polish higher education system. The aim of it is to answer the following questions: (1)…

  15. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  16. Extensive Reading for Second Language Learners of Japanese in Higher Education: Graded Readers and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Teiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…

  17. Cooperative Learning in Higher Education: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Undergraduates' Reflections on Group Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bobbette M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…

  18. An Alternative Grading Tool for Enhancing Assessment Practice and Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Assessing student learning in university courses is commonly done using a rubric that arranges the assessment criteria and standards descriptors in a matrix style or grid format. This paper introduces an alternative style of grading tool known as the continua model of a guide to making judgements, which arranges assessment criteria based on a…

  19. ASSESSING SELF-STUDY WORK’S SIGNIFICANT SKILLS FOR SUCCESSFUL LEARNING IN THE HIGHER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Milovanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the problem of organizing students’ independent work/self-study is not new, but the changes in the higher school for the last two decades show that the experience accumulated in the traditional educational model can be applied only when it is processed in the present-day conditions. The article analyses the innovative component of the educational process in terms of a significant increase in the volume of compulsory independent work in the university. Particular attention is paid to determining the levels of the formation of skills for independent work in terms of students’ readiness for its implementa¬tion. The aim of the research is to identify the most significant skills of independent work for successful study at the university. Materials and Methods: the research is based on general scholarly methods: analysis, comparison, generalisation. A questionnaire survey was carried out and a correlation analysis of the results was presented. The mathematical statistics methods in Excel application were u sed for processing the survey data. Results: the article focused on the relevance of formation the students’ ability to work independently in the learning process. Requirements for professionals recognize the need for knowledge and skills, but more importantly, the ability and readiness to complete this knowledge and be in a state of continuous education and self-education. In turn, readiness to self-education cannot exist without independent work. The ratio of students to work independently and their skills’ levels in this area of the gnostic, design, structural, organisational and communicative blocks were identified because o f the research. Discussion and Conclusions: the levels of the formation of the skills for independent work influence on the success of the learning. There is a correlation between indicators of achievement and the ability to work independently. Organisation and communication skills have significant

  20. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Dora, Tapas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chinnachamy, Anand N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Thomas, Biji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Kannan, Sadhna [Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  1. Prognostic significance of epithelial/stromal caveolin‐1 expression in prostatic hyperplasia, high grade prostatic intraepithelial hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma and its correlation with microvessel density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dareen A. Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 may play a role in cancer development and progression. The aim was to record the expression and localization of caveolin-1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN and prostatic carcinoma (PCa. Microvessel density was evaluated with CD34 immunostain. Correlations with known prognostic factors of PCa were recorded. Immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and the MVD was evaluated in 65 cases; BPH (25, HGPIN (20 and PCa (20. Stromal caveolin-1expression was significantly higher in BPH than HGPIN and PCca. There was significant inverse relation between stromal caveolin-1 expression and extension to lymph node and seminal vesicle in carcinoma cases. Epithelial caveolin-1 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in BPH and HGPIN. Epithelial expression in carcinoma was significantly associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason score and lymph node extension. MVD was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH and HGPIN. There were significant relations between MVD and preoperative PSA, Gleason score, lymph node and seminal vesicle extension. Stromal caveolin-1 was associated with low MVD while epithelial caveolin-1 with high MVD. Conclusions: Caveolin-1 plays an important role in prostatic carcinogenesis and metastasis. Stromal expression of caveolin-1 in PCa is lowered in relation to BPH and HGPIN. In PCa; stromal caveolin-1 was associated with good prognostic parameters. Epithelial caveolin-1 is significantly increased in PCa than BPH and HGPIN. It is associated with clinically aggressive disease. Caveolin-1 may play a role in angiogenesis.

  2. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  3. Lack of prognostic significance of C-erbB-2 expression in low- and high- grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallaoglu, Saik; Besen, Ali Ayberk; Ata, Alper; Mertsoylu, Huseyin; Arican, Ali; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Ozyilkan, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors, the most common primary glial tumors of the central nervous system, are classified from low to high grade according to the degree of anaplasia and presence of necrosis. Despite advances in therapeutic management of high grade astrocytic tumors, prognosis remains poor. In the present study, the frequency and prognostic significance of c-erb-B2 in astrocytic tumors was investigated. Records of 72 patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors were evaluated. The expression of C-erbB-2 was determined immunohistochemically and intensity was recorded as 0 to 3+. Tumors with weak staining (1+) or no staining (0) were considered Her-2 negative, while tumors with moderate (2+) and strong (3+) staining were considered Her-2 positive. Of the 72 patients, 41 (56.9%) had glioblastoma (GBM), 10 (13.9%) had diffuse astrocytoma, 15 (20.8%) had anaplastic astrocytoma, 6 (8.3%) had pilocytic astrocytoma. C-erbB-2 overexpression was detected in the tumor specimens of 17 patients (23.6%). Six (8.3%) tumors, all GBMs, exhibited strong staining, 2 (2.7%) specimens, both GBMs, exhibited moderate staining, and 9 specimens, 5 of them GBMs (12.5%), exhibited weak staining. No staining was observed in diffuse astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma specimens. Median overall survival of patients with C-erbB-2 negative and C-erbB-2 positive tumors were 30 months (95%CI: 22.5-37.4 months) and 16.9 months (95%CI: 4.3-29.5 months), respectively (p=0.244). Although there was no difference in survival, C-erbB-2 overexpression was observed only in the GBM subtype.

  4. Localization of higher grade tumor foci in potential candidates for active surveillance who opt for radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Hong

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Among patients deemed clinically appropriate for AS, higher-grade tumor foci missed by standard prostate biopsies were localized to both the anterior and posterior prostate, without predominance of a particular area. These findings lend additional support to performing repeat standard prostate biopsy in potential candidates for AS and should be considered in efforts to optimize current biopsy strategies for the selection of AS patients.

  5. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  6. Prevalence of High-Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Patients with Cytology Presenting Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Lopes, Ana Cristina; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Henrique, Laílca Quirino

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of histological high-grade lesions and cervical cancer in patients with ASCUS cytology. This is a cross-sectional prospective study involving 703 women with a uterus and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). The patients were submitted to a colposcopy and underwent a guided biopsy when changes on the colposcopy were detected. The findings revealed 456 (64.9%) women with a normal colposcopy and 247 (35.1%) with colposcopic abnormalities. The biopsy results were: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) in 51 (20.6%) patients, CIN 2 in 11 (4.5%) patients, CIN 3 in 8 (3.2%) patients, and a negative result in 177 (71.7%) patients; no cases of cancer were detected. Tallying of 456 normal colposcopies and 177 negative biopsies yielded a total of 90.04% negative exams. Furthermore, around 7.2% (51/703) of the patients exhibited CIN 1, a lesion associated with a high potential for regression. The biopsy results were not associated with patient age or menopausal status. We conclude that cytological surveillance of patients with ASCUS is feasible and safe given the low risk of CIN 2/3 or cervical cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  8. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  9. IDH mutation is paradoxically associated with higher {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET uptake in diffuse grade II and grade III gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, A. [APHM, La Timone Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marseille (France); Lorraine University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Nancyclotep Imaging Platform, CHRU Nancy, Nancy (France); Lorraine University, IADI, INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Metellus, P. [Centre Hospitalier Prive Clairval, Department of Neurosurgery, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, UMR 911, Marseille (France); Sala, Q. [APHM, La Timone Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marseille (France); Colin, C. [Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, UMR 911, Marseille (France); Bialecki, E. [Centre Hospitalier Prive Clairval, Department of Neurosurgery, Marseille (France); Taieb, D. [APHM, La Timone Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Chinot, O. [Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, UMR 911, Marseille (France); APHM, La Timone Hospital, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Marseille (France); Figarella-Branger, D. [Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, UMR 911, Marseille (France); APHM, La Timone Hospital, Department of Anatomopathology, Marseille (France); Guedj, E. [APHM, La Timone Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille University, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, CNRS, UMR 7289, Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France)

    2017-08-15

    The World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System has recently been updated by the integration of diagnostic and prognostic molecular parameters, giving pivotal attention to IDH mutation as a favourable factor. Amino acid PET is increasingly used in the management of gliomas, but its prognostic value is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between IDH mutation and {sup 18}F-FDOPA uptake on PET in newly diagnosed gliomas. A total of 43 patients, presenting with diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial grade II and III gliomas, reclassified according to the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the CNS, were retrospectively included. They had all undergone {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET at an initial stage before surgery and histological diagnosis. {sup 18}F-FDOPA uptake values were compared between patients with and without IDH mutation in terms of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ratios between tumour and normal contralateral brain (T/N), and between tumour and striatum (T/S). Patients with IDH mutation showed higher {sup 18}F-FDOPA T/N SUVmax ratios (1.6 vs. 1.2) and T/S SUVmax ratios (0.9 vs. 0.6) than patients without IDH mutation (p < 0.05). This study showed paradoxically higher {sup 18}F-FDOPA uptake in diffuse grade II and III gliomas with IDH mutation. Despite evident interest in the management of gliomas, and especially in relation to posttherapy evaluation, our findings raise the question of the prognostic value of {sup 18}F-FDOPA uptake on PET uptake in this group of patients. This may be related to differences in amino acid integration, metabolism, or cell differentiation. (orig.)

  10. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  11. Students' Attitudes and Intentions toward Higher Education as Determinants for Grade Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Malin; Öqvist, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on what drives young people to engage in higher education. Such knowledge is crucial in order to motivate students to make the most of their potential. This study surveyed a total of 294 Swedish high school students. The result shows that intentions play a mediating role between students' attitudes and the…

  12. Prognostic significance of epithelial/stromal caveolin-1 expression in prostatic hyperplasia, high grade prostatic intraepithelial hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma and its correlation with microvessel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Dareen A; Helal, Duaa S

    2017-03-01

    Caveolin-1 may play a role in cancer development and progression. The aim was to record the expression and localization of caveolin-1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostatic carcinoma (PCa). Microvessel density was evaluated with CD34 immunostain. Correlations with known prognostic factors of PCa were recorded. Immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and the MVD was evaluated in 65 cases; BPH (25), HGPIN (20) and PCa (20). Stromal caveolin-1expression was significantly higher in BPH than HGPIN and PCca. There was significant inverse relation between stromal caveolin-1 expression and extension to lymph node and seminal vesicle in carcinoma cases. Epithelial caveolin-1 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in BPH and HGPIN. Epithelial expression in carcinoma was significantly associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason score and lymph node extension. MVD was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH and HGPIN. There were significant relations between MVD and preoperative PSA, Gleason score, lymph node and seminal vesicle extension. Stromal caveolin-1 was associated with low MVD while epithelial caveolin-1 with high MVD. Caveolin-1 plays an important role in prostatic carcinogenesis and metastasis. Stromal expression of caveolin-1 in PCa is lowered in relation to BPH and HGPIN. In PCa; stromal caveolin-1 was associated with good prognostic parameters. Epithelial caveolin-1 is significantly increased in PCa than BPH and HGPIN. It is associated with clinically aggressive disease. Caveolin-1 may play a role in angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Do later wake times and increased sleep duration of 12th graders result in more studying, higher grades, and improved SAT/ACT test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake time, and hours studying on high school grades and performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)/ American College Testing (ACT) college entrance exams. Data were collected from 13,071 recently graduated high school seniors who were entering college in the fall of 2014. A column proportions z test with a Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze proportional differences. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine mean group differences. Students who woke up prior to 6 a.m. and got less than 8 h of sleep (27 %) were significantly more likely to report studying 11 or more hours per week (30 %), almost double the rate compared to students who got more than 8 h of sleep and woke up the latest (16 %). Post hoc results revealed students who woke up at 7 a.m. or later reported significantly higher high school grades than all other groups (p students who woke up between 6:01 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. and got eight or more hours of sleep. The highest reported SAT/ACT scores were from the group that woke up after 7 a.m. but got less than 8 h sleep (M = 1099.5). Their scores were significantly higher than all other groups. This study provides additional evidence that increased sleep and later wake time are associated with increased high school grades. However, this study also found that students who sleep the longest also reported less studying and lower SAT/ACT scores.

  14. Geometrical Sparing Factors for the Rectum and Bladder in the Prediction of Grade 2 and Higher Complications After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Hung, Y.-C.; Yeh, L.-S.; Chang, W.-C.; Yang, S.-N.; Lin, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. Results: A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  15. Geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in the prediction of grade 2 and higher complications after high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Yang, Shih-Neng; Lin, Fang-Jen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  16. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Blanco, Ignacio; Menéndez, Manuel; Rodrigo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter

  17. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  18. Early static {sup 18}F-FET-PET scans have a higher accuracy for glioma grading than the standard 20-40 min scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Winkelmann, Isabel; Wenter, Vera; Mille, Erik; Todica, Andrei; Brendel, Matthias; Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Suchorska, Bogdana; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Schmid-Tannwald, Christine [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Current guidelines for glioma imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) using the amino acid analogue O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) recommend image acquisition from 20-40 min post injection (p.i.). The maximal tumour-to-background evaluation (TBR{sub max}) obtained in these summation images does not enable reliable differentiation between low and high grade glioma (LGG and HGG), which, however, can be achieved by dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET. We investigated the accuracy of tumour grading using TBR{sub max} values at different earlier time points after tracer injection. Three hundred and fourteen patients with histologically proven primary diagnosis of glioma (131 LGG, 183 HGG) who had undergone 40-min dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET scans were retrospectively evaluated. TBR{sub max} was assessed in the standard 20-40 min summation images, as well as in summation images from 0-10 min, 5-15 min, 5-20 min, and 15-30 min p.i., and kinetic analysis was performed. TBR{sub max} values and kinetic analysis were correlated with histological classification. ROC analyses were performed for each time frame and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed. TBR{sub max} values in the earlier summation images were significantly better for tumour grading (P < 0.001) when compared to standard 20-40 min scans, with best results for the early 5-15 min scan. This was due to higher TBR{sub max} in the HGG (3.9 vs. 3.3; p < 0.001), while TBR{sub max} remained nearly stable in the LGG (2.2 vs. 2.1). Overall, accuracy increased from 70 % in the 20-40 min analysis to 77 % in the 5-15 min images, but did not reach the accuracy of dynamic analysis (80 %). Early TBR{sub max} assessment (5-15 min p.i.) is more accurate for the differentiation between LGG and HGG than the standard static scan (20-40 min p.i.) mainly caused by the characteristic high {sup 18}F-FET uptake of HGG in the initial phase. Therefore, when dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET cannot be performed

  19. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Hijdra scale has significant prognostic value for the functional outcome of Fisher grade 3 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Julia S; Von Dincklage, Falk; Woitzik, Johannes; Winkler, Maren K L; Major, Sebastian; Dreier, Jens P; Bohner, Georg; Scheel, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Despite its high prevalence among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and high risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the Fisher grade 3 category remains a poorly studied subgroup. The aim of this cohort study has been to investigate the prognostic value of the Hijdra sum scoring system for the functional outcome in patients with Fisher grade 3 aSAH, in order to improve the risk stratification within this Fisher category. Initial CT scans of 72 prospectively enrolled patients with Fisher grade 3 aSAH were analyzed, and cisternal, ventricular, and total amount of blood were graded according to the Hijdra scale. Additionally, space-occupying subarachnoid blood clots were assessed. Outcome was evaluated after 6 months. Within the subgroup of Fisher grade 3, aSAH patients with an unfavorable outcome showed a significantly larger cisternal Hijdra sum score (HSS: 21.1 ± 5.2) than patients with a favorable outcome (HSS: 17.6 ± 5.9; p = 0.009). However, both the amount of ventricular blood (p = 0.165) and space-occupying blood clots (p = 0.206) appeared to have no prognostic relevance. After adjusting for the patient's age, gender, tobacco use, clinical status at admission, and presence of intracerebral hemorrhage, the cisternal and total HSS remained the only independent parameters included in multivariate logistic regression models to predict functional outcome (p Fisher 3 category. We suggest that the Hijdra scale is a practically useful prognostic instrument for the risk evaluation after aSAH and should be applied more often in the clinical setting.

  1. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then…

  2. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers…

  4. Accreditation and Its Significance for Programs of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Antony E.

    The development of minimum standards in higher education through the evolution of accreditation in specialized disciplines, and standard setting in criminology and criminal justice education are examined. The very different experiences with the concept of accreditation encountered in the fields of public administration and law are considered. Law…

  5. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  6. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories 'atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade' (AUC-H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaton, E; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Mege-Lechevallier, F; Advenier, A-S; Devonec, M; Ruffion, A

    2014-02-01

    We studied whether atypical, non-superficial urothelial cells (AUC) could be separated into new subcategories including AUC 'of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade'' (AUC-H) in order to help to standardize urine cytopathology reports, as it is widely accepted in the Bethesda system for gynaecological cytopathology. We investigated whether AUC-US and AUC-H, defined by distinctive cytological criteria, might be separated with statistical significance according to actual diagnosis and follow-up data. A series of 534 cyto-histological comparisons taken in 139 patients, including 221 AUC at various steps of their clinical history was studied. There were 513 (96.1%) postcystoscopy and 469 (87.8%) ThinPrep® liquid-based specimens (95.9% and 89.1% of AUC cases, respectively). Patients viewed between 1999 and 2011 had histological control in a 0- to 6-months delay and were followed-up during an additional 5.9 ± 9.2 (0- to 56-) months period. The 221 AUC represented 0.8-2% of the specimens viewed during the study period. Among AUC-H cases, 70 out of 185 (37.8%) matched with high-grade lesions, compared with 3 of 38 (8.3%) of AUC-US cases (P = 0.0003). Conservatively treated patients with AUC-H more frequently developed high-grade lesions than those with AUC-US (54.1% versus 16.7%, P = 0.0007) with a 17.6-months mean delay. Nuclear hyperchromasia, a nuclear to cytoplasm (N/C) ratio > 0.7 and the combination of both were the more informative diagnostic criteria, all with P < 0.01. We conclude that the new subcategories could help to standardize urine cytopathology reports and contribute to the patient's management, provided it is validated by multicentric studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The bowel cancer awareness campaign 'Be Clear on Cancer': sustained increased pressure on resources and over-accessed by higher social grades with no increase in cancer detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S J; Peacock, J D H; Cochrane, L A; Peacock, O; Tierney, G M; Tou, S I H; Lund, J N

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of the national 'Be Clear on Cancer' bowel cancer reminder campaign on service and diagnosis at a single UK institution. Secondly, to evaluate the socio-economic background of patients referred before and after the reminder campaign compared with the regional demographic. Suspected cancer 2-week wait patients in the 3 months precampaign, postcampaign and after the reminder campaign were included. Demographics, investigations and diagnosis were recorded. The postcode was used to allocate a National Readership Survey social grade. Three hundred and eighty-three referrals were received in the 3 months precampaign, 550 postcampaign and 470 postreminder campaign. There were significant increases in the monthly referral rates following the campaign (P social grades AB and C1C2 than expected from regional demographics were referred precampaign and after the reminder campaign (P < 0.001 in each case). There were no significant differences between the proportions of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the three study periods (P = 0.710). The 'Be Clear on Cancer' bowel cancer campaign has had a significant sustained impact on resources. It has failed to increase referrals among lower socio-economic grades, leading to an increase in 'worried well' referrals and no change in numbers, or the stage, of colorectal cancers diagnosed. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Sources of Inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people's choice of science in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a questionnaire including multiple-choice as well as open-ended questions about sources of inspiration for their educational choice. Using the conceptualisation of significant persons suggested by Woelfel and Haller, the respondents' descriptions of parents and teachers are presented in order to elaborate on the different ways these significant persons influence a STEM-related educational choice. Parents engaged in STEM themselves are models, making the choice of STEM familiar, and they help youngsters define themselves through conversation and support, thus being definers. Teachers are models by displaying how STEM might bring fulfilment in someone's life and by giving pupils a positive experience with the subjects. They help young people discover their STEM abilities, thus being definers. Celebrities are reported to have minor influence on STEM-related educational choices. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that interpersonal relationships are key factors in order to inspire and motivate a choice of STEM education. Implications for recruitment issues and for research on interpersonal influence are discussed. It is suggested that initiatives to increase recruitment to STEM might be aimed at parents and other persons in interpersonal relationships with youth as a target group.

  10. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  11. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  12. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  13. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections appear to be central to the development of cervical cancer. This study addresses the question of whether testing women who have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) of the uterine cervix for HPV DNA is useful as a triage strategy. Four clinical centers in different areas of the United States participated in a randomized clinical trial of the use of HPV DNA testing in women with cytologic evidence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or LSIL. The study sample in this article consists only of women who had LSIL at enrollment. Within 6 months of an LSIL diagnosis (based on a Pap smear read by a community-based cytopathologist), women who were 18 years of age or older completed a standardized questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination that included collection of cervical specimens for HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture II (HCII)(R) assay. Among the 642 women referred with LSIL who had analyzable test results, the mean chronologic age and age at first coitus were similar among the four clinical centers, despite the centers' ethnic and geographic diversity. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in cervical samples from 532 (82.9%) of the 642 women (95% confidence interval = 79.7%-85.7%). This high frequency of HPV positivity was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in a subset of 210 paired specimens tested by HCII and PCR (81.4% were positive by both methods). Because a very high percentage of women with an LSIL diagnosis from Pap smears are positive for HPV DNA by HCII testing, there is limited potential for this assay to direct decisions about the clinical management of women with LSIL. The role of HPV testing in the management of women with ASCUS is still under study.

  14. Significant determinants of academic performance by new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. The case of the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Moncada Mora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the significant determiners of academic performance of new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. A description and correlation of the variables were undertaken to formalize the probabilistic model that confirms the positive, negative, individual and global effects.

  15. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  16. Decreased D2-40 and increased p16INK4A immunoreactivities correlate with higher grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhouping

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D2-40 has been shown a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium, but also shown in the benign cervical basal cells. However, the application of D2-40 immunoreactivity in the cervical basal cells for identifying the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN has not been evaluated. Methods In this study, the immunoreactive patterns of D2-40, compared with p16INK4A, which is currently considered as the useful marker for cervical cancers and their precancerous diseases, were examined in total 125 cervical specimens including 32 of CIN1, 37 of CIN2, 35 of CIN3, and 21 of normal cervical tissue. D2-40 and p16INK4A immunoreactivities were scored semiquantitatively according to the intensity and/or extent of the staining. Results Diffuse D2-40 expression with moderate-to-strong intensity was seen in all the normal cervical epithelia (21/21, 100% and similar pattern of D2-40 immunoreactivity with weak-to-strong intensity was observed in CIN1 (31/32, 97.2%. However, negative and/or focal D2-40 expression was found in CIN2 (negative: 20/37, 54.1%; focal: 16/37, 43.2% and CIN3 (negative: 22/35, 62.8%; focal: 12/35, 34.3%. On the other hand, diffuse immunostaining for p16INK4A was shown in 37.5% of CIN1, 64.9% of CIN2, and 80.0% of CIN3. However, the immunoreactive pattern of D2-40 was not associated with the p16INK4A immunoreactivity. Conclusions Immunohistochemical analysis of D2-40 combined with p16INK4A may have a significant implication in clinical practice for better identifying the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, especially for distinguishing CIN1 from CIN2/3.

  17. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  18. Normal LVEF measurements are significantly higher in females asassessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Eak Kyun

    1999-01-01

    Volume-LVEF relationship is one of the most important factors of automatic EF quantification algorithm from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT(gMPS) (Germano et al. JNM, 1995). Gender difference whereby normal LVEF measurements are higher in females assessed by gMPS (Yao et al. JNM 1997). To validate true physiologic value of LVEF vs sampling or measured error, various parameters were evaluated statistically in both gender and age matched 200 subjects (mean age= 58.41±15.01) with normal LVEF more than 50%, and a low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Correlation between LVEDVi(ml/m2) and LVEF was highly significant (r=-0.62, p<0.0001) with similar correlations noted in both male (r=-0.45, p<0.0001) and female (r=-0.67, p<0.0001) subgroups. By multivariate analysis, LV volume and stroke volume was the most significant factor influencing LVEF in male and female, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant negative correlation between LV volume and LVEF as measured by Tc-99m gated SPECT. Higher normal LVEF value should be applied to females as assessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

  19. Management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix with human papilloma virus infection among young women aged less than 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ki-Jin; Lee, Sanghoon; Min, Kyung-Jin; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae Yun; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-12-01

    Current ASCCP guidelines recommend repeat cytology 12 months after HPV-positive results in women aged 21-24 years with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). The purpose of this study was to validate an algorithm in such women with ASCUS or LSIL. A multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out at three academic hospitals involving 40,847 Korean women who underwent cervical cancer screening with cytology and HPV testing with or without subsequent colposcopic biopsies between January 2007 and December 2013. Among a total of 3,193 women with available histopathology data, 762 women with ASCUS and 758 with LSIL were HPV-positive. Among HPV-positive women with ASCUS, 38.5% of women aged 21-24 years had ≥CIN2, compared to 20.8% of women aged 30-65 years and 21.1% of the total women. Among HPV-positive women with LSIL, 25.8% aged 21-24 years had ≥CIN2, compared to 21.2% of women aged 30-65 years and 21.9% of the total women. In HPV-positive women with ASCUS/LSIL aged less than 25 years, the prevalence of ≥CIN2 lesions was 34.5%, which was significantly higher than that (21.0%) in women aged ≥25 years. The risk of ≥CIN2 lesions in HPV-positive Korean women aged 21-24 years with ASCUS or LSIL was not lower than that in older women. Colposcopic examination should be considered for management of HPV-positive young women with ASCUS or LSIL. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:959-963. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The ratio of nurse consultation and physician efficiency index of senior rheumatologists is significantly higher than junior physicians in rheumatology residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; van Bui Hansen, Morten Hai; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the difference between ratios of nurse consultation sought by senior rheumatologists and junior physicians in rheumatology residency training, and also to evaluate physician efficiency index respecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data regarding outpatient visits for RA...... patients between November 2013 and 2015 were extracted. The mean interval (day) between consultations, the nurse/physician visits ratio, and physician efficiency index (nurse/physician visits ratio × mean interval) for each senior and junior physicians were calculated. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints....../physician visits ratio (P = .01) and mean efficiency index (P = .04) of senior rheumatologists were significantly higher than that of junior physicians. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between physician postgraduate experience and physician efficiency index adjusted for DAS28 at baseline...

  1. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher World Health Organization grades of follicular lymphoma correlate with better outcome in two Nordic Lymphoma Group trials of rituximab without chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlin, Björn Engelbrekt; Sundström, Christer; Sander, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A common treatment for follicular lymphoma is rituximab monotherapy. To identify patients for whom this regimen is adequate as first-line therapy, we applied the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for grading follicular lymphoma in a prospective central pathology review...... increased with the malignant cell size (p useful tool for personalized therapy....

  3. Comparing 2 Whiplash Grading Systems to Predict Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Bagherian, Alireza; Mickelsen, Patrick K; Wagner, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Two whiplash severity grading systems have been developed: Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders (QTF-WAD) and the Croft grading system. The majority of clinical studies to date have used the modified grading system published by the QTF-WAD in 1995 and have demonstrated some ability to predict outcome. But most studies include only injuries of lower severity (grades 1 and 2), preventing a broader interpretation. The purpose of this study was assess the ability of these grading systems to predict clinical outcome within the context of a broader injury spectrum. This study evaluated both grading systems for their ability to predict the bivalent outcome, recovery, within a sample of 118 whiplash patients who were part of a previous case-control designed study. Of these, 36% (controls) had recovered, and 64% (cases) had not recovered. The discrete bivariate distribution between recovery status and whiplash grade was analyzed using the 2-tailed cross-tabulation statistics. Applying the criteria of the original 1993 Croft grading system, the subset comprised 1 grade 1 injury, 32 grade 2 injuries, 53 grade 3 injuries, and 32 grade 4 injuries. Applying the criteria of the modified (QTF-WAD) grading system, there were 1 grade 1 injury, 89 grade 2 injuries, and 28 grade 3 injuries. Both whiplash grading systems correlated negatively with recovery; that is, higher severity grades predicted a lower probability of recovery, and statistically significant correlations were observed in both, but the Croft grading system substantially outperformed the QTF-WAD system on this measure. The Croft grading system for whiplash injury severity showed a better predictive measure for recovery status from whiplash injuries as compared with the QTF-WAD grading system.

  4. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  5. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  6. Viewing as little as 1 hour of TV daily is associated with higher change in BMI between kindergarten and first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Travis; Scharf, Rebecca J; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D

    2015-08-01

    Evaluate associations between TV viewing and weight status in children from kindergarten to first grade. Linear and logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of TV-viewing time on BMI-z-score cross-sectionally at kindergarten and first grade and longitudinally in between, among a nationally representative sample of 14,645 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011. All analyses were adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, and household income. Weekday TV-viewing time was correlated with BMI-z-score (P TV daily, children watching ≥1 h in kindergarten and first grade had a greater odds of overweight (1.50-1.60) and obesity (1.58-1.73). Children watching 1-TV had a greater odds of becoming overweight (1.39) and obese (1.86) between evaluations. Children watching as little as 1-TV daily were more likely to become overweight and obese over time. Physicians should encourage families to restrict TV-viewing time to reduce weight gain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Structure–property relationship in a 960 MPa grade ultrahigh strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel: The significance of high frequency induction tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.J.; Fang, Y.P.; Han, G.; Guo, H.; Misra, R.D.K.; Shang, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the microstructure and precipitation behavior in an ultra-high strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel that was processed by quenching and high frequency induction tempering. Ultrahigh yield strength of ∼1000 MPa with high elongation of ∼15% and high low temperature toughness of 55 J (half thickness) at −40 °C was obtained after quenching from austenitization at 900 °C for 30 min, and tempering at 600 °C for 15 min by induction reheating with a reheating rate of ∼50 °C/s. While the yield strength increase on tempering was similar for both induction reheating and conventional reheating (electrical resistance reheating), there was ∼100% increase in low temperature toughness in induction reheated steel compared to the conventional reheating process. The underlying reason for the increase in toughness was attributed to the transformation of cementite film observed in conventional reheating and tempering to nanoscale cementite in induction reheating and tempering. The precipitation of nanoscale carbides is believed to significantly contribute to ultra-high strength, good ductility, and high toughness in the high frequency induction reheating and tempering process

  8. Differentiation of grade II/III and grade IV glioma by combining ''T1 contrast-enhanced brain perfusion imaging'' and susceptibility-weighted quantitative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Jitender; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Sahoo, Prativa; Singh, Anup; Patir, Rana; Ahlawat, Suneeta; Beniwal, Manish; Thennarasu, K.; Santosh, Vani

    2018-01-01

    MRI is a useful method for discriminating low- and high-grade glioma using perfusion MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of T1-perfusion MRI and SWI in discriminating among grade II, III, and IV gliomas. T1-perfusion MRI was used to measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in 129 patients with glioma (70 grade IV, 33 grade III, and 26 grade II tumors). SWI was also used to measure the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) scores for each tumor in these patients. rCBV and ITSS values were compared to seek differences between grade II vs. grade III, grade III vs. grade IV, and grade III+II vs. grade IV tumors. Significant differences in rCBV values of the three grades of the tumors were noted and pairwise comparisons showed significantly higher rCBV values in grade IV tumors as compared to grade III tumors, and similarly increased rCBV was seen in the grade III tumors as compared to grade II tumors (p < 0.001). Grade IV gliomas showed significantly higher ITSS scores on SWI as compared to grade III tumors (p < 0.001) whereas insignificant difference was seen on comparing ITSS scores of grade III with grade II tumors. Combining the rCBV and ITSS resulted in significant improvement in the discrimination of grade III from grade IV tumors. The combination of rCBV values derived from T1-perfusion MRI and SWI derived ITSS scores improves the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of grade III from grade IV gliomas. (orig.)

  9. Differentiation of grade II/III and grade IV glioma by combining ''T1 contrast-enhanced brain perfusion imaging'' and susceptibility-weighted quantitative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Jitender [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore (India); Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Gurugram (India); Sahoo, Prativa [Philips Health System, Philips India Limited, Bangalore (India); Beckman Research Institute, Mathematical Oncology, Duarte, CA (United States); Singh, Anup [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Delhi (India); Patir, Rana [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Gurugram (India); Ahlawat, Suneeta [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, SRL Diagnostics, Gurugram (India); Beniwal, Manish [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Bangalore (India); Thennarasu, K. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Biostatistics, Bangalore (India); Santosh, Vani [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuropathology, Bangalore (India)

    2018-01-15

    MRI is a useful method for discriminating low- and high-grade glioma using perfusion MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of T1-perfusion MRI and SWI in discriminating among grade II, III, and IV gliomas. T1-perfusion MRI was used to measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in 129 patients with glioma (70 grade IV, 33 grade III, and 26 grade II tumors). SWI was also used to measure the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) scores for each tumor in these patients. rCBV and ITSS values were compared to seek differences between grade II vs. grade III, grade III vs. grade IV, and grade III+II vs. grade IV tumors. Significant differences in rCBV values of the three grades of the tumors were noted and pairwise comparisons showed significantly higher rCBV values in grade IV tumors as compared to grade III tumors, and similarly increased rCBV was seen in the grade III tumors as compared to grade II tumors (p < 0.001). Grade IV gliomas showed significantly higher ITSS scores on SWI as compared to grade III tumors (p < 0.001) whereas insignificant difference was seen on comparing ITSS scores of grade III with grade II tumors. Combining the rCBV and ITSS resulted in significant improvement in the discrimination of grade III from grade IV tumors. The combination of rCBV values derived from T1-perfusion MRI and SWI derived ITSS scores improves the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of grade III from grade IV gliomas. (orig.)

  10. Significado prognóstico dos graus histológicos do linfoma de Hodgkin do tipo esclerose nodular Prognostic significance of histopathological grading of nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Pracchia

    2005-10-01

    II (NS HL II - and reported that NS II patients had a lower survival rate in comparison with NS I patients. Others studies, however, did not reproduce these findings. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the prognostic significance of the BNLI grading system. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We retrospectively studied 69 NS HL patients. More than 90% of the included cases were treated with combined modality therapy or exclusive chemotherapy, the treatment type was not different for NS I and NS II patients. RESULTS: Thirty-five cases (51% were classified as NS I and 34 (49% as NS II. We did not observe significant differences in the distribution of other prognostic factors between the two NS grades. The complete remission rate after initial therapy was 85.7% in the NS I group and 82.4% in the NS II group (p = 0.75. The predicted 5-year overall survival rate was 67% in the NS I patients and 83.5% in the NS II patients (p = 0.13. The predicted 5-year disease free survival rate for NSI and NSII patients was 85.2% and 87%, respectively (p = 0.72. CONCLUSION: The histological BNLI grading system was not associated with the prognosis of this uniformly treated NS LH population.

  11. Faster, higher, stronger, older: Relative age effects are most influential during the youngest age grade of track and field athletics in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; Hayes, Philip R; Nevill, Alan

    2018-03-07

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a common phenomenon in youth sport, whereby children born early in the selection year are more likely to experience success and to sustain participation. There is a lack of research investigating variables which influence RAEs within track and field athletics. Such information is vital to guide policies in relation to competition structure, youth development squads and coach education. A database of competition results was analysed to determine the extent to which RAEs were present in track and field athletics in the United Kingdom. Subsequent analyses examined whether age, sex, event and skill level influenced the RAE. Examination of 77,571 records revealed that RAEs were widespread, but most pronounced during Under 13 (U13) competitions; that is, during athletes' first exposure to formal track and field competition. Sex, event and skill level further influenced the existence and magnitude of RAEs at different age grades. Relative age is a key influencing factor within track and field athletics, especially at the youngest age category. Consequently, national governing bodies need to consider what administrative and stakeholder initiatives are necessary to minimise the effects of RAEs on young athletes' early experiences of competition.

  12. Geometrically nonlinear resonance of higher-order shear deformable functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite annular sector plates excited by harmonic transverse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an attempt to study the nonlinear resonance of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) annular sector plates excited by a uniformly distributed harmonic transverse load. To this purpose, first, the extended rule of mixture including the efficiency parameters is employed to approximately obtain the effective material properties of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates. Then, the focus is on presenting the weak form of discretized mathematical formulation of governing equations based on the variational differential quadrature (VDQ) method and Hamilton's principle. The geometric nonlinearity and shear deformation effects are considered based on the von Kármán assumptions and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, respectively. The discretization process is performed via the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method together with numerical differential and integral operators. Then, an efficient multi-step numerical scheme is used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the FG-CNTRC annular sector plates near their primary resonance as the frequency-response curve. The accuracy of the present results is first verified and then a parametric study is presented to show the impacts of CNT volume fraction, CNT distribution pattern, geometry of annular sector plate and sector angle on the nonlinear frequency-response curve of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates with different edge supports.

  13. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of complexity of the male and female sexual openings in Brachyura, which have been the source of uncertainties and conflicting opinions, are documented, together with a study of the morphologies of the coxal and sternal gonopores in both sexes, penises, spermathecae, and gonopods. The vulvae, male gonopores and penises are described among selected taxa of Eubrachyura, and their function and evolution examined in the context of a wide variety of mating behaviours. The location of female and male gonopores, the condition of the penis (coxal and sternal openings and modalities of protection), and related configurations of thoracic sternites 7 and 8, which are modified by the intercalation of a wide sternal part (thoracic sternites 7 and 8) during carcinisation, show evidence of deep homology. They represent taxonomic criteria at all ranks of the family-series and may be used to test lineages. Of particular significance are the consequences of the posterior expansion of the thoracic sternum, which influences the condition, shape, and sclerotisation of the penis, and its emergence from coxal (heterotreme) to coxo-sternal, which is actually still coxal (heterotreme), in contrast to a sternal emergence (thoracotreme). The heterotreme-thoracotreme distinction results from two different trajectories of the vas deferens and its ejaculatory duct via the P5 coxa (Heterotremata) or through the thoracic sternum (Thoracotremata). Dissections of males of several families have demonstrated that this major difference not only affects the external surface (perforation of the coxa or the sternum by the ejaculatory duct) but also the internal anatomy. There is no evidence for an ejaculatory duct passing through the articular membrane between the P5 coxa and the thoracic sternum in any Brachyura, even when the sternal male gonopore is very close to the P5 coxa. Trends towards the coxo-sternal condition are exemplified by multistate characters, varying from a shallow

  14. Differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Tumor size versus CT perfusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Kang, Qinqin; Xu, Bing; Guo, Hairuo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Tiegong; Ye, Hui; Wu, Xinhuai

    To compare the utility of tumor size and CT perfusion parameters for differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor size, Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS), blood flow (BF), and Fuhrman pathological grading of clear cell RCC were retrospectively analyzed. High-grade clear cell RCC had significantly higher tumor size and lower PS than low grade. Tumor size positively correlated with Fuhrman grade, but PS negatively did. Tumor size and PS were significantly independent indexes for differentiating high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Taking the Grading Leniency Story to the Edge. The Influence of Student, Teacher, and Course Characteristics on Student Evaluations of Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockx, Bert; Spooren, Pieter; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    The use of student evaluation of teaching (SET) to evaluate and improve teaching is widespread amongst institutions of higher education. Many authors have searched for a conclusive understanding about the influence of student, course, and teacher characteristics on SET. One hotly debated discussion concerns the interpretation of the positive and…

  16. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

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    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  17. Correlation between CT grading and blood interleukin-6 in severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohari, Kenji; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Shiga, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuya; Nakamura, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and an evaluating of the degree of severity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) are required to decide the therapeutic strategy. We measured blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) in critically ill patients at our intensive care unit (ICU) in a daily clinical setting. To determine the significance of grading CT findings in SAP, we studied the correlation between CT grading and blood IL-6 in SAP patients on ICU admission. Among 31 SAP cases, 66 were CT grade III, 22 CT grade IV, and 3 cases CT grade V. Patients with a higher CT grade tended to have higher blood IL-6. Data also showed that mean blood IL-6 among SAP patients in stage 2 was significantly higher than that among those in stage 3 (p<0.05). From these results, we concluded that CT grading and IL-6 blood level have a different significance in the management of SAP patients. (author)

  18. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

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    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    ' and TCZ2 (5' – CCT CCA AGC AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3' primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07. The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined.

  19. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Sosnowicz, Stasha; Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita; Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for

  20. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

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    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  1. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+ using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US in Catalonia, Spain

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    Ibáñez Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US. HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+ in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. Methods During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Results Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7% had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years. hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions -HSIL were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI = 85.5-99.9 and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI

  2. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Raquel; Moreno-Crespi, Judit; Sardà, Montserrat; Autonell, Josefina; Fibla, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, María; Català, Isabel; Alameda, Francesc; Casas, Miquel; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-01-26

    A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+) in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV) triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7%) had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years). hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p < 0.01). At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions--HSIL) were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI) = 85.5-99.9) and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI = 63.1-73.2). The odds ratio for CIN2

  3. Facing Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas: Perfusion MRI in Grade III and Grade IV Gliomas according to Tumor Area

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    Anna Luisa Di Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral neoangiogenesis characterizes high grade gliomas. Relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV, calculated with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI, allows for the estimation of vascular density over the tumor bed. The aim of the study was to characterize putative tumoral neoangiogenesis via the study of maximal rCBV with a Region of Interest (ROI approach in three tumor areas—the contrast-enhancing area, the nonenhancing tumor, and the high perfusion area on CBV map—in patients affected by contrast-enhancing glioma (grades III and IV. Twenty-one patients were included: 15 were affected by grade IV and 6 by grade III glioma. Maximal rCBV values for each patient were averaged according to glioma grade. Although rCBV from contrast-enhancement and from nonenhancing tumor areas was higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (5.58 and 2.68; 3.01 and 2.2, resp., the differences were not significant. Instead, rCBV recorded in the high perfusion area on CBV map, independently of tumor compartment, was significantly higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (7.51 versus 3.78, P=0.036. In conclusion, neoangiogenesis encompasses different tumor compartments and CBV maps appear capable of best characterizing the degree of neovascularization. Facing contrast-enhancing brain tumors, areas of high perfusion on CBV maps should be considered as the reference areas to be targeted for glioma grading.

  4. Smart Kote Glove for Assessment of Scoring Parameters of Dan and Kyu Grade Kendokas

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    Kwangyul Jeong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kendo is one of the most ancient swordsmanship arts in Japan. The aims of this study are to develop and test an innovative smart Kote glove for assisting the Kendoka to distinguish scoring from non-scoring Kote (wrist strikes. An in-house developed pressure sensing platform was utilized to develop the smart Kote glove. Ten kendo practitioners, comprising of five Dan (black belts equivalent and five Kyu (lower level/ungraded of both genders, participated in this study. The results showed significant differences between Dan and Kyu participants in both accuracy and sharpness of the strikes. Dan grade participants showed higher percentage of hitting the target comparing to Kyu grade (92% and 75% respectively. The percentage of scoring was also significantly higher in Dan (78% than in Kyu (37% grades. The average impact force of scoring by Dan grade (1159 ± 379 N was higher than by Kyu grade (852 ± 429 N.

  5. Ski and snowboard school programs: Injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Predictors of grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

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    Dang, Jun; Li, Guang; Ma, Lianghua; Han, Chong; Zhang, Shuo; Yao, Lei [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)], e-mail: gl1963516@yahoo.cn; Diao, Rao [Dept. of Experimental Technology Center, China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China); Zang, Shuang [Dept. of Nursing, China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2013-08-15

    Grade {>=}3 radiation pneumonitis (RP) is generally severe and life-threatening. Predictors of grade {>=}2 are usually used for grade {>=}3 RP prediction, but it is unclear whether these predictors are appropriate. In this study, predictors of grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 RP were investigated separately. The increased risk of severe RP in elderly patients compared with younger patients was also evaluated. Material and methods: A total of 176 consecutive patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were followed up prospectively after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. RP was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: Mean lung dose (MLD), mean heart dose, ratio of planning target volume to total lung volume (PTV/Lung), and dose-volume histogram comprehensive value of both heart and lung were associated with both grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 RP in univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age and MLD were predictors of both grade {>=}2 RP and grade {>=}3 RP; receipt of chemotherapy predicted grade {>=}3 RP only; and sex and PTV/Lung predicted grade {>=}2 RP only. Among patients who developed high-grade RP, MLD and PTV/Lung were significantly lower in patients aged {>=}70 years than in younger patients (p<0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusions: The predictors were not completely consistent between grade {>=}2 RP and grade {>=}3 RP. Elderly patients had a higher risk of severe RP than younger patients did, possibly due to lower tolerance of radiation to the lung.

  7. Effect of Retention in Elementary Grades on Grade 9 Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students’ motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained = 177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted = 384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West, & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student’s overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. PMID:25636258

  8. Effect of retention in elementary grades on grade 9 motivation for educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

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    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  10. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  11. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

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    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  12. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  13. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Repeated Intraperitoneal Injection of Pharmaceutical-grade and Nonpharmaceutical-grade Corn Oil in Female C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jennifer S; Chen, Patty H; Boyd, Kelli L

    2017-11-01

    Due to potential adverse effects on animal wellbeing, the use of nonpharmaceutical-grade substances in animal research must be scientifically justified in cases where a pharmaceutical-grade version of the substance exists. This requirement applies to all substances, including vehicles used to solubilize experimental drugs. To date, no studies have evaluated the direct effect of the pharmaceutical classification of a compound on animal wellbeing. In this study, we evaluated intraperitoneal administration of pharmaceutical-grade corn oil, nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil, and saline in female C57BL/6J mice. Compounds were administered every 48 h for a total of 4 injections. Mice were evaluated clinically by using body weight, body condition score, visual assessment score, CBC, and serum chemistries. Animals were euthanized at 24 h and 14 d after the final injection. Inflammation of the peritoneal wall and mesenteric fat was assessed microscopically by using a semiquantitative scoring system. Saline-dosed groups had lower pathology scores at both time points. At day 21, pharmaceutical-grade corn oil had a significantly higher pathology score compared with nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil. No other significant differences between the corn oil groups were observed. The use of nonpharmaceutical grade corn oil did not result in adverse clinical consequences and is presumed safe to use for intraperitoneal injection in mice. Differences in inflammation between the 2 groups suggest that the use of either pharmaceutical-grade or nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil should be consistent within a study.

  15. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  16. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  17. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  18. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  19. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  20. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  1. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam [International Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore, Bangalore (India); Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  3. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  4. Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika J Piyathilake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chandrika J Piyathilake1, Suguna Badiga1, Proma Paul2, Vijayaraghavan K3, Haripriya Vedantham3, Mrudula Sudula3, Pavani Sowjanya3, Gayatri Ramakrishna4, Keerti V Shah5, Edward E Partridge6, Patti E Gravitt21Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3SHARE INDIA, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur, India; 4Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India; 5Department of Molecular biology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD USA; 6UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Studies conducted in the USA have demonstrated that micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B12 play a significant role in modifying the natural history of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs, the causative agent for developing invasive cervical cancer (CC and its precursor lesions.Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether these micronutrients have similar effects on HR-HPV infections in Indian women.Methods: The associations between serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 and HR-HPV infections were evaluated in 724 women who participated in a CC screening study in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by using a competitive radio-binding assay. Digene hybrid capture 2 (HC2 assay results were used to categorize women into two groups, positive or negative for HR-HPVs. Unconditional logistic regression models specified a binary indicator of HC2 (positive/negative as the dependent variable and serum folate concentrations combined with serum vitamin B12 concentrations as the independent predictor of primary interest. Models were fitted, adjusting for age, education, marital status, parity

  5. High-Grade Hydronephrosis Predicts Poor Outcomes After Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Suk; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Young Hoon; Cho, Nam Hoon; Oh, Young Taek

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the presence and severity of preoperative hydronephrosis have prognostic significance in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The medical records of 457 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between 1986 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Following the Society for Fetal Urology grading system, patients were divided into low-, and high-grade hydronephrosis groups. Clinicopathologic factors associated with preoperative hydronephrosis and survival were evaluated. Of a total of 406 patients, unilateral hydronephrosis was found in 74 (18.2%), bilateral hydronephrosis in 11 (2.7%), and no hydronephoris in 321 (79.1%). Low-grade hydronephrosis was found in 57 (12.2%) patients and high-grade hydronephrosis in 28 (6%). Preoperative hydronephrosis was related to higher pT stage and lymph node invasion. In univariate analysis, the presence of hydronephrosis, hydronephrosis grade, age, pT and pN stage, tumor grade, surgical margin, number of retrieved nodes, carcinoma in situ, and lymphovascular invasion were significant prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. In multivariate analysis, bilateral hydronephrosis and high-grade hydronephrosis remained significant predictors for decreased survival. The presence of preoperative hydronephrosis, and high-grade hydronephrosis are significant prognostic factors in patients with bladder cancer after radical cystectomy. PMID:20191034

  6. What grading can tell about a course - and it's exam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the data from grading students in a course can give valuable feedback to 1) the effectiveness and efficiency of the exam and 2) if there are aspects of the learning process that need attention. Before investigating three propositions, the article...... briefly describes a newly-developed course in Operations Management at the Technical University of Denmark. Since the introduction it has increased the number of students by more than 20% annually. The findings are that male students get significantly higher grades than females, and that a certain part...... of the exam is not sufficiently difficult. These findings suggest that improvements should be made....

  7. Does the Compliance of the Bladder Affect the Grade of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kilinc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We retrospectively reviewed videourodynamic outcomes in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux grade and bladder compliance. Material and Method: Videourodynamic traces of 53 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux investigated between January 2004 and January 2012 were reviewed. The detrusor pressures of the point when the reflux started were recorded. The detrusor pressures 10 cmH2O or less at that point was accepted as normal compliance (Group 1, the detrusor pressures more than10 cm H2O was accepted as hipocompliance (Group 2. The reflux grades were divided into two grades, low-grade reflux (grades 1 and 2, high-grade reflux (grades 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Patients’ ages ranged between 5 and 11 years (mean 7.09±1.81 years. Of the 53 patients, 29 (54.7% had normal compliance (Group 1, 24 (45.3% had hipocompliance (Group 2. Twenty-four (82.8% patients in-group 1 had a low-grade reflux, 5 (17.2% patients had a high-grade reflux. In group 2, 8 (33.3% patients had a low-grade reflux, 16 (66.7% patients had a high-grade reflux. The detected high-grade reflux in-group 2 was significantly higher than in-group 1 (p<0.001. Discussion: The physicians should be considering the bladder compliance at the point when the reflux started in primary vesicoureteral reflux cases. The bladder hipocompliance may play a secondary role in reflux grade.

  8. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  9. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Rost, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p -1 vs. 3.86 min -1 , p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  10. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  11. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  12. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  13. Classroom Quality and Student Engagement: Contributions to Third-Grade Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students’ third-grade behavioral engagement on students’ third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students’ third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students’ first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21779272

  14. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-01-01

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  15. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  16. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  17. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  18. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Malouff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1 to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2 to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3 not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, as hypothesized, the graders assigned significantly higher scores to written work following the better oral presentation than following the poor oral presentation, with intermediate scores for the written work of the student whose oral presentation was not seen by the graders. The results provide evidence of a halo effect in that prior experience with a student biased the grading of written work completed by the student. The findings suggest that keeping students anonymous, as in the condition with no knowledge of the student’s performance in the oral presentation, helps prevent bias in grading.

  19. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  20. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  1. Modeling Renal Cell Carcinoma in Mice: Bap1 and Pbrm1 Inactivation Drive Tumor Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-Feng; Cohn, Shannon; Christie, Alana; McKenzie, Tiffani; Wolff, Nicholas; Do, Quyen N; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Pedrosa, Ivan; Wang, Tao; Dey, Anwesha; Busslinger, Meinrad; Xie, Xian-Jin; Hammer, Robert E; McKay, Renée M; Kapur, Payal; Brugarolas, James

    2017-08-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations, which are associated with tumors of different grade and prognosis. However, whether BAP1 and PBRM1 loss causes ccRCC and determines tumor grade is unclear. We conditionally targeted Bap1 and Pbrm1 (with Vhl ) in the mouse using several Cre drivers. Sglt2 and Villin proximal convoluted tubule drivers failed to cause tumorigenesis, challenging the conventional notion of ccRCC origins. In contrast, targeting with PAX8, a transcription factor frequently overexpressed in ccRCC, led to ccRCC of different grades. Bap1 -deficient tumors were of high grade and showed greater mTORC1 activation than Pbrm1 -deficient tumors, which exhibited longer latency. Disrupting one allele of the mTORC1 negative regulator, Tsc1 , in Pbrm1 -deficient kidneys triggered higher grade ccRCC. This study establishes Bap1 and Pbrm1 as lineage-specific drivers of ccRCC and histologic grade, implicates mTORC1 as a tumor grade rheostat, and suggests that ccRCCs arise from Bowman capsule cells. Significance: Determinants of tumor grade and aggressiveness across cancer types are poorly understood. Using ccRCC as a model, we show that Bap1 and Pbrm1 loss drives tumor grade. Furthermore, we show that the conversion from low grade to high grade can be promoted by activation of mTORC1. Cancer Discov; 7(8); 900-17. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Leung and Kim, p. 802 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 783 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Comparison of Utility of Histogram Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and R2* for Differentiation of Low-Grade From High-Grade Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2* for differentiating low-grade from high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Forty-six patients with pathologically confirmed clear cell RCC underwent preoperative BOLD and DWI MRI of the kidneys. ADCs based on the entire tumor volume were calculated with b value combinations of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). ROI-based R2* was calculated with eight TE combinations of 6.7-22.8 milliseconds. Histogram analysis of tumor ADCs and R2* values was performed to obtain mean; median; width; and fifth, 10th, 90th, and 95th percentiles and histogram inhomogeneity, kurtosis, and skewness for all lesions. Thirty-three low-grade and 13 high-grade clear cell RCCs were found at pathologic examination. The TNM classification and tumor volume of clear cell RCC significantly correlated with histogram ADC and R2* (ρ = -0.317 to 0.506; p histogram ADC and R2* indexes, 10th percentile ADC had the highest accuracy (91.3%) in discriminating low- from high-grade clear cell RCC. R2* in discriminating hemorrhage was achieved with a threshold of 68.95 Hz. At this threshold, high-grade clear cell RCC had a significantly higher prevalence of intratumor hemorrhage (high-grade, 76.9%; low-grade, 45.4%; p Histogram analysis of ADC and R2* allows differentiation of low- from high-grade clear cell RCC with high accuracy.

  3. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Dowd

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending research findings by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn (1991, this article presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Pressures on grading practices are modeled using higher education production functions.

  4. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Alicia C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Extends research by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn. Models pressures on grading practices using higher education production functions. (Author/SLD)

  5. Illusions of a Good Grade: Effort or Luck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckelew, Susan P.; Byrd, Nikki; Key, Colin W.; Thornton, Jessica; Merwin, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among the accuracy of grade predictions, actual grades, self-enhancement bias, and attributions about academic performance. As a group, students anticipated higher grades than were earned. Individual differences in self-enhancement bias were measured using the discrepancy between anticipated and attained…

  6. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  7. Synovial sarcoma of the extremities: prognostic factors for 20 nonmetastatic cases and a new histologic grading system with prognostic significance Sarcoma sinovial das extremidades: fatores de prognóstico em 20 casos não-metastáticos e um novo sistema de graduação histológica com significado prognóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mathias Baptista

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate 20 cases of nonmetastatic synovial sarcoma of the extremities regarding prognostic factors, and to propose a histologic grading system with prognostic significance. METHODS: The cases of 20 patients (14 females and 6 males with nonmetastatic synovial sarcomas of the extremities treated between 1985 and 1998, were retrospectively evaluated regarding prognostic factors. A histologic grading system with prognostic significance is proposed. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 48.4 months (range, 16-116 months. There was local recurrence in 3 cases (15%, microscopic surgical margin being the only prognostic factor identified. Seven patients (35% died of the disease in a mean postoperative period of 31.7 months (range, 16-53 months, all with pulmonary or brain metastasis. The survival rate was 65% in 48.4 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The unfavorable prognostic factors identified regarding survival were high histologic grade, tumors proximal to the knee or elbow, and spontaneous tumor necrosis over 25%. Local recurrence did not have influence on survival in this study. The presence of mast cells appears to have a positive influence on survival, although statistical significance was not reached (P = 0.07. The oncologic and functional result was good in 6 cases (30%, regular in 7 (35%, and poor in 7 cases (35%.OBJETIVO: Avaliar casos de sarcoma sinovial não-metastático das extremidades no que se refere a fatores prognósticos, e propor um sistema histológico de pontuação com significado prognóstico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Vinte casos (14 do sexo feminino e 6 do sexo masculino de sarcomas sinoviais não-metastáticos das extremidades tratados entre 1985 e 1998 no departamento de Ortopedia foram avaliados retrospectivamente no que se refere a fatores prognósticos e está sendo proposto um sistema de pontuação histológico com significado prognóstico. RESULTADOS: A média dos períodos de acompanhamento foi 48,4 meses (m

  8. SURFACE TREATMENT AND EXAMINATION OF GRADE 2 AND GRADE 5 TITANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface characteristics play an important role in the implant-bone integration that is required for the long-term reliability of dental and orthopedic implants. In this paper, we investigate the effect of acid etching on the mass reduction and roughness of grade 2 and grade 5 Ti under controlled experimental conditions. Three different etching compounds were investigated: 30% HCl, 85% H3PO4 and the compound of 30% (COOH2 × 2H2O and 30% H2O2 in various treatment intervals under controlled temperature. Stereo microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, roughness and weight measurements were carried out on the samples. We found that neither 85% H3PO4 nor the compound of 30% (COOH2 × 2H2O and 30% H2O2 were able to remove the machining marks from the surface of Ti discs in our experimental setting. On the other hand, etching in 30% HCl yielded even surfaces both on Ti grade 2 and 5 discs. We also found that etching at higher temperatures in 30% HCl resulted in significant mass loss.

  9. Effect of pH grade on polymer-gel dosimeter and its brachytherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevacek, V.; Hrbacek, J.; Dvorak, P.; Cechak, T.; Novotny, J.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate impact of pH grade on characteristics of polymer-gel dosimeter and its application in dose distribution verification in brachytherapy. A polymer-gel dosimeter based on radiation induced polymerization and crosslinking of acrylic monomers (acrylic acid, N,N' methylen-bis-acrylamide) was investigated with respect to its pH grade. pH grade of a dosimeter was varied by concentration of natrium hydroxide. Afterwards, dosimeter was split into several samples which were uniformly irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays. The range of doses applied was usually from 0 to 50 Gy with the main interest in region up to 20 Gy. Evaluation of dosimeter dose response was performed using MRI (T2). Dose response curves obtained were evaluated with respect to pH grade as a parameter. In parallel, there was studied temperature resistance (melting temperature) of gels with various pH grade. pH grade modified polymer-gel dosimeter was then used to compare dose distribution calculated with brachytherapy treatment planning system for simple irradiation geometry with Ir-192 HDR source. Additionaly, Monte Carlo calculated data were also included in the brachytherapy study. There was observed effect of pH grade on dose-response curve parameters (slope of linear fit, background response, linear range and maximum measurable dose). In general, the lower pH grade the higher sensitivity. Another positive effect of decreased pH grade is significantly higher maximum measurable dose. Maximum melting temperature of a gel was observed with pH grade between 3.5 and 4. For both higher and lower pH grades the melting temperature was lower. Using pH modified polymer-gel dosimeter simple brachytherapy dose distribution was measured and compared with calculated and Monte Carlo simulated data. There was observed strong dependence of dose-response relationship on pH grade of polymer-gel dosimeter resulting in significant improvement of dosimeter characteristics, namely sensitivity, applicable range of

  10. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  11. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  12. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

    Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

  13. Grading Higher Education: Giving Consumers the Information They Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2010-01-01

    Investing in a college education is a decision of great importance, but also great risk. The complexity of the college choice process and current trends of college graduation and loan default rates indicate that families are struggling with the decision and students are increasingly finding themselves living with the negative consequences of bad…

  14. Grading Practices and Distributions Across Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Torre, Dario M; DeFer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Clerkship evaluation and grading practices vary widely between U.S. medical schools. Grade inflation continues to exist, and grade distribution is likely to be different among U.S. medical schools. Increasing the number of available grades curtails "grade inflation." A national survey of all Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine members was administered in 2011. The authors assessed key aspects of grading. Response rate was 76%. Among clerkship directors (CDs), 61% of respondents agreed that grade inflation existed in the internal medicine clerkship at their school, and 43% believed that it helped students obtain better residency positions. With respect to grading practices, 79% of CDs define specific behaviors needed to achieve each grade, and 36% specify an ideal grade distribution. In addition, 44% have a trained core faculty responsible for evaluating students, 35% describe formal grading meetings, and 39% use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME) scheme. Grading scales were described as follows: 4% utilize a pass/fail system, 13% a 3-tier (e.g., Honors/Pass/Fail), 45% 4-tier, 35% 5-tier, and 4% 6+-tier system. There was a trend to higher grades with more tiers available. Grade inflation continues in the internal medicine clerkship. Almost half of CDs feel that this practice assists students to obtain better residency positions. A minority of programs have a trained core faculty who are responsible for evaluation. About one third have formal grading meetings and use the RIME system; both have been associated with more robust and balanced grading practices. In particular, there is a wide variation between schools in the percentage of students who are awarded the highest grade, which has implications for residency applications. Downstream users of clinical clerkship grades must be fully aware of these variations in grading in order to appropriately judge medical student performance.

  15. The Effects of Accountability on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of a higher education accountability system in Brazil. For each discipline, colleges were assigned a grade that depended on the scores of their students on the ENC, an annual mandatory exam. These grades were then disclosed to the public and colleges were rewarded or penalized based on them. I find that the ENC had…

  16. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  17. Comparison of cartilage thickness with radiologic grade of knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Frigo, Carlo A.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2008-01-01

    To compare joint space width (JSW) measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semi-automated computer algorithm to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading of osteoarthritis (OA). Three hundred and six patients (234 female, 72 male) with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 31-81 years) underwent MRI of their knees with a fast oblique spiral spoiled gradient (SPGR) sequence. A board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist graded the OA of all the patients in accordance with the Kellgren and Lawrence OA scale. A previously validated computer algorithm was used to determine the minimum JSW for both the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Student-Newman-Kuels post-hoc test was used to determine if there were differences in JSW as a function of OA grade. The radiologic grade of OA was inversely associated with the JSW. In the medial compartment the JSW did not change significantly between grade 1 and grade 2, but there was a significant decrease in JSW between grade 0 (normal) and grade 1 and for each OA grade above grade 2. In the lateral compartment no statistical differences were found till grade 2, while grade 3 was found to be statistically different from the previous one. The number of patients with a grade 4 patellofemoral OA was too low for the statistical significance to be assessed. In the patellofemoral joint the JSW did not change significantly until grade 2, while a statistically significant reduction was found for both grade 3 and grade 4. This study showed that an inverse non-linear relationship exists between radiologic grade and JSW. The relationship differs for the tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of cartilage thickness with radiologic grade of knee osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnesi, Filippo [Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Rochester, MN (United States); Polytechnic of Milan, Department of Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Frigo, Carlo A. [Polytechnic of Milan, Department of Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); Kaufman, Kenton R. [Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2008-07-15

    To compare joint space width (JSW) measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semi-automated computer algorithm to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading of osteoarthritis (OA). Three hundred and six patients (234 female, 72 male) with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 31-81 years) underwent MRI of their knees with a fast oblique spiral spoiled gradient (SPGR) sequence. A board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist graded the OA of all the patients in accordance with the Kellgren and Lawrence OA scale. A previously validated computer algorithm was used to determine the minimum JSW for both the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Student-Newman-Kuels post-hoc test was used to determine if there were differences in JSW as a function of OA grade. The radiologic grade of OA was inversely associated with the JSW. In the medial compartment the JSW did not change significantly between grade 1 and grade 2, but there was a significant decrease in JSW between grade 0 (normal) and grade 1 and for each OA grade above grade 2. In the lateral compartment no statistical differences were found till grade 2, while grade 3 was found to be statistically different from the previous one. The number of patients with a grade 4 patellofemoral OA was too low for the statistical significance to be assessed. In the patellofemoral joint the JSW did not change significantly until grade 2, while a statistically significant reduction was found for both grade 3 and grade 4. This study showed that an inverse non-linear relationship exists between radiologic grade and JSW. The relationship differs for the tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)

  19. Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Henderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP. It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.Methods: A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Results: Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33% had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P = 0.02. Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35 and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28. One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Conclusion: Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias. Further research is needed to

  20. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  1. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  2. WHAT INFLUENCES STUDENTS' EXPECTATIONS IN WHAT REGARDS GRADES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Codruta

    2013-07-01

    difficulty of the evaluation method becomes significant, while from the rest of the variables only the proportion of knowledge acquirement still holds. The final conclusion is as expected: the higher the proportion of acquirement, the higher the grade expected at the end of the semester, while the more difficult the evaluation method, the lower the grade.

  3. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  4. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  5. Correlation between 3 T apparent diffusion coefficient values and grading of invasive breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipolla, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.cipolla@yahoo.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santucci, Domiziana; Guerrieri, Daniele; Drudi, Francesco Maria [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Meggiorini, Maria Letizia [Department of Gynaecological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Felice, Carlo de [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Apparent diffusion coefficient is a quantitative parameter which reflects molecular water movement. • Grading is an independent prognostic factor which correlates with other histopathological features. • Apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly different between G1 and G3 classes. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by 3.0 T (3 T) magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varied according to the grading of invasive breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A total of 92 patients with 96 invasive breast cancer lesions were enrolled; all had undergone 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. All lesions were confirmed by histological analysis, and tumor grade was established according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS). MRI included both dynamic contrast-enhanced and DWI sequences, and ADC value was calculated for each lesion. ADC values were compared with NGS classification using the Mann–Whitney U and the Kruskal–Wallis H tests. Grading was considered as a comprehensive prognostic factor, and Rho Spearman test was performed to determine correlation between grading and tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. Pearson's Chi square test was carried out to compare grading with the other prognostic factors. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in G1 than in G3 tumors. No significant difference was observed when G1 and G3 were compared with G2. Tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index correlated significantly with grading but there was a significant difference only between G1 and G3 related to the ER and PR status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. There was no statistically significant difference in lesion size between the two groups. Conclusion: ADC values obtained on 3 T DWI correlated with low-grade (G1) and high-grade (G3) invasive breast carcinoma. 3

  6. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  7. Preparation and Fatigue Properties of Functionally Graded Cemented Carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Fengxiao; Liaw, Peter K.; He Yuehui

    2008-01-01

    Cemented carbides with a functionally graded structure have significantly improved mechanical properties and lifetimes in cutting, drilling and molding. In this work, WC-6 wt.% Co cemented carbides with three-layer graded structure (surface layer rich in WC, mid layer rich in Co and the inner part of the average composition) were prepared by carburizing pre-sintered η-phase-containing cemented carbides. The three-point bending fatigue tests based on the total-life approach were conducted on both WC-6wt%Co functionally graded cemented carbides (FGCC) and conventional WC-6wt%Co cemented carbides. The functionally graded cemented carbide shows a slightly higher fatigue limit (∼100 MPa) than the conventional ones under the present testing conditions. However, the fatigue crack nucleation behavior of FGCC is different from that of the conventional ones. The crack nucleates preferentially along the Co-gradient and perpendicular to the tension surface in FGCC, while parallel to the tension surface in conventional cemented carbides

  8. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  9. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  10. Higher Toda brackets and Massey products

    OpenAIRE

    Baues, Hans-Joachim; Blanc, David; Gondhali, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    We provide a uniform definition of higher order Toda brackets in a general setting, covering the known cases of long Toda brackets for topological spaces and chain complexes and Massey products for differential graded algebras, among others.

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the assessment of tumor grade and prediction of tumor recurrence in intracranial meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Park, Sung-Hye [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Mi; Paeng, Jin Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in detecting high-grade meningioma and predicting the recurrence in patients with meningioma after surgical resection. Fifty-nine patients (27 men and 32 women) with intracranial meningioma who underwent preoperative FDG PET and subsequent surgical resection were enrolled. All patients underwent clinical follow-up for tumor recurrence with a mean duration of 34{+-}20 months. The tumor to gray matter ratio (TGR) of FDG uptake was calculated and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the TGR was drawn to determine the cutoff value of the TGR for detection of high-grade meningioma. Further, univariate analysis with the log-rank test was performed to assess the predictive factors of meningioma recurrence. The TGR in high-grade meningioma (WHO grade II and III) was significantly higher than that in low-grade ones (WHO grade I) (p=0.002) and significantly correlated with the MIB-1 labeling index (r=0.338, p=0.009) and mitotic count of the tumor (r=0.284, p=0.03). The ROC analysis revealed that the TGR of 1.0 was the best cutoff value for detecting high-grade meningioma with a sensitivity of 43%, specificity of 95%, and accuracy of 81%. Of 59 patients, 5 (9%) had a recurrent event. In the log-rank test, the TGR, MIB-1 labeling index, presence of brain invasion, and WHO grade were significantly associated with tumor recurrence. The cumulative recurrence-free survival rate of patients with a TGR of 1.0 or less was significantly higher than that of patients with a TGR of more than 1.0 (p=0.0003) FDG uptake in meningioma was the significant predictive factor of tumor recurrence and significantly correlated with the proliferative potential of the tumor. (orig.)

  12. Grading options for western hemlock "pulpwood" logs from southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald; John Dramm; Kenneth Kilborn

    Properties and grade yield are estimated for structural lumber produced from No. 3, No. 4, and low-end No. 2 grade western hemlock logs of the type previously used primarily for the production of pulp chips. Estimates are given for production in the Structural Framing, Machine Stress Rating, and Laminating Stock grading systems. The information shows that significant...

  13. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  14. Determination of sieve grading curves using an optical device

    OpenAIRE

    PHAM, AM; DESCANTES, Yannick; DE LARRARD, François

    2011-01-01

    The grading curve of an aggregate is a fundamental characteristic for mix design that can easily be modified to adjust several mix properties. While sieve analysis remains the reference method to determine this curve, optical devices are developing, allowing easier and faster assessment of aggregate grading. Unfortunately, optical grading results significantly differ from sieve grading curves. As a consequence, getting full acceptance of these new methods requires building bridges between the...

  15. Industrial grade versus scientific pure: Influence on melt properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, I.; Hembree, W.; Yang, F.; Busch, R.; Meyer, A.

    2018-04-01

    Viscosity, density, and the undercooling ability of the Zr-based bulk glass forming melt, which was manufactured in two different degrees of purity, have been studied. Investigations have been carried out by means of Couette rheometry and electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation with the latter under microgravity conditions. We found that oxygen and impurities present in industrial grade metals do not significantly alter the melt viscosity and density, while they clearly affect the undercooling ability. Comparing container based and containerless results showed that Couette rheometry can be applied in the temperature range between 1150 K and 1375 K, where it provides reliable data, but only at a rather low oxygen content. Higher oxygen contents, as in the case of the industrial grade alloy, cause measurement artefacts. In the case of Zr59.3Cu28.8Al10.4Nb1.5 alloys, these findings allow a better localization of the key factors dominating the glass forming ability.

  16. Predictive Power of Primary and Secondary School Success Criterion on Transition to Higher Education Examination Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla ÖZDEMİR; Selahattin GELBAL

    2016-01-01

    It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to u...

  17. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  18. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  19. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  20. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  1. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  2. In the assessment of supratentorial glioma grade: The combined role of multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Q.-G. [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu, H.-B., E-mail: xuhaibo1120@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, F.; Guo, W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Kong, X.-C. [Department of Imaging technology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wu, Y. [Department of Maternal and Child Health Care, Public Health School, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Aim: To detect a difference in the parameters derived from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between low-grade and high-grade gliomas, and to evaluate whether the combination of these two techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supratentorial glioma grading. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically proved supratentorial brain gliomas (12 low grade, 18 high grade) were prospectively evaluated with contrast material-enhanced MRI, DTI, and multivoxel {sup 1}H-MRS (135 ms echo time). The tumour grades determined using the three methods were then compared with those obtained at histopathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimum thresholds for glioma grading. Independent sample t-test, Spearman's rank correlation, and the Fisher's exact test were also carried out for statistical analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the low-grade and high-grade gliomas for the choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr, NAA/Cho ratio in the tumours (p < 0.01), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (p < 0.01), and fractional anisotropy (FA) value (p < 0.05) in the tumours. The NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios and the calculated ADC value significantly correlated with the histological grading of the gliomas (p < 0.01). Using a threshold value of 0.66 for tumour NAA/Cr, 0.265 for NAA/Cho, 1118.1 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s for the calculated ADC value, corresponding to the maximum Youden index from the ROC curve of the above-selected parameters, the resultant sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Kappa values were all higher and the fraction of misclassified tumour was lower when compared with conventional MRI. However, only NAA/Cho and

  3. Outerbridge Grade IV Cartilage Lesions in the Hip Identified at Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Nowak, Douglas D; Briggs, Karen K; Patterson, Diana C; Philippon, Marc J

    2016-05-01

    To determine factors associated with grade IV cartilage defects in the hip in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy with joint pain. Data from consecutive patients who underwent hip arthroscopy performed by a single surgeon over a period of 4 years were included in this study. The study group included 1,097 patients (491 women and 606 men; mean age, 37 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy for pain, had no prior hip surgery, and were aged 18 years or older. Preoperative radiographs, patient demographic characteristics, and operative details were used to identify risk factors for cartilage defects. Grade IV chondral defects were present in 308 of 1,097 hips (28%). Isolated chondral lesions were more frequently observed on the acetabulum (76%) than on the femoral head (24%). Defects of the acetabulum were more commonly anterosuperior (94.7%) and less commonly posterolateral (5.3%). Patients with less than 2 mm of joint space on preoperative radiographs were 8 times more likely to have a grade IV lesion than those with more than 2 mm. Men were more likely than women to have grade IV lesions (35% v 19%, P = .0001); patients with grade IV lesions were older than those without (42 years v 34 years, P = .0001). Hips with grade IV lesions had significantly higher alpha angles than those without (74° v 70°, P = .0001). Patients with grade IV defects reported a longer duration of symptoms than those without (37 months v 27 months, P = .007). Independent risk factors for the presence of grade IV chondral defects were less than 2 mm of joint space, male gender, increasing age, larger alpha angle, and longer duration of symptoms. Grade IV chondral defects in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were associated with decreased joint space, increased time from symptom onset to arthroscopy, male gender, and larger alpha angles associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Level IV, prognostic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  4. Working memory and individual differences in mathematics achievement: A longitudinal study from first grade to second grade

    OpenAIRE

    De Smedt, Bert; Janssen, Rianne; Bouwens, Kelly; Verschaffel, Lieven; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between working memory and individual differences in mathematics. Working memory measures, comprising the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive, were administered at the start of first grade. Mathematics achievement was assessed 4 months later (at the middle of first grade) and 1 year later (at the start of second grade). Working memory was significantly related to mathematics achievement in both grades, show...

  5. Automated Processing of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: Correlation of Advanced Pharmacokinetic Metrics with Tumor Grade in Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajapeyam, S; Stamoulis, C; Ricci, K; Kieran, M; Poussaint, T Young

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging have proved useful for differentiating brain tumor grades in adults. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion data from children with newly diagnosed brain tumors and analyzed the pharmacokinetic parameters correlating with tumor grade. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging data from 38 patients were analyzed by using commercially available software. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups based on pathologic analyses consisting of low-grade (World Health Organization I and II) and high-grade (World Health Organization III and IV) tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the 2 groups by using linear regression models. For parameters that were statistically distinct between the 2 groups, sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Eighteen tumors were classified as low-grade, and 20, as high-grade. Transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant from extracellular extravascular space back into blood plasma (K ep ), and extracellular extravascular volume fraction (V e ) were all significantly correlated with tumor grade; high-grade tumors showed higher K trans , higher K ep , and lower V e . Although all 3 parameters had high specificity (range, 82%-100%), K ep had the highest specificity for both grades. Optimal sensitivity was achieved for V e , with a combined sensitivity of 76% (compared with 71% for K trans and K ep ). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can effectively discriminate low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Characterizing the adoption of low-grade hardwood lumber by the secondary wood processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Wibke Pohle; Philip Araman; Dan Cumbo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of low-grade lumber in the secondary hardwood industry. Factors influencing decisions regarding the utilization of low-grade lumber were identified and value-added opportunities to increase the use of low-grade lumber among manufacturers currently using higher grades were evaluated. Data were collected via a nationwide mail survey...

  7. Raising the Bar: A Data-Driven Discussion on Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The practice of handing out excellent grades to students who don't deserve them (grade inflation) is not a new phenomenon. Indeed grade inflation is among the oldest and most difficult issues to address in higher education. The author first studied the impact of grade inflation on student performance on standardized tests at the high school level…

  8. Autonomy and Task Performance: Explaining the Impact of Grades on Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulfrey, Caroline; Darnon, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The use of grades to motivate constitutes an unresolved theoretical controversy. In 2 experiments carried out with different age groups and academic tracks, a standard-grade condition was compared with a condition in which differential scoring engendered higher grades and with a no-grade condition. The relative power of task performance and task…

  9. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students, Controlling for Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Spirit, Stephanie; Jones, Kirk E.

    1999-01-01

    Compared grade inflation rates among students of different abilities at an open-admissions public university by examining trends in graduating grade point average from 1983 to 1996. The higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students. (SLD)

  10. The diagnostic value of high-frequency power-based diffusion-weighted imaging in prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye; Liu, Mengqi [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sanya (China); Zhou, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lv, Bin [Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT, Beijing (China); Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gui, Qiuping [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency power (HFP) compared with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (MinADC) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data were acquired on 115 patients by a 3.0-T MRI system, which included b0 images and b1000 images over the whole brain in each patient. The HFP values and MinADC values were calculated by an in-house script written on the MATLAB platform. There was a significant difference among each group excluding grade I (G1) vs. grade II (G2) (P = 0.309) for HFP and among each group for MinADC. ROC analysis showed a higher discriminative accuracy between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) for HFP with area under the curve (AUC) value 1 compared with that for MinADC with AUC 0.83 ± 0.04 and also demonstrated a higher discriminative ability among the G1-grade IV (G4) group for HFP compared with that for MinADC except G1 vs. G2. HFP could provide a simple and effective optimal tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading based on diffusion-weighted images in routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  11. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Extended diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models for differentiation of low-grade and high-grade brain tumors in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrowes, Delilah; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fangusaro, Jason R. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics-Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Chicago, IL (United States); Nelson, Paige C.; Rozenfeld, Michael J. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wadhwani, Nitin R. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) models for differentiation of low- and high-grade tumors in the diagnosis of pediatric brain neoplasms. Sixty-two pediatric patients with various types and grades of brain tumors were evaluated in a retrospective study. Tumor type and grade were classified using the World Health Organization classification (WHO I-IV) and confirmed by pathological analysis. Patients underwent DW-MRI before treatment. Diffusion-weighted images with 16 b-values (0-3500 s/mm{sup 2}) were acquired. Averaged signal intensity decay within solid tumor regions was fitted using two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models. Intracellular and extracellular diffusion coefficients (D{sub slow} and D{sub fast}), fractional volumes (V{sub slow} and V{sub fast}), generalized diffusion coefficient (D), spatial constant (μ), heterogeneity index (β), and a diffusion index (index{sub d}iff = μ x V{sub slow}/β) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models with stepwise model selection algorithm and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of each diffusion parameter to distinguish tumor grade. Among all parameter combinations, D and index{sub d}iff jointly provided the best predictor for tumor grades, where lower D (p = 0.03) and higher index{sub d}iff (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with higher tumor grades. In ROC analyses of differentiating low-grade (I-II) and high-grade (III-IV) tumors, index{sub d}iff provided the highest specificity of 0.97 and D provided the highest sensitivity of 0.96. Multi-parametric diffusion measurements using two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models were found to be significant discriminants of tumor grading in pediatric brain neoplasms. (orig.)

  13. In the assessment of supratentorial glioma grade: The combined role of multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Q.-G.; Xu, H.-B.; Liu, F.; Guo, W.; Kong, X.-C.; Wu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To detect a difference in the parameters derived from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between low-grade and high-grade gliomas, and to evaluate whether the combination of these two techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supratentorial glioma grading. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically proved supratentorial brain gliomas (12 low grade, 18 high grade) were prospectively evaluated with contrast material-enhanced MRI, DTI, and multivoxel 1 H-MRS (135 ms echo time). The tumour grades determined using the three methods were then compared with those obtained at histopathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimum thresholds for glioma grading. Independent sample t-test, Spearman's rank correlation, and the Fisher's exact test were also carried out for statistical analysis. p -6 mm 2 /s for the calculated ADC value, corresponding to the maximum Youden index from the ROC curve of the above-selected parameters, the resultant sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Kappa values were all higher and the fraction of misclassified tumour was lower when compared with conventional MRI. However, only NAA/Cho and ADC calculation contributed to the significant difference (p < 0.01) in the assessment of glioma grade compared to conventional MRI alone, and the grading results of statistical tests comparing those two parameters were highly consistent (kappa value = 0.798). Conclusion: Thresholds for NAA/Cho and calculated ADC values, corresponding to maximum Youden index from ROC curve analyses, helped to improve the accuracy of supratentorial glioma grading when compared with conventional MRI alone. In addition, a combination of NAA/Cho and ADC calculation were more useful together than each alone in a clinical setting to evaluate

  14. Clinical significance of changes of serum expression of IGF-I in patients with astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbo; Ding Dongmei; Yang Fubing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum expression of IGF-I in patients with astrocytoma of different degrees of malignancy as well as the changes of levels after operative removal of the tumor. Methods: Serum IGF-I contents were measured with IRMA in 16 patients with Grade I-II astrocytoma and 14 patients with Grade III-IV astrocytoma both before and after operation as well as in 30 controls. Results: The serum contents of IGF-I in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The levels in Grade III-IV patients were significantly higher than those in Grade I-II patients (P < 0.05 ). After operation, the levels dropped significantly (vs before operation, P<0.05). Conclusion: The serum contents of IGF - I in patients with astrocytoma were positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. Post-operative decrease of IGF-I contents was related to the decrease of tumor burden. (authors)

  15. Diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient value in prediction of grade for neuroepithelial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiye; Ma Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ADC value in grading of neuroepithelial tumors. Methods: The clinical data and images of 70 patients with neuroepithelial tumors pathologically proven were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were classified into low (WHO I or II) and high (WHO III or IV) grade groups which included 40 and 30 cases respectively according to the 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. All the patients underwent plain and contrast-enhanced MR scan and DWI before surgery. The minimum ADC (MinADC) value was measured postoperatively on ADC maps. The Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) of tumor tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. MinADC values for two groups were analyzed using student t test, while the age and Ki-67 LI for the two groups was analyzed using Mann-Whitney test (P -3 mm 2 /s] of the low grade group was significantly higher than that [(0.74±0.18) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s] of the high grade group (t=5.42, P -3 mm 2 /s for the differentiation between high and low grade neuroepithelial tumors provided the best combination of sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (77.5%) (receiver operating characteristic analysis). Conclusion: MinADC value is helpful for prediction of neuroepithelial tumor grade.. (authors)

  16. A longitudinal study of school connectedness and academic outcomes across sixth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students attending two middle schools in a large public school district. Specifically, students completed a survey to assess their perceived connection to the school environment, and academic information regarding students' grades, attendance, and discipline referrals was obtained from school records. Results from latent growth curve modeling showed that, on average, students' perceptions of school support declined significantly across the sixth-grade year. However, students who reported less decline, or growth, in school support across sixth grade had higher academic achievement at the end of the year than students who reported more decline in school support. Sixth-grade boys were at a greater risk for negative outcomes (i.e., lower school support, lower GPAs, and more discipline referrals) across the school year than girls. Results point to the importance of perceived connectedness to school in helping economically disadvantaged students experience a safe and successful transition to middle school. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  17. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  18. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  19. Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    curves from the 16-class diffusion tensor-based clustered images that showed the best performance for differentiating high- and low-grade gliomas were 0.848, 0.745, 0.804 and 0.912, respectively. Furthermore, the log-ratio value of each class of the 16-class diffusion tensor-based clustered images was compared between low- and high-grade gliomas, and the log-ratio values of classes 14, 15 and 16 in the high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than those in the low-grade gliomas (p tensor imaging-based parameters. The results suggest that the multiple diffusion tensor imaging-based parameters from the voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered images can help differentiate between low- and high-grade gliomas.

  20. Just as smart but not as successful: obese students obtain lower school grades but equivalent test scores to nonobese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, C; Roberts, R D

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized nations has important implications for education, as research demonstrates lower academic achievement among obese students. The current paper compares the test scores and school grades of obese, overweight and normal-weight students in secondary and further education, controlling for demographic variables, personality, ability and well-being confounds. This study included 383 eighth-grade students (49% female; study 1) and 1036 students from 24 community colleges and universities (64% female, study 2), both drawn from five regions across the United States. In study 1, body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reports and parent reports of weight and height. In study 2, BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height only. Both samples completed age-appropriate assessments of mathematics, vocabulary and the personality trait conscientiousness. Eighth-grade students additionally completed a measure of life satisfaction, with both self-reports and parent reports of their grades from the previous semester also obtained. Higher education students additionally completed measures of positive and negative affect, and self-reported their grades and college entrance scores. Obese students receive significantly lower grades in middle school (d=0.83), community college (d=0.34) and university (d=0.36), but show no statistically significant differences in intelligence or achievement test scores. Even after controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, personality and well-being, obese students obtain significantly lower grades than normal-weight students in the eighth grade (d=0.39), community college (d=0.42) and university (d=0.31). Lower grades may reflect peer and teacher prejudice against overweight and obese students rather than lack of ability among these students.

  1. Extending quantum efficiency roll-over threshold with compositionally graded InGaN/GaN LED

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan; Ng, Tien Khee; Janjua, Bilal; Shen, Chao; Eid, Jessica; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a significant improvement in the electrical characteristic of compositionally graded InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQWs) micro-LED. The efficiency droop in this device occurred at ∼20 times higher injection levels (∼275 A/cm2) compared to a conventional step-MQWs microLED (∼14 A/cm2).

  2. Extending quantum efficiency roll-over threshold with compositionally graded InGaN/GaN LED

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2014-12-01

    We report a significant improvement in the electrical characteristic of compositionally graded InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQWs) micro-LED. The efficiency droop in this device occurred at ∼20 times higher injection levels (∼275 A/cm2) compared to a conventional step-MQWs microLED (∼14 A/cm2).

  3. Graded-Lie-algebra cohomology and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, R.; Fre, P.; Regge, T.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed explanations of the cohomology invoked in the group-manifold approach to supergravity is given. The Chevalley cohomology theory of Lie algebras is extended to graded Lie algebras. The scheme of geometrical theories is enlarged so to include cosmological terms and higher powers of the curvature. (author)

  4. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  5. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  6. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  7. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  8. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  9. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  10. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  11. Steroid treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease grade I: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Milone, Giuseppe; Cupri, Alessandra; Severino, Antonio; Fagioli, Franca; Berger, Massimo; Santarone, Stella; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Sica, Simona; Mammoliti, Sonia; Sorasio, Roberto; Massi, Daniela; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Selleri, Carmine; Sormani, Maria Pia; Signori, Alessio; Risitano, Antonio; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    Patients with acute graft- versus -host disease (GvHD) grade I were randomized to an observation arm (n=85) or to a treatment arm (n=86) consisting of 6-methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, after stratification for age and donor type. The primary end point was development of grade II-IV GvHD. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV GvHD was 50% in the observation arm and 33% in the treatment arm ( P =0.005). However, grade III-IV GvHD was comparable (13% vs 10%, respectively; P =0.6), and this was true for sibling and alternative donor transplants. Moderate/severe chronic GvHD was also comparable (17% vs 9%). In multivariate analysis, an early interval between transplant and randomization (grade III-IV GvHD. Patients in the observation arm had less infectious bacterial episodes (12 vs 25; P =0.04), less severe infectious fungal episodes (0 vs 3; P =0.04), and less severe adverse events (3 vs 11; P =0.07). At five years, non-relapse mortality was 20% versus 26% ( P =0.2), relapse-related mortality 25% versus 21%, and actuarial survival was 51% versus 41% ( P =0.3) in the observation and treatment arms, respectively. In multivariate analysis, advanced disease phase, older age and an early onset of GvHD were significant negative predictors of survival, independent of the randomization arm. In conclusion, steroid treatment of acute grade I GvHD prevents progression to grade II but not to grade III-IV GvHD, and there is no effect on non-relapse mortality and survival. Patients treated with steroids are at a higher risk of developing infections and have more adverse events. ( Trial registered as EUDTRACT 2008-000413-29 ). Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Nutritional composition of different grades of edible bird's nest and its enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Hidayati Syamimi Mohd; Babji, Abdul Salam; Lim, Seng Joe

    2018-04-01

    Edible bird nest (EBN) is a powerful and nutritious food usually consumed by the Chinese Community and it is considered among the most expensive animal products which are made up by salivation of swiftlets (Aerodramus fuciphagus). The other 5% to 10% are made up of foreign matters such as feathers, faecal matter and dirt. The EBN is graded based on its aesthetics as well as its cleaning processes. The aim of this study were to determine and compare EBN of different grades (A, B, C, D) in terms of proximate composition and amino acid profile, and next to enzymatically hydrolyse and determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the recovery percentage of EBN hydrolysates. The enzymatic hydrolysis were performed as an alternative cleaning process of the various grades of EBN, where the glycoproteins were hydrolysed to glycopeptides, making them soluble and leaving behind other insoluble impurities. The results in this study showed that EBN contained high crude protein content: 60.59% (EBNA), 59.50% (EBNB), 54.29% (EBNC) and 56.57% (EBND). Lower grade EBNs (EBNC and EBND) has much higher ash content, i.e. impurities, compared to higher grade EBNs (EBNA and EBNB). In terms of amino acid profile, EBND showed the highest total amino acids compared to EBNA, EBNB and EBNC, with serine and aspartic acid being the main amino acids. Treating the EBN with alcalase for 1.0 - 4.0 hours produced hydrolysates with different degree of hydrolysis (DH), ranging from 10.83 %DH (EBNA) to 13.79 %DH (EBNC). The recovery of EBN after enzymatic hydrolysis range from 89 % (EBNB) to 99% (EBNA). Overall, results showed nutritional composition and amino acid profile of EBN of various grades were significantly different in its nutritional quality, while the enzymatic hydrolysis has successfully separated the impurities from the lower grades EBN.

  13. The histogram analysis of diffusion-weighted intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging for differentiating the gleason grade of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Wang, Qing; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for discriminating the Gleason grade of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 48 patients pathologically confirmed as having clinically significant PCa (size > 0.5 cm) underwent preoperative DW-MRI (b of 0-900 s/mm(2)). Data was post-processed by monoexponential and IVIM model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D and pseudo-diffusivity D*. Histogram analysis was performed by outlining entire-tumour regions of interest (ROIs) from histological-radiological correlation. The ability of imaging indices to differentiate low-grade (LG, Gleason score (GS) ≤6) from intermediate/high-grade (HG, GS > 6) PCa was analysed by ROC regression. Eleven patients had LG tumours (18 foci) and 37 patients had HG tumours (42 foci) on pathology examination. HG tumours had significantly lower ADCs and D in terms of mean, median, 10th and 75th percentiles, combined with higher histogram kurtosis and skewness for ADCs, D and f, than LG PCa (p Histogram D showed relatively higher correlations (ñ = 0.641-0.668 vs. ADCs: 0.544-0.574) with ordinal GS of PCa; and its mean, median and 10th percentile performed better than ADCs did in distinguishing LG from HG PCa. It is feasible to stratify the pathological grade of PCa by IVIM with histogram metrics. D performed better in distinguishing LG from HG tumour than conventional ADCs. • GS had relatively higher correlation with tumour D than ADCs. • Difference of histogram D among two-grade tumours was statistically significant. • D yielded better individual features in demonstrating tumour grade than ADC. • D* and f failed to determine tumour grade of PCa.

  14. Chinese handwriting performance in preterm children in grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Hong, Rong-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Background First graders born prematurely perform poorly on handwriting speed and legibility. However, whether there are specific legibility factors in which preterm children demonstrate difficulty remains unknown. In addition, handwriting performance beyond the first grade and the influence of sex on handwriting performance in preterm children are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of prematurity and sex on multiple dimensions of handwriting in grade two and to identify the contributors to performance. Methods Sixty-three preterm (34 boys and 29 girls) and 67 full-term (27 boys and 40 girls) peers in grade two were included. Class teachers were asked to complete the Chinese Handwriting Evaluation Form. A subgroup of 39 preterm children received assessments on intelligence, visual perception, tactile and kinesthetic sensation, and fine motor skills. Their inattention behavior was rated using a maternal self-report with a behavioral scale. Results Boys born prematurely exhibited poorer performance in the speed dimension than full-term boys (p = 0.008), whereas there was comparable performance in the two groups of girls (p = 0.221). In the dimensions related to legibility, preterm boys (32.4%) had a higher percentage of children with difficulty in the construction dimension than the other groups (preterm girls: 6.9%, full-term boys: 7.4%, full-term girls: 5.0%). However, no group difference was found in the dimensions of accuracy and directionality. Of the sensory-perceptual-motor factors, attention was the most significant predictor of accuracy in performance (p = 0.046) and speed dimensions (p = 0.001) in preterm children. Conclusions Boys appear to be vulnerable to the adverse impacts of preterm birth in terms of performance in the dimensions of speed and construction in grade two. Based on the significant contribution of attention to handwriting performance in preterm children, assessment and intervention in the area of attention is strongly

  15. The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Grade Levels and Subject Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    School effectiveness indices based on regressing achievement test scores onto earlier scores and a socioeconomic status measure were obtained for South Carolina students in grades one to four. Results were unstable across grades, and grade-to-grade correlations were more significant for mathematics achievement than for reading. (Author/GDC)

  16. Initial Comparison of Baseline Physical and Mechanical Properties for the VHTR Candidate Graphite Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Program

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is establishing accurate as-manufactured mechanical and physical property distributions in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding

  17. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jiawen, Zhang; Zhenwei, Yao [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Jinsong, Wu; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ji, Xiong [Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding [Department of Imaging, Suzhou Children' s Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yong, Zhang [MR Research, GE Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Jianfeng, Luo [Fudan University, Department of Biostatistics, Public Health School, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm{sup 2}), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy. (orig.)

  18. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jiawen, Zhang; Zhenwei, Yao; Jinsong, Wu; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu; Ji, Xiong; Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding; Yong, Zhang; Jianfeng, Luo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm 2 ) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm 2 ), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy. (orig.)

  19. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  20. Hormone profiling, WHO 2010 grading, and AJCC/UICC staging in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Emilie; Cheng, Sonia; Mete, Ozgur; Serra, Stefano; Araujo, Paula B; Temple, Sara; Cleary, Sean; Gallinger, Steven; Greig, Paul D; McGilvray, Ian; Wei, Alice; Asa, Sylvia L; Ezzat, Shereen

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms, exhibiting a complex spectrum of clinical behaviors. To examine the clinico-pathological characteristics associated with long-term prognosis we reviewed 119 patients with pNETs treated in a tertiary referral center using the WHO 2010 grading and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging systems, with a median follow-up of 38 months. Tumor size, immunohistochemistry (IHC) profiling and patient characteristics-determining stage were analyzed. Primary clinical outcomes were disease progression or death. The mean age at presentation was 52 years; 55% were female patients, 11% were associated with MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) or VHL (Von Hippel–Lindau); mean tumor diameter was 3.3 cm (standard deviation, SD) (2.92). The clinical presentation was incidental in 39% with endocrine hypersecretion syndromes in only 24% of cases. Nevertheless, endocrine hormone tissue immunoreactivity was identified in 67 (56.3%) cases. According to WHO 2010 grading, 50 (42%), 38 (31.9%), and 3 (2.5%) of tumors were low grade (G1), intermediate grade (G2), and high grade (G3), respectively. Disease progression occurred more frequently in higher WHO grades (G1: 6%, G2: 10.5%, G3: 67%, P = 0.026) and in more advanced AJCC stages (I: 2%, IV: 63%, P = 0.033). Shorter progression free survival (PFS) was noted in higher grades (G3 vs. G2; 21 vs. 144 months; P = 0.015) and in more advanced AJCC stages (stage I: 218 months, IV: 24 months, P < 0.001). Liver involvement (20 vs. 173 months, P < 0.001) or histologically positive lymph nodes (33 vs. 208 months, P < 0.001) were independently associated with shorter PFS. Conversely, tissue endocrine hormone immunoreactivity, independent of circulating levels was significantly associated with less aggressive disease. Age, gender, number of primary tumors, and heredity were not significantly associated with

  1. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  2. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  3. Relationships of nuclear, architectural and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading systems in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptaş, Tayfun; Peştereli, Elif; Bozkurt, Selen; Erdoğan, Gülgün; Şimşek, Tayup

    2018-03-01

    To examine correlations among nuclear, architectural, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading systems, and their relationships with lymph node (LN) involvement in endometrioid endometrial cancer. Histopathology slides of 135 consecutive patients were reviewed with respect to tumor grade and LN metastasis. Notable nuclear atypia was defined as grade 3 nuclei. FIGO grade was established by raising the architectural grade (AG) by one grade when the tumor was composed of cells with nuclear grade (NG) 3. Correlations between the grading systems were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, and relationships of grading systems with LN involvement were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Correlation analysis revealed a significant and strongly positive relationship between FIGO and architectural grading systems (r=0.885, p=0.001); however, correlations of nuclear grading with the architectural (r=0.535, p=0.165) and FIGO grading systems (r=0.589, p=0.082) were moderate and statistically non-significant. Twenty-five (18.5%) patients had LN metastasis. LN involvement rates differed significantly between tumors with AG 1 and those with AG 2, and tumors with FIGO grade 1 and those with FIGO grade 2. In contrast, although the difference in LN involvement rates failed to reach statistical significance between tumors with NG 1 and those with NG 2, it was significant between NG 2 and NG 3 (p=0.042). Although all three grading systems were associated with LN involvement in univariate analyses, an independent relationship could not be established after adjustment for other confounders in multivariate analysis. Nuclear grading is significantly correlated with neither architectural nor FIGO grading systems. The differences in LN involvement rates in the nuclear grading system reach significance only in the setting of tumor cells with NG 3; however, none of the grading systems was an independent predictor of LN involvement.

  4. Expression and significance of MMP3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Huang, Jie-Feng; Du, Wen-Xi; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the expression and significance of MMP-3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Knee synovial tissue were collected in 90 OA patients (the OA group). Patients in the OA group was divided into 3 subgroups: grade I subgroup (n=30), grade II subgroup (n=30), grade III; subgroup (n=30). Thirty patients served as control group. Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of MMP-3 protein in the knee synovial tissue. MMP-3 protein was detected in all knee synovial tissue. The expression of MMP-3 protein in the OA group was significantly higher that in the normal synovium (Posteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. How to pass higher French for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Get your best grade with this guide to Higher French for CfE. We are working with SQA to gain endorsement for this title. This book contains all the advice and support you need to revise successfully for your Higher (for CfE) exam. It combines an overview of the course syllabus with advice from a top expert on how to improve exam performance, so you have the best chance of success. - Refresh your knowledge with complete course notes - Prepare for the exam with top tips and hints on revision techniques - Get your best grade with advice on how to gain those vital extra marks

  6. Data analysis of grade crossing incidents : research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Incidents and fatalities at highway-rail grade crossing in the United States have declined significantly over the past two decades despite a significant increase in both train and vehicle traffic. Therefore, to provide a more realistic comparison of ...

  7. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  8. Correlation of quinone reductase activity and allyl isothiocyanate formation among different genotypes and grades of horseradish roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A; Kushad, Mosbah M

    2015-03-25

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its ground root tissue is used in condiments because of the pungency of the glucosinolate (GS)-hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) derived from sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, respectively. Horseradish roots are sold in three grades: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 2 according to the USDA standards. These grading standards are primarily based on root diameter and length. There is little information on whether root grades vary in their phytochemical content or potential health promoting properties. This study measured GS, GS-hydrolysis products, potential anticancer activity (as quinone reductase inducing activity), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities from different grades of horseradish accessions. U.S. Fancy showed significantly higher sinigrin and AITC concentrations than U.S. No. 1 ,whereas U.S. No. 1 showed significantly higher concentrations of 1-cyano 2,3-epithiopropane, the epithionitrile hydrolysis product of sinigrin, and significantly higher total phenolic concentrations than U.S. Fancy.

  9. Rotating Scheimpflug Imaging Indices in Different Grades of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine S. Wahba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate accuracy of various Keratoconus (KC screening indices, in relation to Topographic Keratoconus (TKC grading. Setting. Al Watany Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Methods. Data of 103 normal (group 1 and 73 KC eyes (group 2, imaged by Pentacam (branded as Allegro Oculyzer, were analysed. Group 2 was divided into 2a: 14 eyes (TKC = 1, early KC, 2b: 25 eyes (TKC = 1 to 2 or 2, moderate KC, and 2c: 34 eyes (TKC = 2 to 3 up to 4, severe KC. Participants were followed up for six years to confirm diagnosis. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was calculated for evaluated curvature, elevation, and pachymetry indices with various reference shapes at different diameters. Results. When comparing normal to KC eyes, ten indices had significantly higher AUROC. Only five of them had significantly higher AUROC in early KC compared to normal corneas: Pachymetry Progression Index- (PPI- Maximum (Max, Ambrósio’s Relational Thickness- (ART- Max, PPI-Max minus PPI-Minimum (Min, central corneal thickness (CCT, and diagonal decentration of thinnest point from the apex (AUROC = 0.690, 0.690, 0.687, 0.683, and 0.674, resp.. Conclusion. Generally, ten pachymetry and elevation-based indices had significantly higher AUROC. Five indices had statistically significant high AUROC when comparing early KC to normal corneas.

  10. Efficacy of a Word- and Text-Based Intervention for Students With Significant Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Garrett J; Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

    2018-05-01

    We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment condition ( n = 141). Treatment students were provided small-group tutoring for 30 to 45 minutes for an average of 68 lessons (mean hours of instruction = 44.4, SD = 11.2). Treatment students performed statistically significantly higher than BAU students on a word reading measure (effect size [ES] = 0. 58) and a measure of reading fluency (ES = 0.46). Though not statistically significant, effect sizes for students in the treatment condition were consistently higher than BAU students for decoding measures (ES = 0.06, 0.08), and mixed for comprehension (ES = -0.02, 0.14).

  11. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  12. Risk score predicts high-grade prostate cancer in DNA-methylation positive, histopathologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Partin, Alan W; Stewart, Grant D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Harrison, David J; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is challenging because efforts for effective, timely treatment of men with significant cancer typically result in over-diagnosis and repeat biopsies. The presence or absence of epigenetic aberrations, more specifically DNA-methylation of GSTP1, RASSF1, and APC in histopathologically negative prostate core biopsies has resulted in an increased negative predictive value (NPV) of ∼90% and thus could lead to a reduction of unnecessary repeat biopsies. Here, it is investigated whether, in methylation-positive men, DNA-methylation intensities could help to identify those men harboring high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa, resulting in an improved positive predictive value. Two cohorts, consisting of men with histopathologically negative index biopsies, followed by a positive or negative repeat biopsy, were combined. EpiScore, a methylation intensity algorithm was developed in methylation-positive men, using area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic as metric for performance. Next, a risk score was developed combining EpiScore with traditional clinical risk factors to further improve the identification of high-grade (Gleason Score ≥7) cancer. Compared to other risk factors, detection of DNA-methylation in histopathologically negative biopsies was the most significant and important predictor of high-grade cancer, resulting in a NPV of 96%. In methylation-positive men, EpiScore was significantly higher for those with high-grade cancer detected upon repeat biopsy, compared to those with either no or low-grade cancer. The risk score resulted in further improvement of patient risk stratification and was a significantly better predictor compared to currently used metrics as PSA and the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) risk calculator (RC). A decision curve analysis indicated strong clinical utility for the risk score as decision-making tool for repeat biopsy. Low DNA-methylation levels in PCa-negative biopsies led

  13. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references

  14. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  15. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  16. Factors influencing medical informatics examination grade--can biorhythm, astrological sign, seasonal aspect, or bad statistics predict outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovecki, Mladen; Rahelić, Dario; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Jelec, Vjekoslav

    2003-02-01

    To investigate whether and to what extent various parameters, such as individual characteristics, computer habits, situational factors, and pseudoscientific variables, influence Medical Informatics examination grade, and how inadequate statistical analysis can lead to wrong conclusions. The study included a total of 382 second-year undergraduate students at the Rijeka University School of Medicine in the period from 1996/97 to 2000/01 academic year. After passing the Medical Informatics exam, students filled out an anonymous questionnaire about their attitude toward learning medical informatics. They were asked to grade the course organization and curriculum content, and provide their date of birth; sex; study year; high school grades; Medical Informatics examination grade, type, and term; and describe their computer habits. From these data, we determined their zodiac signs and biorhythm. Data were compared by the use of t-test, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's honest significance difference test, and randomized complete block design ANOVA. Out of 21 variables analyzed, only 10 correlated with the average grade. Students taking Medical Informatics examination in the 1998/99 academic year earned lower average grade than any other generation. Significantly higher Medical Informatics exam grade was earned by students who finished a grammar high school; owned and regularly used a computer, Internet, and e-mail (pzodiac sign, zodiac sign quality, or biorhythm cycles, except when intentionally inadequate statistics was used for data analysis. Medical Informatics examination grades correlated with general learning capacity and computer habits of students, but showed no relation to other investigated parameters, such as examination term or pseudoscientific parameters. Inadequate statistical analysis can always confirm false conclusions.

  17. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012--Analysis of grading to test quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickler, Angela; Brüstle, Peter; Biller, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC) and the other teaching hospitals could be found. In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time. The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315). The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (Landesprüfungsamt). The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of "very good" less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165). This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before. The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training.

  18. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuewei; Yuan Zhihao

    2010-01-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  19. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Wei; Yuan, Zhi Hao

    2010-05-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  20. Evaluating Methods for Evaluating Instruction: The Case of Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Weinberg; Belton M. Fleisher; Masanori Hashimoto

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops an original measure of learning in higher education, based on grades in subsequent courses. Using this measure of learning, this paper shows that student evaluations are positively related to current grades but unrelated to learning once current grades are controlled. It offers evidence that the weak relationship between learning and student evaluations arises, in part, because students are unaware of how much they have learned in a course. The paper concludes with a discu...

  1. Complementary therapy use and quality of life in persons with high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sherry; Laws, Edward R; Anderson, Frederick; Farace, Elana

    2006-08-01

    Studies have indicated that 30%-80% of cancer patients use complementary and alternative practices and products (CAPPs), but little is known about CAPPs use by persons with brain tumors. This secondary analysis of Glioma Outcomes Project data compared CAPPs users with nonusers, compared those who stopped using CAPPs with those who continued use, described frequency and patterns of CAPPs use, and compared the relationship of CAPPs use to self-reported quality of life (QOL) over time, in 186 persons with high-grade gliomas. CAPPs users at all three measurement points rated QOL higher, although not significantly higher, than nonusers. Study findings support further exploration of CAPPs use and its effects on key outcomes in persons with high-grade gliomas.

  2. Study on Learning Motivation of Higher Vocational Colleges Students in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-ze

    2015-01-01

    Learning motivation occupies an important position in non-intelligence factors,as it plays a pivotal role in university students’ successful completion of their studies and strengthening of professional knowledge base.However,the present university students generally lack motivation in higher education.This research used questionnaire method,which is a questionnaire random sample in 500 students of learning motivation from four comprehensive higher vocational colleges of Tianjin,and explores the sta⁃tus quo of learning motivation in higher vocational students of Tianjin.The result shows:The learning motivation level of higher vocational colleges students is above middle level;Male on the learning motivation total level is significantly higher than female;Rural students in the learning motivation on the aggregate level is significantly higher than that of urban students;Look from the different grades,sophomore students have lowest level of learning motivation;Freshmen learning motivation is at highest level.

  3. Diagnostic efficacy of smear cytology and Robinson’s cytological grading of canine mammary tumors with respect to histopathology, cytomorphometry, metastases and overall survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Gruk-Jurka, Anna; Wojtkowska, Agata; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Jurka, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Cytology is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method used for pre-operative diagnosis of canine mammary tumors (CMTs) in veterinary practice. Studies related to human breast cancer showed the Robinson’s grading system—established for invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC, NOS) and used on cytological material—to not only closely correspond to the histopathological grading but also be helpful in assessing prognosis and selecting most suitable treatments before surgery. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the accuracy of cytological diagnosis and cytological Robinson’s grading system compared to the histopathological examination of CMTs; to compare of cytological features and cytomorphometric parameters with tumor behavior, as well as cytological and histological grading; and to determine an association of the Robinson’s grading system and cytological background details with metastases, and patients’ survival. We report substantial diagnostic accuracy in detecting simple types and high grade tumors. Cytological diagnosis of tumor behavior showed relatively low sensitivity and specificity compared to human studies, and this might be caused by the heterogeneous morphology of CMTs. The presence of mucosecretory material and extracellular matrix was not significantly associated with tumor behavior. We report a positive correlation between both grading systems and cytological features (included in Robinson’s grading), the presence of necrotic debris, inflammation, and red blood cells. A negative correlation was determined only for the presence of extracellular matrix. The univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a significantly higher risk of developing metastasis and shorter overall survival for dogs with tumors of grade 2 or 3 on cytology. In addition, these tumors were the most common cause of CMT-related deaths in dogs. Taken together, our findings suggest that the Robinson’s method of cytological grading applied for

  4. Stepping It Up: Walking Behaviors in Children Transitioning from 5th to 7th Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Taverno Ross

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (1 describe children’s walking behaviors in 5th to 7th grade and change over time and (2 examine associations between walking behaviors and Walk Score®. Participants consisted of n = 586 students from the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids (TRACK Study. Children reported any walking behavior (e.g., exercise and transportation over the past five days. Walk Score was calculated based on children’s home address. Descriptive statistics summarized walking behaviors by gender and time, and repeated measure mixed models examined the relationship between walking behaviors and Walk Score. Approximately 46.8% and 19.2% of 5th grade children reported walking for exercise and transportation, respectively, and these percentages declined through 7th grade. Girls reported higher levels of total walking behavior and walking for exercise than boys (p < 0.001. Girls with a higher Walk Score had 63% higher odds of reporting walking for transportation than girls with a lower Walk Score (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.62. Walking behaviors among children were infrequent with significant declines over time, and of the nine associations examined with Walk Score, only one was significant. Efforts should prioritize frequent walking behavior and community design to increase children’s physical activity.

  5. Grade Repetition and Primary School Dropout in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabay, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Research on education in low-income countries rarely focuses on grade repetition. When addressed, repetition is typically presented along with early school dropout as the "wasting" of educational resources. Simplifying grade repetition in this way often fails to recognize significant methodological concerns and also overlooks the unique…

  6. Correlation of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3 with patient age and grade of lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigouris, Andreas; Batistatou, Anna; Alexiou, George A; Pachatouridis, Dimitrios; Mihos, Evaggelos; Drosos, Dimitrios; Fotakopoulos, George; Doukas, Michail; Voulgaris, Spyridon; Kyritsis, Athanasios P

    2011-02-01

    The authors studied the histological alterations and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 in disc specimens of patients who had undergone operations for lumbar disc herniation. Forty-three lumbar disc specimens were evaluated histopathologically for degenerative changes and immunohistochemical expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. The observed degenerative changes provided a degenerative score that was applied in each patient. Sections of disc immunostained for MMP-1 and MMP-3 were evaluated semiquantitatively. Patients were categorized in 3 age groups: 60 years of age. The expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were correlated to patient's age, degenerative score, and grade of lumbar disc herniation. There was no statistically significant difference in the degenerative score between the age groups. Degenerative changes were more pronounced in greater grades of herniation (p correlation between MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression and both degenerative score and herniation grade. For the group of patients 30-60 years of age, there was no significant difference between MMP-1 expression and degenerative score, but the correlation between MMP-1 expression and grade of herniation was significant. There was a significant correlation between MMP-3 expression and both degenerative score and herniation grade. Regarding the patients > 60 years of age, there was a significant correlation between MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression and both degenerative score and herniation grade. There was a significantly lower expression of both MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the group correlation was found in MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression between the groups of patients who were 30-60 and > 60 years of age. Interestingly, in age groups > 30 years, there were no statistically significant differences between the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3, whereas in patients correlated to the age of the patients and the grade of herniation. An important finding in this study is the differential expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3

  7. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  8. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  9. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system.

  10. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Kyu Ho; Byun, Hong Sik; Choi, Woo Suk

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system

  11. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  12. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  13. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…

  14. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  15. The association between higher body mass index and poor school performance in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, L; Fabbri, M; Filardi, M; Martoni, M; Natale, V

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and school performance in high school students by controlling for relevant mediators such as sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status. Thirty-seven high school students (mean age: 18.16 ± 0.44 years) attending the same school type, i.e. 'liceo scientifico' (science-based high school), were enrolled. Students' self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Participants wore an actigraph to objectively assess the quality and duration of sleep. School performance was assessed through the actual grade obtained at the final school-leaving exam, in which higher grades indicate higher performance. BMI, get-up time, mean motor activity, wake after sleep onset and number of awakenings were negatively correlated with the grade, while sleep efficiency was positively correlated. When performing a multiple regression analysis, BMI proved the only significant (negative) predictor of grade. When controlling for sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status, a higher BMI is associated with a poorer school performance in high school students. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: validation of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Julien; Delahunt, Brett; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dunglinson, Nigel; Gianduzzo, Troy; Kua, Boon; Malone, Greg; Martin, Ben; Preston, John; Pokorny, Morgan; Wood, Simon; Yaxley, John; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. This system is incorporated into the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading. This study was undertaken to compare WHO/ISUP and Fuhrman grading and to validate WHO/ISUP grading as a prognostic parameter in a series of clear cell RCC. Analysis of 681 cases of ccRCC showed that 144 tumours could not be assigned a Fuhrman grade on the basis of ambiguous grading features. The application of WHO/ISUP grading resulted in a general down-grading of cases when compared with Fuhrman grading. In a sub-group of 374 cases, for which outcome data were available, 9.3% were WHO/ISUP grade 1, 50.3% were grade 2, 24.1% grade 3 and 16.3% grade 4, while the distribution of Fuhrman grades was 0.4% grade 1, 48.7% grade 2, 29.4% grade 3 and 21.5% grade 4. There were no recurrence/metastases amongst patients with WHO/ISUP grade 1 tumours and there was a significant difference in outcome for WHO/ISUP grades 2, 3 and 4. For Fuhrman grading the cancer-free survival was not significantly different for grade 2 and grade 3 tumours. On multivariate analysis WHO/ISUP grade and pT staging category were found to retain prognostic significance. The study demonstrates that FG cannot be applied in >20% of cases of ccRCC and the WHO/ISUP provides superior prognostic information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  18. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  19. Using signal detection theory to understand grade crossing warning time and motorist stopping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Motorist error or poor judgment is a significant causal factor in highway-rail grade crossing collisions. Crashes at grade crossings : equipped with warning devices often involve motorists who drive around gates or across railroad tracks while flashi...

  20. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  1. Ia diastolic dysfunction: an echocardiographic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Hakim, Fayaz A; Mulroy, Eoin; Saadiq, Rayya; Doherty, Mairead; Cha, Stephen; Seward, James; Wilansky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that a distinct group of patients with Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction who do not conform to present ASE/ESE diastolic grading exists. Echocardiographic and demographic data of the Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction were extracted and compared with that of Grades I and II in 515 patients. The mean of age of the cohort was 75 ± 9 years and body mass index did not differ significantly between the 3 groups (P = 0.45). Measurements of left atrial volume index (28.58 ± 7 mL/m(2) in I, 33 ± 10 mL/m(2) in Ia, and 39 ± 12 mL/m(2) in II P Ia, and 79 ± 15 msec in II P Ia, and 217 ± 57 msec in II P Ia, and 22 ± 8 in II), and lateral E/e' (8 ± 3 in I, 15 ± 6 in Ia, and 18 ± 9 in II P Ia compared with I and II. These findings remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, and smoking. Patients with echocardiographic characteristics of relaxation abnormality (E/A ratio of Ia group. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Research on mouse model of grade II corneal alkali burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qiang Bai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To choose appropriate concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution to establish a stable and consistent corneal alkali burn mouse model in grade II. METHODS: The mice (n=60 were randomly divided into four groups and 15 mice each group. Corneal alkali burns were induced by placing circle filter paper soaked with NaOH solutions on the right central cornea for 30s. The concentrations of NaOH solutions of groups A, B, C, and D were 0.1 mol/L, 0.15 mol/L , 0.2 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L respectively. Then these corneas were irrigated with 20 mL physiological saline (0.9% NaCl. On day 7 postburn, slit lamp microscope was used to observe corneal opacity, corneal epithelial sodium fluorescein staining positive rate, incidence of corneal ulcer and corneal neovascularization, meanwhile pictures of the anterior eyes were taken. Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to scan cornea to observe corneal epithelial defect and corneal ulcer. RESULTS: Corneal opacity scores ( were not significantly different between the group A and group B (P=0.097. Incidence of corneal ulcer in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P=0.035. Incidence of corneal ulcer and perforation rate in group B was lower than that in group C. Group C and D had corneal neovascularization, and incidence of corneal neovascularization in group D was significantly higher than that in group C (P=0.000. CONCLUSION: Using 0.15 mol/L NaOH can establish grade II mouse model of corneal alkali burns.

  3. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  4. High-grade and low-grade gliomas: differentiation by using perfusion MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Ercan, I.; Ergin, N.; Uysal, S.; Atahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is a commonly used perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for the evaluation of tumour grade. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has been less studied. The goal of our study was to determine the usefulness of these parameters in evaluating the histopathological grade of the cerebral gliomas. METHODS: This study involved 33 patients (22 high-grade and 11 low-grade glioma cases). MRI was performed for all tumours by using a first-passage gadopentetate dimeglumine T2*-weighted gradient-echo single-shot echo-planar sequence followed by conventional MRI. The rCBV and rCBF were calculated by deconvolution of an arterial input function. The rCBV and rCBF ratios of the lesions were obtained by dividing the values obtained from the normal white matter of the contralateral hemisphere. For statistical analysis Mann-Whitney testing was carried out. A p value of less than 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the rCBV and rCBF ratios and grade of gliomas. Their cut-off value permitting discrimination was calculated. The correlation between rCBV and CBF ratios and glioma grade was assessed using Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: In high-grade gliomas, rCBV and rCBF ratios were measured as 6.50±4.29 and 3.32±1.87 (mean±SD), respectively. In low-grade gliomas, rCBV and rCBF ratios were 1.69±0.51 and 1.16±0.38, respectively. The rCBV and rCBF ratios for high-grade gliomas were statistically different from those of low-grade gliomas (p 0.05). The cut-off value was taken as 1.98 in the rCBV ratio and 1.25 in the rCBF ratio. There was a strong correlation between the rCBV and CBF ratios (Pearson correlation = 0.830, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Perfusion MRI is useful in the preoperative assessment of the histopathologicalal grade of gliomas; the rCBF ratio in addition to the rCBV ratio can be incorporated

  5. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  6. Setting standards to determine core clerkship grades in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert A; Barone, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for clerkship directors is assigning a final grade and determining the precise point at which a student either passes or fails a clinical clerkship. The process of incorporating both subjective and objective assessment data to provide a final summative grade can be challenging. We describe our experience conducting a standard-setting exercise to set defensible cut points in a 4-tiered grading system in our pediatric clerkship. Using the Hofstee standard-setting approach, 8 faculty members participated in an exercise to establish grade cut points. These faculty members were subsequently surveyed to assess their attitudes toward the standard-setting process as well as their reactions to these newly proposed standards. We applied the new cut points to a historic cohort of 116 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine students from the academic year 2012-2013 to assess the potential impact on grade distributions. The resultant grading schema would lead to a significant increase in the number of students receiving a failing grade and a decrease in the number of students receiving a grade of honors in a historical cohort. Faculty reported that the Hofstee method was easy to understand and fair. All faculty members thought that grade inflation presently exists within the pediatric clerkship. This study demonstrates that practical standards using the Hofstee method can be set for medical students in a pediatric clerkship in which multiple performance measures are used. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Graded Structure in Sexual Definitions: Categorizations of Having "Had Sex" and Virginity Loss Among Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ava D; Bedford, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Definitions of sexual behavior display a robust hierarchy of agreement regarding whether or not acts should be classed as, for example, sex or virginity loss. The current research offers a theoretical explanation for this hierarchy, proposing that sexual definitions display graded categorical structure, arising from goodness of membership judgments. Moderation of this graded structure is also predicted, with the focus here on how sexual orientation identity affects sexual definitions. A total of 300 18- to 30-year-old participants completed an online survey, rating 18 behaviors for how far each constitutes having "had sex" and virginity loss. Participants fell into one of four groups: heterosexual male or female, gay male or lesbian. The predicted ratings hierarchy emerged, in which bidirectional genital acts were rated significantly higher than unidirectional or nonpenetrative contact, which was in turn rated significantly higher than acts involving no genital contact. Moderation of graded structure was also in line with predictions. Compared to the other groups, the lesbian group significantly upgraded ratings of genital contact that was either unidirectional or nonpenetrative. There was also evidence of upgrading by the gay male sample of anal intercourse ratings. These effects are theorized to reflect group-level variation in experience, contextual perspective, and identity-management. The implications of the findings in relation to previous research are discussed. It is suggested that a graded structure approach can greatly benefit future research into sexual definitions, by permitting variable definitions to be predicted and explained, rather than merely identified.

  8. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, Peter; Xyda, Argyro; Knauth, Michael; Klotz, Ernst; Tronnier, Volker; Hartmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K Trans ). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p Trans , p Trans values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K Trans . (orig.)

  9. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  10. Quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging compared to morphological grading of the early cervical intervertebral disc degeneration: an evaluation approach in asymptomatic young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. METHODS: Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18-25 years underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I-V and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo. T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350 and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700 were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. FINDINGS: Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P0.05. T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000 but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854. However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms, grade II (54.60-62.03 ms, grade III (<54.60 ms. CONCLUSIONS: T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults.

  11. The albumin-bilirubin grade uncovers the prognostic relationship between hepatic reserve and immune dysfunction in HIV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinato, D J; Sharma, R; Citti, C; Platt, H; Ventura-Cots, M; Allara, E; Chen, T-Y; Dalla Pria, A; Jain, M; Mínguez, B; Kikuchi, L; Kaufman West, E; Merli, M; Kaplan, D E; Hasson, H; Marks, K; Nelson, M; Núñez, M; Aytaman, A; Bower, M; Bräu, N

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group. Patients who underwent liver transplantation were excluded. A total of 387 patients, predominantly HCV co-infected (78%) with balanced representation of all Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages (A = 33%, B = 18%, C = 37%, D = 12%) were recruited. At HCC diagnosis, 84% had been on anti-retrovirals for a median duration of 8.8 years. The albumin-bilirubin grade identified significant differences in median survival of 97 months for grade 1 (95% CI 13-180 months), 17 months for grade 2 (95% CI 11-22 months) and 6 months for grade 3 (95% CI 4-9 months, P bilirubin grade correlated with lower CD4 counts (464/373/288 cells/mm 3 for grades 1/2/3) and higher HIV viraemia (3.337/8.701/61.845 copies/mL for grades 1/2/3, P bilirubin grade highlights the interplay between liver reserve and immune dysfunction as prognostic determinants in HIV-associated HCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging compared to morphological grading of the early cervical intervertebral disc degeneration: an evaluation approach in asymptomatic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Huang, Minghua; Han, Zhihua; Shao, Lixin; Xie, Yan; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Yan; Xin, Hongkui; Ren, Aijun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Deli; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18-25 years) underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE) and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I-V)) and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo). T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350) and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700) were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P0.05). T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000) but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854). However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II) showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms), grade II (54.60-62.03 ms), grade III (T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults.

  13. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  14. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  15. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  16. Teaching practices of thoracic epidural catheterizations in different grade of anesthesia residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alagoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to clarify the importance of residency grade and other factors which influence the success of thoracic epidural catheterization in thoracotomy patients. METHODS: After the ethical committee approval, data were recorded retrospectively from the charts of 415 patients. All patients had given written informed consent. The thoracic epidural catheterization attempts were divided into two groups as second-third year (Group I and fourth year (Group II according to residency grade. We retrospectively collected demographic data, characteristics of thoracic epidural catheterization attempts, and all difficulties and complications during thoracic epidural catheterization. RESULTS: Overall success rate of thoracic epidural catheterization was similar between the groups. Levels of catheter placement, number and duration of thoracic epidural catheterization attempts were not different between the groups (p > 0.05. Change of needle insertion level was statistically higher in Group II (p = 0.008, whereas paresthesia was significantly higher in Group I (p = 0.007. Dural puncture and postdural puncture headache rates were higher in Group I. Higher body mass index and level of the insertion site were significant factors for thoracic epidural catheterization failure and postoperative complication rate and those were independence from residents' experience (p < 0.001, 0.005. CONCLUSION: Body mass index and level of insertion site were significant on thoracic epidural catheterization failure and postoperative complication rate. We think that residents' grade is not a significant factor in terms overall success rate of thoracic epidural catheterization, but it is important for outcome of these procedures.

  17. Hong's grading for evaluating anterior chamber angle width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Kang, Ja Heon; Park, Ki Ho; Hong, Chul

    2012-11-01

    To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.

  18. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretzayas, A.; Karpathios, T.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were found by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice. (orig.)

  19. Fast neutron boost for the treatment of grade IV astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breteau, N.; Destembert, B.; Favre, A.; Pheline, C.; Schlienger, M.

    1989-01-01

    A previous study, on grade IV astrocytomas, compared a combination of photons and fast neutron boost to photons only, both treatments being delivered following a concentrated irradiation schedule. A slight improvement in survival was observed after neutron boost for non operated patients, but not for operated patients. Since death was always related to local recurrence and since no complication occurred after neutron boost, the neutron dose was increased from 6 to 7 Gy in January 1985. No improvement in survival was observed for patients treated with neutron boost after complete resection. After subtotal resection, the group that was treated with the higher neutron boost (7 Gy) showed a significant benefit in survival at twelve months. When patients had only a biopsy before irradiation, there was a benefit in survival after neutron boost, but no additional benefit was gained when the size of the neutron boost was increased from 6 to 7 Gy. (orig.) [de

  20. OPINIONS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS ABOUT TEACHING OF HISTORY TOPICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HISTORY İLKÖĞRETİM YEDİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN SOSYAL BİLGİLER DERSLERİNDE TARİH KONULARININ İŞLENİŞİ VE TARİHİN DEĞERİ İLE İLGİLİ GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan KAYA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining primary education seventh grade students’ opinions on teaching of history topics in social science cources and significance of history in their lives. The population of the study comprises of 20 pieces seventh grade classes in 4 primary schools with medium socio-economic levels in the city center of Erzurum. As the sample of the study, a total of 200 students (10 students from each class were chosen via random sampling from seventh grade classes of these schools according to the appropriate sampling method. Required data for this qualitative research was acquired by a 4-item questionnaire comprising of open-ended questions. Content analysis method was adopted in analysis of the obtained data in this study. Findings shows that methods in line with constructivist approach remain limited in teaching of the topics; students like methods in which they are more active; such as drama and acting they like learning history, and, in general, they think that learning history makes a great contribution to their lives. Bu araştırmanın amacı, İlköğretim yedinci sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal bilgiler dersinde tarih konularının işlenişi ve tarihin yaşamlarındaki değeri ile ilgili görüşlerini tespit edebilmektir.Araştırmanın evrenini, Erzurum merkezde sosyo-ekonomik bakımdan orta düzeyde 4 ilköğretim okulundaki toplam 20 tane yedinci sınıf şubesi oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem olarak uygun örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilen bu okulların yedinci sınıflarından tesadüfî örneklem yoluyla her sınıftan 10’ar öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 200 öğrenci seçilmiştir. Nitel araştırma yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen bu araştırma için gerekli olan veriler, 4 adet açık uçlu sorudan oluşan bir anket vasıtasıyla edinilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde içerik analizi yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre derslerin işlenişinde yap

  1. Grade Inflation: Faculty Lived-Experiences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The research area of this study is the phenomenon of grade inflation in higher educational organizations. Using a qualitative phenomenological research design, seven faculty members from a higher educational organization were purposefully selected to participate in a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. The participants were of various ages,…

  2. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  3. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  4. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  5. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  6. Intrinsic subtypes and tumor grades in breast cancer are associated with distinct 3-D power Doppler sonographic vascular features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Yao-Sian; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasonographic (PDUS) vascular features of breast carcinoma according to intrinsic subtypes, nodal stage, and tumor grade. Materials and methods: Total 115 receiving mastectomy breast carcinomas (mean size, 2.5 cm; range, 0.7–6.5 cm), including 102 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), 10 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 3 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) diagnosed after mastectomy, were used in this retrospective study. Sixty IDC had nodal status and histopathologic tumor grades available for analysis. Vascular features, including number of vascular trees (NV), longest path length (LPL), total vessel length (TVL), number of bifurcations (NB), distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), vessel diameter (VD), and vessel-to-volume ratio (VVR) were extracted using 3-D thinning method. The Mann–Whitney U test, Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis test were performed as appropriate. Results: There was no significant difference of vascular features among IDC, DCIS and ILC. Except VD, vascular features in luminal type were significantly lower compared to HER2-enriched or triple negative types (p < 0.05). Compared to ER+ (estrogen receptor positive) tumors, all features in ER− (estrogen receptor negative) tumors were significantly higher (p < 0.01). Despite some significantly higher vascular features in high grade IDC compared to low and intermediate grade, there was no significant correlation between vascular features and nodal stages. Conclusion: Differences in 3-D PDUS vascular features among intrinsic types of IDC are attributed to their ER status. Vascular features extracted by 3-D PDUS correlate with tumor grades but not nodal stage in IDC

  7. Intrinsic subtypes and tumor grades in breast cancer are associated with distinct 3-D power Doppler sonographic vascular features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yeun-Chung [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10041, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yao-Sian [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chiun-Sheng [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10041, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Department of Radiological Science, University of California Irvine, California, CA 92868 (United States); Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ruey-Feng, E-mail: rfchang@csie.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasonographic (PDUS) vascular features of breast carcinoma according to intrinsic subtypes, nodal stage, and tumor grade. Materials and methods: Total 115 receiving mastectomy breast carcinomas (mean size, 2.5 cm; range, 0.7–6.5 cm), including 102 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), 10 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 3 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) diagnosed after mastectomy, were used in this retrospective study. Sixty IDC had nodal status and histopathologic tumor grades available for analysis. Vascular features, including number of vascular trees (NV), longest path length (LPL), total vessel length (TVL), number of bifurcations (NB), distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), vessel diameter (VD), and vessel-to-volume ratio (VVR) were extracted using 3-D thinning method. The Mann–Whitney U test, Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis test were performed as appropriate. Results: There was no significant difference of vascular features among IDC, DCIS and ILC. Except VD, vascular features in luminal type were significantly lower compared to HER2-enriched or triple negative types (p < 0.05). Compared to ER+ (estrogen receptor positive) tumors, all features in ER− (estrogen receptor negative) tumors were significantly higher (p < 0.01). Despite some significantly higher vascular features in high grade IDC compared to low and intermediate grade, there was no significant correlation between vascular features and nodal stages. Conclusion: Differences in 3-D PDUS vascular features among intrinsic types of IDC are attributed to their ER status. Vascular features extracted by 3-D PDUS correlate with tumor grades but not nodal stage in IDC.

  8. Relationship of tumor grade to other pathologic features and to treatment outcome for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Asa J; Gage, Irene; Connolly, James L; Schnitt, Stuart; Silver, Barbara; Hetelekidis, Stella; Recht, Abram; Harris, Jay R

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: To study the relationship of tumor grade to the distribution of pathologic features and to the risk of local and distant recurrence following breast-conserving therapy in patients with pure infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and to explore the differences between this type and tubular carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1624 patients were treated for clinical Stage I or II invasive breast cancer with a complete gross excision and {>=}60 Gy to the tumor bed. The original slides were reviewed in 1337 cases (82%). Of these, 1081 were pure infiltrating ductal carcinoma and 28 were tubular carcinoma and these constitute the study population. Fifty-five patients (5%) have been lost to followup after 7-181 months. Median followup for 742 survivors is 134 months (7-278 mos.). We evaluated the following features: histologic grade (modified Bloom-Richardson system), the presence of nodal metastases (in 891 pts. (80%) undergoing axillary dissection [pLN+]), an extensive intraductal component (EIC), lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI), mononuclear cellular response (MCR), and necrosis. We analyzed the incidence of clinical and pathologic characteristics as a function of histology and histologic grade (Table 1). We also examined the 10-year crude rates of first failure for evaluable patients (Table 2) and calculated actuarial curves for regional nodal failure or distant metastasis (RNF/DM) at any time during followup (Figure 1). Results: Conclusions: 1) The proportion of tumors with LVI, EIC, or lymph node involvement did not vary significantly by histologic grade. Low grade tumors tended to be smaller and exhibit less MCR and necrosis; 2) Grade did not predict for local recurrence. Distant recurrence rates were significantly higher in patients with grade II or III as compared with grade I tumors, although recurrence rates continued to rise for grade I tumors through 10 years of followup; 3) Although patient numbers are small, tubular breast carcinomas

  9. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  10. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisue, Mamiko; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis

  11. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  12. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  13. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  14. Morphological features in female judoka of different grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Elipkhanov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of morphological differences among female judoka of different grades would make it possible to estimate the influence of motor activity in judo on athletes’ performances, leading to a more refined selection process in this sport. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the morphological characteristics of female judoka of different ranks. Twenty-three athletes of higher grades and thirty-two judoka of lower ranks participated in this study. We measured the lengths of six body segments and thecircumferences of twelve body segments, as well as nine skinfolds. We also evaluated body fat percentage. The mean differences between both groups were measured using ANOVA. This study shows that highly skilled judoka have significantly lower total body fat percentage (19.6 ± 4.4 and 22.7 ± 5.2 %, p < 0.05 and skinfold values (p < 0.05-0.01 in five body sites. They have significantly larger neck (34.4 ± 2.9 and 32.3 ± 2.4 cm, p < 0.01, thorax at forced inspiration (94.7 ± 5.1 and 91.4 ± 4.1 cm, p < 0.05 and expiration (88.6 ± 5.1 and 85.5 ± 4.4 cm, p < 0.05, and relaxed arm (27.8 ± 2.5 and 26.3 ± 2.1 cm, p < 0.05 circumferences. High-rank judoka have significantly longer hands (19.4 ± 1.3 and 18.1 ± 1.5 cm, p < 0.001 and significantly shorter thighs (37.2 ± 2.6 and 40.2 ± 3.2 cm, p < 0.001. Judoka with less body fat, more thoracic muscle mass, and shorter arms and legs are more successful in female judo.

  15. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  16. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  17. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, Stephane; Bovée, Judith VMG; Lehner, Burkhard; Akker, Brendy van den; Ruler, Maayke van; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Richter, Wiltrud

    2012-01-01

    As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma. Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other. The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells

  18. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma. Methods Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other. Conclusions The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells. PMID:23088614

  19. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio; Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar; Matschke, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  20. Respiration rate and ethylene production of fresh cut lettuce as affected by cutting grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For designing optimal polymeric films for modified atmosphere packaging of whole heads as well as for minimally fresh processed (fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce ‘Coolguard’, the effect of several cutting grades on respiration rate (RR and ethylene production at 5ºC was studied. According to common industrial practices cutting grades less than 0.5 cm, between 0.5 and 1 cm, and 2 cm length were selected. Results from four experiments were compared to those obtained for whole heads in which a homogenous range of 6 to 8 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 in RR was found. Compared to whole heads, in fresh-cut lettuce the RR was 2-fold higher. The lowest cutting grade showed the highest respiration rate, and no significant differences in RR among lettuce pieces of intermediate and the highest grades were found. No ethylene production was detected in whole heads, while in minimally processed lettuce pieces only traces were found. For avoiding risks of anaerobic respiration and excessive CO2 levels within packages containing fresh-cut lettuce pieces lower than 0.5 cm length, films with relatively high O2 permeability like standard polypropylene or low-density polyethylene must be selected.;

  1. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  2. Contemporary management of high-grade renal trauma: Results from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Genitourinary Trauma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Sorena; Xu, Yizhe; Presson, Angela P; Hotaling, James M; Nirula, Raminder; Piotrowski, Joshua; Dodgion, Christopher M; Black, Cullen M; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Morris, Bradley J; Majercik, Sarah; Smith, Brian P; Schwartz, Ian; Elliott, Sean P; DeSoucy, Erik S; Zakaluzny, Scott; Thomsen, Peter B; Erickson, Bradley A; Baradaran, Nima; Breyer, Benjamin N; Miller, Brandi; Santucci, Richard A; Carrick, Matthew M; Hewitt, Timothy; Burks, Frank N; Kocik, Jurek F; Askari, Reza; Myers, Jeremy B

    2018-03-01

    The rarity of renal trauma limits its study and the strength of evidence-based guidelines. Although management of renal injuries has shifted toward a nonoperative approach, nephrectomy remains the most common intervention for high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to describe the contemporary management of HGRT in the United States and also evaluate clinical factors associated with nephrectomy after HGRT. From 2014 to 2017, data on HGRT (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades III-V) were collected from 14 participating Level-1 trauma centers. Data were gathered on demographics, injury characteristics, management, and short-term outcomes. Management was classified into three groups-expectant, conservative/minimally invasive, and open operative. Descriptive statistics were used to report management of renal trauma. Univariate and multivariate logistic mixed effect models with clustering by facility were used to look at associations between proposed risk factors and nephrectomy. A total of 431 adult HGRT were recorded; 79% were male, and mechanism of injury was blunt in 71%. Injuries were graded as III, IV, and V in 236 (55%), 142 (33%), and 53 (12%), respectively. Laparotomy was performed in 169 (39%) patients. Overall, 300 (70%) patients were managed expectantly and 47 (11%) underwent conservative/minimally invasive management. Eighty-four (19%) underwent renal-related open operative management with 55 (67%) of them undergoing nephrectomy. Nephrectomy rates were 15% and 62% for grades IV and V, respectively. Penetrating injuries had significantly higher American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades and higher rates of nephrectomy. In multivariable analysis, only renal injury grade and penetrating mechanism of injury were significantly associated with undergoing nephrectomy. Expectant and conservative management is currently utilized in 80% of HGRT; however, the rate of nephrectomy remains high. Clinical factors, such as surrogates of

  3. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  4. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  5. Correlation between Grade Point Averages and Student Evaluation of Teaching Scores: Taking a Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tyler J.; Hilton, John, III.; Plummer, Kenneth; Barret, Devynne

    2014-01-01

    One of the most contentious potential sources of bias is whether instructors who give higher grades receive higher ratings from students. We examined the grade point averages (GPAs) and student ratings across 2073 general education religion courses at a large private university. A moderate correlation was found between GPAs and student evaluations…

  6. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  7. Histopathologic grading of anaplasia in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Specht, Charles S; Hubbard, G Baker; Wells, Jill R; Lynn, Michael J; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Jun; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the degree of tumor anaplasia has prognostic value by evaluating its correlation with high-risk histopathologic features and clinical outcomes in a series of retinoblastoma patients. Retrospective clinicopathologic study. The clinical and pathologic findings in 266 patients who underwent primary enucleation for retinoblastoma were reviewed. The histologic degree of anaplasia was graded as retinocytoma, mild, moderate, or severe as defined by increasing cellular pleomorphism, number of mitoses, nuclear size, and nuclear hyperchromatism. Nuclear morphometric characteristics were measured. The clinical and pathologic data of 125 patients were compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival. Fisher exact test and multivariate regression were used to analyze the association between anaplasia grade and high-risk histologic features. Increasing grade of anaplasia was associated with decreased overall survival (P = .003) and increased risk of metastasis (P = .0007). Histopathologic features that were associated with anaplasia included optic nerve invasion (P anaplasia grading as predictors of distant metastasis and death showed that high-risk histopathology was statistically significant as an independent predictor (P = .01 for metastasis, P = .03 for death) but anaplasia was not (P = .63 for metastasis, P = .30 for death). In the absence of high-risk features, however, severe anaplasia identified an additional risk for metastasis (P = .0004) and death (P = .01). Grading of anaplasia may be a useful adjunct to standard histopathologic criteria in identifying retinoblastoma patients who do not have high-risk histologic features but still have an increased risk of metastasis and may need adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term occlusal changes assessed by the American Board of Orthodontics' model grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszkler, Robert M; Preston, Charles B; Saltaji, Humam; Tabbaa, Sawsan

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term posttreatment changes in all criteria of the American Board of Orthodontics' (ABO) model grading system. We used plaster models from patients' final and posttreatment records. Thirty patients treated by 1 orthodontist using 1 bracket prescription were selected. An initial discrepancy index for each subject was performed to determine the complexity of each case. The final models were then graded using the ABO's model grading system immediately at posttreatment and postretention. Statistical analysis was performed on the 8 criteria of the model grading system, including paired t tests and Pearson correlations. An alpha of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average length of time between the posttreatment and postretention records was 12.7 ± 4.4 years. It was shown that alignment and rotations worsened by postretention (P = 0.014), and a weak statistically significant correlation at posttreatment and postretention was found (0.44; P = 0.016). Both marginal ridges and occlusal contacts scored less well at posttreatment. These criteria showed a significant decrease in scores between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), but the correlations were not statistically significant. The average total score showed a significant decrease between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), partly because of the large decrease in the previous 2 criteria. Higher scores for occlusal contacts and marginal ridges were found at the end of treatment; however, those scores and the overall scores for the 30 subjects improved in the postretention phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Cervical muscle dysfunction in chronic whiplash-associated disorder grade 2: the relevance of the trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhand, Marc J; Hermens, Hermie J; IJzerman, Maarten J; Turk, Dennis C; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2002-05-15

    Surface electromyography measurements of the upper trapezius muscles were performed in patients with a chronic whiplash-associated disorder Grade 2 and those with nonspecific neck pain. To determine the etiologic relation between acceleration-deceleration trauma and the presence of cervical muscle dysfunction in the chronic stage of whiplash-associated disorder. From a biopsychosocial perspective, the acceleration-deceleration trauma in patients with whiplash-associated disorder is not regarded as a cause of chronicity of neck pain, but rather as a risk factor triggering response systems that contribute to the maintenance of neck pain. One of the contributing factors is dysfunction of the cervical muscles. Considering the limited etiologic significance of the trauma, it is hypothesized that in patients with neck pain, there are no differences in muscle activation patterns between those with and those without a history of an acceleration-deceleration trauma. Muscle activation patterns, expressed in normalized smooth rectified electromyography levels of the upper trapezius muscles, in patients with whiplash-associated disorder Grade 2 were compared with those of patients with nonspecific neck pain. The outcome parameters were the mean level of muscle activity before and after a physical exercise, the muscle reactivity in response to the exercise, and the time-dependent behavior of muscle activity after the exercise. There were no statistical significant differences in any of the outcome parameters between patients with whiplash-associated disorder Grade 2 and those with nonspecific neck pain. There was only a tendency of higher muscle reactivity in patients with whiplash-associated disorder Grade 2. It appears that the cervical muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder Grade 2 is not related to the specific trauma mechanism. Rather, cervical muscle dysfunction appears to be a general sign in diverse chronic neck pain syndromes.

  10. Diagnostic Values of DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI for Differentiation Between High-grade and Low-grade Gliomas: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianye; Liu, Dexiang; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hanwei; Shi, Changzheng; Luo, Liangping

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to collect the studies on the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and evaluate the diagnostic performances of relevant quantitative parameters in glioma grading. We systematically searched studies on the diagnosis of gliomas with DCE-MRI or DSC-MRI in Medline, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Cochrane Library, and Embase published between January 2005 and December 2016. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for volume transfer coefficient (K trans ), volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space (V e ), rate constant of backflux (K ep ), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Review Manager 5.2 software. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Begg test were calculated by Stata 12.0. Twenty-two studies with available outcome data were included in the analysis. The standardized mean difference of K trans values between high-grade glioma and low-grade glioma were 1.18 (0.91, 1.45); V e values were 1.43 (1.06, 1.80); K ep values were 0.65 (-0.05, 1.36); rCBV values were 1.44 (1.08, 1.81); and rCBF values were 1.17 (0.68, 1.67), respectively. The results were all significant statistically (P values (P = .07), and high-grade glioma had higher K trans , V e , rCBV, and rCBF values than low-grade glioma. AUC values of K trans , V e , rCBV, and rCBF were 0.90, 0.88, 0.93, and 0.73, respectively; rCBV had the largest AUC among the four parameters (P < .05). Both DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI are reliable techniques in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and rCBV was found to be the most sensitive one. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  12. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  13. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  14. INAA of polyacrylic hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.; Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    , higher values were found for Cr, (8.6±0.1) ppm, and Co, (149±6) ppb. Moreover, Br, As and Sb are present at the following levels: tens of ppb (Br), hundreds of ppb (As, Sb). In conclusion, in the procedure to obtain the polyacrylic acid hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade the raw components can be used with no additional purification, the elements like Zn, Fe, Cr in the final product being at the admissible level. Also, the most suitable milling procedure was chosen to be the ICPR mill. (authors)

  15. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  16. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  17. Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Cozzolino, Daniel; Bastian, Susan E P; Jeffery, David W

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on MFA results correctly classified 100% of the samples into GI in 2015 and 2016. Classification according to grade was achieved based on the results for elements such as Cu, Na, Fe, volatiles including C6 and aryl alcohols, hydrolytically-released volatiles such as (Z)-linalool oxide and vitispirane, pH, TSS, alanine and proline. Correct classification through DA according to grade was 100% for both vintages. Significant correlations were observed between climate, GI, grade, and berry composition. Climate influenced the synthesis of free and bound volatiles as well as amino acids, sugars, and acids, as a result of higher temperatures and precipitation.

  18. Investigation of trapped thickness-twist waves induced by functionally graded piezoelectric material in an inhomogeneous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of functional graded piezoelectric materials on the propagation of thickness-twist waves is investigated through equations of the linear theory of piezoelectricity. The elastic and piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric permittivity, and mass density are assumed to change in a linear form but with different graded parameters along the wave propagation direction. We employ the power-series technique to solve the governing differential equations with variable coefficients attributed to the different graded parameters and prove the correction and convergence of this method. As a special case, the functional graded middle layer resulting from piezoelectric damage and material bonding is investigated. Piezoelectric damaged material can facilitate energy trapping, which is impossible in perfect materials. The increase in the damaged length and the reduction in the piezoelectric coefficient decrease the resonance frequency but increase the number of modes. Higher modes of thickness-twist waves appear periodically along the damaged length. Moreover, the displacement of the center of the damaged portion is neither symmetric nor anti-symmetric, unlike the non-graded plate. The conclusions are theoretically and practically significant for wave devices. (paper)

  19. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  20. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  1. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  2. Effect of childhood coeliac disease on ninth grade school performance: evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namatovu, Fredinah; Strandh, Mattias; Ivarsson, Anneli; Nilsson, Karina

    2018-02-01

    Coeliac disease might affect school performance due to its effect on cognitive performance and related health consequences that might increase school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with coeliac disease performed differently on completion of ninth grade in school compared with children without coeliac disease. Analysis was performed on a population of 445 669 children born in Sweden between 1991 and 1994 of whom 1767 were diagnosed with coeliac disease. School performance at ninth grade was the outcome and coeliac disease was the exposure. Other covariates included sex, Apgar score at 5 min, small for gestational age, year of birth, family type, parental education and income. There was no association between coeliac disease and school performance at ninth grade (adjusted coefficient -2.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 0.4). A weak association was established between late coeliac diagnosis and higher grades, but this disappeared after adjusting for parent socioeconomic conditions. Being small for gestational age affected performance negatively (adjusted coefficient -6.9, 95% CI 8.0 to 5.7). Grade scores were significantly lower in children living with a single parent (adjusted coefficient -20.6, 95% CI 20.9 to 20.2), compared with those with married/cohabiting parents. A positive association was found between scores at ninth grade and parental education and income. Coeliac disease diagnosis during childhood is not associated with poor school performance at ninth grade. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Prediction of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour grade with MR imaging features: added value of diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfalizadeh, Emad; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre; Allaham, Wassim [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Radiology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valerie [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Radiology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche Biomedicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Radiology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche Biomedicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Cros, Jerome; Couvelard, Anne [University Paris Diderot, Paris (France); University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Pathology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Hentic, Olivia; Ruzniewski, Philippe [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Department of Gastroenterology, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the value of MR imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the grading of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET). Between 2006 and 2014, all resected pNETs with preoperative MR imaging including DWI were included. Tumour grading was based on the 2010 WHO classification. MR imaging features included size, T1-w, and T2-w signal intensity, enhancement pattern, apparent (ADC) and true diffusion (D) coefficients. One hundred and eight pNETs (mean 40 ± 33 mm) were evaluated in 94 patients (48 women, 51 %, mean age 52 ± 12). Fifty-five (51 %), 42 (39 %), and 11 (10 %) tumours were given the following grades (G): G1, G2, and G3. Mean ADC and D values were significantly lower as grade increased (ADC: 2.13 ± 0.70, 1.78 ± 0.72, and 0.86 ± 0.22 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and D: 1.92 ± 0.70, 1.75 ± 0.74, and 0.82 ± 0.19 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s G1, G2, and G3, all p < 0.001). A higher grade was associated with larger sized tumours (p < 0.001). The AUROC of ADC and D to differentiate G3 and G1-2 were 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.95 ± 0.02. Optimal cut-off values for the identification of G3 were 1.19 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for ADC (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 92 %) and 1.04 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for D (sensitivity 82 %, specificity 92 %). Morphological/functional MRI features of pNETS depend on tumour grade. DWI is useful for the identification of high-grade tumours. (orig.)

  4. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    universities make a fair comparison between grades attained in A-Levels and Highers, CSYS and Advanced Highers. It was a fairly limited exercise, but a careful one, carried out by examiners and teachers rather than statisticians. They compared syllabuses, questions and candidates' answers. I quote: '... the two years of study for A-level perhaps means that there is a secure, consolidated grasp of the basics; more than the Higher candidate after one year. But there is no evidence of this from candidates' scripts.' Comparing syllabuses, the report noted a greater mathematical demand in Scotland: 'The rigour or depth of treatment is generally lower in the Syllabus Y [an A-level syllabus.] than in CSYS or Advanced Higher because many topics have a qualitative treatment rather than the mathematical treatment of CSYS and AH.' Adding a certain sting to its tail, the report concludes: `Many of the CSYS candidates will have achieved excellent grades at Higher... in four or five subjects before proceeding to CSYS. Scottish candidates tend to have qualifications in a broader range of subjects.' Perhaps this is why they get to be in charge everywhere.

  5. Diffusion Profiling via a Histogram Approach Distinguishes Low-grade from High-grade Meningiomas, Can Reflect the Respective Proliferative Potential and Progesterone Receptor Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Garnov, Nikita; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Presurgical grading, estimation of growth kinetics, and other prognostic factors are becoming increasingly important for selecting the best therapeutic approach for meningioma patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides microstructural information and reflects tumor biology. A novel DWI approach, histogram profiling of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volumes, provides more distinct information than conventional DWI. Therefore, our study investigated whether ADC histogram profiling distinguishes low-grade from high-grade lesions and reflects Ki-67 expression and progesterone receptor status. Pretreatment ADC volumes of 37 meningioma patients (28 low-grade, 9 high-grade) were used for histogram profiling. WHO grade, Ki-67 expression, and progesterone receptor status were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profiling and neuropathology were performed. The entire ADC profile (p10, p25, p75, p90, mean, median) was significantly lower in high-grade versus low-grade meningiomas. The lower percentiles, mean, and modus showed significant correlations with Ki-67 expression. Skewness and entropy of the ADC volumes were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression. ROC analysis revealed entropy to be the most accurate parameter distinguishing low-grade from high-grade meningiomas. ADC histogram profiling provides a distinct set of parameters, which help differentiate low-grade versus high-grade meningiomas. Also, histogram metrics correlate significantly with histological surrogates of the respective proliferative potential. More specifically, entropy revealed to be the most promising imaging biomarker for presurgical grading. Both, entropy and skewness were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression and therefore should be investigated further as predictors for prognostically relevant tumor biological features. Since absolute ADC

  6. Validation of International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading for prostatic adenocarcinoma in thin core biopsies using TROG 03.04 'RADAR' trial clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, B; Egevad, L; Srigley, J R; Steigler, A; Murray, J D; Atkinson, C; Matthews, J; Duchesne, G; Spry, N A; Christie, D; Joseph, D; Attia, J; Denham, J W

    2015-10-01

    In 2014 a consensus conference convened by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) adopted amendments to the criteria for Gleason grading and scoring (GS) for prostatic adenocarcinoma. The meeting defined a modified grading system based on 5 grading categories (grade 1, GS 3+3; grade 2, GS 3+4; grade 3, GS 4+3; grade 4, GS 8; grade 5, GS 9-10). In this study we have evaluated the prognostic significance of ISUP grading in 496 patients enrolled in the TROG 03.04 RADAR Trial. There were 19 grade 1, 118 grade 2, 193 grade 3, 88 grade 4 and 79 grade 5 tumours in the series, with follow-up for a minimum of 6.5 years. On follow-up 76 patients experienced distant progression of disease, 171 prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression and 39 prostate cancer deaths. In contrast to the 2005 modified Gleason system (MGS), the hazards of the distant and PSA progression endpoints, relative to grade 2, were significantly greater for grades 3, 4 and 5 of the 2014 ISUP grading scheme. Comparison of predictive ability utilising Harrell's concordance index, showed 2014 ISUP grading to significantly out-perform 2005 MGS grading for each of the three clinical endpoints.

  7. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    of 10, it implies that their prognosis is intermediate and contributes to their fear of having a more aggressive cancer. Also, in the literature and for therapeutic purposes, various scores have been incorrectly grouped together with the assumption that they have a similar prognosis. For example, many classification systems consider Gleason score 7 as a single score without distinguishing 3+4 versus 4+3, despite studies showing significantly worse prognosis for the latter. The basis for a new grading system was proposed in 2013 by one of the authors (J.I.E.) based on data from Johns Hopkins Hospital resulting in 5 prognostically distinct Grade Groups. This new system was validated in a multi-institutional study of over 20,000 radical prostatectomy specimens, over 16,000 needle biopsy specimens, and over 5,000 biopsies followed by radiation therapy. There was broad (90%) consensus for the adoption of this new prostate cancer Grading system in the 2014 consensus conference based on: (1) the new classification provided more accurate stratification of tumors than the current system; (2) the classification simplified the number of grading categories from Gleason scores 2 to 10, with even more permutations based on different pattern combinations, to Grade Groups 1 to 5; (3) the lowest grade is 1 not 6 as in Gleason, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of indolent cancer; and (4) the current modified Gleason grading, which forms the basis for the new grade groups, bears little resemblance to the original Gleason system. The new grades would, for the foreseeable future, be used in conjunction with the Gleason system [ie. Gleason score 3+3=6 (Grade Group 1)]. The new grading system and the terminology Grade Groups 1-5 have also been accepted by the World Health Organization for the 2016 edition of Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs.

  8. Comparison of the diagnostic value of cervical cytology and HPV HR DNA testing for the diagnosis of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions across different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Pruski, Dominik; Iwaniec, Kinga; Kędzia, Witold

    2017-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of cervical cytology and HPV HR DNA testing for the diagnosis of low grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions across different age groups. The study included 1103 patients, age 25-70 years. All patients underwent in-depth diagnostic tests following either an abnormal Pap test result or a clinically suspicious cervical lesion. In all women the following examinations were performed: a molecular test detecting 14 high-risk types of HPV, a colposcopy examination, as well as directed-biopsy of the cervix. The studied population was subdivided into four age groups. It was observed that the percentage of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancers increased with women's age. Sensitivity of both methods for detecting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions was highest for women aged 40-49 years. Sensitivity values of HPV testing was higher than that of cervical cytology among women under age 50. Specificity of HPV testing increased significantly with age of women and was several fold higher across all age groups than the specificity of cervical cytology.

  9. Clinical significance of serum and urinary HER2/neu protein levels in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Arikan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare serum and urinary HER2/neu levels between healthy control group and patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Additionally, we evaluated relationship of HER2/neu levels with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression. Materials and Methods: Fourty-four patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder tumors (Group 2 and 40 healthy control group (Group 1 were included the study. Blood and urinary samples were collected from all patients and HER2/neu levels were measured by ELISA method. Blood and urinary HER2/neu levels and additionally, ratio of urinary HER2/neu levels to urinary creatinine levels were recorded. Demographic data and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results: Mean serum HER2/neu levels were similar between two groups and statistically significant difference wasn't observed. Urinary HER2/neu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinine was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1, (p=0,021. Serum and urinary HER2/ neu levels were not associated with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression while ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinin levels were significantly higher in high-grade tumors. HER2/neu, the sensitivity of the test was found to be 20.5%, and the specificity was 97.5%, also for the urinary HER2/neu/urinary creatinine ratio, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 31.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary HER2/neu and ratio of urinary creatinine urine were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared to healthy subjects. Large series and controlled studies are needed for use as a tumor marker.

  10. Sediment-hosted gold deposits of the world: database and grade and tonnage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    recommend using the appropriate grade and tonnage model presented in this study for mineral resource assessments depending on the geologic and mineralogical data available for a region. Tonnage and contained gold within the general sediment-hosted gold model are analyzed based on major geologic features such as tectonic setting and magmatic (dikes, sills, and stocks) or amagmatic environment. The results show a significant difference in tonnage and contained gold, with higher median values in deposits spatially associated with igneous rocks, regardless of structural style of the deposit. These results suggest that magmatic environments control mineralization intensity—an important consideration in the regional assessment of prospective areas for sediment-hosted gold deposits.

  11. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalalipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  12. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012 – Analysis of grading to test quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schickler, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC and the other teaching hospitals could be found.In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time.Methods: The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315. The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of “very good” less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165. This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training.

  13. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012 – Analysis of grading to test quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickler, Angela; Brüstle, Peter; Biller, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC) and the other teaching hospitals could be found. In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time. Methods: The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315). The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (Landesprüfungsamt). The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of “very good” less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165). This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training. PMID:26483852

  14. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  15. Neutronics benchmark of a MOX assembly with near-weapons-grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Fisher, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the proposed ways to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium (Pu) is to irradiate the high-fissile material in light-water reactors in order to reduce the Pu enrichment to the level of spent fuels from commercial reactors. Considerable experience has been accumulated about the behavior of mixed-oxide (MOX) uranium and plutonium fuels for plutonium recycling in commercial reactors, but the experience is related to Pu enrichments typical of spent fuels quite below the values of weapons-grade plutonium. Important decisions related to the kind of reactors to be used for the disposition of the plutonium are going to be based on calculations, so the validation of computational algorithms related to all aspects of the fuel cycle (power distributions, isotopics as function of the burnup, etc.), for weapons-grade isotopics is very important. Analysis of public domain data reveals that the cycle-2 irradiation in the Quad cities boiling-water reactor (BWR) is the most recent US destructive examination. This effort involved the irradiation of five MOX assemblies using 80 and 90% fissile plutonium. These benchmark data were gathered by General Electric under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. It is emphasized, however, that global parameters are not the focus of this benchmark, since the five bundles containing MOX fuels did not significantly affect the overall core performance. However, since the primary objective of this work is to compare against measured post-irradiation assembly data, the term benchmark is applied here. One important reason for performing the benchmark on Quad Cities irradiation is that the fissile blends (up to 90%) are higher than reactor-grade and, quite close to, weapons-grade isotopics

  16. External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy: How Significant is the Bleeding Toxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kevin S.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Liauw, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the bleeding toxicity associated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients receiving anticoagulation (AC) therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 568 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy. Of these men, 79 were receiving AC therapy with either warfarin or clopidogrel. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Bleeding complications were recorded during treatment and subsequent follow-up visits. Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 4-year actuarial risk of Grade 3 or worse bleeding toxicity was 15.5% for those receiving AC therapy compared with 3.6% among those not receiving AC (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, AC therapy was the only significant factor associated with Grade 3 or worse bleeding (p < .0001). For patients taking AC therapy, the crude rate of bleeding was 39.2%. Multivariate analysis within the AC group demonstrated that a higher radiotherapy dose (p = .0408), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (p = 0.0136), and previous transurethral resection of the prostate (p = .0001) were associated with Grade 2 or worse bleeding toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy was protective against bleeding, with borderline significance (p = 0.0599). Dose-volume histogram analysis revealed that Grade 3 or worse bleeding was minimized if the percentage of the rectum receiving ≥70 Gy was <10% or the rectum receiving ≥50 Gy was <50%. Conclusion: Patients taking AC therapy have a substantial risk of bleeding toxicity from external beam radiotherapy. In this setting, dose escalation or intensity-modulated radiotherapy should be used judiciously. With adherence to strict dose-volume histogram criteria and minimizing hotspots, the risk of severe bleeding might be reduced.

  17. Automated Essay Grading using Machine Learning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, V. V.; Pandian, A.; Chetry, Prateek; Nigam, Himanshu

    2018-04-01

    Essays are paramount for of assessing the academic excellence along with linking the different ideas with the ability to recall but are notably time consuming when they are assessed manually. Manual grading takes significant amount of evaluator’s time and hence it is an expensive process. Automated grading if proven effective will not only reduce the time for assessment but comparing it with human scores will also make the score realistic. The project aims to develop an automated essay assessment system by use of machine learning techniques by classifying a corpus of textual entities into small number of discrete categories, corresponding to possible grades. Linear regression technique will be utilized for training the model along with making the use of various other classifications and clustering techniques. We intend to train classifiers on the training set, make it go through the downloaded dataset, and then measure performance our dataset by comparing the obtained values with the dataset values. We have implemented our model using java.

  18. External quality assurance for image grading in the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatman, K A; Philip, S; Fleming, A D; Harvey, R D; Swa, K K; Styles, C; Black, M; Sell, G; Lee, N; Sharp, P F; Olson, J A

    2012-06-01

    To develop and evaluate an image grading external quality assurance system for the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme. A web-based image grading system was developed which closely matches the current Scottish national screening software. Two rounds of external quality assurance were run in autumn 2008 and spring 2010, each time using the same 100 images. Graders were compared with a consensus standard derived from the top-level graders' results. After the first round, the centre lead clinicians and top-level graders reviewed the results and drew up guidance notes for the second round. Grader sensitivities ranged from 60.0 to 100% (median 92.5%) in 2008, and from 62.5 to 100% (median 92.5%) in 2010. Specificities ranged from 34.0 to 98.0% (median 86%) in 2008, and 54.0 to 100% (median 88%) in 2010. There was no difference in sensitivity between grader levels, but first-level graders had a significantly lower specificity than level-two and level-three graders. In 2008, one centre had a lower sensitivity but higher specificity than the majority of centres. Following the feedback from the first round, overall agreement improved in 2010 and there were no longer any significant differences between centres. A useful educational tool has been developed for image grading external quality assurance. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  19. Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Flower Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower grading is a significant task because it is extremely convenient for managing the flowers in greenhouse and market. With the development of computer vision, flower grading has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botany and computer vision. A new dataset named BjfuGloxinia contains three quality grades; each grade consists of 107 samples and 321 images. A multi-input convolutional neural network is designed for large scale flower grading. Multi-input CNN achieves a satisfactory accuracy of 89.6% on the BjfuGloxinia after data augmentation. Compared with a single-input CNN, the accuracy of multi-input CNN is increased by 5% on average, demonstrating that multi-input convolutional neural network is a promising model for flower grading. Although data augmentation contributes to the model, the accuracy is still limited by lack of samples diversity. Majority of misclassification is derived from the medium class. The image processing based bud detection is useful for reducing the misclassification, increasing the accuracy of flower grading to approximately 93.9%.

  20. Self-Concept and Sport Participation in Sixth Grade Basic School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Virag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine self-concept in relation to sport participation among basic school children. The sample included 109 sixth grade students of different Slovenian basic schools. The participants completed the Slovenian version of the SelfPerception Profile for Children – SPPC. The results show significant gender differences in some specific components of self-concept. Boys exhibited higher scores in perceived physical appearance and athletic competence, whereas girls exhibited higher levels in perceived behavioural conduct. Mean values show that students, engaged in organized sport practice, reported higher scores in all self-concept subscales than their inactive peers, although significant differences between these two groups were found in perceived scholastic competence and athletic competence. The study offers a detailed insight into the multidimensional self-perceptions of sixth grade basic school students. The results highlight the importance of physical/sports activity in the self-concept development and can be useful in promoting an active lifestyle among youth.

  1. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  2. Clinical Significance of A Waves in Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhan, Sindhuja; Venkatraman, Chandramouleeswaran; Vellaichamy, Kannan; Ranganathan, Lakshminarasimhan

    2018-05-25

    A wave is a late response recognized during recording of F waves. Though they might be seen in healthy subjects, their presence assumes significance in a patient presenting with polyradiculoneuropathy. In this prospective study, 75 patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) were enrolled. They were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of A waves. Clinical features, electrophysiological parameters and extent of clinical recovery in short-term follow-up were analyzed. A waves were present in 49 out of 75 patients (65%). Most common pattern observed was multiple A waves. Prevalence of A waves was more in lower limb nerves than upper limb nerves. Occurrence of A waves correlated with the presence of conduction block. Patients with A waves had higher Hughes grade (P = 0.003) and lower Medical Research Council sum score at 6 weeks of follow-up (P = 0.04) as compared to patients without A waves. A waves are common in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy form of Guillain Barre syndrome and are considered as a marker of demyelination. Long-term follow-up studies are required to ascertain their significance in prognostication and assessing recovery.

  3. Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Daniel J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Aldape, Kenneth D; Yung, W K Alfred; Salama, Sofie R; Cooper, Lee A D; Rheinbay, Esther; Miller, C Ryan; Vitucci, Mark; Morozova, Olena; Robertson, A Gordon; Noushmehr, Houtan; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Huse, Jason T; Ciriello, Giovanni; Poisson, Laila M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Berger, Mitchel S; Brennan, Cameron; Colen, Rivka R; Colman, Howard; Flanders, Adam E; Giannini, Caterina; Grifford, Mia; Iavarone, Antonio; Jain, Rajan; Joseph, Isaac; Kim, Jaegil; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mikkelsen, Tom; Murray, Bradley A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Parsons, Donald W; Sougnez, Carrie; Sulman, Erik P; Vandenberg, Scott R; Van Meir, Erwin G; von Deimling, Andreas; Zhang, Hailei; Crain, Daniel; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron; Bowen, Jay; Dicostanzo, Katie; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Pierson, Christopher R; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Taylor, Cynthia; Weaver, Stephanie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L; Hutter, Carolyn M; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Ozenberger, Bradley A; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Jensen, Mark A; Liu, Jia; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Auman, J Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bootwalla, Moiz S; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott; Chin, Lynda; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Clarke, Amanda; Coetzee, Simon G; Dhalla, Noreen; Fennell, Tim; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Gibbs, Richard; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Hayes, D Neil; Hinoue, Toshinori; Hoadley, Katherine; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven; Jones, Corbin D; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lai, Phillip H; Lander, Eric; Lee, Semin; Lichtenstein, Lee; Ma, Yussanne; Maglinte, Dennis T; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew L; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Protopopov, Alexei; Ren, Xiaojia; Roach, Jeffrey; Sabedot, Thaís S; Schein, Jacqueline; Schumacher, Steven E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seth, Sahil; Shen, Hui; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Soloway, Matthew G; Song, Xingzhi; Sun, Huandong; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Thiessen, Nina; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Waring, Scot; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I; Zhang, Jianhua; Aksoy, B Arman; Arachchi, Harindra; Benz, Chris; Bernard, Brady; Carlin, Daniel; Cho, Juok; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fuller, Gregory N; Gao, JianJiong; Gehlenborg, Nils; Haussler, David; Heiman, David I; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Ju, Zhenlin; Katzman, Sol; Kim, Hoon; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kreisberg, Richard Bailey; Lawrence, Michael S; Lee, William; Leinonen, Kalle; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Yuexin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Ng, Sam; Noble, Michael S; Paull, Evan; Rao, Arvind; Reynolds, Sheila; Saksena, Gordon; Sanborn, Zack; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Shen, Ronglai; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sinha, Rileen; Stuart, Josh; Sumer, S Onur; Sun, Yichao; Tasman, Natalie; Taylor, Barry S; Voet, Doug; Weinhold, Nils; Weinstein, John N; Yang, Da; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Zheng, Siyuan; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Lihua; Abel, Ty; Sadeghi, Sara; Cohen, Mark L; Eschbacher, Jenny; Hattab, Eyas M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Aziz, Dina; Barnett, Gene; Barrett, Wendi; Bigner, Darell D; Boice, Lori; Brewer, Cathy; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Campos, Benito; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Chan, Timothy A; Cuppini, Lucia; Curley, Erin; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; Devine, Karen; DiMeco, Francesco; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J Bradley; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Fulop, Jordonna; Gardner, Johanna; Hermes, Beth; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christine; Kendler, Ady; Lehman, Norman L; Lipp, Eric; Liu, Ouida; Mandt, Randy; McGraw, Mary; Mclendon, Roger; McPherson, Christopher; Neder, Luciano; Nguyen, Phuong; Noss, Ardene; Nunziata, Raffaele; Ostrom, Quinn T; Palmer, Cheryl; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Potapov, Alexander; Potapova, Olga; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Rotin, Daniil; Scarpace, Lisa; Schilero, Cathy; Senecal, Kelly; Shimmel, Kristen; Shurkhay, Vsevolod; Sifri, Suzanne; Singh, Rosy; Sloan, Andrew E; Smolenski, Kathy; Staugaitis, Susan M; Steele, Ruth; Thorne, Leigh; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Unterberg, Andreas; Vallurupalli, Mahitha; Wang, Yun; Warnick, Ronald; Williams, Felicia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Bell, Sue; Rosenberg, Mara; Stewart, Chip; Huang, Franklin; Grimsby, Jonna L; Radenbaugh, Amie J; Zhang, Jianan

    2015-06-25

    Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most

  4. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  6. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  7. Identification of Phosphohistone H3 Cutoff Values Corresponding to Original WHO Grades but Distinguishable in Well-Differentiated Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitotic counts in the World Health Organization (WHO grading system have narrow cutoff values. True mitotic figures, however, are not always distinguishable from apoptotic bodies and darkly stained nuclei, complicating the ability of the WHO grading system to diagnose well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The mitosis-specific marker phosphohistone H3 (PHH3 can identify true mitoses and grade tumors reliably. The aim of this study was to investigate the correspondence of tumor grades, as determined by PHH3 mitotic index (MI and mitotic counts according to WHO criteria, and to determine the clinically relevant cutoffs of PHH3 MI in rectal and nonrectal gastrointestinal NETs. Mitotic counts correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and PHH3 MI, but the correlation with PHH3 MI was slightly higher. The PHH3 MI cutoff ≥4 correlated most closely with original WHO grades for both rectal NETs. A PHH3 MI cutoff ≥4, which could distinguish between G1 and G2 tumors, was associated with disease-free survival in patients with rectal NETs, whereas that cutoff value showed marginal significance for overall survival in patient with rectal NETs. In conclusion, the use of PHH3 ≥4 correlated most closely with original WHO grades.

  8. Factors Associated with the Persistence of Bullying Victimization From 10th grade to 13th Grade: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Welander-Vatn, Audun

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among adolescents represents a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to map the stability of bullying victimization across the transitional phase from lower to upper secondary school, and to describe the sociodemographic, academic and health-related characteristics of those bullied during the transition. 3674 Norwegian adolescents were followed longitudinally from the age of 15/16 until the age of 18/19, answering questionnaires about health, academic achievements, life events, lifestyle and sociodemography. The 337 participants reporting exposure to bullying victimization at age 15/16 were the target group, as we made comparisons between those reporting victimization only at the age of 15/16 (n=289) with the participants for whom the bullying had continued into later adolescence (n = 48). 14% of those victimized at age 15/16, reported continuation of bullying victimization into upper secondary school. These adolescents were significantly more likely to report having divorced parents, low parental educational level, poor self-perceived economy, muscle and skeletal pain, symptoms of mental distress, lower school marks in Norwegian and higher body-mass index (BMI) when group differences at age 18/19 were assessed through basic inferential statistical tests. However, the multivariate logistic regression analyses only revealed statistically significantly increased adjusted odds ratios for the variables mental distress and school-marks in Norwegian. The persistence of exposure to bullying from 10th grade to 13th grade is associated with mental health complaints and poor school performance. Preventive measures to take care of students being continuously bullied should be in place in secondary schools.

  9. Prognostic significance of MR angiography in patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Woong Jae; Kim, Jun Ho; Seo, Jeong Jin; Cho, Ki Hyun; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic significance of Magnetic resonance angiography(MRA) in patients with cerebral infarction. Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) and 2 dimensional or 3 dimensional Time-of-Flight MRA were performed subsequently in 83 patients with cerebral infarction proven by brain CT and clinical manifestations, using GE Signa Advantage 1.5 T. We classified the size of infarction on MRI as Extent I( 6 cm) and classified the intracranial vascular occlusion according to visualizations of intracranial vascular branches on MRA as Grade 0, Grade I, Grade II, Grade III. And we evaluated clinical outcomes of these patients according to Rankin's disability scale, compared with MRI and MRA. In 72 cases(86.8%), the larger the size of infarction on MRI, the more severe vascular occlusion on MRA, the worse the clinical outcomes were noted(p < 0.01). However, in 7 cases(8.4%) who showed huge cerebral infarction on MRI with low grade intracranial vascular occlusion on MRA, the clinical outcomes were improved. In 4 cases(4.8%) who noted small sized cerebral infarction on MRI with high grade vascular occlusion on MRA, the clinical outcomes were worsened. MRA provides additional useful information to that provided by MRI in predicting the prognosis of patients with cerebral infarction

  10. The prognostic significance of preoperative serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in endometrial carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Emre E.; Yavuz, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the associations between serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels and prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinomas. Additionally, we investigated the clinical utility of serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in the selection of low-risk patients with endometrioid type, tumor size <2 cm, myometrial invasion ≤50%, and histological grade 1-2. Methods: Ninety-six patients, who were surgically staged at Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey, between 2007 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ hospital records. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifteen patients had advanced (≥Stage II) disease, 14 patients had Type 2 histology, 20 patients had Grade 3 tumors, 23 patients had lymphovascular space invasion, and 10 patients had positive lymph node involvement. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced (≥Stage II) disease, Type 2 histology, Grade 3 tumors, lymp°hovascular space invasion, and positive lymph node involvement (p<0.05). Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were also significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.006). Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly lower (95% confidence interval: 0.57−0.79; p=0.03) in low-risk patients compared to other endometrial carcinoma patients. A cutoff of 25.0 IU/mL was used to identify high-risk patients with a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels significantly correlated with prognostic factors and were a useful diagnostic tool for endometrial carcinomas. PMID:29114696

  11. The prognostic significance of preoperative serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in endometrial carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre E. Tas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the associations between serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels and prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinomas. Additionally, we investigated the clinical utility of serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in the selection of low-risk patients with endometrioid type, tumor size less than 2 cm, myometrial invasion ≤50%, and histological grade 1-2. Methods: Ninety-six patients, who were surgically staged at Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey, between 2007 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ hospital records. A p less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifteen patients had advanced (≥Stage II disease, 14 patients had Type 2 histology, 20 patients had Grade 3 tumors, 23 patients had lymphovascular space invasion, and 10 patients had positive lymph node involvement. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced (≥Stage II disease, Type 2 histology, Grade 3 tumors, lymphovascular space invasion, and positive lymph node involvement (p less than 0.05. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were also significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.006. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly lower (95% confidence interval: 0.57−0.79; p=0.03 in low-risk patients compared to other endometrial carcinoma patients. A cutoff of 25.0 IU/mL was used to identify high-risk patients with a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels significantly correlated with prognostic factors and were a useful diagnostic tool for endometrial carcinomas.

  12. Higher English language skills for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Mary M; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of a bestselling title, updated for the newest Higher English (for CfE) syllabus. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. This book provides you with the support and advice you will need to succeed in Higher English. By studying literary techniques and with top experts guiding you through and explaining how to use these skills, you will be helped to understand why questions are framed in a particular way and how to answer them in a manner that ensures the highest possible grade. - Become more secure in your knowledge of the English language. - Learn ho

  13. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  14. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane

    2016-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.

  15. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  16. Medical-grade footwear: the impact of fit and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Bessie; Branthwaite, Helen; Greenhalgh, Andrew; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2017-01-01

    Pressure-related skin lesions on the digits are a significant cause of discomfort. Most foot pain related to ill-fitting shoes occurs in the forefoot and digital areas. Pain has been associated with poor shoe fit, reduced toe box volume, as well as contour and shape of the shoe Off-the-shelf medical-grade footwear is designed as an intervention for chronic lesions on the digits. These shoes are designed with a flexible neoprene fabric upper that is thought to reduce pressure on the forefoot and reduce discomfort associated with ill-fitting shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an off-the-shelf, medical-grade shoe on dorsal digital pressure and perceived comfort when compared to participant's own preferred shoe. Thirty participants (18 females, 12 males) scored their perceived comfort whilst wearing each footwear style using a visual analog comfort scale. Dorsal digital and interdigital pressures were measured in using the WalkinSense® in-shoe pressure system. Sensors were placed on predetermined anatomical landmarks on the digits. Participants were randomly assigned the test shoe and their own shoe. Once wearing the shoe, the participants walked across a 6 m walkway and pressure data from each sensor was collected and processed to obtain peak pressure, time to peak pressure and contact time. Participants scored the test shoe with higher comfort points than their own footwear. Overall peak pressure, pressure time integral and contact time decreased, whilst the time taken to reach peak pressure increased across all anatomical landmarks whilst wearing the test shoe. Statistically significant changes were observed for all of the measured variables relating to pressure on the medial border of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The test shoe provided greater comfort and reduced the amount of pressure on the forefoot. The medical-grade footwear therefore, is a viable alternative to custom made prescription footwear and is more suitable than a

  17. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  18. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  19. The structural grading of young South African grown Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The young P. patula timber tested in this study had good bending strength (MOR) properties with higher characteristic grade values than required. The timber, however, had low stiffness and did not comply with the SANS 10163-1 requirements for mean modulus of elasticity on edge (MOEedge) for any of the structural ...

  20. Math and Economics: Implementing Authentic Instruction in Grades K-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althauser, Krista; Harter, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a partnership program that involved a local elementary school district, an institution of higher education, the local business community, and a state economic education advocacy group to integrate economics into math in grades K-5. The "Economics: Math in Real Life" program was provided in…

  1. A Synergistic Approach to Turning the Tide of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Kim C.; Gordon, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in the United States is facing increasing demands for colleges and universities to demonstrate what students learn and that they are providing a high-quality education experience during the undergraduate years (Pascarealla et al. in "Chang Mag High Learn" 42(1):16-22, 2010). Despite evidence of the elevation of grades in…

  2. The dynamics of giftedness in the upper primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Titel: The dynamics of giftedness in the upper primary grades Auteur: Joyce C.G. Gubbels Engelse samenvatting: Giftedness is often defined as an IQ-score of 130 or higher, that indicates strong analytical abilities. The research by Joyce Gubbels shows that in addition to analytically gifted

  3. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  4. Complications of high grade liver injuries: management and outcomewith focus on bile leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Miklosh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to expect an increased risk of hepatic complications following trauma. The aim of the current study was to define hepatic related morbidity in patients sustaining high-grade hepatic injuries that could be safely managed non-operatively. Patients and methods This is a retrospective study of patients with liver injury admitted to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre over a 10-year period. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Collected data included the number and types of liver-related complications. Interventions which were required for these complications in patients who survived longer than 24 hours were analysed. Results Of 398 patients with liver trauma, 64 (16% were found to have high-grade liver injuries. Mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 43 cases, and penetrating in 21. Forty patients (62% required operative treatment. Among survivors 22 patients (47.8% developed liver-related complications which required additional interventional treatment. Bilomas and bile leaks were diagnosed in 16 cases post-injury. The diagnosis of bile leaks was suspected with abdominal CT scan, which revealed intraabdominal collections (n = 6, and ascites (n = 2. Three patients had continuous biliary leak from intraabdominal drains left after laparotomy. Nine patients required ERCP with biliary stent placement, and 2 required percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. ERCP failed in one case. Four angioembolizations (AE were performed in 3 patients for rebleeding. Surgical treatment was found to be associated with higher complication rate. AE at admission was associated with a significantly higher rate of biliary complications. There were 24 deaths (37%, the majority from uncontrolled haemorrhage (18 patients. There were only 2 hepatic-related mortalities due to liver failure

  5. Complications of high grade liver injuries: management and outcomewith focus on bile leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Gazalla, Samir Abu; Faroja, Mohammad; Bloom, Allan I; Zamir, Gideon; Rivkind, Avraham I; Almogy, Gidon

    2012-03-23

    Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to expect an increased risk of hepatic complications following trauma. The aim of the current study was to define hepatic related morbidity in patients sustaining high-grade hepatic injuries that could be safely managed non-operatively. This is a retrospective study of patients with liver injury admitted to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre over a 10-year period. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Collected data included the number and types of liver-related complications. Interventions which were required for these complications in patients who survived longer than 24 hours were analysed. Of 398 patients with liver trauma, 64 (16%) were found to have high-grade liver injuries. Mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 43 cases, and penetrating in 21. Forty patients (62%) required operative treatment. Among survivors 22 patients (47.8%) developed liver-related complications which required additional interventional treatment. Bilomas and bile leaks were diagnosed in 16 cases post-injury. The diagnosis of bile leaks was suspected with abdominal CT scan, which revealed intraabdominal collections (n = 6), and ascites (n = 2). Three patients had continuous biliary leak from intraabdominal drains left after laparotomy. Nine patients required ERCP with biliary stent placement, and 2 required percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. ERCP failed in one case. Four angioembolizations (AE) were performed in 3 patients for rebleeding. Surgical treatment was found to be associated with higher complication rate. AE at admission was associated with a significantly higher rate of biliary complications. There were 24 deaths (37%), the majority from uncontrolled haemorrhage (18 patients). There were only 2 hepatic-related mortalities due to liver failure. A high complication rate following high-grade liver injuries should

  6. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  8. Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Ferreira Santos

    2004-07-01

    cells of unknown significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL. METHODS: a cross-sectional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively. These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%. CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

  9. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  10. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  11. An endoscopic mucosal grading system is predictive of leak in stapled rectal anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha-Bhaskar, Sarath; Jafari, Mehraneh D; Hanna, Mark; Koh, Christina Y; Inaba, Colette S; Mills, Steven D; Carmichael, Joseph C; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak. From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading. Retrospective review of patient medical records was performed. After creation of the colorectal anastomosis, application of a three-tier endoscopic mucosal grading system occurred. Grade 1 was defined as circumferentially normal appearing peri-anastomotic mucosa. Grade 2 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving 30% of the colon or rectal mucosa or ischemia/congestion involving both sides of the staple line. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 106 patients were reviewed. Grade 1 anastomoses were created in 92 (86.7%) patients and Grade 2 anastomoses were created in 10 (9.4%) patients. All 4 (3.8%) Grade 3 patients underwent immediate intraoperative anastomosis takedown and re-creation, with subsequent re-classification as Grade 1. Demographic and comorbidity data were similar between Grade 1 and Grade 2 patients. Anastomotic leak rate for the entire cohort was 12.2%. Grade 1 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 9.4% (9/96) and Grade 2 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 40% (4/10). Multivariate logistic regression associated Grade 2 classification with an increased risk of anastomotic leak (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.21-13.63, P = 0.023). Endoscopic mucosal grading is a feasible intraoperative technique that has a role following creation of a rectal anastomosis. Identification of a Grade 2 or Grade 3 anastomosis should provoke strong consideration for immediate intraoperative revision.

  12. Correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion MR parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Chen; Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Huayong; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie; He, Jian; Sun, Lingyun; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Parotid glands at grade 0–3 had significant values from those in healthy glands. • Parotid D and f values were correlated with MR nodule grade significantly. • There were significant differences of D, f, and D * values among glands at grade 0–3. - Abstract: Purpose: To explore the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance (MR) parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Materials and methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with SS and 28 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent bilateral parotid 3.0T MR examination including the IVIM sequence (9 b values, 0–800 s/mm 2 ). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion coefficient D, pseudo-diffusion coefficient D * , and perfusion fraction f of bilateral parotid glands were obtained, and the nodular grade of each parotid gland was evaluated according to the MR morphological appearance. Results: Sixty-two parotid glands in 31 patients with SS consisted of 32, 14, 8, and 8 parotid glands at MR nodular grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In parotid glands of grade 0, 1, 2, 3 and healthy volunteers, the ADC values were (1.13 ± 0.25, 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.05 ± 0.24, 0.89 ± 0.04 and 1.00 ± 0.21) × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, D values were (0.92 ± 0.13, 0.90 ± 0.19, 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.03, 0.81 ± 0.03) × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, f values were 0.20 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.06, and D * values were (53.89 ± 28.26, 41.78 ± 16.35, 51.24 ± 18.69, 31.83 ± 18.03, 36.83 ± 16.14) × 10 −3 mm 2 /s respectively. The ADC, D, f, and D * values of parotid glands in patients with SS at grade 0 were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (all P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the D and f values of parotid glands in patients with SS among different grades (P = 0.003, < 0.001, respectively). The IVIM parameters (D, f) of parotid glands at early

  13. Correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion MR parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chen, E-mail: chuchen19920905@163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhou, Nan, E-mail: snscorpion@163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhang, Huayong, E-mail: 13770560567@163.com [Department of Rheumatology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Dou, Xin, E-mail: douxin125@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Li, Ming, E-mail: lm069393@163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Liu, Song, E-mail: liusongnj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhu, Yun, E-mail: qqt111@hotmail.com [Department of Rheumatology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, Weibo, E-mail: Weibo.Chen@philips.com [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai, 200233 (China); Chan, Queenie, E-mail: queenie.chan@philips.com [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong (China); He, Jian, E-mail: hjxueren@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Sun, Lingyun, E-mail: lysun_nju@163.com [Department of Rheumatology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhou, Zhengyang, E-mail: zyzhou@nju.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Parotid glands at grade 0–3 had significant values from those in healthy glands. • Parotid D and f values were correlated with MR nodule grade significantly. • There were significant differences of D, f, and D{sup *} values among glands at grade 0–3. - Abstract: Purpose: To explore the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance (MR) parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Materials and methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with SS and 28 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent bilateral parotid 3.0T MR examination including the IVIM sequence (9 b values, 0–800 s/mm{sup 2}). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion coefficient D, pseudo-diffusion coefficient D{sup *}, and perfusion fraction f of bilateral parotid glands were obtained, and the nodular grade of each parotid gland was evaluated according to the MR morphological appearance. Results: Sixty-two parotid glands in 31 patients with SS consisted of 32, 14, 8, and 8 parotid glands at MR nodular grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In parotid glands of grade 0, 1, 2, 3 and healthy volunteers, the ADC values were (1.13 ± 0.25, 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.05 ± 0.24, 0.89 ± 0.04 and 1.00 ± 0.21) × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, D values were (0.92 ± 0.13, 0.90 ± 0.19, 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.03, 0.81 ± 0.03) × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, f values were 0.20 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.06, and D{sup *}values were (53.89 ± 28.26, 41.78 ± 16.35, 51.24 ± 18.69, 31.83 ± 18.03, 36.83 ± 16.14) × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively. The ADC, D, f, and D{sup *} values of parotid glands in patients with SS at grade 0 were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (all P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the D and f values of parotid glands in patients with SS among different grades (P = 0.003, < 0.001, respectively). The IVIM

  14. Study of thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in exponential mass graded lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Tejal N. [Bhavan' s Sheth R.A. College of Science, Khanpur, Ahmedabad 380 001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P.N., E-mail: pngajjar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009, Gujarat (India)

    2012-01-09

    Concept of exponential mass variation of oscillators along the chain length of N oscillators is proposed in the present Letter. The temperature profile and thermal conductivity of one-dimensional (1D) exponential mass graded harmonic and anharmonic lattices are studied on the basis of Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) β model. Present findings conclude that the exponential mass graded chain provide higher conductivity than that of linear mass graded chain. The exponential mass graded anharmonic chain generates the thermal rectification of 70–75% which is better than linear mass graded materials, so far. Thus instead of using linear mass graded material, the use of exponential mass graded material will be a better and genuine choice for controlling the heat flow at nano-scale. -- Highlights: ► In PRE 82 (2010) 040101, use of mass graded material as a thermal devices is explored. ► Concept of exponential mass graded material is proposed. ► The rectification obtained is about 70–75% which is better than linear mass graded materials. ► The exponential mass graded material will be a better choice for the thermal devices at nano-scale.

  15. EMMPRIN expression positively correlates with WHO grades of astrocytomas and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Li-Chun; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Ma, Hsin-I; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    High-grade primary brain tumors possessed poor outcome due to invasiveness. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates peri-tumoral fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteinase and promote invasiveness. This study hypothesized that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN. Analyzing the public delinked database from the Gene Expression Omnibus profile, the results showed that the EMMPRIN mRNA level was higher in WHO grade IV (n = 81) than in grade III (n = 19, p EMMPRIN levels positively correlated with WHO grades for astrocytomas (p = 0.008) and meningiomas (p = 0.048). EMMPRIN mRNA levels in conventional glioma cell lines (n = 36) was not less than those in glioma primary culture cells (n = 27) and glioblastoma stem-like cells (n = 12). The GBM8401, U87MG, and LN229 human glioma cell lines also overexpressed EMMPRIN. Hematoxylin and eosin, IHC, and immunofluorescence staining of xenografts confirmed that high-grade brain tumors overexpressed EMMPRIN. Lastly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed poorer survival in WHO grade IV (n = 56) than in grade III astrocytomas (n = 21, by log-rank test; p = 0.0001, 95 % CI: 1.842-3.053). However, in high-grade astrocytomas, there was no difference in survival between high and low EMMPRIN mRNA levels. Thus, this study identified that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN, which positively correlates with WHO grades in human astrocytomas and meningiomas, and suggests that EMMPRIN may be a therapeutic target of brain tumor.

  16. Accordion complication grading predicts short-term outcome after right colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Coen L; Safar, Bashar; Hunt, Steven R; Wise, Paul E; Birnbaum, Elisa H; Mutch, Matthew G; Fleshman, James W; Dharmarajan, Sekhar

    2014-08-01

    The Accordion severity grading system is a novel system to score the severity of postoperative complications in a standardized fashion. This study aims to demonstrate the validity of the Accordion system in colorectal surgery by correlating severity grades with short-term outcomes after right colectomy for colon cancer. This is a retrospective cohort review of patients who underwent right colectomy for cancer between January 1, 2002, and January 31, 2007, at a single tertiary care referral center. Complications were categorized according to the Accordion severity grading system: grades 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), 3-5 (severe), and 6 (death). Outcome measures were hospital stay, 30-d readmission rate and 1-y survival. Correlation between Accordion grades and outcome measures is reflected by Spearman rho (ρ). One-year survival was obtained per Kaplan-Meier method and compared by logrank test for trend. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 235 patients underwent right colectomy for cancer of which 122 (51.9%) had complications. In total, 52 (43%) had an Accordion grade 1 complication; 44 (36%) grade 2; four (3%) grade 3; 11 (9%) grade 4; seven (6%) grade 5; and four (3%) grade 6. There was significant correlation between Accordion grades and hospital stay (ρ = 0.495, P trend in 1-y survival as complication severity by Accordion grade increased (P = 0.02). The Accordion grading system is a useful tool to estimate short-term outcomes after right colectomy for cancer. High-grade Accordion complications are associated with longer hospital stay and increased risk of readmission and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  18. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  19. Long-term Outcomes With Planned Multistage Reduced Dose Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Inoperable High-Grade Arteriovenous Malformations: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciscano, Ariel E; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Hu, Chen; Khattab, Mohamed H; Aggarwal, Sameer; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Rigamonti, Daniele; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of inoperable high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This long-term study of 42 patients with high-grade AVMs reports obliteration and adverse event (AE) rates using planned multistage repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multistage SRS with treatment of the entire AVM nidus at each treatment session to achieve complete obliteration of high-grade AVMs. Patients with high-grade Spetzler-Martin (S-M) III-V AVMs treated with at least 2 multistage SRS treatments from 1989 to 2013. Clinical outcomes of obliteration rate, minor/major AEs, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-two patients met inclusion criteria (n = 26, S-M III; n = 13, S-M IV; n = 3, S-M V) with a median follow-up was 9.5 yr after first SRS. Median number of SRS treatment stages was 2, and median interval between stages was 3.5 yr. Twenty-two patients underwent pre-SRS embolization. Complete AVM obliteration rate was 38%, and the median time to obliteration was 9.7 yr. On multivariate analysis, higher S-M grade was significantly associated ( P = .04) failure to achieve obliteration. Twenty-seven post-SRS AEs were observed, and the post-SRS intracranial hemorrhage rate was 0.027 events per patient year. Treatment of high-grade AVMs with multistage SRS achieves AVM obliteration in a meaningful proportion of patients with acceptable AE rates. Lower obliteration rates were associated with higher S-M grade and pre-SRS embolization. This approach should be considered with caution, as partial obliteration does not protect from hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  20. Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although African Americans (AAs are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs, they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities in breast cancer aggressiveness among 809 invasive breast cancer patients who responded to a survey on their lifestyle. Multivariable regressions and mediation analyses were performed to assess the effect of sleep duration on the association of race with tumor grade. AAs reported shorter average sleep (mean [standard deviation] 6.57 [1.47] h than EAs (mean [standard deviation] 7.11 [1.16] h; P<0.0001 and were almost twice as likely to report less than 6 h of sleep per night (48.0% vs. 25.3%, P<0.0001. AA patients were more likely to have high-grade tumors (52.6% vs. 28.7% in EAs, P=0.0002. In multivariate analysis, race was associated with tumor grade (P<0.0001. On adjustment for sleep duration, the effect of race was reduced by 7.1%, but remained statistically significant (P=0.0006. However, the Sobel test did not indicate statistical significance (z=1.69, P=0.091. In other models accounting for these and additional confounders, we found similar results. Because of the conservative nature of the mediation analysis and smaller sample size, replication of our results in larger studies with more AA patients is warranted.

  1. Which Instructional Practices Most Help First Grade Students with and without Mathematics Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We used population-based, longitudinal data to investigate the relation between mathematics instructional practices used by 1st grade teachers in the U.S. and the mathematics achievement of their students. Factor analysis identified four types of instructional activities (i.e., teacher-directed, student-centered, manipulatives/calculators, movement/music) and eight types of specific skills taught (e.g., adding two-digit numbers). First-grade students were then classified into five groups on the basis of their fall and/or spring of kindergarten mathematics achievement—three groups with mathematics difficulties (MD) and two without MD. Regression analysis indicated that a higher percentage of MD students in 1st grade classrooms was associated with greater use by teachers of manipulatives/calculators and movement/music to teach mathematics. Yet follow-up analysis for each of the MD and non-MD groups indicated that only teacher-directed instruction was significantly associated with the achievement of students with MD (covariate-adjusted ESs = .05–.07). The largest predicted effect for a specific instructional practice was for routine practice and drill. In contrast, for both groups of non-MD students, teacher-directed and student-centered instruction had approximately equal, statistically significant positive predicted effects (covariate-adjusted ESs = .03–.04). First-grade teachers in the U.S. may need to increase their use of teacher-directed instruction if they are to raise the mathematics achievement of students with MD. PMID:26180268

  2. "RMP Evaluations, Course Easiness, and Grades: Are They Related?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Rizvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the student evaluations of the instructors at the RateMyProfessors.com (RMP website and the average grades awarded by those instructors. As of Spring 2012, the RMP site included evaluations of 538 full-and part-time instructors at the College of Staten Island (CSI. We selected the evaluations of the 419 instructors who taught at CSI for at least two semesters from Fall 2009 to Spring 2011 and had at least ten evaluations. This research indicates that there is a strong correlation between RMP's overall evaluation and easiness scores. However, the perceived easiness of an instructor/course does not always result in higher grades for students. Furthermore, we found that the instructors who received high overall evaluation and easiness scores (4.0 to 5.0 at the RMP site do not necessarily award high grades. This is a very important finding as it disputes the argument that instructors receive high evaluations because they are easy or award high grades. On the other hand, instructors of the courses that are perceived to be difficult (RMP easiness score of 3.0 or less are likely to be tough graders. However, instructors who received moderate overall evaluation and easiness scores (between 3.0 and 4.0 the RMP site had a high correlation between these scores and average grade awarded by those instructors. Finally, our research shows that the instructors in non-STEM disciplines award higher grades than the instructors in STEM disciplines. Non-STEM instructors also received higher overall evaluations than their STEM counterparts and non-STEM courses were perceived easier by the students than STEM courses.

  3. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  4. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  5. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  6. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  7. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  8. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  9. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Min Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133 of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005 and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033, as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038 than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a

  10. Correlation of DNA content and nucleomorphometric features with World Health Organization grading of meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, J P; Röhl, F W; Kirches, E; Dietzmann, K

    1998-02-01

    Many studies dealing with extracranial cancer showed a strong correlation of DNA ploidy to a poor clinical outcome, recurrence, or malignancy. In brain tumors, analysis of DNA content did not always provided significant diagnostic information. In this study, DNA density and karyometric parameters of 50 meningiomas (26 Grade I, 10 Grade II, 14 Grade III) were quantitatively evaluated by digital cell image analyses of Feulgen-stained nuclei. In particular, the densitometric parameter SEXT, which describes nuclear DNA content, as well as the morphometric values LENG (a computer-assisted measurement of nuclear circumference), AREA (a computer-assisted measurement of nuclear area), FCON (a parameter that describes nuclear roundness), and CONC (a describing nuclear contour), evaluated with the software IMAGE C, were correlated to World Health Organization (WHO) grading using univariate and multivariate methods. AREA and LENG values showed significant differences between tumors of Grades I and III. FCON values were unable to distinguish WHO Grade III from Grade I/II but were useful in clearly separating Grade II from Grade I tumors. CONC values detected differences between WHO Grades II and I/III tumors but not between the latter. SEXT values clearly distinguished Grade III from Grade I/II tumors. The 1c, 2c, 2.5c, and 5c exceeding rates showed no predictive values. Only the 6c exceeding rate showed a significant difference between Grades I and III. These results outline the characteristic features of the atypical (Grade II) meningiomas, which make them a recognizable tumor entity distinct from benign and anaplastic meningiomas. The combination of DNA densitometric and morphometric findings seems to be a powerful addition to the histopathologic classification of meningiomas, as suggested by the WHO.

  11. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  12. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  13. Adenocarcinoma predominant pattern subtyping and nuclear grading in cytology: Is there a role in prognostication of advanced pulmonary adenocarcinomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambirajan, A; Kaur, H; Jangra, K; Kaur, K; Madan, K; Mathur, S R; Iyer, V K; Jain, D

    2018-04-01

    Primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADs) show varied architectural patterns, and pattern-based subtyping of ADs is currently recommended due to prognostic implications. Predicting AD patterns on cytology is challenging; however, cytological nuclear features appear to correlate with histological grade and survival in early stage lung ADs. The feasibility and value of AD pattern prediction and nuclear grading on cytology in advanced lung ADs is not known. We aimed to predict patterns and analyse nuclear features on cytology and evaluate their role in prognostication. One-hundred patients of Stage III/IV lung AD with available matched cytology and histology samples were included. Cyto-patterns based on cell arrangement patterns (flat sheets vs three-dimensional clusters vs papillae) and cyto-nuclear score based on nuclear features (size, shape, contour), nucleoli (macronucleoli vs prominent vs inconspicuous), and nuclear chromatin were determined, and correlated with predominant histological-pattern observed on the matched small biopsy and outcome. Higher cyto-nuclear scores were observed with high-grade histo-patterns (solid, micropapillary and cribriform), while the predicted cyto-patterns did not correspond to the predominant pattern on histology in 77% cases. Highest cyto-histo agreement was observed for solid pattern (72%). High grade histo-patterns and cyto-nuclear scores > 3 showed a trend towards inferior survival (not significant). Nuclear grade scoring on cytology is simple to perform, and is predictive of high grade patterns. Its inclusion in routine reporting of cytology samples of lung ADs may be valuable. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P; Iafrate, A John

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis.

  15. Associations between inflammatory cells infiltrating the ethmoid sinus mucosa, and nasal polyp size and grade of ethmoid sinus opacification on CT images in chronic sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imajima, Naotoshi; Watanabe, So; Furuta, Atsuko; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Naohiro; Mochizuki, Yuichiro; Suzaki, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the types and numbers of inflammatory cells that infiltrated the ethmoid sinus mucosa in cases of chronic sinusitis in order to identify any associations with nasal polyp size and the grade of ethmoid sinus opacification on computer tomography images. The subjects were patients with chronic sinusitis who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Seventeen subjects also had bronchial asthma as a complication (six with aspirin-induced asthma, 11 with another form of asthma) and 24 did not have bronchial asthma as a complication (16 with allergic rhinitis, 8 with chronic sinusitis alone). The nasal polyps in the patients with bronchial asthma were significantly larger than those in the patients without bronchial asthma. Investigation of the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells according to polyp size revealed significantly more eosinophils as polyp size increased. In addition, infiltration of significantly more mast cells was observed when the polyps were large. Assessment of the grade of opacification of the ethmoid sinuses on computer tomography images showed a significantly higher grade of opacification in the patients with bronchial asthma than in the patients without bronchial asthma. Comparisons between the grade of opacification of the ethmoid sinuses and the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells revealed significantly more infiltrating eosinophils and mast cells in the patients with intense ethmoid sinus opacification. The above findings suggest that eosinophils and mast cells play a major role in forming the persistent inflammation of the sinus mucosa and nasal polyp tissue of patients with chronic sinusitis complicated by bronchial asthma. (author)

  16. A Situative Metaphor for Teacher Learning: The Case of University Tutors Learning to Grade Student Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Pete; Bloxham, Sue

    2014-01-01

    In the continuing concern about academic standards in the higher education sector a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality assurance procedures rather than on considering how university tutors learn to grade the quality of work produced by students. As part of a larger research project focused on how tutors grade student coursework,…

  17. Extent of resection and timing of surgery in adult low grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mirza, Farhan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Low grade glioma is a group of WHO grade II tumours including diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. Strong evidence exists in literature now to support early surgery and higher extent of safe resection in improving outcomes. In this review, we are highlighting some of the important studies done in the last few years specifically addressing timing of surgery and extent of resection.

  18. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  19. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  20. Band structures in fractal grading porous phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a new grading porous structure is introduced based on a Sierpinski triangle routine, and wave propagation in this fractal grading porous phononic crystal is investigated. The influences of fractal hierarchy and porosity on the band structures in fractal graidng porous phononic crystals are clarified. Vibration modes of unit cell at absolute band gap edges are given to manifest formation mechanism of absolute band gaps. The results show that absolute band gaps are easy to form in fractal structures comparatively to the normal ones with the same porosity. Structures with higher fractal hierarchies benefit multiple wider absolute band gaps. This work provides useful guidance in design of fractal porous phononic crystals.

  1. Lens subluxation grading system: predictive value for ectopia lentis surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Waiswol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a classification system to grade ectopia lentis and to assess its usefulness as a predictor for surgical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients with either simple (19 patients or Marfan syndrome-associated ectopia lentis (nine patients with variable degrees of subluxation were operated on. Lens subluxation intensity was graded according to the lens subluxation grading system (LSGS from grade 1 (lens on the whole pupillary area up to grade 4 (lens absent from the pupillary area. Thirty eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Twenty-one eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with scleral fixation of the IOL. The predictive value of the LSGS was assessed by analyzing the post-operative outcomes, including visual acuity (VA, endothelial cell loss, and complications for each grade on the grading system. Rresults: Patients were classified into grade 1 (19.6%, grade 2 (51% and grade 3 (29.4%. Post-operative VA was lower for eyes with larger degrees of subluxation. The higher the subluxation grade, the higher the endothelial cell loss, as well as, the frequency of vitreous loss and surgical time. Higher subluxation grades prevented optimal surgical outcomes with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag IOL implantation. Cconclusions: The LSGS provides an estimate of the surgical success of ectopia lentis. Adequate standardization of lens subluxation is crucial for understanding studies dealing with the surgical correction of this disorder.

  2. Clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in detecting preinvasive cervical lesions in post- menopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmak, Aytekin; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Oz, Murat; Akbay, Serap; Erkaya, Salim; Gungor, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in PAP test in post-menopausal women and compare with reproductive age women. A total of 367 patients who referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic were included to the study between September 2012 and August 2013. Data for 164 post-menopausal (group 1) and 203 pre-menopausal (group 2) women with ASCUS cytology were evaluated retrospectively. Immediate colposcopy and endocervical curettage was performed for both groups and conization for all women with a result suggestive of CIN2-3. Histopathological results and demographic features of patients were compared between the two groups. Mean age of the patients was 54.6±6.5 years in group 1 and 38±6.6 years in group 2. Some 14 (8.5%) of post- menopausal women and 36 (17.7%) of pre-menopausal women were current smokers (p=011). Totals of 38 (23.2%) post-menopausal and 64 (31.5%) pre-menopausal women were assessed for HPV-DNA. High risk HPV was detected in 7 (4.3%) and 21 (10.3%), respectively (p=0.029). Final histopathological results recorded were normal cervix, low grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), and high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3). In group 1 results were 84.8%, 12.2% and 1.8%, respectively, and in group 2 were 71.9%, 23.2% and 4.9%. There were no cases of micro invasive or invasive cervical carcinoma in either group. Two cases were detected as endometrial carcinoma in the menopausal group (1.2%). In current study we found that preinvasive lesions were statistically significantly higher in pre-menopausal women than post- menopausal women with ASCUS. Cervicitis was more common in menopausal women. Therefore, we think that in case of ASCUS in a post-menopausal woman there is no need for radical management.

  3. Predicting the Grade of Disability 1 Year After Stroke Following Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Hong Lin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of grades of disability at least 1 year after stroke rehabilitation therapy. We recruited stroke patients from the inpatient rehabilitation department of a university hospital. The degree of disability was graded using the disability evaluation at least 1 year after stroke onset. Functional ability was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure instrument on admission, on discharge from the inpatient rehabilitation program, and at the 6-month follow-up visit after discharge. Major sociodemographic, medical, and rehabilitative factors were also collected during the hospitalization period. Of the 109 patients surveyed, 64 (58.7% had severe or very severe grades of disability. The correlates of severe or very severe disability in logistic regression analyses were bilaterally affected (odds ratio, OR, 10.8, impaired orientation (OR, 3.6, and poorer functional ability at discharge (OR, 7.6. Based on the significant predictors identified, the logistic regression model correctly classified severe or very severe disability in 68.0% of subjects. The higher frequency of severe or very severe disability in this study may have been due to the relatively more severely affected stroke patient population in the inpatient rehabilitation service and the use of unique disability evaluation criteria. These results may provide information useful in planning continuous rehabilitation care and setting relevant socio-welfare policies for stroke victims.

  4. Fitness, fatness, and academic performance in seventh-grade elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to the benefits on physical and mental health, cardiorespiratory fitness has shown to have positive effects on cognition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and body weight status on academic performance among seventh-grade students. Methods Participants included 1531 grade 7 students (787 male, 744 female), ranging in age from 12 to 14 years (Mage = 12.3 ± 0.60), from 3 different cohorts. Academic performance was measured using the marks students had, at the end of their academic year, in mathematics, language (Portuguese), foreign language (English), and sciences. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, from Fitnessgram, was used as the test battery. The relationship between academic achievement and the independent and combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness/weight status was analysed, using multinomial logistic regression. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were independently related with academic achievement. Fit students, compared with unfit students had significantly higher odds for having high academic achievement (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.48-3.55, p academic achievement (OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 1.82-7.34, p academic achievement in seventh-grade students independent of the different cohorts, providing further support that aerobically fit and normal weight students are more likely to have better performance at school regardless of the year that they were born. PMID:25001376

  5. Sibling bullying perpetration: associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim; Campbell, Marilyn A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A Novel Candidate Molecule in Pathological Grading Of Gliomas: ELABELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artas, Gokhan; Ozturk, Sait; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Gonen, Murat; Artas, Hakan; Aydin, Suleyman; Erol, Fatih Serhat

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to investigate the possible role of ELABELA (ELA) in the histopathological grading of gliomas. We retrospectively assessed pathological specimens of patients who underwent surgery for intracranial space-occupying lesions. Only primary glioma specimens were included in this study. We enrolled 11 patients histologically diagnosed with low-grade glioma and 22 patients with high-grade glioma. The ELA antibody was applied to 4-6-µm-thick sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Histoscores were calculated using the distribution and intensity of staining immunoreactivity. An independent sample t-test was used for two-point inter-group assessments, whereas one-way analysis of variance was used for the other assessments. P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The histoscores of the control brain, low-grade glioma, and high-grade glioma tissues were found to be 0.08, 0.37, and 0.92, respectively. The difference in ELA immunoreactivity between the control brain tissue and glioma tissue was statistically significant (p 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant increase was observed in ELA immunoreactivity in high-grade glioma tissues compared with that in low-grade glioma tissues (p 0.05). ELA has an angiogenetic role in the progression of glial tumors. ELA, which is an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor, activates the apelinergic system and causes the progression of glial tumors. Further studies with a large number of patients are necessary to investigate the angiogenetic role of ELA in glial tumors.

  7. Awarding global grades in OSCEs: evaluation of a novel eLearning resource for OSCE examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerard J; Johnston, Jenny; Thomson, Clare; McGlade, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    A novel online resource has been developed to aid OSCE examiner training comprising a series of videos of OSCE performances that allow inter-examiner comparison of global grade decisions. To evaluate this training resource in terms of usefulness and ability to improve examiner confidence in awarding global grades in OSCEs. Data collected from the first 200 users included global grades awarded, willingness to change grades following peer comparison and confidence in awarding grades before and after training. Most (86.5%) agreed that the resource was useful in developing global grade scoring ability in OSCEs, with a significant improvement in confidence in awarding grades after using the training package (p<0.001). This is a useful and effective online training package. As an adjunct to traditional training it offers a practical solution to the problem of availability of examiners.

  8. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  9. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  10. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  11. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  12. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  13. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  14. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  16. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  17. Is Kindergarten the New First Grade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Bassok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent accounts suggest that accountability pressures have trickled down into the early elementary grades and that kindergarten today is characterized by a heightened focus on academic skills and a reduction in opportunities for play. This paper compares public school kindergarten classrooms between 1998 and 2010 using two large, nationally representative data sets. We show substantial changes in each of the five dimensions considered: kindergarten teachers’ beliefs about school readiness, time spent on academic and nonacademic content, classroom organization, pedagogical approach, and use of standardized assessments. Kindergarten teachers in the later period held far higher academic expectations for children both prior to kindergarten entry and during the kindergarten year. They devoted more time to advanced literacy and math content, teacher-directed instruction, and assessment and substantially less time to art, music, science, and child-selected activities.

  18. Peer harassment at primary school: gender and school grade differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Martín Seoane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.

  19. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alati, David K.

    2011-01-01

    No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…

  20. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S.; Watt, D.; Disrud, L.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  1. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti G

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available G Simonetti, P Gaviani, A Botturi, A Innocenti, E Lamperti, A Silvani Neurooncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy Abstract: Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS, from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients' quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients. Keywords: anaplastic oligodendroglioma, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  2. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, G; Gaviani, P; Botturi, A; Innocenti, A; Lamperti, E; Silvani, A

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients’ quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients

  3. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  4. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    An increasing need for goods and passenger transportation drives continued worldwide growth in traffic. As traffic increases environmental concerns, traffic safety, and cost efficiency become ever more important. Advancements in microelectronics open the possibility to address these issues through new advanced driver assistance systems. Applications such as predictive cruise control, automated gearbox control, predictive front lighting control, and hybrid vehicle state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information is currently obtained using specialized survey vehicles, and is not widely available. This thesis proposes new methods to obtain road grade information using on-board sensors. The task of creating road grade maps is addressed by the proposal of a framework where vehicles using a road network collect the necessary data for estimating the road grade. The estimation can then be carried out locally in the vehicle, or in the presence of a communication link to the infrastructure, centrally. In either case the accuracy of the map increases over time, and costly road surveys can be avoided. This thesis presents a new distributed method for creating accurate road grade maps for vehicle control applications. Standard heavy duty vehicles in normal operation are used to collect measurements. Estimates from multiple passes along a road segment are merged to form a road grade map, which improves each time a vehicle retraces a route. The design and implementation of the road grade estimator are described, and the performance is experimentally evaluated using real vehicles. Three different grade estimation methods, based on different assumption on the road grade signal, are proposed and compared. They all use data from sensors that are standard equipment in heavy duty vehicles. Measurements of the vehicle speed and the engine

  5. Association between varicocele grade and semen analysis parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ariyati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicocele is a condition characterized by elongation, dilatation and tortuousity of spermatic vein in pampiniform plexus. Approximately 50% of infertility cases among men are caused by varicocele. The varicocele may affect the components of sperm. This study aimed to determine the association between varicocele grade based on ultrasound Doppler examination and sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology based on semen analysis examination.Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study which used secondary data from 85 patients that visited Department of Urology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, then underwent ultrasonography examination at Department of Radiology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and semen analysis examination at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital.Results: Varicocele grade was significantly associated with sperm morphology, concentration and motility (all p<0.05. Significant association was found between maximum condition and semen analysis component.Conclusion: Varicocele grade may affect semen analysis component.

  6. What are the differentiating clinical and MRI-features of enchondromas from low-grade chondrosarcomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); University Hospital Birmingham, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Parry, M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Vaiyapuri, S. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Pathology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the role of clinical assessment, conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in differentiating enchondromas from chondrosarcomas of long bone. The following clinical and MRI findings were assessed: age, gender, pain, pain attributable to lesion, tumour location, tumour length, presence, depth of endosteal scalloping, bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, bone expansion, macroscopic fat, calcification, soft tissue mass, haemorrhage, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Clinical and MRI findings were compared with histopathological grading. Sixty patients with central chondroid tumours were included (27 enchondromas, 10 cartilaginous lesions of unknown malignant potential, 15 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 8 high-grade chondrosarcomas). Pain attributed to lesion, tumour length, endosteal scalloping > 2/3, cortical destruction, bone expansion and soft tissue mass were differentiating features between enchondromas and grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI could not differentiate enchondromas from grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Previously reported imaging signs of chondrosarcomas are useful in the diagnosis of grade 1 lesions but have lower sensitivity than in higher grade lesions. Deep endosteal scalloping is the most sensitive imaging sign of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Pain due to the lesion is an important clinical sign of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is not useful in differentiating enchondromas from grade 1 chondrosarcomas. (orig.)

  7. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  8. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  9. The Role of the A* Grade at a Level as a Predictor of University Performance in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Rodeiro, Carmen; Zanini, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    In summer 2010, the A* grade at A level was awarded for the first time. This grade was introduced to help higher education institutions to differentiate between the highest achieving candidates and to promote and reward greater stretch and challenge. Exploring data from the Higher Education Statistics Service and making use of multilevel…

  10. A Study of the Correlation of the Improvement of Teaching Evaluation Scores Based on Student Performance Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi Yuan; Wang, Shu-Yin; Yang, Yi-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the influence of teaching evaluations on teachers in that they might try to please their students by giving higher grades in order to get higher teaching evaluation scores. To achieve this purpose, the study analyzed the correlations between teaching evaluation scores, student's final grades and course fail…

  11. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  12. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  13. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Huang Rongchong; Lu Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the detection of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Methods: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined with RIA in 176 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with CHF were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The levels increased along with the increase of severity of cardiac failure. The levels in patients with cardiac function of any grade were significantly different from those in patients with another grade of cardiac function. Conclusion: Immunological activation and myocardial inflammation exist in CHF patients. The increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-6 can trigger the onset and development of CHF. (authors)

  14. FET PET for the evaluation of untreated gliomas: correlation of FET uptake and uptake kinetics with tumour grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poepperl, Gabriele; Koch, Walter; Gildehaus, Franz J.; Tatsch, Klaus; Kreth, Friedrich W.; Mehrkens, Jan H.; Tonn, Joerg C.; Herms, Jochen; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Seelos, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Treatment and prognosis of gliomas depend on their histological tumour grade. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of [ 18 F]fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET for non-invasive tumour grading in untreated patients. Dynamic FET PET studies were performed in 54 patients who, based on MRI, were estimated to have low grade (LG; n = 20), intermediate (WHO II-III; n = 4) or high grade (HG; n = 30) tumours. For standard evaluation, tumour SUV max and the ratio to background (SUV max /BG) were calculated (sum image: 20-40 min). For dynamic evaluation, mean SUV values within a 90% isocontour ROI (SUV90) and the SUV90/BG ratios were determined for each time frame to evaluate the course of FET uptake. Results were correlated with histopathological findings from PET-guided stereotactic biopsies. Histology revealed gliomas in all patients. Using the standard method a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was found between LG (n = 20; SUV max /BG: 2.16 ± 0.98) and HG (n = 34; SUV max /BG: 3.29 ± 1.06) gliomas (opt. threshold 2.58: SN71%/SP85%/area under ROC curve [AUC]:0.798), however, with a marked overlap between WHO II to IV tumours. Time activity curves showed slight increase in LG, whereas HG tumours presented with an early peak (10-20 min) followed by a decrease. Dynamic evaluation successfully separated LG from HG gliomas with higher diagnostic accuracy (SN94%/SP100%/AUC:0.967). Based on the ratio-based method, a statistically significant difference was found between LG and HG gliomas. Due to the interindividual variability, however, no reliable individual grading was possible. In contrast, dynamic evaluation allowed LG and HG gliomas to be differentiated with high diagnostic power and, thus, should supplement the conventional method. (orig.)

  15. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  16. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  17. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated With Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith J; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa M; Abelson, Mark B

    2015-04-01

    To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the OpenCV computer vision library. Images (n = 229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of 54 photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0 to 4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred = 1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (P < 0.0001). The CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% confidence interval (0.884-0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in SD between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multicentered clinical trials of dry eye.

  18. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  19. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  20. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  1. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  2. Agreement between photographic screening and hospital biomicroscopy grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Rachel; Sallam, Ahmed; Jones, Vanessa; Donachie, Paul H J; Scanlon, Peter H; Stratton, Irene M; Johnston, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    To examine the level of agreement and reasons for disagreement between grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using mydriatic digital photographs in a diabetic retinopathy screening service (DRSS) and hospital eye service (HES). English NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme grades for diabetic retinopathy prospectively recorded on a hospital electronic medical record were compared to the grades from the DRSS event that prompted referral. In cases of disagreement, images were reviewed. Data for 1,501 patients (3,002 eyes) referred between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed. The HES retinopathy grades were R0 (no retinopathy) in 341 eyes, R1 (background retinopathy) in 1,712 eyes, R2 (pre-proliferative retinopathy) in 821 eyes, and R3 (proliferative retinopathy) in 128 eyes. The DRSS grades were in agreement in 2,309 eyes (76.9%), recorded a lower grade in 227 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 466 eyes. Agreement was substantial (κ = 0.65). The commonest cause for disagreement was overgrading of R1 as R2 by hospital clinicians. The HES maculopathy grades were M0 (no maculopathy) in 2,267 eyes and M1 (maculopathy) in 735 eyes. The DRSS were in agreement in 2,111 eyes (70.2%), recorded a lower grade in 106 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 785 eyes. Agreement was fair (κ = 0.39). The commonest cause for disagreement was hospital clinicians missing fine exudates. This study establishes a benchmark standard for agreement between HES and DRSS grading. Review of DRSS and grading reports images for newly referred patients is likely to improve levels of agreement, particularly for diabetic retinopathy, and should be strongly encouraged.

  3. High bone sialoprotein (BSP expression correlates with increased tumor grade and predicts a poorer prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP in glioma patients. METHODS: We determined the expression of BSP using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 15 normal brain and 270 glioma samples. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the stepwise forward Cox regression model. RESULTS: Both BSP mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those of normal brain and low-grade glioma tissues, and BSP expression positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed high BSP expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR = 2.549 and 3.154 for grade III glioma, and HR = 1.637 and 1.574 for grade IV glioma, respectively]. Patients with low BSP expression had a significantly longer median OS and PFS than those with high BSP expression. Small extent of resection and lineage of astrocyte served as independent risk factors of both shorter PFS and OS in grade III glioma patients; GBM patients without O(6-methylguanine (O(6-meG DNA methyltransferase (MGMT methylation and Karnofsky performance score (KPS less than 70 points were related to poor prognosis. Lack of radiotherapy related to shorter OS but not affect PFS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients. CONCLUSION: High BSP expression occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and predicts a poorer outcome. The study identifies a potentially useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of gliomas.

  4. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  5. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  6. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  7. Exploring scientific creativity of eleventh-grade students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia-Chi

    2002-04-01

    Although most researchers focus on scientists' creativity, students' scientific creativity should be considered, especially for high school and college students. It is generally assumed that most professional creators in science emerge from amateur creators. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' scientific creativity and selected variables including creativity, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, science achievement, the nature of science, and attitudes toward science for finding significant predictors of eleventh grade students' scientific creativity. A total of 130 male eleventh-grade students in three biology classes participated in this study. The main instruments included the Test of Divergent Thinking (TDT) for creativity measurement, the Creativity Rating Scale (CRS) and the Creative Activities and Accomplishments Check Lists (CAACL ) for measurement of scientific creativity, the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS) for measurement of the nature of science, and the Science Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) for measurement of attitudes toward science. In addition, two instruments on measuring students' abilities of problem finding and abilities of formulating hypotheses were developed by the researcher in this study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise multiple regressions. The major findings suggested the following: (1) students' scientific creativity significantly correlated with some of selected variables such as attitudes toward science, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, the nature of science, resistance to closure, originality, and elaboration; (2) four significant predictors including attitudes toward science, problem finding, resistance to closure, and originality accounted for 48% of the variance of students' scientific creativity; (3) there were big differences between students with a higher and a lower degree of scientific

  8. The clinical significance of diuresis studies on the patients with dilated upper urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Noriyuki; Ueda, Toyofumi; Amano, Takuya; Kaji, Shinichi; Ichiya, Yuichi

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine the clinical value of diuresis urogram and diuresis renogram as the urodynamic assessment in dilated upper urinary tract, 21 kidneys of 17 patients (12 men and 5 women) with hydronephrosis or hydronephroureter were examined. The kidneys examined by diuresis urogram were divided into four grades - grade a (more than 22% of dilation), grade b (between 10 and 22%), grade c (less than 10%), and grade d (wash-out). Of 10 preoperative kidneys of 9 patients, 4 kidneys were in grade a (40%), 4 in grade b (40%), 2 in grade c (20%), and none in grade d (0%). Of 12 postoperative kidneys of 12 patients, 2 kidneys were in grade a (16.6%), 2 in grade b (16.7%), 4 in grade c (33.3%), and 4 in grade d (33.3%). The kidneys examined by diuresis renogram were divided into groups II, IIIb and IIIa in accordance with diuresis excretion index (DEI) and renogram pattern. Of 11 preoperative kidneys of 9 patients, 4 kidneys were in group II (36.7%), 2 in group IIIb (18.2%), and 5 in group IIIa (45.1%). Of 12 postoperative kidneys of 11 patients, 2 kidneys were in group II (16.7%), 2 in group IIIb (16.7%), and 8 in group IIIa (66.6%). There was no significant correlation between % dilation of diuresis urogram and DEI of diuresis renogram. Diuresis urogram and renogram give valuable information about the degree of obstruction in the dilated upper urinary tract, but do not always the same value on the same kidney each other. (J.P.N.)

  9. [Clinical Study of 2014 ISUP New Grade Group Classification for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated by Androgen Deprivation Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masahiro; Kawase, Makoto; Kato, Daiki; Ishida, Takashi; Kato, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has proposed a new grade group (GG) classification for Gleason scores (GS). The usefulness of the new GG classification was investigated with 518 prostate cancer patients who underwent androgen deprivation therapy. According to the new GG classification, Stages B‒D and the new GG classification relapse-free rate for each stage were calculated using the Kaplan‒Meier method. The new GG classification revealed a significant difference for the relapse-free rate only between some groups. Analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that the risk of relapse was higher in GGs 4 and 5 than in GG 1. The usefulness about the relapse-free rate in androgen deprivation therapy of the 2014 ISUP new grade group classification a waits future examination.

  10. The effects of undergraduate nursing student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on college grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Mohammad Y N; Hayajneh, Ferial; Abdalkader, Raghed Hussein; Mahadeen, Alia I

    2011-09-01

    The effects of student-faculty interactions in higher education have received considerable empirical attention. However, there has been no empirical study that has examined the relation between student-faculty interaction and college grade point average. This is aimed at identifying the effect of nursing student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on students' semester college grade point average at a public university in Jordan. The research was cross-sectional study of the effect of student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on the students' semester college grade point average of participating juniors and seniors. Total interaction of the students was crucial as it is extremely significant (t = 16.2, df = 271, P ≤ 0.001) in relation to students' academic scores between those students who had ≥70 and those who had <70 academic scores. However, gender differences between students, and other variables were not significant either to affect students' academic scores or students' interaction. This study provides some evidence that student-faculty interactions outside classrooms are significantly associated with student's academically achievements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  12. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  13. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  14. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  15. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  16. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  17. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  18. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  19. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  20. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  1. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  2. Teenage Smoking: Higher Excise Tax Should Significantly Reduce the Number of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    12 to 17, in the United States, about 3.5 million use tobacco products, almost 3 million smoke marijuana , 6 million drink alcohol, and 1 million use...particularly in indoor environments. As a result nonsmokers tend to face a greater risk of cancer and of becoming less healthy in general. (The details on

  3. Knowing Feminism: The Significance of Higher Education to Women's Narratives of "Becoming Feminist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Carly Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Educational spaces have long provided opportunities for politicisation and activism. However, research into the processes through which students become politicised can often focus on participation in recognised forms of political action, thereby ignoring the multiple factors active in developing a political consciousness. This paper draws on…

  4. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  5. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  6. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  7. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  8. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  9. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  10. Comparison of 3MP medical-grade to 1MP office grade LCD monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Aaron; Tan, Shu.; Gledhill, Samuel; Hennessy, Oliver; Lui, Belinda; Lee, Alan; Lemish, Wayne; Styles, Colin; Pun, Emma; Padmanabhan, Meenakshi; Pitman, Alexander G.; Tauro, Paul; Waugh, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Picture archiving and communication systems images designed to be viewed on high-resolution medical-grade monitors are routinely viewed on office-grade monitors on the wards or at home. This study aimed to determine whether a statistically significant difference in diagnostic (cancer detection) and perceptual (microcalcification detection) performance exists between 3MP grade and 1MP office-grade monitors. 3MP Dome medical-grade liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors (Planar, Beaverton, OR, USA) were compared to 1MP Dell office-grade LCD monitors (Dell Inc, Round Rock, TX, USA). Eight radiologists (reader experi ence 8-30 years) read the same set of 100 mammograms (23/100 with proven cancers and 52/100 with microcalcifications) presented in random order on three occasions separated by two time intervals of 12 weeks. Reads 1 and 3 utilised 3MP monitors and formed the baseline read. Read 2 utilised 1MP monitors and constituted the experimental read. Reading conditions were standardised. Readers were aware of which monitors they were using. Mul tivariate logistic regression analysis (to account for reader variability and monitor impact) was performed to assess for statistical significance. At a = 5%, confidence intervals analysis comparing the measured parameters between 1MP to 3MP monitors demonstrated no statistically significant difference in diagnostic and perceptual performance for the reader group. In cancer detection (the diagnostic task), reader accuracy remained high irrespective of monitor type. Regression analysis comparing performance with 1MP against 3MP monitors found P values of 0.693 and 0.324 for diagnostic and perceptual performance, respectively. There were no statistically and clinically significant differences between 3MP and 1MP monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance. Comparable performance may be due to compensatory behav iour by readers.

  11. Clinical significance of HPV DNA cotesting in Korean women with ASCUS or ASC-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jae Won; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae Yun; Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, In Sun; Lee, Nak Woo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA cotesting in Korean women with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results based on colposcopic pathology. A total of 1012 women underwent liquid-based Pap smears and hybrid capture II HPV DNA tests followed by colposcopy at the Korea University Hospital from January 2007 to May 2012. Of these women, 832 women were included in this retrospective study. The mean patient age was 45.4 ± 13.7 years (range:15-80). The distribution of Pap smear results was normal (4.7%), atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) (42.1%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (26.8%), ASC-H (7.0%), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (19.5%). In women with ASCUS, none of the 87 HPV-negative had ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2) (P age groups: ASCUS and ASC-H furnish healthcare providers with informative data. There is a lower proportion of ≥CIN2 in HPV-negative women and a higher proportion of ≥CIN2 in HPV-positive. When HPV data were further evaluated by age group, the risk of ≥CIN2 was lower in HPV-negative women, especially in women ≥30. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qingxia; Shou, Chengcao; Wang, Junsheng; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development

  13. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Chengcao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5% cases, 16 (10.5% cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2% were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0% were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011, T stage (P = 0.035, and clinic outcome (P Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development.

  14. Control of short-channel effects in InAlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors using graded AlGaN buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiecheng; Zhao, Hongdong; Peng, Xiaocan; Li, Yuhai

    2018-04-01

    A graded AlGaN buffer is designed to realize the p-type buffer by inducing polarization-doping holes. Based on the two-dimensional device simulator, the effect of the graded AlGaN buffer on the direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) performance of short-gate InAlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are investigated, theoretically. Compared to standard HEMT, an enhancement of electron confinement and a good control of short-channel effect (SCEs) are demonstrated in the graded AlGaN buffer HEMT. Accordingly, the pinched-off behavior and the ability of gate modulation are significantly improved. And, no serious SCEs are observed in the graded AlGaN buffer HEMT with an aspect ratio (LG/tch) of about 6.7, much lower than that of the standard HEMT (LG/tch = 13). In addition, for a 70-nm gate length, a peak current gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 171 GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (fmax) of 191 GHz are obtained in the grade buffer HEMT, which are higher than those of the standard one with the same gate length.

  15. Is there a stepwise increase in neonatal morbidities according to histological stage (or grade) of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis?: effect of gestational age at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeri; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Jung-Sun; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-03-01

    To test if there is a stepwise difference in neonatal outcomes according to the stage (or grade) of histological inflammatory response in the chorioamniotic membranes and umbilical cords of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). This retrospective study included singleton pregnancies diagnosed as PPROM and delivered prior to 34 weeks of gestation (n=339). Acute histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis were subdivided into stages (or grade) as defined by Redline et al. Neonatal composite morbidities and mortality were also monitored. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Increasing stage (or grade) of acute histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis was significantly associated with an earlier gestational age at membrane rupture and delivery. Among neonatal outcomes, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, and composite morbidity showed incremental incidence according to increased stage (or grade) of acute chorioamnionitis, while periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis did not. Only RDS, BPD, and composite morbidity showed similar incremental incidences associated with severity of funisitis stage. However, the incremental trends of each neonatal outcome were found to be nonsignificant by multivariate analysis adjusting confounding variables including gestational age at delivery. Higher incidences of neonatal morbidity according to increased stage (or grade) of either acute histological chorioamnionitis or funisitis were due to an earlier gestational age at delivery.

  16. Gadd45β expression in chondrosarcoma: A pilot study for diagnostic and biological implications in histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishido Yasuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, especially the distinction between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma and high-grade chondrosarcoma, is pathologically difficult, differential diagnosis is very important because the treatment strategies for these diseases are completely different. The grading system is crucial in predicting biologic behavior and prognosis, however, exact pathological grading is difficult using only routine examinations because the criteria of the grading system are not necessarily definitive. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of GADD45β in enchondroma, and chondrosarcoma of histological grades I, II, and III, to clarify the diagnostic significance of GADD45β in pathological grading of chondrosarcoma. Methods Twenty samples (enchondroma = 6, chondrosarcoma grade I = 7, grade II = 6, grade III = 1 were used for immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of GADD45β. Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading. Results Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. On the other hand, the expression of GADD45β decreased significantly according to the histological grade of chondrosarcoma (grade I: 45%; grade II: 13.8%; and grade III: 3.8%. Conclusions The association of GADD45β expression and pathological grading of chondrosarcoma in the present study suggests that the immunohistochemical study of GADD45β may be a specific diagnostic parameter for chondrosarcoma cell differentiation.

  17. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Yashar, Parham; Robison, Aaron; Winer, Jesse; Khalessi, Alexander; Mack, William J; Giannotta, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    grade was 0.87 (SE 0.06, 95% CI 0.76-0.99), with 90% user agreement. Kappa analysis scores for minimum and maximum grades of tumor regions were 0.69 (agreement 72%) and 0.75 (agreement 78%), respectively. The kappa analysis score for tumor vascularity grading was 0.56 (agreement 76%). Overall consistency did not correlate with patient age, tumor location, or tumor size. A higher tumor vascularity grade was associated with a larger tumor diameter (p = 0.045) and with skull base location (p = 0.02). The proposed grading system provides a reliable, practical, and objective assessment of meningioma consistency and facilitates communication among providers. This system also accounts for heterogeneity in tumor consistency. With the proposed scale, meningioma consistency can be standardized as groundwork for future studies relating to surgical outcomes, predictability of consistency and vascularity using neuroimaging techniques, and effectiveness of various surgical instruments.

  18. Improvement in High-Grade Osteosarcoma Survival: Results from 202 Patients Treated at a Single Institution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Paul C-H; Wu, Hung-Ta H; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare survival before and after 2004 and define the prognostic factors for high-grade osteosarcomas beyond those of typical young patients with localized extremity disease. Few studies have reported the long-term treatment outcomes of high-grade osteosarcoma in Taiwan. A total of 202 patients with primary high-grade osteosarcoma who received primary chemotherapy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1995 and December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated and compared by period (1995-2003 vs 2004-2011). Patients of all ages and tumor sites and those following or not following controlled protocols were included in analysis of demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related variables and survival. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years were, respectively, 67.7% and 48% for all patients (n = 202), 77.3% and 57.1% for patients without metastasis (n = 157), and 33.9% and 14.8% for patients with metastasis (n = 45). The survival rates of patients treated after 2004 were significantly higher (by 13%-16%) compared with those of patients treated before 2004, with an accompanying 30% increase in histological good response rate (P = .002). Factors significantly contributing to inferior survival in univariate and multivariate analyses were diagnosis before 2004, metastasis at diagnosis, and being a noncandidate for a controlled treatment protocol. By comparison with the regimens used at our institution before 2004, the current results support the effectiveness of the post-2004 regimens, which consisted of substantially reduced cycles of high-dose methotrexate and a higher dosage of ifosfamide per cycle, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, for treating high-grade osteosarcoma in Asian patients.

  19. Endoscopic treatment of grades IV and V vesicoureteral reflux with two bulking substances: Dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer versus polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Canan

    2016-10-01

    We aimed at evaluating the efficacy and complications of two bulking substances: dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer(Dx/Ha;Dexell®) versus polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer(PPC;Vantris®) in subureteric injection treatment of children with high grades (grades IV-V) vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Data of patients undergoing endoscopic treatment of high grade VUR (January 2009-August 2015) were retrospectively investigated. Patients with high grade VUR caused by posterior urethral valve, duplex system, paraureteral diverticula and neurogenic bladder were excluded. Classical subureteric injection method (STING) was used. Seventy-three children (45 girls and 28 boys) who had 88 refluxing renal units (RRUs) with grades IV-V VUR (n=64/n=24) underwent endoscopic treatment using Dx/Ha (n=63 RRUs) and PPC (n=25 RRUs). Mean age of patients in Dx/Ha and PPC groups were 6 (3) and 6 (3.75) year (p=0.81), and volumes of these substances given were 1.3 (1) and 1 (0.5) mL (p=0.003), respectively. Overall, for the first endoscopic injection, success rate of grades IV-V VUR per RRU was 53.9% with Dx/Ha, compared to 80% in PPC-injected group, (p=0.024). Late ureterovesical junction obstruction developed only in one patient in PPC-injected group. No ureteral obstruction was observed in Dx/Ha-injected group. Endoscopic injection of PPC resulted in significantly higher success rate, compared to Dx/Ha in subureteric injection treatment of children with high grade VUR. However, the development of late ureterovesical junction obstruction should also be taken into account in PPC injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluación frente a calificación en el nuevo Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES, una reflexión ético-crítica Assesment versus grading in the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA, an ethical-critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Granero Molina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de Convergencia Europea es un cambio que afecta a la mayoría de los estados europeos, introduciendo elementos que tienden a armonizar sus políticas. En materia de educación las modificaciones de los sistemas educativos son significativas, y esencialmente en los estudios universitarios. Inmersos en este proceso, el empleo de nuevas metodologías educativas en Enfermería se desarrolla a través de experiencias piloto en distintas universidades europeas. A través de un estudio de revisión, se reflexiona sobre una de estas experiencias desarrolladas en la Universidad de Almería (España, atendiendo esencialmente a la objetividad y el empleo del examen como metodología exclusiva de evaluación del alumno. Tras una revisión exhaustiva sobre el tema, y ante la inespecifidad de instrumentos que midan fiablemente conocimientos, pero sobre todo actitudes y habilidades; se plantea una revisión ético-crítica del concepto de evaluación desde una racionalidad práctica que se separa de los aspectos positivistas y utilitaristas.The European Convergence process is a major change affecting most of European states, by introducing new elements in order to harmonize its policies. In terms of education, there are significant changes in educational systems, especially those concerning university studies. In this frame, new educational methodologies in nursing studies have started to develop through pilot experiences in different European universities. In this article, one of these particular experiences, developed by the University of Almería (Spain is described, especially in terms of objectivity and considering exams as an exclusive assessment methodology. After an exhaustive review of this topic, and due to the unspecificity of reliable tools for assessing knowledge, as well as attitudes and skills, we propose an ethical-critical review of the assessment concept, from a practical rationality that goes far beyond positivist and utilitarian

  1. Mucin expression patterns in histological grades of colonic cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathological expression of mucins has been noted in cancer development and progression. This study sought to identify and quantify the types of mucins produced during various histological grades of colon cancer and to assess the diagnostic significance. Methods: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, ...

  2. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  3. Influence of Tönnis Grade on Outcomes of Arthroscopic Management of Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Bardowski, Elizabeth A; Jones, Kay S

    2018-05-19

    To define the outcomes of arthroscopic correction of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) based on Tönnis findings within a previously reported patient population, including a comparative analysis of Tönnis grade 0 and 1 versus grade 2 changes. Outcomes (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS]) of a previously published study of arthroscopic correction of FAI were correlated with Tönnis grade. The inclusion criteria were the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI correction with minimum 2-year follow-up. These procedures were performed between December 2003 and May 2006. Grades were determined independently by 2 experienced clinicians. Tönnis grades 0 and 1 were compared with Tönnis grade 2. Independent variables of sex and age were also evaluated. The average age of the entire group was 34.7 years (range, 13-76 years), with 66 male and 34 female patients. Of the patients, 17 had Tönnis grade 0, 49 had Tönnis grade 1, 29 had Tönnis grade 2, and 4 had Tönnis grade 3 (1 unknown). The average mHHS improvement for Tönnis grade 0 was 20.6 points; Tönnis grade 1, 22.2 points; Tönnis grade 2, 14.9 points; and Tönnis grade 3, 18.8 points. The improvement was statistically (P 8 points) significant across all Tönnis grades. There was no difference (P = .077) between Tönnis grades 0 and 1 (21.8 points) versus grade 2 (14.9 points). There was no difference based on sex or age. These data support that statistically and clinically meaningful successful patient-reported outcomes (mHHS) at 2 years can be encountered even in the presence of Tönnis grade 2 radiographic features. Neither age nor sex was an indicator of poorer results within similar Tönnis grades. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  5. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  6. Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Component Based on Geomechanical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology & Engineering Dept.

    2016-09-08

    This letter report provides a Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) well grading system based on the geomechanical simulation. The analyses described in this letter were used to evaluate the caverns’ geomechanical effect on wellbore integrity, which is an important component in the well integrity grading system recently developed by Roberts et al. [2015]. Using these analyses, the wellbores for caverns BC-17 and 20 are expected to be significantly impacted by cavern geomechanics, BC-18 and 19 are expected to be medium impacted; and the other caverns are expected to be less impacted.

  7. Laboratory study on subgrade soil stabilization using RBI grade 81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia, J. Bernadette; Kamalambikai, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.; Dharini, K.

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigates the effect of reinforcing the sub grade soils with RBI 81 material. A soil nearby was collected and preliminary tests were conducted to classify the soil and it was found from the results that the sample collected was a poorly graded clay. Subsequently Tests such as Proctor Compaction, CBR, and UCC were conducted to study the various engineering properties of the identified soil. In addition to the above tests were also conducted on the soil by reinforcing with varying percentages of RBI 81. From the analysis of test results it was found that this material (RBI 81) will significantly improve the CBR value of the soil.

  8. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons

  9. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-09

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials.

  10. Improving the Grading Accuracy of Astrocytic Neoplasms Noninvasively by Combining Timing Information with Cerebral Blood Flow: A Multi-TI Arterial Spin-Labeling MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Zhao, B; Wang, G; Xiang, J; Xu, S; Liu, Y; Zhao, P; Pfeuffer, J; Qian, T

    2016-12-01

    Systematic and accurate glioma grading has clinical significance. We present the utility of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and provide the bolus arrival time maps for grading astrocytomas. Forty-three patients with astrocytomas (21 men; mean age, 51 years) were recruited. The classification abilities of conventional MR imaging features, normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging, normalized bolus arrival time, and normalized CBF derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling were compared in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, III, and IV astrocytomas. The normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging was higher in patients with higher grade astrocytoma malignancies compared with patients with lower grade astrocytomas, while the normalized bolus arrival time showed the opposite tendency. The normalized CBF value derived from the multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging showed excellent performance with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.813 (WHO II versus III), 0.964 (WHO II versus IV), 0.872 (WHO III versus IV), and 0.883 (low-grade-versus-high-grade gliomas). The normalized CBF value derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging could statistically differentiate the WHO II and IV groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.826). The normalized bolus arrival time effectively identified the WHO grades II and III with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.836. Combining the normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and normalized bolus arrival time improved the diagnostic accuracy from 65.10% to 72.10% compared with the normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging being applied independently. The combination of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and conventional MR imaging had the best performance, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81

  11. A simple method for assigning genomic grade to individual breast tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennmalm, Kristian; Bergh, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic value of grading in breast cancer can be increased with microarray technology, but proposed strategies are disadvantaged by the use of specific training data or parallel microscopic grading. Here, we investigate the performance of a method that uses no information outside the breast profile of interest. In 251 profiled tumours we optimised a method that achieves grading by comparing rank means for genes predictive of high and low grade biology; a simpler method that allows for truly independent estimation of accuracy. Validation was carried out in 594 patients derived from several independent data sets. We found that accuracy was good: for low grade (G1) tumors 83- 94%, for high grade (G3) tumors 74- 100%. In keeping with aim of improved grading, two groups of intermediate grade (G2) cancers with significantly different outcome could be discriminated. This validates the concept of microarray-based grading in breast cancer, and provides a more practical method to achieve it. A simple R script for grading is available in an additional file. Clinical implementation could achieve better estimation of recurrence risk for 40 to 50% of breast cancer patients

  12. A simple method for assigning genomic grade to individual breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of grading in breast cancer can be increased with microarray technology, but proposed strategies are disadvantaged by the use of specific training data or parallel microscopic grading. Here, we investigate the performance of a method that uses no information outside the breast profile of interest. Results In 251 profiled tumours we optimised a method that achieves grading by comparing rank means for genes predictive of high and low grade biology; a simpler method that allows for truly independent estimation of accuracy. Validation was carried out in 594 patients derived from several independent data sets. We found that accuracy was good: for low grade (G1 tumors 83- 94%, for high grade (G3 tumors 74- 100%. In keeping with aim of improved grading, two groups of intermediate grade (G2 cancers with significantly different outcome could be discriminated. Conclusion This validates the concept of microarray-based grading in breast cancer, and provides a more practical method to achieve it. A simple R script for grading is available in an additional file. Clinical implementation could achieve better estimation of recurrence risk for 40 to 50% of breast cancer patients.

  13. Reproductive and productive efficiencies of Etawah Grade goats under various mating managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah Grade (PE goats were treated with three type of mating managements, i.e. mated at the first oestrous (A, mated at the second oestrous (B, and mated at the third oestrous (C after parturition, respectively . Results showed that average first estrous was 56 days (26-99 d after parturition with estrous cycle of 21 days . Conception rate at the first and second oestrous mating managements (A and B were 50 and 70%, respectively . Variability of birth weight (3,4 - 3,5 kg under three mating managements were not significantly different (P>0 .05, but the weaning weight of kids of B (16 .4 kg was higher (P<0.05 than A (11 .8 kg and C (12.9 kg, respectively. Does productivity (total weaning weight was not significantly affected by mating management, i.e. at fisrt, second or third oestrous after parturition .

  14. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    . The modeled metallurgical treatment facility included a Kaldo plant, a converter aisle, an anode refinery and a precious metal refinery. The metallurgic treatment showed significant environmental savings when credited the environmental load from avoided production of the same amount of metals by mining...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE....... These benefits are most likely underestimated in the model, since we did not find adequate data to include all the burdens from mining and refining of ore; burdens that are avoided when metals are recovered from WEEE. The processes connected to the pre-treatment of WEEE were found to have little environmental...

  15. Shared Leadership Transforms Higher Education IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duin, Ann Hill; Cawley, Steve; Gulachek, Bernard; O'Sullivan, Douglas M.; Wollner, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Globalization, immersive research and learning environments, unlimited access to information and analytics, and fiscal realities continue to impact higher education--and higher education IT. Although IT organizations face immense pressure to meet significantly greater expectations at significantly less cost, with such pressure comes the…

  16. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  17. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  18. Higher gradient expansion for linear isotropic peridynamic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1483-1493 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : peridynamics * higher-grade theories * non-local elastic-material model * representation theorems for isotropic functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286516637235

  19. Higher gradient expansion for linear isotropic peridynamic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1483-1493 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : peridynamics * higher-grade theories * non-local elastic-material model * representation theorems for isotropic functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286516637235

  20. Analytical Rubrics in Higher Education: A Repository of Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The use of rubrics for grading and feedback in higher education has increased in response to requirements for consistency and transparency across a diverse range of assessment tasks. There is a growing evidence base demonstrating the reliability of rubrics across different markers and instances. The number of studies describing the impact of…