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Sample records for significantly greater number

  1. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  2. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  3. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  4. Greater Biopsy Core Number Is Associated With Improved Biochemical Control in Patients Treated With Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, Nathan; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Standard prostate biopsy schemes underestimate Gleason score in a significant percentage of cases. Extended biopsy improves diagnostic accuracy and provides more reliable prognostic information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that greater biopsy core number should result in improved treatment outcome through better tailoring of therapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to May 2006, 1,613 prostate cancer patients were treated with permanent brachytherapy. Patients were divided into five groups stratified by the number of prostate biopsy cores (≤6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-20, and >20 cores). Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated as a function of core number. Results: The median patient age was 66 years, and the median preimplant prostate-specific antigen was 6.5 ng/mL. The overall 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS were 95.6%, 98.3%, and 78.6%, respectively. When bPFS was analyzed as a function of core number, the 10-year bPFS for patients with >20, 13-20, 10-12, 7-9 and ≤6 cores was 100%, 100%, 98.3%, 95.8%, and 93.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. When evaluated by treatment era (1995-2000 vs. 2001-2006), the number of biopsy cores remained a statistically significant predictor of bPFS. On multivariate analysis, the number of biopsy cores was predictive of bPFS but did not predict for CSS or OS. Conclusion: Greater biopsy core number was associated with a statistically significant improvement in bPFS. Comprehensive regional sampling of the prostate may enhance diagnostic accuracy compared to a standard biopsy scheme, resulting in better tailoring of therapy.

  5. On efficiency of fire simulation realization: parallelization with greater number of computational meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Lukas; Glasa, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Current fire simulation systems are capable to utilize advantages of high-performance computer (HPC) platforms available and to model fires efficiently in parallel. In this paper, efficiency of a corridor fire simulation on a HPC computer cluster is discussed. The parallel MPI version of Fire Dynamics Simulator is used for testing efficiency of selected strategies of allocation of computational resources of the cluster using a greater number of computational cores. Simulation results indicate that if the number of cores used is not equal to a multiple of the total number of cluster node cores there are allocation strategies which provide more efficient calculations.

  6. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  7. Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lubarsky, David A

    2018-05-01

    Although having a large diversity of types of procedures has a substantial operational impact on the surgical suites of hospitals, the strategic importance is unknown. In the current study, we used longitudinal data for all hospitals and patient ages in the State of Florida to evaluate whether hospitals with greater diversity of types of physiologically complex major therapeutic procedures (PCMTP) also had greater rates of surgical growth. Observational cohort study. 1479 combinations of hospitals in the State of Florida and fiscal years, 2008-2015. The types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedures studied were PCMT, defined as: a) major therapeutic procedure; b) >7 American Society of Anesthesiologists base units; and c) performed during a hospitalization with a Diagnosis Related Group with a mean length of stay ≥4.0days. The number of procedures of each type of PCMTP commonly performed at each hospital was calculated by taking 1/Herfindahl index (i.e., sum of the squares of the proportions of all procedures of each type of PCMTP). Over the 8 successive years studied, there was no change in the number of PCMTP being performed (Kendall's τ b =-0.014±0.017 [standard error], P=0.44; N=1479 hospital×years). Busier and larger hospitals commonly performed more types of PCMTP, respectively categorized based on performed PCMTP (τ=0.606±0.017, P<0.0001) or hospital beds (τ=0.524±0.017, P<0.0001). There was no association between greater diversity of types of PCMTP commonly performed and greater annual growth in numbers of PCMTP (τ=0.002±0.019, P=0.91; N=1295 hospital×years). Conclusions were the same with multiple sensitivity analyses. Post hoc, it was recognized that hospitals performing a greater diversity of PCMTP were more similar to the aggregate of other hospitals within the same health district (τ=0.550±0.017, P<0.0001). During a period with no overall growth in PCMTP, hospitals with

  8. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.

  9. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin O. Botwe; Antonio Schirone; Ivana Delbono; Mattia Barsanti; Roberta Delfanti; Peter Kelderman; Elvis Nyarko; Piet N.L. Lens

    2017-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana) surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity...

  10. Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Genant, Harry K.; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity

  11. Greater number of group identifications is associated with healthier behaviour: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Fabio; Madhok, Vishnu; Norbury, Michael; Dugard, Pat; Wakefield, Juliet R H

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between group identification (i.e., the extent to which one has a sense of belonging to a social group, coupled with a sense of commonality with in-group members) and four types of health behaviour, namely physical exercise, smoking, drinking, and diet. Specifically, we propose a positive relationship between one's number of group identifications and healthy behaviour. This study is based on the Scottish portion of the data obtained for Wave 1 of the two-wave cross-national Health in Groups project. Totally 1,824 patients from five Scottish general practitioner (GP) surgeries completed the Wave 1 questionnaire in their homes. Participants completed measures of group identification, group contact, health behaviours, and demographic variables. Results demonstrate that the greater the number of social groups with which one identifies, the healthier one's behaviour on any of the four health dimensions considered. We believe our results are due to the fact that group identification will generally (1) enhance one's sense of meaning in life, thereby leading one to take more care of oneself, (2) increase one's sense of responsibility towards other in-group members, thereby enhancing one's motivation to be healthy in order to fulfil those responsibilities, and (3) increase compliance with healthy group behavioural norms. Taken together, these processes amply overcompensate for the fact that some groups with which people may identify can actually prescribe unhealthy behaviours. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O. Botwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity concentrations (Bq kg−1 dw were 34 for 238U, 210 for 210Pb, 14 for 226Ra, 30 for 232Th, 29 for 228Ra, 31 for 228Th, 320 for 40K, and 1.5 for 137Cs. Large 238U/226Ra disequilibria were observed in the harbour sediments and a complex dynamics of several mixed sources of sediments within the Tema Harbour can be inferred from the spatial variations in the radioactivity concentrations. The estimated total absorbed dose rate in air (D, radium equivalent activity (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE indicated no significant radiological risks from the sediment radioactivity concentrations. Application of the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants Assessment and Management tool (ERICA confirmed that the potential dose rates to biota from the sediment radioactivity concentrations are unlikely to pose appreciable ecological risks. The radioactivity levels are compared with levels reported in sediments from other coastal areas of the world.

  13. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  14. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  15. Children acquire the later-greater principle after the cardinal principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    Many have proposed that the acquisition of the cardinal principle (CP) is a result of the discovery of the numerical significance of the order of the number words in the count list. However, this need not be the case. Indeed, the CP does not state anything about the numerical significance of the order of the number words. It only states that the last word of a correct count denotes the numerosity of the counted set. Here, we test whether the acquisition of the CP involves the discovery of the later-greater principle - that is, that the order of the number words corresponds to the relative size of the numerosities they denote. Specifically, we tested knowledge of verbal numerical comparisons (e.g., Is 'ten' more than 'six'?) in children who had recently learned the CP. We find that these children can compare number words between 'six' and 'ten' only if they have mapped them onto non-verbal representations of numerosity. We suggest that this means that the acquisition of the CP does not involve the discovery of the correspondence between the order of the number words and the relative size of the numerosities they denote. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Evidence of significant bias in an elementary random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Brandl, V.

    1981-03-01

    An elementary pseudo random number generator for isotropically distributed unit vectors in 3-dimensional space has ben tested for bias. This generator uses the IBM-suplied routine RANDU and a transparent rejection technique. The tests show clearly that non-randomness in the pseudo random numbers generated by the primary IBM generator leads to bias in the order of 1 percent in estimates obtained from the secondary random number generator. FORTRAN listings of 4 variants of the random number generator called by a simple test programme and output listings are included for direct reference. (orig.) [de

  17. Is there a Greater Role for Prime Numbers in our Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Grant

    2005-01-01

    Prime numbers play an extremely important role in modern mathematics. Apart from still being the object of intense research activity, their applications in banking and security underline a key phenomenon: in the modern world, useful applications of mathematics often come from very "pure" abstract theories. Curiously, despite their undeniable…

  18. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  19. Significant association of inflammation grade with the number of Langerhans cells in odontogenic keratocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of inflammation grade with the number of LCs in OKCs is found. The paucity of finding LCs in the lining epithelia of OKCs without inflammation indicates the loss of immunosurveillance ability against the OKC lining epithelial cells; this can explain why OKCs have aggressive clinical behavior, a great growth potential, and a high recurrence rate.

  20. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  1. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  2. At a global scale, do climate change threatened species also face a greater number of non-climatic threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Dye, Kaipo

    2017-01-01

    For many species the threats of climate change occur in a context of multiple existing threats. Given the current focus of global change ecology in identifying and understanding species vulnerable to climate change, we performed a global analysis to characterize the multi-threat context for species threatened by climate change. Utilizing 30,053 species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, we sought to evaluate if species threatened by climate change are more likely threatened by a greater number of non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Our results show that species threatened by climate change are generally impacted by 21% more non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Across all species, this pattern is related to IUCN risk status, where endangered species threatened by climate change face 33% more non-climatic threats than endangered species not threatened by climate change. With the clear challenges of assessing current and projected impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, research often requires reductionist approaches that result in downplaying this multi-threat context. This cautionary note bears relevance beyond climate change threatened species as we also

  3. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  4. Teenage Smoking: Higher Excise Tax Should Significantly Reduce the Number of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    12 to 17, in the United States, about 3.5 million use tobacco products, almost 3 million smoke marijuana , 6 million drink alcohol, and 1 million use...particularly in indoor environments. As a result nonsmokers tend to face a greater risk of cancer and of becoming less healthy in general. (The details on

  5. Effects of droplet interactions on droplet transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1987-01-01

    Effects of droplet interactions on drag, evaporation, and combustion of a planar droplet array, oriented perpendicular to the approaching flow, are studied numerically. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with variable thermophysical properties, are solved using finite-difference techniques. Parameters investigated include the droplet spacing, droplet Reynolds number, approaching stream oxygen concentration, and fuel type. Results are obtained for the Reynolds number range of 5 to 100, droplet spacings from 2 to 24 diameters, oxygen concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2, and methanol and n-butanol fuels. The calculations show that the gasification rates of interacting droplets decrease as the droplet spacings decrease. The reduction in gasification rates is significant only at small spacings and low Reynolds numbers. For the present array orientation, the effects of interactions on the gasification rates diminish rapidly for Reynolds numbers greater than 10 and spacings greater than 6 droplet diameters. The effects of adjacent droplets on drag are shown to be small.

  6. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  7. At a global scale, do climate change threatened species also face a greater number of non-climatic threats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B. Fortini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For many species the threats of climate change occur in a context of multiple existing threats. Given the current focus of global change ecology in identifying and understanding species vulnerable to climate change, we performed a global analysis to characterize the multi-threat context for species threatened by climate change. Utilizing 30,053 species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, we sought to evaluate if species threatened by climate change are more likely threatened by a greater number of non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Our results show that species threatened by climate change are generally impacted by 21% more non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Across all species, this pattern is related to IUCN risk status, where endangered species threatened by climate change face 33% more non-climatic threats than endangered species not threatened by climate change. With the clear challenges of assessing current and projected impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, research often requires reductionist approaches that result in downplaying this multi-threat context. This cautionary note bears relevance beyond climate change threatened species as we also found other (but not all anthropogenic threats are also similarly associated with more threats. Our findings serve as a reminder that ecological research should seriously consider these potential threat interactions, especially for species under elevated conservation concern.

  8. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so, how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION Positive psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning (Sheldon et. all. 2000). Happiness is not the same as optimal functioning but is a closely related phenomenon. Happiness is a major manifestation of optimal functioning, since we are hard-wired to feel

  9. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  10. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late......-follicular-phase LH concentration also showed a significant positive association with progesterone concentration (P = 0.018). Administration of rLH during ovarian stimulation did not affect progesterone concentration. The present study does not support an association between progesterone concentration on the day...

  11. Prognostic significance of the total number of harvested lymph nodes for lymph node-negative gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-08-22

    The relationship between the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) and prognosis of gastric cancer patients without an involvement of lymph nodes has not been well-evaluated. The objective of this study is to further explore this issue. We collected data from 399 gastric cancer patients between November 2006 and October 2011. All of them were without metastatic lymph nodes. Survival analyses showed that statistically significant differences existed in the survival outcomes between the two groups allocated by the total number of HLNs ranging from 16 to 22. Therefore, we adopted 22 as the cut-off value of the total number of HLNs for grouping (group A: HLNs <22; group B: HLNs≥22). The intraoperative and postoperative characteristics, including operative blood loss (P=0.096), operation time (P=0.430), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.142), complications (P=0.552), rate of reoperation (P=0.966) and postoperative mortality (P=1.000), were comparable between the two groups. T-stage-stratified Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the 5-year survival rate of patients at the T4 stage was better in group B than in group A (76.9% vs. 58.5%; P=0.004). An analysis of multiple factors elucidated that the total number of HLNs, T stage, operation time and age were independently correlated factors of prognosis. Regarding gastric cancer patients without the involvement of lymph nodes, an HLN number ≥22 would be helpful in prolonging their overall survival, especially for those at T4 stage. The total number of HLNs was an independent prognostic factor for this population of patients.

  12. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  13. A Geometrical Application of Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Any quadruple of natural numbers {a, b, c, d} is called a "Pythagorean quadruple" if it satisfies the relationship "a[superscript 2] + b[superscript 2] + c[superscript 2]". This "Pythagorean quadruple" can always be identified with a rectangular box of dimensions "a greater than 0," "b greater than…

  14. Prognostic significance of the number of postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy cycles for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Rudy S; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Chi, Dennis S; Long Roche, Kara C; Tanner, Edward J; Denesopolis, John; Barakat, Richard R; Zivanovic, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Phase 3 trials have demonstrated a survival advantage for patients with optimally debulked epithelial ovarian cancer who received intravenous (IV) and intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy compared with IV therapy alone. This was despite a significant proportion of patients in the IV/IP arms not completing all 6 planned cycles. Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the number of IV/IP cycles administered. Data were analyzed for all patients with stage III to IV epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent optimal primary cytoreduction followed by 1 or more cycles of IV/IP chemotherapy from January 2005 to July 2011 at our institution. A landmark analysis was performed to associate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the number of IV/IP cycles given. We identified 201 patients; 26 (13%) received 1 to 2 cycles of IV/IP chemotherapy, 41 (20%) received 3 to 4 cycles, and 134 (67%) received 5 to 6 cycles. The 5-year PFS for patients who received 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6 cycles was 18%, 29%, and 17%, respectively. The 5-year OS for patients who received 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6 cycles was 44%, 54%, and 57%, respectively. There was no significant difference in PFS (P = 0.31) or OS (P = 0.14) between the 3 groups. The most common reason for discontinuing IV/IP therapy was treatment-related toxicity (77%). Postoperative complications were the most common reason for not initiating IV/IP therapy (42%) in patients who subsequently transitioned to it. We did not detect a significant survival difference between patients who received 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 to 6 IV/IP chemotherapy cycles. Women may still derive a survival benefit if they receive fewer than 6 IV/IP cycles.

  15. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  16. Social information-processing and coping in adolescent females diagnosed with an eating disorder: toward a greater understanding of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFillin, Roger K; Cahn, Stacey C; Burks, Virginia Salzer; Levine, Martha Peaslee; Loney, Susan Lane; Levine, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in social information-processing and coping strategies between adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder and asymptomatic peers. Adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder (n = 50) were compared to asymptomatic control participants (n = 59) on a measure of social information-processing. Participants were presented with 4 hypothetical, ambiguous social dilemmas in which the intent of a peer provocateur was unclear. Questions followed each dilemma assessing intent attributions, the participant's emotional reaction, the intensity of the emotion, and coping strategies. The participants in treatment for an eating disorder were significantly more likely to perceive hostile intent from a peer provocateur, reported a greater intensity of negative emotions, and identified a significantly greater number of avoidant coping strategies. Specifically, the eating disorder group identified significantly more intrapunitive avoidant coping strategies that reflect maladaptive and self-destructive means of coping with distressing events. Results indicate social cognitive processing biases and maladaptive coping strategies may be instrumental in perceived loss of control and influence the development/maintenance of eating disorders.

  17. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  18. Greater number of narcotic analgesic prescriptions for osteoarthritis is associated with falls and fractures in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolita, Lydia; Spegman, Adele; Tang, Xiaoqin; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the changes in types of medications prescribed for pain before and after withdrawal of certain selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors in 2004 and to determine whether there was an association with fall events in elderly adults with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). A nested case-control design using electronic medical records compiled between 2001 and 2009. Electronic medical records for care provided in an integrated health system in rural Pennsylvania over a 9-year period (2001-09), the midpoint of which rofecoxib and valdecoxib were pulled from the market. Thirteen thousand three hundred fifty-four individuals aged 65 to 89 with a diagnosis of OA. The incidence of falls and fractures was examined in relation to analgesics prescribed: narcotics, COX-2 inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The comparison sample of individuals who did not fall was matched 3:1 with those who fell according to age, sex, and comorbidity. Narcotic analgesic prescriptions were associated with a significantly greater risk of falls and fractures. The likelihood of experiencing a fall/fracture was higher in participants prescribed narcotic analgesics than those prescribed a COX-2 inhibitor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.5-4.3) or NSAID (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 3.7-4.5). Use of narcotic analgesics is associated with risk of falls and fractures in elderly adults with OA, an observation that suggests that the current guidelines for the treatment of pain, which include first-line prescription of narcotics, should be reevaluated. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Performance of Molecular Inversion Probes (MIP) in Allele CopyNumber Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuker; Moorhead, Martin; Karlin-Neumann, George; Wang,Nicolas J.; Ireland, James; Lin, Steven; Chen, Chunnuan; Heiser, LauraM.; Chin, Koei; Esserman, Laura; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.; Faham,Malek

    2007-05-14

    We have developed a new protocol for using MolecularInversion Probes (MIP) to accurately and specifically measure allele copynumber (ACN). The new protocol provides for significant improvementsincluding the reduction of input DNA (from 2?g) by more than 25 fold (to75ng total genomic DNA), higher overall precision resulting in one orderof magnitude lower false positive rate, and greater dynamic range withaccurate absolute copy number up to 60 copies.

  20. Linking vertebral number to performance of aquatic escape responses in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Kerri L; Ward, Andrea B

    2015-12-01

    Environmental conditions during early development in ectothermic vertebrates can lead to variation in vertebral number among individuals of the same species. It is often seen that individuals of a species raised at cooler temperatures have more vertebrae than individuals raised at warmer temperatures, although the functional consequences of this variation in vertebral number on swimming performance are relatively unclear. To investigate this relationship, we tested how vertebral number in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) affected performance of aquatic escape responses (C-starts). Axolotls were reared at four temperatures (12-24°C) encompassing their natural thermal range and then transitioned to a mean temperature (18°C) three months before C-starts were recorded. Our results showed variation in vertebral number, but that variation was not significantly affected by developmental temperature. C-start performance among axolotls was significantly correlated with caudal vertebral number, and individuals with more caudal vertebrae were able to achieve greater curvature more quickly during their responses than individuals with fewer vertebrae. However, our results show that these individuals did not achieve greater displacements or velocities, and that developmental temperature did not have any effect on C-start performance. We highlight that the most important aspects of escape swim performance (i.e., how far individuals get from a threat and how quickly they move the most important parts of the body away from that threat) are consistent across individuals regardless of developmental temperature and morphological variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Does exchange rate always affect the number of inbound tourists significantly in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Xue GAO; Hsu-Ling CHANG; Chi-Wei SU

    2018-01-01

    This investigation examines the time-varying causality between the exchange rate and the number of the inbound tourism of China using the rolling window estimation. The full-sample causality test suggests no causality between the exchange rate and the number of inbound tourists. However, the parameter stability test revels that this causality is unstable, which suggests that fullsample causality tests cannot be relied upon. Then, we use a time-varying rolling window approach to...

  2. Development of 13 microsatellites for Gunnison Sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) using next-generation shotgun sequencing and their utility in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Jennifer A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Zimmerman, Shawna J; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-grouse are an obligate sagebrush species that has experienced significant population declines and has been proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In order to examine levels of connectivity among Gunnison Sage-grouse leks, we identified 13 novel microsatellite loci though next-generation shotgun sequencing, and tested them on the closely related Greater Sage-grouse. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12. No loci were found to be linked, although 2 loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or evidence of null alleles. While these microsatellites were designed for Gunnison Sage-grouse, they also work well for Greater Sage-grouse and could be used for numerous genetic questions including landscape and population genetics.

  3. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  4. A Numbers Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective......-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE), is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported...... here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures....

  5. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  6. Prostate cancer cell lines under hypoxia exhibit greater stem-like properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Ma

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is an important environmental change in many cancers. Hypoxic niches can be occupied by cancer stem/progenitor-like cells that are associated with tumor progression and resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, it has not yet been fully elucidated how hypoxia influences the stem-like properties of prostate cancer cells. In this report, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. In comparison to normoxia (20% O(2, 7% O(2 induced higher expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, which were associated with upregulation of Oct3/4 and Nanog; 1% O(2 induced even greater levels of these factors. The upregulated NANOG mRNA expression in hypoxia was confirmed to be predominantly retrogene NANOGP8. Similar growth rates were observed for cells cultivated under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for 48 hours; however, the colony formation assay revealed that 48 hours of hypoxic pretreatment resulted in the formation of more colonies. Treatment with 1% O(2 also extended the G(0/G(1 stage, resulting in more side population cells, and induced CD44 and ABCG2 expressions. Hypoxia also increased the number of cells positive for ABCG2 expression, which were predominantly found to be CD44(bright cells. Correspondingly, the sorted CD44(bright cells expressed higher levels of ABCG2, Oct3/4, and Nanog than CD44(dim cells, and hypoxic pretreatment significantly increased the expressions of these factors. CD44(bright cells under normoxia formed significantly more colonies and spheres compared with the CD44(dim cells, and hypoxic pretreatment even increased this effect. Our data indicate that prostate cancer cells under hypoxia possess greater stem-like properties.

  7. Greater Occipital Nerve Treatment in the Management of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Critchley, Peter; Kodivalasa, Mahesh; Dorgham, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Clinical presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH) has similarities with postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Recommended treatment for both conditions is an epidural blood patch. Successful outcomes following greater occipital nerve blocks have been reported in the management of PDPH. We present the first report of greater occipital nerve treatment in SIHH. A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of daily postural headaches having a significant impact on quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral convexity subdural collections. Post gadolinium scan revealed pachymeningeal enhancement with reduced pontomesencephalic angle below 50 degrees. The patient was offered an epidural blood patch and greater occipital nerve block with corticosteroids. The patient chose occipital nerve block. The patient reported significant short-term benefit lasting 4 months. Thereafter, the patient underwent pulsed radiofrequency treatment to bilateral greater occipital nerves. He reported significant benefit lasting 10 months. Greater occipital nerve treatment may have a role in management of SIHH. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  8. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  9. The significance of relative density for particle damage in loaded and sheared gravels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fityus Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For granular assemblages of strong particles, an increase in the relative density usually leads to a significant increase in shear strength, which is evident as a peak strength, accompanied by significant dilation as the peak strength is attained. This paper describes an experimental study of shearing in assemblages of weak particles, where particle breakage offsets dilation for all but the lowest of confining stresses. In such materials, prone to particle breakage, the shear strengths of loose and dense assemblages rapidly converge to similar values as confining stress increases, and any benefit of greater relative density is lost. This is attributed to the densification effect associated with the loading under a high stress prior to shearing, which is characterised by widespread particle breakage and the formation of smaller particles to occupy space between coarser ones. Interestingly, under both low and high stresses, there was a tendency for greater particle breakage in the loose samples, as a result of both shearing and compression. This result suggests that, despite the denser assemblage having its particles more rigidly constrained and less able to rearrange to avoid direct loading, the influence of greater load-spreading capacity afforded by an increased number of particle contacts in a denser sample, is more dominant in controlling breakage.

  10. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  11. Industry relationships are associated with performing a greater number of sinus balloon dilation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Bobian, Michael; Harvey, Richard J; Gray, Stacey T; Baredes, Soly; Folbe, Adam J

    2017-09-01

    Industry outreach promotes awareness of novel technologies. However, concerns have been raised that such relationships may also unduly impact medical decision-making. Our objective in this study was to evaluate industry relationships among practitioners who frequently employ balloon dilation (BD), characterizing whether there is any association between financial relationships and BD utilization. Provider utilization data (FY-2014) was accessed for individuals billing BD procedures to Medicare, the largest healthcare payor in the United States. The names of individuals included in these data sets were cross-referenced with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payment site to determine the extent of industry relationships during this same year. Individuals included in this analysis were organized by those with "significant" ($1,000 to $10,000) and "major" (> $10,000) industry relationships. Practice setting, training, and experience were also evaluated. Of the 302 otolaryngologists who billed enough BDs for inclusion in this data set, 99.3% were in private practice, 89.7% were board-certified, 8.3% had facial plastic and reconstructive fellowship training, and 1.3% had rhinology fellowship training. There was a significant increase in BDs performed with increasing BD company financial contributions (analysis of variance, p = 0.0003). Individuals without "significant" relationships with BD companies billed fewer BDs than those with at least "significant" (>$1,000) relationships (57.0 ± 4.3 vs 87.7 ± 10.0, p = 0.001). There is an association between receiving money from industry and the frequency with which otolaryngologists employ BD. Although our analysis demonstrates an association, these results in no way imply causation. Further analysis exploring the reasons for this association may be necessary. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Stoichiometric balance of protein copy numbers is measurable and functionally significant in a protein-protein interaction network for yeast endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David O; Johnson, Margaret E

    2018-03-01

    Stoichiometric balance, or dosage balance, implies that proteins that are subunits of obligate complexes (e.g. the ribosome) should have copy numbers expressed to match their stoichiometry in that complex. Establishing balance (or imbalance) is an important tool for inferring subunit function and assembly bottlenecks. We show here that these correlations in protein copy numbers can extend beyond complex subunits to larger protein-protein interactions networks (PPIN) involving a range of reversible binding interactions. We develop a simple method for quantifying balance in any interface-resolved PPINs based on network structure and experimentally observed protein copy numbers. By analyzing such a network for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) system in yeast, we found that the real protein copy numbers were significantly more balanced in relation to their binding partners compared to randomly sampled sets of yeast copy numbers. The observed balance is not perfect, highlighting both under and overexpressed proteins. We evaluate the potential cost and benefits of imbalance using two criteria. First, a potential cost to imbalance is that 'leftover' proteins without remaining functional partners are free to misinteract. We systematically quantify how this misinteraction cost is most dangerous for strong-binding protein interactions and for network topologies observed in biological PPINs. Second, a more direct consequence of imbalance is that the formation of specific functional complexes depends on relative copy numbers. We therefore construct simple kinetic models of two sub-networks in the CME network to assess multi-protein assembly of the ARP2/3 complex and a minimal, nine-protein clathrin-coated vesicle forming module. We find that the observed, imperfectly balanced copy numbers are less effective than balanced copy numbers in producing fast and complete multi-protein assemblies. However, we speculate that strategic imbalance in the vesicle forming module

  13. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  14. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  15. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  16. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  17. Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, James D

    2011-01-01

    Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik

  18. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.B.; Soifer, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum. 22 refs

  19. Number comparison and number ordering as predictors of arithmetic performance in adults: Exploring the link between the two skills, and investigating the question of domain-specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Mahony, Eileen; McCormack, Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the important role that number-ordering skills play in arithmetic abilities, both in children and adults. In the current study, we demonstrated that number comparison and ordering skills were both significantly related to arithmetic performance in adults, and the effect size was greater in the case of ordering skills. Additionally, we found that the effect of number comparison skills on arithmetic performance was mediated by number-ordering skills. Moreover, performance on comparison and ordering tasks involving the months of the year was also strongly correlated with arithmetic skills, and participants displayed similar (canonical or reverse) distance effects on the comparison and ordering tasks involving months as when the tasks included numbers. This suggests that the processes responsible for the link between comparison and ordering skills and arithmetic performance are not specific to the domain of numbers. Finally, a factor analysis indicated that performance on comparison and ordering tasks loaded on a factor that included performance on a number line task and self-reported spatial thinking styles. These results substantially extend previous research on the role of order processing abilities in mental arithmetic.

  20. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex numbers in n dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, Silviu

    2002-01-01

    Two distinct systems of hypercomplex numbers in n dimensions are introduced in this book, for which the multiplication is associative and commutative, and which are rich enough in properties such that exponential and trigonometric forms exist and the concepts of analytic n-complex function, contour integration and residue can be defined. The first type of hypercomplex numbers, called polar hypercomplex numbers, is characterized by the presence in an even number of dimensions greater or equal to 4 of two polar axes, and by the presence in an odd number of dimensions of one polar axis. The other type of hypercomplex numbers exists as a distinct entity only when the number of dimensions n of the space is even, and since the position of a point is specified with the aid of n/2-1 planar angles, these numbers have been called planar hypercomplex numbers. The development of the concept of analytic functions of hypercomplex variables was rendered possible by the existence of an exponential form of the n-complex numbe...

  2. Calculating the true level of predictors significance when carrying out the procedure of regression equation specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Moiseev

    2017-01-01

    other, and in case if one of them is significant, the other will almost certainly show the same significance. On the other hand, if the sample variance-covariance matrix tends to be diagonal and the number of observations tends to infinity, the proposed numerical method will return corrections close to the simple correction. In the case when the number of observations is much greater than the number of potential predictors, then the Shehata and White corrections give approximately the same corrections with the proposed numerical method. However, in much more common cases, when the number of observations is comparable to the number of potential predictors, the existing methods demonstrate significant inaccuracies. When the number of potential predictors is greater than the available number of observations, it seems impossible to calculate the true p-values. Therefore, it is recommended not to consider such datasets when constructing regression models, since only the fulfillment of the above condition ensures calculation of unbiased p-value corrections. The proposed method is easy to program and can be integrated into any statistical software package.

  3. Topoisomerase-1 and -2A gene copy numbers are elevated in mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup, Ida Marie Heeholm; Nygård, Sune Boris; Poulsen, Tim Svenstrup

    2015-01-01

    to MMR status by immunohistochemical analysis using validated antibodies for MLH1, MLH2, MSH6 and PMS2, and information on TOP1, CEN20, TOP2A and CEN17 status was previously published for this cohort. RESULTS: The observed TOP1 gene copy numbers in the 36 CRC test cohort were significantly greater (p

  4. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  6. ‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good

    OpenAIRE

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called ?utilitarian? judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such ?utilitarian? judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between ?utilitarian? judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes,...

  7. Progression of periodontal inflammation in adolescents is associated with increased number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning-Yan; Zhang, Quan; Li, Jin-Lu; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Shi, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the change of related subgingival periodontopathogens among different stage of gingivitis in adolescent and assess the relationship between periodontopathogens and the progression of periodontal inflammation. A total of 77 subgingival plaque samples from 35 adolescent individuals were divided into three groups including gingivitis group (mild, 15 samples; moderate, 16 samples; severe, 15 samples), chronic periodontitis group (15 samples) and healthy group (15 samples). Real-time PCR was used to quantitate Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in subgingival plaque samples. All species, except for F. nucleatum, were detected in samples from gingivitis and periodontitis groups in significantly greater number than in those from healthy group (P periodontitis group in significantly greater number than in those from moderate-to-severe gingivitis group (P periodontal inflammation in adolescents. Examination of periodontopathogens number in adolescents may be of some value for monitoring of periodontal disease development. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A High-Throughput Computational Framework for Identifying Significant Copy Number Aberrations from Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable identification of copy number aberrations (CNA from comparative genomic hybridization data would be improved by the availability of a generalised method for processing large datasets. To this end, we developed swatCGH, a data analysis framework and region detection heuristic for computational grids. swatCGH analyses sequentially displaced (sliding windows of neighbouring probes and applies adaptive thresholds of varying stringency to identify the 10% of each chromosome that contains the most frequently occurring CNAs. We used the method to analyse a published dataset, comparing data preprocessed using four different DNA segmentation algorithms, and two methods for prioritising the detected CNAs. The consolidated list of the most commonly detected aberrations confirmed the value of swatCGH as a simplified high-throughput method for identifying biologically significant CNA regions of interest.

  9. MR Neurography of Greater Occipital Nerve Neuropathy: Initial Experience in Patients with Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, L; Dessouky, R; Xi, Y; Amirlak, B; Chhabra, A

    2017-11-01

    MR imaging of peripheral nerves (MR neurography) allows improved assessment of nerve anatomy and pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with unilateral occipital neuralgia using MR neurography and to assess the differences in greater occipital nerve signal and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. In this case-control evaluation using MR neurography, bilateral greater occipital nerve caliber, signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratios, and contrast-to-noise ratios were determined by 2 observers. Among 18 subjects with unilateral occipital migraines, the average greater occipital nerve diameter for the symptomatic side was significantly greater at 1.77 ± 0.4 mm than for the asymptomatic side at 1.29 ± 0.25 mm ( P = .001). The difference in nerve signal intensity between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides was statistically significant at 269.06 ± 170.93 and 222.44 ± 170.46, respectively ( P = .043). The signal-to-noise ratios on the symptomatic side were higher at 15.79 ± 4.59 compared with the asymptomatic nerve at 14.02 ± 5.23 ( P = .009). Contrast-to-noise ratios were significantly higher on the symptomatic side than on the asymptomatic side at 2.57 ± 4.89 and -1.26 ± 5.02, respectively ( P = .004). Intraobserver performance was good to excellent (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.68-0.93), and interobserver performance was fair to excellent (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.54-0.81). MR neurography can be reliably used for the diagnosis of greater occipital nerve neuropathy in patients with unilateral occipital migraines with a good correlation of imaging findings to the clinical presentation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background......, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  11. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  12. Efficacy of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading greater curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi

    2017-05-25

    For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.

  13. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. VARIATION IN GRAIN YIELD, BIOMASS AND GRAIN NUMBER OF BARLEY UNDER DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido López-Castañeda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variability in grain yield (GY, aerial biomass (BM and number of grains m-2 (G M-2 in F6 lines and commercial varieties of barley was studied, and the relationship among these characters in full-irrigation (FI, drought (D and rain-fed (RF conditions was determined. Variation in GY, BM and G M-2 among all genotypes, between F6 lines and varieties, and among genotypes of F6 lines and varieties was significant in all the three soil moisture environments. GY, BM and G M-2 in FI were 23, 14 and 21 % greater than the average of the three soil moisture environments; GY, BM and G M-2 in RF were 21, 16 y 24 % lower than this average. F6 lines produced greater GY (380 g m-2, BM (1027 g m-2 and G M-2 (8641 than the commercial varieties (GY=290 g m-2; BM=726 g m-2 y G M-2=7463 in average of the three environments. GY was positive and significantly associated with BM and G M-2; BM and G M-2 were also associated. GY could be improved in either FI, D or RF environments by selecting genotypes with a greater BM and G M-2 or both of them.

  15. Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for α₂- versus α₁-GABA(A-receptor complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Sindal Jensen

    Full Text Available Clobazam (CLB, a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD, was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA α₁-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the α₂ subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB, CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of α (α₁, α₂, α₃, or α₅, β₂, and γ₂ subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for α₂- vs. α₁-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between α₂ and α₁ receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for α₁ receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB.

  16. Dose reduction for CT in children with cystic fibrosis: is it feasible to reduce the number of images per scan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Pim A. de; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; Nakano, Yasutaka; Lequin, Maarten H.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the dose for each CT scan is important for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To determine whether the number of CT images and therefore the dose per CT scan could be reduced without any significant loss of information in children with CF. A cohort of children with CF was followed with biennial surveillance CT scans, obtained in inspiration after a voluntary breath-hold as 1-mm thick images at 10-mm intervals from lung apex to base. A random set of 20 baseline CT scans and 10 follow-up CT scans were blinded. Sets of every image (10-mm intervals), every second image (20-mm intervals), every third image (30-mm intervals) and a selection of three and five images were scored randomly using a published CT scoring system by one experienced observer. The 20 subjects were 10 years of age with a range of 3.7-17.6 years at baseline. Fewer CT images resulted in a significantly lower (less abnormal) CT score and the number of patients positive for abnormalities decreased subsequently. At intervals greater than 20 mm no significant change in CT score over 2 years could be detected, while the CT scores at 10-mm (P=0.02) and 20-mm (P=0.02) intervals worsened significantly. A reduction in the number of inspiratory CT images by increasing the interval between images to greater than 10 mm is not a valid option for radiation dose reduction in children with CF. (orig.)

  17. From zero to infinity what makes numbers interesting

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Constance

    2006-01-01

    From Zero to Infinity is a combination of number lore, number history, and sparkling descriptions of the simply stated but exceedingly difficult problems posed by the most ordinary numbers that first appeared in 1955 and has been kept in print continuously ever since. With the fifth edition this classic has been updated to report on advances in number theory over the last 50 years, including the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Deceptively simple in style and structure, it is a book to which the reader will return again and again, gaining greater understanding and satisfaction with each reading

  18. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  19. Effects of the sowing density on he yield and the number of seeds in seed maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovin Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher sowing densities (57,100, 71,400 and 85,500 plants ha-1 of the female component did not significantly affect the yield increase in the hybrid ZP 196 (4.56,4.61 and 4.701 ha-1 under natural conditions of cultivation, but they significantly affected the increase of the number of germinated seeds (21,272,000, 23,893,000 and 24,226,000 ha-1. In the seed production under irrigation conditions of the hybrid ZP 677, greater densities (71,400, 85,500 and 99,900 plants ha-1 did not significantly affect the increase of neither the yield (3.39,3.44 and 3.60 tha-1 nor the number of geminated seeds (11,238,000,11,651,000 and 12,427,000 ha-1. On the other hand, higher sowing densities (71,400,85,500 and 99,900 plants ha-1 of the female component significantly increased both, the yield (4.01, 4.38 and 4.40 t ha-1 and the number of germinated seeds (13,122,000,15,022,000 and 15,560,000 ha-1 in the hybrid ZP 680 under irrigation conditions.

  20. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Koichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The effects of the cranial size and the computed tomography (CT) numbers of the cranial bone on that of the brain were studied in 70 subjects, aged from 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and showed no abnormalities in the central nervous system upon physical examinations and a CT scan. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39 cm{sup 2}) at the bilateral thalamus and at twelve areas of the deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size, and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers was statistically significant. The brain CT numbers increased with the increase in the cranial bone CT numbers. There was, however, no significant correlation between brain CT numbers and cranial size. In measuring the brain CT numbers, it is desirable that consideration be given to the cranial bone CT numbers. (author).

  1. The reconstruction algorithm used for ["6"8Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT reconstruction significantly influences the number of detected lymph node metastases and coeliac ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, Thomas; Birmes, Anita; Winz, Oliver H.; Drude, Natascha I.; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Behrendt, Florian F.; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the numbers of lymph node metastases and coeliac ganglia delineated on ["6"8Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scans differ among datasets generated using different reconstruction algorithms. Data were constructed using the BLOB-OS-TF, BLOB-OS and 3D-RAMLA algorithms. All reconstructions were assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians for the number of pelvic/paraaortal lymph node metastases as well the number of coeliac ganglia. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were also calculated in different regions. At least one ["6"8Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT-positive pelvic or paraaortal lymph node metastasis was found in 49 and 35 patients using the BLOB-OS-TF algorithm, in 42 and 33 patients using the BLOB-OS algorithm, and in 41 and 31 patients using the 3D-RAMLA algorithm, respectively, and a positive ganglion was found in 92, 59 and 24 of 100 patients using the three algorithms, respectively. Quantitatively, the SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher with the BLOB-OS algorithm than with either the BLOB-OS-TF or the 3D-RAMLA algorithm in all measured regions (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The differences between the SUVs with the BLOB-OS-TF- and 3D-RAMLA algorithms were not significant in the aorta (SUVmean, p = 0.93; SUVmax, p = 0.97) but were significant in all other regions (p < 0.001 in all cases). The SUVmean ganglion/gluteus ratio was significantly higher with the BLOB-OS-TF algorithm than with either the BLOB-OS or the 3D-RAMLA algorithm and was significantly higher with the BLOB-OS than with the 3D-RAMLA algorithm (p < 0.001 in all cases). The results of ["6"8Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT are affected by the reconstruction algorithm used. The highest number of lesions and physiological structures will be visualized using a modern algorithm employing time-of-flight information. (orig.)

  2. The reconstruction algorithm used for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT reconstruction significantly influences the number of detected lymph node metastases and coeliac ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, Thomas [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Ulm University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Birmes, Anita; Winz, Oliver H.; Drude, Natascha I. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht UMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Radiology Institute ' ' Aachen Land' ' , Wuerselen (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate whether the numbers of lymph node metastases and coeliac ganglia delineated on [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scans differ among datasets generated using different reconstruction algorithms. Data were constructed using the BLOB-OS-TF, BLOB-OS and 3D-RAMLA algorithms. All reconstructions were assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians for the number of pelvic/paraaortal lymph node metastases as well the number of coeliac ganglia. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were also calculated in different regions. At least one [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT-positive pelvic or paraaortal lymph node metastasis was found in 49 and 35 patients using the BLOB-OS-TF algorithm, in 42 and 33 patients using the BLOB-OS algorithm, and in 41 and 31 patients using the 3D-RAMLA algorithm, respectively, and a positive ganglion was found in 92, 59 and 24 of 100 patients using the three algorithms, respectively. Quantitatively, the SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher with the BLOB-OS algorithm than with either the BLOB-OS-TF or the 3D-RAMLA algorithm in all measured regions (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The differences between the SUVs with the BLOB-OS-TF- and 3D-RAMLA algorithms were not significant in the aorta (SUVmean, p = 0.93; SUVmax, p = 0.97) but were significant in all other regions (p < 0.001 in all cases). The SUVmean ganglion/gluteus ratio was significantly higher with the BLOB-OS-TF algorithm than with either the BLOB-OS or the 3D-RAMLA algorithm and was significantly higher with the BLOB-OS than with the 3D-RAMLA algorithm (p < 0.001 in all cases). The results of [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT are affected by the reconstruction algorithm used. The highest number of lesions and physiological structures will be visualized using a modern algorithm employing time-of-flight information. (orig.)

  3. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (ppain syndrome yields statistically significant improvement of clinical results with the concurrent minimum incidence of

  4. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the short-term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000-3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short-term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time-series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1,760,000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52,928 for LRD and 74,845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator.

  5. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Ward-Paige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  6. Rare copy number deletions predict individual variation in intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A Yeo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in "mutation load" emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the number of rare (or infrequent copy number variations (CNVs, and the total number of base pairs included in such deletions, for psychometric intelligence. Genetic data was collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample of 202 adult individuals with alcohol dependence, and a subset of these (N = 77 had been administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After removing CNV outliers, the impact of rare genetic deletions on psychometric intelligence was investigated in 74 individuals. The total length of the rare deletions significantly and negatively predicted intelligence (r = -.30, p = .01. As prior studies have indicated greater heritability in individuals with relatively higher parental socioeconomic status (SES, we also examined the impact of ethnicity (Anglo/White vs. Other, as a proxy measure of SES; these groups did not differ on any genetic variable. This categorical variable significantly moderated the effect of length of deletions on intelligence, with larger effects being noted in the Anglo/White group. Overall, these results suggest that rare deletions (between 5% and 1% population frequency or less adversely affect intellectual functioning, and that pleotropic effects might partly account for the association of intelligence with health and mental health status. Significant limitations of this research, including issues of generalizability and CNV measurement, are discussed.

  7. Rare Copy Number Deletions Predict Individual Variation in Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ronald A.; Gangestad, Steven W.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in “mutation load” emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the number of rare (or infrequent) copy number variations (CNVs), and the total number of base pairs included in such deletions, for psychometric intelligence. Genetic data was collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample of 202 adult individuals with alcohol dependence, and a subset of these (N = 77) had been administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). After removing CNV outliers, the impact of rare genetic deletions on psychometric intelligence was investigated in 74 individuals. The total length of the rare deletions significantly and negatively predicted intelligence (r = −.30, p = .01). As prior studies have indicated greater heritability in individuals with relatively higher parental socioeconomic status (SES), we also examined the impact of ethnicity (Anglo/White vs. Other), as a proxy measure of SES; these groups did not differ on any genetic variable. This categorical variable significantly moderated the effect of length of deletions on intelligence, with larger effects being noted in the Anglo/White group. Overall, these results suggest that rare deletions (between 5% and 1% population frequency or less) adversely affect intellectual functioning, and that pleotropic effects might partly account for the association of intelligence with health and mental health status. Significant limitations of this research, including issues of generalizability and CNV measurement, are discussed. PMID:21298096

  8. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  9. rDNA Copy Number Variants Are Frequent Passenger Mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Deletion Collections and de Novo Transformants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth X. Kwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus is known to exhibit greater instability relative to the rest of the genome. However, wild-type cells preferentially maintain a stable number of rDNA copies, suggesting underlying genetic control of the size of this locus. We performed a screen of a subset of the Yeast Knock-Out (YKO single gene deletion collection to identify genetic regulators of this locus and to determine if rDNA copy number correlates with yeast replicative lifespan. While we found no correlation between replicative lifespan and rDNA size, we identified 64 candidate strains with significant rDNA copy number differences. However, in the process of validating candidate rDNA variants, we observed that independent isolates of our de novo gene deletion strains had unsolicited but significant changes in rDNA copy number. Moreover, we were not able to recapitulate rDNA phenotypes from the YKO yeast deletion collection. Instead, we found that the standard lithium acetate transformation protocol is a significant source of rDNA copy number variation, with lithium acetate exposure being the treatment causing variable rDNA copy number events after transformation. As the effects of variable rDNA copy number are being increasingly reported, our finding that rDNA is affected by lithium acetate exposure suggested that rDNA copy number variants may be influential passenger mutations in standard strain construction in S. cerevisiae.

  10. rDNA Copy Number Variants Are Frequent Passenger Mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Deletion Collections and de Novo Transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Elizabeth X; Wang, Xiaobin S; Amemiya, Haley M; Brewer, Bonita J; Raghuraman, M K

    2016-09-08

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus is known to exhibit greater instability relative to the rest of the genome. However, wild-type cells preferentially maintain a stable number of rDNA copies, suggesting underlying genetic control of the size of this locus. We performed a screen of a subset of the Yeast Knock-Out (YKO) single gene deletion collection to identify genetic regulators of this locus and to determine if rDNA copy number correlates with yeast replicative lifespan. While we found no correlation between replicative lifespan and rDNA size, we identified 64 candidate strains with significant rDNA copy number differences. However, in the process of validating candidate rDNA variants, we observed that independent isolates of our de novo gene deletion strains had unsolicited but significant changes in rDNA copy number. Moreover, we were not able to recapitulate rDNA phenotypes from the YKO yeast deletion collection. Instead, we found that the standard lithium acetate transformation protocol is a significant source of rDNA copy number variation, with lithium acetate exposure being the treatment causing variable rDNA copy number events after transformation. As the effects of variable rDNA copy number are being increasingly reported, our finding that rDNA is affected by lithium acetate exposure suggested that rDNA copy number variants may be influential passenger mutations in standard strain construction in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2016 Kwan et al.

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen. The Panel...... the combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder was consumed for three months, that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the food could exert the claimed effect. The Panel...... concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase...

  12. Moderate Versus Light Pressure Massage Therapy Leads to Greater Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel A.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figuereido, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA=3Owks.) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages 3 times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15 minutes before and during the first 15-minute therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5 day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: 1) active sleep; 2) fussing; 3) crying; 4) movement; and 5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group. PMID:17138310

  13. What drives sleep-dependent memory consolidation: greater gain or less loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M; Hambrick, David Z

    2013-06-01

    When memory is tested after a delay, performance is typically better if the retention interval includes sleep. However, it is unclear what accounts for this well-established effect. It is possible that sleep enhances the retrieval of information, but it is also possible that sleep protects against memory loss that normally occurs during waking activity. We developed a new research approach to investigate these possibilities. Participants learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-h interval that included waking or sleep. We analyzed the number of items gained versus the number of items lost across time. The sleep condition showed more items gained and fewer items lost than did the wake condition. Furthermore, the difference between the conditions (favoring sleep) in lost items was greater than the difference in gain, suggesting that loss prevention may primarily account for the effect of sleep on declarative memory consolidation. This finding may serve as an empirical constraint on theories of memory consolidation.

  14. Gratitude is associated with greater levels of protective factors and lower levels of risks in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L; Sly, Kaye

    2013-10-01

    The literature suggests gratitude is associated with positive youth development. The current study examined the relationship between gratitude and protective/risk factors among African American youth. Adolescents (N = 389; 50.4% males) ages 12-14 completed measures of gratitude (moral affect and life-orientation), protective factors (e.g., academic and activity engagement, family relationship), and high-risk behaviors (e.g., sexual attitudes and behaviors, drug/alcohol use). Results indicated greater moral affect gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with greater academic interest, better academic performance, and more extra-curricular activity engagement. Greater moral affect and life-orientation gratitude both significantly correlated with positive family relationship. Greater life-orientation gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with abstinence from sexual intimacy, sexual intercourse, likelihood of engaging in sex during primary school, and abstinence from drug/alcohol use. The findings suggest that moral affect gratitude may enhance protective factors while life-orientation gratitude may buffer against high-risk behaviors among African American youth. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000–3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the short‐term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000–3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short‐term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time‐series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1 760 000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52 928 for LRD and 74 845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator. PMID:17182644

  16. Resistance patterns among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai: trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T K; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005-2007 and 27.8% in 2011-2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (pMumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within the community.

  17. Finite-particle-number approach to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1982-10-01

    Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10 38 ); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound δ is an element of δ tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations

  18. Finite-particle-number approach to physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1982-10-01

    Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

  19. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  20. Respiratory health in Latin America: number of specialists and human resources training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-García, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge; Pérez Padilla, Rogelio; Montes de Oca, María

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is made up of a number of developing countries. Demographic changes are occurring in the close to 600 million inhabitants, in whom a significant growth in population is combined with the progressive ageing of the population. This part of the world poses great challenges for general and respiratory health. Most of the countries have significant, or even greater, rates of chronic respiratory diseases or exposure to risk. Human resources in healthcare are not readily available, particularly in the area of respiratory disease specialists. Academic training centers are few and even non-existent in the majority of the countries. The detailed analysis of these conditions provides a basis for reflection on the main challenges and proposals for the management and training of better human resources in this specialist area. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    La Seguridad Internacional, la Nueva Geopolitica Continental y Mexico ,” Seminario Internacional sobre Misiones de Paz, Seguridad y Defensa, Rio de...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMISPHERIC SECURITY FOR MEXICO by LTC Enrique Garcia Jaramillo Cavalry, Mexican Army COL Joseph R...xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  2. UT ARMPA Map 2.2 Biologically Significant Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set was created to depict “biologically significant units” (BSU) from the BLM Greater Sage-Grouse Land Use Planning Strategy – Utah Sub-Region. This data...

  3. On the communicative significance of whistles in wild killer whales (Orcinus orca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Franck, Dierk; Ford, John

    2002-08-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) use pulsed calls and whistles in underwater communication. Unlike pulsed calls, whistles have received little study and thus their function is poorly known. In this study, whistle activities of groups of individually known killer whales were compared quantitatively across behavioural categories. Acoustic recordings and simultaneous behavioural observations were made of northern resident killer whales off Vancouver Island in 1996 and 1997. Whistles were produced at greater rates than discrete calls during close-range behavioural activities than during long-range activities. They were the predominant sound-type recorded during socializing. The number of whistles per animal per minute was significantly higher during close-range behavioural activities than during long-range activities. Evidently, whistles play an important role in the close-range acoustic communication in northern resident killer whales.

  4. How math anxiety relates to number-space associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Georges

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioural evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  5. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number-Space Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Late nitrogen application enhances spikelet number in indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To increase rice yield potential, field experiments were conducted in farmers’ paddies in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen applications on the yield and panicle components of three typical indica hybrid rice varieties in Sichuan Province. The number of grains per panicle resulting from late nitrogen application (LA was 12 % greater than that obtained from traditional nitrogen application (TA; this increase was the main source of improvements in yield. The number of surviving and differentiated spikelets (NSS and NDiS resulting from LA was significantly higher than that measured under TA, especially for the Fyou498 cultivar, where the NSS and NDiS increased by 15 % and 14 %, respectively. Compared with TA, the number of degenerated secondary branches and the percentage of degenerated secondary branches (NDeSB and PDeSB were significantly reduced by 9 % and 11 %, respectively, by LA. This is the first study to demonstrate that an increase in NSS and a decrease in NDeSB lead to yield-improving effects attributable to LA. The grain yields of different varieties ranged from 9225.6 to 9408.7 kg ha−1, the PDeSB was as high as 31 %, and the number of surviving secondary branches (NSSB was significantly and positively correlated with NSS. These data indicate that the yield of indica hybrid rice has considerable potential for being improved, and increasing NSSB is key to increasing NSS and improving the grain yield. These improvements should be pursued so as to increase the yield of hybrid rice to ensure both food security and sustainable agricultural development.

  8. Genomic single-nucleotide polymorphisms confirm that Gunnison and Greater sage-grouse are genetically well differentiated and that the Bi-State population is distinct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Cornman, Robert S.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Fike, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Sage-grouse are iconic, declining inhabitants of sagebrush habitats in western North America, and their management depends on an understanding of genetic variation across the landscape. Two distinct species of sage-grouse have been recognized, Greater (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus), based on morphology, behavior, and variation at neutral genetic markers. A parapatric group of Greater Sage-Grouse along the border of California and Nevada ("Bi-State") is also genetically distinct at the same neutral genetic markers, yet not different in behavior or morphology. Because delineating taxonomic boundaries and defining conservation units is often difficult in recently diverged taxa and can be further complicated by highly skewed mating systems, we took advantage of new genomic methods that improve our ability to characterize genetic variation at a much finer resolution. We identified thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among Gunnison, Greater, and Bi-State sage-grouse and used them to comprehensively examine levels of genetic diversity and differentiation among these groups. The pairwise multilocus fixation index (FST) was high (0.49) between Gunnison and Greater sage-grouse, and both principal coordinates analysis and model-based clustering grouped samples unequivocally by species. Standing genetic variation was lower within the Gunnison Sage-Grouse. The Bi-State population was also significantly differentiated from Greater Sage-Grouse, albeit more weakly (FST = 0.09), and genetic clustering results were consistent with reduced gene flow with Greater Sage-Grouse. No comparable genetic divisions were found within the Greater Sage-Grouse sample, which spanned the southern half of the range. Thus, we provide much stronger genetic evidence supporting the recognition of Gunnison Sage-Grouse as a distinct species with low genetic diversity. Further, our work confirms that the Bi-State population is differentiated from other

  9. Direct numerical simulation of moderate-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method are used to investigate the effects of particle rotation on flows past random arrays of mono-disperse spheres at moderate particle Reynolds numbers. This study is an extension of a previous study of the authors [Q. Zhou and L.-S. Fan, "Direct numerical simulation of low-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres," J. Fluid Mech. 765, 396-423 (2015)] that explored the effects of particle rotation at low particle Reynolds numbers. The results of this study indicate that as the particle Reynolds number increases, the normalized Magnus lift force decreases rapidly when the particle Reynolds number is in the range lower than 50. For the particle Reynolds number greater than 50, the normalized Magnus lift force approaches a constant value that is invariant with solid volume fractions. The proportional dependence of the Magnus lift force on the rotational Reynolds number (based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres) observed at low particle Reynolds numbers does not change in the present study, making the Magnus lift force another possible factor that can significantly affect the overall dynamics of fluid-particle flows other than the drag force. Moreover, it is found that both the normalized drag force and the normalized torque increase with the increase of the particle Reynolds number and the solid volume fraction. Finally, correlations for the drag force, the Magnus lift force, and the torque in random arrays of rotating spheres at arbitrary solids volume fractions, rotational Reynolds numbers, and particle Reynolds numbers are formulated.

  10. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  11. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  12. Use of number by fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on human infants, mammals, birds and fish has demonstrated that rudimentary numerical abilities pre-date the evolution of human language. Yet there is controversy as to whether animals represent numbers mentally or rather base their judgments on non-numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. To date, mental representation of number has been convincingly documented only for a few mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a training procedure to investigate whether mosquitofish could learn to discriminate between two and three objects even when denied access to non-numerical information. In the first experiment, fish were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometric figures. These varied in shape, size, brightness and distance, but no control for non-numerical variables was made. Subjects were then re-tested while controlling for one non-numerical variable at a time. Total luminance of the stimuli and the sum of perimeter of figures appeared irrelevant, but performance dropped to chance level when stimuli were matched for the cumulative surface area or for the overall space occupied by the arrays, indicating that these latter cues had been spontaneously used by the fish during the learning process. In a second experiment, where the task consisted of discriminating 2 vs 3 elements with all non-numerical variables simultaneously controlled for, all subjects proved able to learn the discrimination, and interestingly they did not make more errors than the fish in Experiment 1 that could access non-numerical information in order to accomplish the task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mosquitofish can learn to discriminate small quantities, even when non-numerical indicators of quantity are unavailable, hence providing the first evidence that fish, like primates, can use numbers. As in humans and non-human primates, genuine counting appears to be a 'last resort' strategy in fish, when no other

  13. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  14. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared…

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    limitations of our study include that it represents a single institution. The low number of infiltrations included in this study, for this guidance procedure, is another bias. This ultrasound-guided infiltration technique appears to be feasible, safe, non-ionizing, and fast when targeting the greater occipital nerve in its intermediate portion. This imaging guidance modality should be used in routine clinical practice. Greater occipital nerve, infiltration, ultrasound guidance, corticosteroids, occipital neuralgia, craniofacial pain syndrome.

  16. Persistent consequences of atypical early number concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. M. Mazzocco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How does symbolic number knowledge performance help identify young children at risk for poor mathematics achievement outcomes? In research and practice, classification of mathematics learning disability (MLD, or dyscalculia is typically based on composite scores from broad measures of mathematics achievement. These scores do predict later math achievement levels, but do not specify the nature of math difficulties likely to emerge among students at greatest risk for long-term mathematics failure. Here we report that gaps in 2nd and 3rd graders’ number knowledge predict specific types of errors made on math assessments at Grade 8. Specifically, we show that early whole number misconceptions predict slower and less accurate performance, and atypical computational errors, on Grade 8 arithmetic tests. We demonstrate that basic number misconceptions can be detected by idiosyncratic responses to number knowledge items, and that when such misconceptions are evident during primary school they persist throughout the school age years, with variable manifestation throughout development. We conclude that including specific qualitative assessments of symbolic number knowledge in primary school may provide greater specificity of the types of difficulties likely to emerge among students at risk for poor mathematics outcomes.

  17. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels, B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangcai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R level, peripheral blood B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum IL-2 ( with RIA), SIL-2R level (with ELISA) and peripheral blood B lymphocytes number as well as T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy serum SIL-2R level and B lymphocyte were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2 level, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were significantly lower (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy the levels changed markedly toward normal, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal immuno-regulation were present in patients with malignant mole. (authors)

  18. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    In order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms relating to the large lung volumes of swimmers, tests of mechanical lung function, including lung distensibility (K) and elastic recoil, pulmonary diffusion capacity, and respiratory mouth pressures, together with anthropometric data (height, weight, body surface area, chest width, depth and surface area), were compared in eight elite male swimmers, eight elite male long distance athletes and eight control subjects. The differences in training profiles of each group were also examined. There was no significant difference in height between the subjects, but the swimmers were younger than both the runners and controls, and both the swimmers and controls were heavier than the runners. Of all the training variables, only the mean total distance in kilometers covered per week was significantly greater in the runners. Whether based on: (a) adolescent predicted values; or (b) adult male predicted values, swimmers had significantly increased total lung capacity ((a) 145 +/- 22%, (mean +/- SD) (b) 128 +/- 15%); vital capacity ((a) 146 +/- 24%, (b) 124 +/- 15%); and inspiratory capacity ((a) 155 +/- 33%, (b) 138 +/- 29%), but this was not found in the other two groups. Swimmers also had the largest chest surface area and chest width. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was largest in the swimmers ((b) 122 +/- 17%) and FEV1 as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)% was similar for the three groups. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) was also highest in the swimmers (117 +/- 18%). All of the other indices of lung function, including pulmonary distensibility (K), elastic recoil and diffusion coefficient (KCO), were similar. These findings suggest that swimmers may have achieved greater lung volumes than either runners or control subjects, not because of greater inspiratory muscle strength, or differences in height, fat free mass, alveolar distensibility, age at start of training or sternal length or

  19. Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK Study: A study of protocols in Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Tamsin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although young people's transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS in England is a significant health issue for service users, commissioners and providers, there is little evidence available to guide service development. The TRACK study aims to identify factors which facilitate or impede effective transition from CAHMS to AMHS. This paper presents findings from a survey of transition protocols in Greater London. Methods A questionnaire survey (Jan-April 2005 of Greater London CAMHS to identify transition protocols and collect data on team size, structure, transition protocols, population served and referral rates to AMHS. Identified transition protocols were subjected to content analysis. Results Forty two of the 65 teams contacted (65% responded to the survey. Teams varied in type (generic/targeted/in-patient, catchment area (locality-based, wider or national and transition boundaries with AMHS. Estimated annual average number of cases considered suitable for transfer to AMHS, per CAMHS team (mean 12.3, range 0–70, SD 14.5, n = 37 was greater than the annual average number of cases actually accepted by AMHS (mean 8.3, range 0–50, SD 9.5, n = 33. In April 2005, there were 13 active and 2 draft protocols in Greater London. Protocols were largely similar in stated aims and policies, but differed in key procedural details, such as joint working between CAHMS and AMHS and whether protocols were shared at Trust or locality level. While the centrality of service users' involvement in the transition process was identified, no protocol specified how users should be prepared for transition. A major omission from protocols was procedures to ensure continuity of care for patients not accepted by AMHS. Conclusion At least 13 transition protocols were in operation in Greater London in April 2005. Not all protocols meet all requirements set by government policy. Variation in

  20. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  1. On the relation between grammatical number and cardinal numbers in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnecka, Barbara W

    2014-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child's language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., "one" and "two"). Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian, or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number "one" earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic) learn the meaning of "two" earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for "oneness," "twoness," etc.) are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.

  2. Minimization of number of setups for mounting machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolman, Pavel; Nchor, Dennis; Hampel, David [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Žák, Jaroslav [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    The article deals with the problem of minimizing the number of setups for mounting SMT machines. SMT is a device used to assemble components on printed circuit boards (PCB) during the manufacturing of electronics. Each type of PCB has a different set of components, which are obligatory. Components are placed in the SMT tray. The problem consists in the fact that the total number of components used for all products is greater than the size of the tray. Therefore, every change of manufactured product requires a complete change of components in the tray (i.e., a setup change). Currently, the number of setups corresponds to the number of printed circuit board type. Any production change affects the change of setup and stops production on one shift. Many components occur in more products therefore the question arose as to how to deploy the products into groups so as to minimize the number of setups. This would result in a huge increase in efficiency of production.

  3. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  4. Dependency on scale of power numbers of Rushton disc turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujalski, W.; Nienow, A.W.; Chatwin, S.; Cooke, M.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive and very accurate power numbers have been obtained for a wide range of Rushton disc turbines using water as the working fluid in six fully baffled vessels from 0.22 to 1.83 m diameter. The results show that for Reynolds numbers greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 4/, the average peak power number anti Po is dependent on the disc thickness (x/sub 1/) to impeller diameter (D) ratio and to the vessel diameter (T). Provided x/sub 1//D is constant, anti Po is independent of impeller to vessel ratio in the range 0.25 less than or equal to D/T less than or equal to 0.70. For 0.01 less than or equal to x/sub 1//D less than or equal to 0.05 and for the range of vessels studied, the equation anti Po = 2.5(x/sub 1//D)/sup -0.2/ (T/T/sub 0/)/sup 0.065/ fitted the data to within +/- 3% where T/sub 0/ is a 1 m diameter vessel. An F-test shows that the inclusion of the small effect of scale, (T/T/sub 0/), is statistically significant at the 99% level. The implications of these scale and geometrical effects for mixing research, process design and scale-up are discussed.

  5. The relationship between age, rotator cuff integrity, and osseous microarchitecture of greater tuberosity: Where should we put anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholinne, Erica; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sung Jung; Park, So Hyun; Jeon, In-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of the greater tuberosity with or without rotator cuff tear and to obtain optimum location for anchor screw insertion for rotator cuff repair. Twenty-five humeral heads were harvested from 13 male cadavers of mean age 58.4 years, including 6 humeri with rotator cuff tear and 19 intact humeri. Six regions of interest (proximal, intermediate, and distal zones of the superficial and deep regions) were divided into the anterior (G1), middle (G2), and posterior (G3) areas of the greater tuberosity. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were evaluated. Total trabecular bone volume was greater in subjects 50 years old but did not differ significantly in subjects with and without rotator cuff tear. Cortical thickness in both intact and torn rotator cuff groups was significantly greater in the proximal and intermediate zones than in the distal zone. Cortical thickness was related to anatomic location rather than age or cuff tear. The optimal location for anchor screw insertion during rotator cuff repair is either the proximal or intermediate region of the greater tuberosity. Age has more influence in terms of trabecular bone volume loss than rotator cuff integrity. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  7. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  8. On the Relation Between Grammatical Number and Cardinal Numbers in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara W Sarnecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child’s language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., ‘one’ and ‘two’. Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number ‘one’ earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic learn the meaning of ‘two’ earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for ‘oneness,’ ‘twoness,’ etc. are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.

  9. Social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta, USA: spatial pattern of heat, NDVI, socioeconomics and household composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sunhui

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is evaluating spatial patterns of social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta in 2015. The social vulnerability to heat is an index of socioeconomic status, household composition, land surface temperature and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Land surface temperature and NDVI were derived from the red, NIR and thermal infrared (TIR) of a Landsat OLI/TIRS images collected on September 14, 2015. The research focus is on the variation of heat vulnerability in Greater Atlanta. The study found that heat vulnerability is highly clustered spatially, resulting in "hot spots" and "cool spots". The results show significant health disparities. The hotspots of social vulnerability to heat occurred in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status as measured by low education, low income and more poverty, greater proportion of elderly people and young children. The findings of this study are important for identifying clusters of heat vulnerability and the relationships with social factors. These significant results provide a basis for heat intervention services.

  10. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  11. Oscillatory Activity in the Infant Brain and the Representation of Small Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sumie; Mareschal, Denis; Rowsell, Renee; Simpson, David; Iaria, Leon; Grbic, Amanda; Kaufman, Jordy

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-band oscillatory activity (GBA) is an established neural signature of sustained occluded object representation in infants and adults. However, it is not yet known whether the magnitude of GBA in the infant brain reflects the quantity of occluded items held in memory. To examine this, we compared GBA of 6-8 month-old infants during occlusion periods after the representation of two objects vs. that of one object. We found that maintaining a representation of two objects during occlusion resulted in significantly greater GBA relative to maintaining a single object. Further, this enhancement was located in the right occipital region, which is consistent with previous object representation research in adults and infants. We conclude that enhanced GBA reflects neural processes underlying infants' representation of small numbers.

  12. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  13. Relationship between width of greater trochanters and width of iliac wings in tronchanteric bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E

    2011-09-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (Pbursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (Pbursitis.

  14. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. A large scale survey reveals that chromosomal copy-number alterations significantly affect gene modules involved in cancer initiation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigudosa Juan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations point towards the existence of a large number of neighborhoods composed of functionally-related gene modules that lie together in the genome. This local component in the distribution of the functionality across chromosomes is probably affecting the own chromosomal architecture by limiting the possibilities in which genes can be arranged and distributed across the genome. As a direct consequence of this fact it is therefore presumable that diseases such as cancer, harboring DNA copy number alterations (CNAs, will have a symptomatology strongly dependent on modules of functionally-related genes rather than on a unique "important" gene. Methods We carried out a systematic analysis of more than 140,000 observations of CNAs in cancers and searched by enrichments in gene functional modules associated to high frequencies of loss or gains. Results The analysis of CNAs in cancers clearly demonstrates the existence of a significant pattern of loss of gene modules functionally related to cancer initiation and progression along with the amplification of modules of genes related to unspecific defense against xenobiotics (probably chemotherapeutical agents. With the extension of this analysis to an Array-CGH dataset (glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate the validity of this approach to investigate the functional impact of CNAs. Conclusions The presented results indicate promising clinical and therapeutic implications. Our findings also directly point out to the necessity of adopting a function-centric, rather a gene-centric, view in the understanding of phenotypes or diseases harboring CNAs.

  16. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the biology and ultrastructure of haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Galleridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Eman M.S. [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M., E-mail: nahlasalem97@yahoo.co [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    This study was carried out on fully grown pupae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., {gamma}-irradiated to 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The four doses given to male parents in the F{sub 1} generation decreased the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatching and the percentage of mating in both the male and female lines; the effects increased with the dose. Dose dependence of the reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatching among the female line pairings (female descendants of irradiated parental male pupae) was more significant than among the male line pairings (male descendants of irradiated parental male pupae). We also examined morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of the cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were found.

  17. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  18. A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five-Year-Olds? An Evaluation of the English Early Learning "Numbers" Goal in the Light of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to evaluate the English Early Years Foundation Stage Goal for Numbers, in relation to research evidence. The Goal, which sets out to provide "a good foundation in mathematics", has greater breadth of content and higher levels of difficulty than previous versions. Research suggests that the additional expectations…

  19. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival.

  20. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival

  1. Greater absolute risk for all subtypes of breast cancer in the US than Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Beena Devi, C R; Sung, Hyuna; Tang, Tieng Swee; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sherman, Mark E; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2015-01-01

    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.

  2. Very high performance pseudo-random number generation on DAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Reddaway, S. F.; Scott, D. M.

    1985-07-01

    Since the National DAP Service began at QMC in 1980, extensive use has been made of pseudo-random numbers in Monte Carlo simulation. Matrices of uniform numbers have been produced by various generators: (a) multiplicative ( x+ 1 = 13 13xn mod 2 59); (b) very long period shift register ( x4423 + x271 + 1); (c) multiple shorter period ( x127 + x7 + 1) shift registers generating several matrices per iteration. The above uniform generators can also feed a normal distribution generator that uses the Box-Muller transformation. This paper describes briefly the generators, their implementation and speed. Generator (b) has been greatly speeded-up by re-implementation, and now produces more than 100 × 10 6 high quality 16-bit numbers/s. Generator (c) is under development and will achieve even higher performance, mainly due to producing data in greater bulk. High quality numbers are expected, and performance will range from 400 to 800 × 10 6 numbers/s, depending on how the generator is used.

  3. Spatial Assessment of Road Traffic Injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA: Spatial Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Tehranchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS and spatial analysis approach based on the global spatial autocorrelation of road traffic injuries for identifying spatial patterns. A locational spatial autocorrelation was also used for identifying traffic injury at spatial level. Data for this research study were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI based on 2004 and 2011. Moran’s I statistics were used to examine spatial patterns of road traffic injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. An assessment of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was followed as to identify hot spots and cold spots within the study area. The results revealed that Peel and Durham have the highest collision rate for other motor vehicle with motor vehicle. Geographic weighted regression (GWR technique was conducted to test the relationships between the dependent variable, number of road traffic injury incidents and independent variables such as number of seniors, low education, unemployed, vulnerable groups, people smoking and drinking, urban density and average median income. The result of this model suggested that number of seniors and low education have a very strong correlation with the number of road traffic injury incidents.

  4. Greater rate of cephalic screw mobilisation following proximal femoral nailing in hip fractures with a tip-apex distance (TAD) and a calcar referenced TAD greater than 25 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicale, Rocco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2018-05-02

    To ascertain whether the tip-apex distance (TAD), calcar referenced TAD (CalTAD), and the sum of both (TADcalTAD) are predictive measurements of mobilisation of the cephalic screw in patients with trochanteric hip fractures. Between 2014 and 2015, 68 patients (mean age 86 years, 45 females, 23 males) with a trochanteric hip fracture underwent intramedullary nailing. The TAD and CalTAD were measured, and for each parameter, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). There is evidence of a statistically significant association between a TAD and CalTAD greater than 25 mm and a TADcalTAD greater than 50 mm and mobilisation of the cephalic screw. All measurements have similar sensitivity, but the TAD presents the highest specificity (p TAD and CalTAD less than 25 mm and a TADcalTAD less than 50 mm when using intramedullary fixation.

  5. Telomere dysfunction reduces microglial numbers without fully inducing an aging phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Asif Manzoor; Babcock, Alicia; Saeed, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of the aging brain to neurodegenerative disease may in part be attributed to cellular aging of the microglial cells that survey it. We investigated the effect of cellular aging induced by telomere shortening on microglia by the use of mice lacking the telomerase RNA component...... (TERC) and design-based stereology. TERC knockout (KO) mice had a significantly reduced number of CD11b(+) microglia in the dentate gyrus. Because of an even greater reduction in dentate gyrus volume, microglial density was, however, increased. Microglia in TERC KO mice maintained a homogenous...... distribution and normal expression of CD45 and CD68 and the aging marker, ferritin, but were morphologically distinct from microglia in both adult and old wild-type mice. TERC KO mice also showed increased cellular apoptosis and impaired spatial learning. Our results suggest that individual microglia...

  6. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Greater Proptosis Is Not Associated With Improved Compressive Optic Neuropathy in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Tavish; Dunbar, Kristen E; Campbell, Ashley A; Bathras, Ryan M; Kazim, Michael

    2018-05-18

    Despite the paucity of supporting data, it has generally been held that proptosis in thyroid eye disease (TED) may provide relative protection from compressive optic neuropathy (CON) by producing spontaneous decompression. The objective of this study was to investigate this phenomenon in patients with bilateral TED-CON. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 patients (134 orbits) with bilateral TED-CON at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Significant asymmetric proptosis (Hertel) was defined as ≥ 2 mm. Significant asymmetric CON was defined first, as the presence of an relative afferent pupillary defect. Those without an relative afferent pupillary defect were evaluated according to the TED-CON formula y = -0.69 - 0.31 × (motility) - 0.2 × (mean deviation) - 0.02 × (color vision) as previously established for the diagnosis of TED-CON. A difference in the formula result ≥ 1.0 between eyes was considered significant. Patients were then divided into 4 groups. Forty-one of 67 patients demonstrated asymmetric CON (29 by relative afferent pupillary defect, 12 by formula). Twenty-one of 67 patients demonstrated asymmetric proptosis. Only 5 of 12 (41.6%) of the patients who had both asymmetric proptosis and asymmetric CON (group 1) showed greater proptosis in the eye with less CON. Twenty-nine patients (group 2) showed that asymmetric CON occurred despite symmetrical proptosis. Seventeen patients (group 3), showed the inverse, that asymmetric differences in proptosis occurred with symmetrical CON. Despite commonly held assumptions, our results suggest that greater proptosis is not associated with improved TED-CON. Combining groups 1 to 3-all of which demonstrated asymmetry of either proptosis, CON, or both-91.4% of patients did not show a relationship between greater proptosis and improved CON.

  8. Cognitive inhibition of number/length interference in a Piaget-like task in young adults: evidence from ERPs and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Gaëlle; Joliot, Marc; Dubal, Stéphanie; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier

    2006-06-01

    We sought to determine whether the neural traces of a previous cognitive developmental stage could be evidenced in young adults. In order to do so, 12 young adults underwent two functional imaging acquisitions (EEG then fMRI). During each session, two experimental conditions were applied: a Piaget-like task with number/length interference (INT), and a reference task with number/length covariation (COV). To succeed at Piaget's numerical task, which children under the age of 7 years usually fail, the subjects had to inhibit a misleading strategy, namely, the visuospatial length-equals-number bias, a quantification heuristic that is often relevant and that continues to be used through adulthood. Behavioral data confirmed that although there was an automation in the young adult subjects as assessed by the very high number of accurate responses (>97%), the inhibition of the "length equals number strategy" had a cognitive cost, as the reaction times were significantly higher in INT than in COV (with a difference of 230 ms). The event-related potential results acquired during the first session showed electrophysiological markers of the cognitive inhibition of the number/length interference. Indeed, the frontal N2 was greater during INT than during COV, and a P3(late)/P6 was detected only during INT. During the fMRI session, a greater activation of unimodal areas (the right middle and superior occipital cortex) and in the ventral route (the left inferior temporal cortex) was observed in INT than in COV. These results seem to indicate that when fully automated in adults, inhibition processes might take place in unimodal areas. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Oscillatory activity in the infant brain and the representation of small numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumie eLeung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-band oscillatory activity (GBA is an established neural signature of sustained occluded object representation in infants and adults. However, it is not yet known whether the magnitude of GBA in the infant brain reflects the quantity of occluded items held in memory. To examine this, we compared GBA of 6- to 8-month-old infants during occlusion periods after the representation of two objects versus that of one object. We found that maintaining a representation of two objects during occlusion resulted in significantly greater GBA relative to maintaining a single object. Further, this enhancement was located in the right occipital region, which is consistent with previous object representation research in adults and infants. We conclude that enhanced GBA reflects neural processes underlying infants’ representation of small numbers.

  10. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: The contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHornung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners’ nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.

  11. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  12. Impact of Lesion Length on Functional Significance in Intermediate Coronary Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed at assessing the role of lesion length in predicting Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR value for physiological evaluation of intermediate coronary lesions.Methods: In the current study, 68 patients with 83 coronary lesions were enrolled. All of the patients in this study underwent routine coronary angiography, according to appropriate indications. To evaluate physiologically significant intermediate coronary stenosis (defined between 40% and 70% on visual estimation, the Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR study was performed and the Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA data were also assessed for measurement of lesion length. The correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also examined.Results: Eighty-three lesions were evaluated from 68 patients. Stenosis was considered physiologically significant when FFR was lower than 0.75. The FFR was significant in twelve lesions (14.5%. There was a negative correlation between FFR value and lesion length (r = -0.294 and P = 0.013. Moreover, lesion length in physiologically significant FFR group (21.07  ± 6.9 was greater than that of the non-significant FFR group (15.23 ± 6.5 (P value < 0.05. Furthermore, the correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also investigated, yet, there was only a positive correlation between FFR and Minimum Luminal Diameter (MLD values (r = 0.248 and P value = 0.04. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis for predicting the significant FFR value demonstrated that a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm was the best cut-off point for prediction of the significant FFR value with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 68.8%, respectively.Conclusions: There is a negative correlation between lesion length and FFR value in intermediate coronary lesions. In addition, a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm is the best cut- off point for prediction of significant FFR values.

  13. Effect of unequal fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers on flame dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The interaction of non-unity Lewis number (due to preferential diffusion and/or unequal rates of heat and mass transfer) with the coupled effect of radiation, chemistry and unsteadiness alters several characteristics of a flame. The present study numerically investigates this interaction with a particular emphasis on the effect of unequal and non-unity fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers in a transient diffusion flame. The unsteadiness is simulated by considering the flame subjected to modulations in reactant concentration. Flames with different Lewis numbers (ranging from 0.5 to 2) and subjected to different modulating frequencies are considered. The results show that the coupled effect of Lewis number and unsteadiness strongly influences the flame dynamics. The impact is stronger at high modulating frequencies and strain rates, particularly for large values of Lewis numbers. Compared to the oxidizer side Lewis number, the fuel side Lewis number has greater influence on flame dynamics. (author)

  14. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  15. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  16. Quantifying Arabia-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Greater Caucasus by paleomagnetic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2018-01-01

    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.

  17. Cultural significance of the flora of a tropical dry forest in the Doche vereda (Villavieja, Huila, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Toro, Jeison Herley; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Santos-Fita, Dídac; Ruan-Soto, Felipe

    2018-03-22

    In Colombia, ethnobotanical studies regarding plant cultural significance (CS) in tropical dry forests are scarce and mainly focused on the Caribbean region. Different authors have indicated that the plants with the most uses are those of greater cultural importance. Additionally, gender differences in knowledge and interest in natural resources has been widely recorded. This study evaluated the cultural significance of plants in the Doche community, in the Department of Huila. Furthermore, it evaluates the richness of plant knowledge among local inhabitants, looking for testing the hypothesis that the CS of plants positively correlates to the number of uses people inform about, and that there are significant differences on the richness of ethnobotanical knowledge between men and women in this community. The ethnobotanical categories: "food," "condiment," "economy," "fodder," "firewood," "timber", "medicine," and "others" were established to carry out semi-structured interviews, social cartography, and ethnobotanical walks. The frequency of mention was calculated as a measure of CS. The richness of knowledge of each collaborator was obtained. Non-parametric tests were performed to determine whether differences between the numbers of mentioned species existed between genders and ethnobotanical categories. Finally, Pearson correlation tests determined the relationship between CS and the number of ethnobotanical categories. A hundred useful species were registered in crops and forests. The most abundant categories were medicinal (45 species), firewood (30), and fodder (28). The most culturally significant species according to frequency of mention were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Guazuma ulmifolia, Manihot esculenta, and Musa balbisiana. The species with the most registered uses (five) were Guazuma ulmifolia and Gliricidia sepium. We found a correlation between CS and the number of uses per ethnobotanical category, but no significant difference between genders regarding

  18. The natural number bias and its role in rational number understanding in children with dyscalculia. Delay or deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating

  20. Performance of Savonius Blade Waterwheel with Variation of Blade Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, L.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of water energy source is mainly used as a provider of electrical energy through hydroelectric power. The potential utilization of water flow energy is relatively small. The objective of this study is to know the best blade of Savonius waterwheel with various variables such as water discharge, blade number, and loading. The data used the efficiency of waterwheel, variation of blade number, variable water discharge, and loading in the shaft. The test results have shown that the performances of a top-water mill with the semicircular curve where the variation in the number of blades are 4, 6, and 8 at discharge and loading of 0.01587 m3/s and 1000 grams respectively were 9.945%, 13.929%, and 17.056% respectively. The blades number of 8 obtained the greatest performance. The more number of blades the greater the efficiency of the waterwheel Savonius.

  1. Qualification of a Method to Calculate the Irrecoverable Pressure Loss in High Reynolds Number Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, K. C.; Coffield, R. D.

    2002-09-01

    High Reynolds number test data has recently been reported for both single and multiple piping elbow design configurations at earlier ASME Fluid Engineering Division conferences. The data of these studies ranged up to a Reynolds number of 42 x 10[sup]6 which is significantly greater than that used to establish design correlations before the data was available. Many of the accepted design correlations, based on the lower Reynolds number data, date back as much as fifty years. The new data shows that these earlier correlations are extremely conservative for high Reynolds number applications. Based on the recent high Reynolds number information a new recommended method has been developed for calculating irrecoverable pressure loses in piping systems for design considerations such as establishing pump sizing requirements. This paper describes the recommended design approach and additional testing that has been performed as part of the qualification of the method. This qualification testing determined the irrecoverable pressure loss of a piping configuration that would typify a limiting piping section in a complicated piping network, i.e., multiple, tightly coupled, out-of-plane elbows in series under high Reynolds number flow conditions. The overall pressure loss measurements were then compared to predictions, which used the new methodology to assure that conservative estimates for the pressure loss (of the type used for pump sizing) were obtained. The recommended design methodology, the qualification testing and the comparison between the predictions and the test data are presented. A major conclusion of this study is that the recommended method for calculating irrecoverable pressure loss in piping systems is conservative yet significantly lower than predicted by early design correlations that were based on the extrapolation of low Reynolds number test data.

  2. Compelled to Risk: Does Sexual Compulsivity Explain the Connection Between Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Number of Sexual Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Garey, Lorra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Crist, Nic; Elhai, Jon D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Having more sexual partners increases the likelihood of new HIV infections among women. Women with more borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have been known to have greater numbers of sexual partners. However, the mechanisms linking BPD features with more sexual partners remain to be clarified. Sexual compulsivity (lack of control, increased distress over sexual behavior) may be one such explanatory factor, as it overlaps with BPD features (e.g., impulsivity, negative affectivity). The present study examined whether sexual compulsivity explained the relation of BPD features with number of sexual partners among a diverse sample of college females (N = 1,326). Results demonstrated a significant indirect effect of BPD features via sexual compulsivity on number of sexual partners. These findings support the relation between BPD features and sexual compulsivity and suggest sexual compulsivity as a target in the promotion of the sexual health of women with BPD who demonstrate risky sexual practices.

  3. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  4. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  5. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  6. Clinical significance of rare copy number variations in epilepsy: a case-control survey using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Antonietta; Paravidino, Roberta; Malacarne, Michela; Gimelli, Stefania; Robbiano, Angela; Traverso, Monica; Pezzella, Marianna; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Bianchi, Amedeo; Elia, Maurizio; Falace, Antonio; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Freri, Elena; Galasso, Roberta; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Molinatto, Cristina; Cavani, Simona; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Striano, Salvatore; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Silengo, Margherita; Cavaliere, Maria Luigia; Benelli, Matteo; Magi, Alberto; Piccione, Maria; Dagna Bricarelli, Franca; Coviello, Domenico A; Fichera, Marco; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico

    2012-03-01

    To perform an extensive search for genomic rearrangements by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in patients with epilepsy. Prospective cohort study. Epilepsy centers in Italy. Two hundred seventy-nine patients with unexplained epilepsy, 265 individuals with nonsyndromic mental retardation but no epilepsy, and 246 healthy control subjects were screened by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. Identification of copy number variations (CNVs) and gene enrichment. Rare CNVs occurred in 26 patients (9.3%) and 16 healthy control subjects (6.5%) (P = .26). The CNVs identified in patients were larger (P = .03) and showed higher gene content (P = .02) than those in control subjects. The CNVs larger than 1 megabase (P = .002) and including more than 10 genes (P = .005) occurred more frequently in patients than in control subjects. Nine patients (34.6%) among those harboring rare CNVs showed rearrangements associated with emerging microdeletion or microduplication syndromes. Mental retardation and neuropsychiatric features were associated with rare CNVs (P = .004), whereas epilepsy type was not. The CNV rate in patients with epilepsy and mental retardation or neuropsychiatric features is not different from that observed in patients with mental retardation only. Moreover, significant enrichment of genes involved in ion transport was observed within CNVs identified in patients with epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy show a significantly increased burden of large, rare, gene-rich CNVs, particularly when associated with mental retardation and neuropsychiatric features. The limited overlap between CNVs observed in the epilepsy group and those observed in the group with mental retardation only as well as the involvement of specific (ion channel) genes indicate a specific association between the identified CNVs and epilepsy. Screening for CNVs should be performed for diagnostic purposes preferentially in patients with epilepsy and mental retardation or

  7. Single versus double row suture anchor fixation for greater tuberosity fractures - a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppel, Gernot; Saier, Tim; Martetschläger, Frank; Plath, Johannes E; Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Henschel, Julia; Winkler, Martin; Augat, Peter; Imhoff, Andreas B; Buchmann, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Fractures of the humeral greater tuberosity (GT) are a frequent injury progressively treated with arthroscopic suture anchor repair. Yet, no biomechanical study has been performed comparing fixation strength of arthroscopic single- (SR) vs. double row (DR) fixation. Standardized fractures of the greater tuberosity were created in 12 fresh frozen proximal humeri. After random assignation to the SR or DR group the fixed humeri were tested applying cyclic loading to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon. Load to failure and fragment displacement were assessed by means of an electrodynamic material testing machine using an optical tracking system. Load to failure values were higher in the DR group (649 N; ±176) than in the SR group (490 N; ±145) however without statistical significance (p = .12). In greater tuberosity displacement of 3-5 mm surgical treatment is recommended. The fixing constructs in this study did not reach displacement landmarks of 3 or 5 mm before construct failure as shown in previous studies. Thus the applied traction force (N) at 1 mm displacement was analyzed. In the SR group the load at 1 mm displacement was 277 N; ±46 compared to 260 N; ±62 in the DR group (p = .65). The results suggest that both techniques are viable options for refixation of greater tuberosity fractures. Laboratory study.

  8. Intervening O vi Quasar Absorption Systems at Low Redshift: A Significant Baryon Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp; Savage; Jenkins

    2000-05-01

    Far-UV echelle spectroscopy of the radio-quiet QSO H1821+643 (zem=0.297), obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) at approximately 7 km s-1 resolution, reveals four definite O vi absorption-line systems and one probable O vi absorber at 0.15quasar in redshift; these are likely intervening systems unrelated to the background QSO. In the case of the strong O vi system at zabs=0.22497, multiple components are detected in Si iii and O vi as well as H i Lyman series lines, and the differing component velocity centroids and b-values firmly establish that this is a multiphase absorption system. A weak O vi absorber is detected at zabs=0.22637, i.e., offset by approximately 340 km s-1 from the zabs=0.22497 system. Lyalpha absorption is detected at zabs=0.22613, but no Lyalpha absorption is significantly detected at 0.22637. Other weak O vi absorbers at zabs=0.24531 and 0.26659 and the probable O vi system at 0.21326 have widely diverse O vi/H i column density ratios with N(O vi)/N(H i) ranging from number density of O vi absorbers with rest equivalent width greater than 30 mÅ in the H1821+643 spectrum is remarkably high, dN&solm0;dz approximately 48, which implies with a high (90%) confidence that it is greater than 17 in the low-redshift intergalactic medium. We conservatively estimate that the cosmological mass density of the O vi systems is Omegab(Ovi&parr0; greater, similar0.0008 h-175. With an assumed metallicity of 1/10 solar and a conservative assumption that the fraction of oxygen in the O vi ionization stage is 0.2, we obtain Omegab(Ovi&parr0; greater, similar0.004 h-175. This is comparable to the combined cosmological mass density of stars and cool gas in galaxies and X-ray-emitting gas in galaxy clusters at low redshift.

  9. Men exhibit greater fatigue resistance than women in alternated bench press and leg press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Estêvão R; Steele, James; Novaes, Jefferson S; Brown, Amanda F; Cavanaugh, Mark T; Vingren, Jakob L; Behm, David G

    2017-11-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex, exercise order, and rest interval on neuromuscular fatigue resistance for an alternated strength training sequence of bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises. Twelve women and 16 men, both recreationally trained, performed four sessions in a random order: 1) BP followed by LP with three-minutes rest (BP+LP with rest), 2) LP followed by BP with three-minutes rest (LP+BP with rest), 3) BP followed by LP without rest interval (BP+LP no rest), and 4) LP followed by BP without rest interval (LP+BP no rest). Participants performed four sets with 100% of 10RM load to concentric failure with the goal of completing the maximum number of repetitions in both exercises. The fatigue index was analyzed from the first and last sets of each exercise bout. A main effect for sex showed that women exhibited 25.5% (p=0.001) and 24.5% (p=0.001) greater BP and LP fatigue than men respectively when performing 10RM. Men exhibited greater BP (p<0.0001; 34.1%) and LP (p<0.0001; 30.5%) fatigue resistance when a rest period was provided. Men did not show an exercise order effect for BP fatigue and exhibited greater (p=0.0003; 14.5%) LP fatigue resistance when BP was performed first. The present study demonstrated the greater fatigue resistance of men when performing 10RM BP and LP exercises. Since men tend to experience less fatigue with the second exercise in the exercise pairing, women's training programs should be adjusted to ensure they do not parallel men's resistance training programs.

  10. Pitavastatin 4 mg Provides Significantly Greater Reduction in Remnant Lipoprotein Cholesterol Compared With Pravastatin 40 mg: Results from the Short-term Phase IV PREVAIL US Trial in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sponseller, Craig A; Toth, Peter P

    2016-03-01

    Remnants are partially hydrolyzed, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are implicated in atherosclerosis. We assessed the adequacy of pitavastatin 4 mg and pravastatin 40 mg in reducing atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, in particular remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C). From the Phase IV, multicenter, randomized, double-blind PREVAIL US (A Study of Pitavastatin 4 mg Vs. Pravastatin 40 mg in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia) trial, we examined lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions using Vertical Auto Profile testing and apolipoproteins B and A-I at baseline and 12 weeks. Participants with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia had LDL-C levels of 130 to 220 mg/dL and triglyceride levels ≤ 400 mg/dL. In this post hoc analysis, changes in lipid parameters were compared by using ANCOVA. Lipoprotein subfraction data were available in 312 patients (pitavastatin, n = 157; pravastatin, n = 155). Pitavastatin promoted a greater reduction in RLP-C than pravastatin (-13.6 [8.7] vs -9.3 [9.5] mg/dL). Furthermore, the pitavastatin group reported greater reductions in both components of RLP-C (both, P < 0.001): intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.5 [6.3] vs -6.4 [6.6] mg/dL) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 (-4.1 [3.5] vs -2.9 [3.8] mg/dL). There were also greater reductions in the major ratios of risk (apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and total cholesterol/HDL-C) (both, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in HDL-C, its subfractions, or natural log lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol. The mean age was 58.8 ± 8.9 years in the pitavastatin group and 57.0 ± 10.2 years in the pravastatin group. Compared with pravastatin 40 mg daily, pitavastatin 4 mg provided superior reductions in atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, including RLP-C. Future studies are needed investigate the clinical implications of lowering directly measured RLP-C as the principal target. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier

  11. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings

  12. Longitudinal study of urbanisation processes in peri-urban areas of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Fertner, Christian; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist

    Urbanisation processes increasingly influence the use of land and properties in rural areas. In peri-urban areas population composition changes as the areas offer attractive possibilities of other gainful activities than agriculture (OGA), and residential and recreational alternatives to both urban...... have become redundant because of structural changes in agriculture. As a consequence, the structural components of the areas (land cover and landscape elements) thus appear more resistant to changes than transition of the socio-economic system (declining number of full-time farmers and increasing...... property prices because of the attractiveness of land. This raises questions of the desired future of the peri-urban area of Greater Copenhagen, and about the effectiveness of the existing planning systems and its ability to protect agriculture land, which has been a main objective since the beginning...

  13. Factors associated with number of duodenal samples obtained in suspected celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Sorser, Serge; Naydin, Stan; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Shukr, Mousa; Wiemann, Charlotte; Yevsyukov, Daniel; Piper, Michael H; Warren, Bradley; Green, Peter H R

    2017-12-01

     Many people with celiac disease are undiagnosed and there is evidence that insufficient duodenal samples may contribute to underdiagnosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether more samples leads to a greater likelihood of a diagnosis of celiac disease and to elucidate factors that influence the number of samples collected.  We identified patients from two community hospitals who were undergoing duodenal biopsy for indications (as identified by International Classification of Diseases code) compatible with possible celiac disease. Three cohorts were evaluated: no celiac disease (NCD, normal villi), celiac disease (villous atrophy, Marsh score 3), and possible celiac disease (PCD, Marsh score celiac disease had a median of 4 specimens collected. The percentage of patients diagnosed with celiac disease with one sample was 0.3 % compared with 12.8 % of those with six samples ( P  = 0.001). Patient factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were endoscopic features, demographic details, and indication ( P  = 0.001). Endoscopist factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were absence of a trainee, pediatric gastroenterologist, and outpatient setting ( P  celiac disease significantly increased with six samples. Multiple factors influenced whether adequate biopsies were taken. Adherence to guidelines may increase the diagnosis rate of celiac disease.

  14. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  15. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiguo; Yu, Guoqiang; Hou, Xuchu; Shih, Ie-Ming; Clarke, Robert; Zhang, Junying; Hoffman, Eric P; Wang, Roger R; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yue

    2012-07-27

    Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC), a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1) exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2) performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3) iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs) and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS) on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma). When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC) or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B). Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes. Open-source and platform-independent SAIC software is

  16. ‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called ‘utilitarian’ judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such ‘utilitarian’ judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between ‘utilitarian’ judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of ‘utilitarian’ judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that ‘utilitarian’ judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between ‘utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in ‘utilitarian’ judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392

  17. Holmium laser enucleation for prostate adenoma greater than 100 gm.: comparison to open prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J A; Lingeman, J E

    2001-02-01

    Options for treatment of large (greater than 100 gm.) prostatic adenomas have until now been limited to open surgery or transurethral resection by skilled resectionists. Considerable blood loss, morbidity, extended hospital stay and prolonged recovery occur with open surgery for large prostatic adenomas. Endoscopic surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia has evolved during the last decade to offer the patient and surgeon significant advantages of transurethral removal of prostatic adenomas. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate with transurethral tissue morcellation provides significant reductions in morbidity, bleeding and hospital stay for patients with large prostate adenomas. A retrospective review of data on 10 cases of holmium laser enucleation and 10 open prostatectomies for greater than 100 gm. prostatic adenomas was performed from 1998 to 1999 at our institution. Patient demographics, indication for surgery, preoperative and postoperative American Urological Association (AUA) symptom scores, operating time, serum hemoglobin, resected prostatic weight, pathological diagnosis, length of stay and complications were compared. Patient age, indications for surgery (retention, failed medical therapy, high post-void residual, bladder calculi, bladder diverticula and azotemia) and preoperative AUA symptom scores were similar in both groups. Postoperative AUA symptom scores were significantly decreased (p gm., p = 0.0003). Resected weight was greater in the holmium laser enucleation group (151 versus 106 gm., p = 0.07). Length of stay was significantly shorter in the holmium laser enucleation group (2.1 versus 6.1 days, p <0.001). Complications in the holmium laser enucleation group included stress urinary incontinence in 4 cases, prostatic perforation in 1 and urinary retention in 1. No patient treated with holmium laser enucleation was discharged home with an indwelling catheter. Complications in the open prostatectomy group included bladder neck contractures

  18. 14821AT LANCE, Missile Number 2419, Round Number 349APT, 12 May 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    WSTRUCTIONUREPOT DCUMNTAIONPAG EPORE COMPLEMON PORN REPORT NUMBER 2GOTACCESSION NO S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TDR 1148 __7 0_____T___ ~. *.~----...,S. TYPE OF...Data at 0815 MDT ---------- 4 4. White Sands Desert Site (WSD) Significant Level Data at 0815 MDT ------------------------------------ 5 5. WSD Upper...humidity, dew point (0 C), density (gm/n,3), Wind direction and speed, and cloud cover were made at the LC-39 Met Site at T-0 minutes. (2) Monitor of

  19. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  20. Mortality in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde employees: 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, K; Waclawski, E

    2013-09-01

    Just over a fifth of all deaths in Scotland occur in those under the age of 65. This study examined deaths in service in employees of the National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHS GG&C) Health Board over a 3-year period. To assess crude death rates by occupational group, the main causes of death and evidence of causes that could have been prevented or modified by lifestyle changes. Demographic details, occupational grouping and death certificate data were obtained for all NHS GG&C employees who died in service between 2007 and 2009. A total of 138 employees died in this period. The occupational groups in which most deaths occurred were support services (porters, domestic and catering staff; 35%) and nurses (34%). The commonest causes of death were lung cancer (15%), ischaemic heart disease (9%) and suicide (9%). The overall crude death rate was 1.2/1000 persons/year (females 1.0 and males 1.7) and was highest among support services employees (2.4) and lowest among medical staff (0.5). The relative risk of death in support services was significantly greater than the majority of occupational groups. These findings suggest health inequality within this workforce. The main causes of death identified in the support services group could potentially be modified through workplace risk factor screening and health promotion.

  1. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  2. Effects of particle-number-projection on nuclear moment of intertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.

    1976-01-01

    The formalism of the moment of inertia in cranking model and BCS theory has been extended for the partially particle-number-projected BCS wave functions. The ground state moments of inertia obtained by this method are a little greater than those calculated by BCS method. A smooth growth of the moments of inertia for diminishing pairing strength constant has been obtained. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Department of Energy-held potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste (GTCC LLW), and through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and/or for health and safety reasons, the waste is being stored by DOE. A determination is required, considering specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, whether disposal is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facility or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility is appropriate. This report presents the preliminary results of an assessment conducted by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. legal counsel and GTCC LLW Program staff

  4. Evaluation of the genetic distinctiveness of Greater Sage-grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize a distinct population of Greater Sage-grouse: the population located along the border between Nevada and California (Bi-State Planning Area) and centered around the Mono Basin. This population was previously determined to be genetically distinct from other Greater Sage-grouse populations across their range. Previous genetic work focused on characterizing genetic variation across the species' range and thereby used a coarse sampling approach for species characterization. The goal of this study was to investigate this population further by obtaining samples from breeding locations within the population and analyzing those samples with the same mitochondrial and microsatellite loci used in previous studies. Blood samples were collected in six locations within the Bi-State Planning Area. Genetic data from subpopulations were then compared with each other and also with two populations outside of the Bi-State Planning Area. Particular attention was paid to subpopulation boundaries and internal dynamics by drawing comparisons among particular regions within the Bi-State Planning Area and regions proximal to it. All newly sampled subpopulations contained mitochondrial haplotypes and allele frequencies that were consistent with the genetically unique Bi-State (Mono Basin) Greater Sage-grouse described previously. This reinforces the fact that this group of Greater Sage-grouse is genetically unique and warrants special attention. Maintaining the genetic integrity of this population could protect the evolutionary potential of this population of Greater Sage-grouse. Additionally, the White Mountains subpopulation was found to be significantly distinct from all other Bi-State subpopulations.

  5. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  6. The european emergency number 112 - the questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Goniewicz

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions. Most of the respondents (92% identify the 112 number as an emergency number that allows them to connect to emergency services from anywhere in the European Union. A significant number of respondents (47% identify the 112 number as an emergency number in Poland. One in three respondents will use the 999 number to contact the emergency services as a witness to an emergency in Poland. Non-medical university students more often (63% will use the 112 emergency number than medical college students (41%. Respondents (98% confirmed the usefulness of a unified emergency number throughout Europe, but decided that they were not sufficiently informed about 112 as the European emergency number.

  7. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascioli, Kelly J; Robertson, Catharine J; Douglass, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors. The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests. When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes. The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction.

  8. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  9. Free surface flow under gravity and surface tension due to an applied pressure distribution: i Bond number greater than one-third

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleewong, Montri; Asavanant, Jack [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Mathematics and Advanced Virtual Intelligence Computing Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Grimshaw, Roger [Loughborough University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    We consider steady free surface two-dimensional flow due to a localized applied pressure distribution under the effects of both gravity and surface tension in water of constant depth, and in the presence of a uniform stream. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the flow is irrotational. The behavior of the forced nonlinear waves is characterized by three parameters: the Froude number, F, the Bond number, {tau}>1/3, and the magnitude and sign of the pressure forcing parameter {epsilon}. The fully nonlinear wave problem is solved numerically by using a boundary integral method. For small amplitude waves and F<1 but not too close to 1, linear theory gives a good prediction for the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem in the case of bifurcation from the uniform flow. As F approaches 1, the nonlinear terms need to be taken account of. In this case the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation is found to be an appropriate model to describe bifurcations from an unforced solitary wave. In general, it is found that for given values of F<1 and {tau}>1/3, there exists both elevation and depression waves. In some cases, a limiting configuration in the form of a trapped bubble occurs in the depression wave solutions. (orig.)

  10. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  12. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  13. The dynamic relationship between cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spikes and the spikelet number of complex spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Amelia; Wise, Andrew K; Xiao, Jianqiang; Houghton, Conor; Tang, Tianyu; Suh, Colleen Y; Lang, Eric J; Apps, Richard; Cerminara, Nadia L

    2017-01-01

    Purkinje cells are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex and fire two distinct types of action potential: simple spikes and complex spikes. Previous studies have mainly considered complex spikes as unitary events, even though the waveform is composed of varying numbers of spikelets. The extent to which differences in spikelet number affect simple spike activity (and vice versa) remains unclear. We found that complex spikes with greater numbers of spikelets are preceded by higher simple spike firing rates but, following the complex spike, simple spikes are reduced in a manner that is graded with spikelet number. This dynamic interaction has important implications for cerebellar information processing, and suggests that complex spike spikelet number may maintain Purkinje cells within their operational range. Purkinje cells are central to cerebellar function because they form the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. They exhibit two distinct types of action potential: simple spikes and complex spikes. It is widely accepted that interaction between these two types of impulse is central to cerebellar cortical information processing. Previous investigations of the interactions between simple spikes and complex spikes have mainly considered complex spikes as unitary events. However, complex spikes are composed of an initial large spike followed by a number of secondary components, termed spikelets. The number of spikelets within individual complex spikes is highly variable and the extent to which differences in complex spike spikelet number affects simple spike activity (and vice versa) remains poorly understood. In anaesthetized adult rats, we have found that Purkinje cells recorded from the posterior lobe vermis and hemisphere have high simple spike firing frequencies that precede complex spikes with greater numbers of spikelets. This finding was also evident in a small sample of Purkinje cells recorded from the posterior lobe hemisphere in awake cats. In addition

  14. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Afonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  15. Greater Occipital Nerve Block for Acute Treatment of Migraine Headache: A Large Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sorcha M; Mookadam, Farouk; Cha, Stephen S; Freeman, John A; Starling, Amaal J; Mookadam, Martina

    2018-01-01

    Greater occipital nerve (GON) blocks are frequently used to treat migraine headaches, although a paucity of supporting clinical evidence exists. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of GON block in acute treatment of migraine headache, with a focus on pain relief. This retrospective cohort study was undertaken between January 2009 and August 2014 and included patients who underwent at least 1 GON block and attended at least 1 follow-up appointment. Change in the 11-point numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) was used to assess the response to GON block. Response was defined as "minimal" (50% NPRS point reduction). A total of 562 patients met inclusion criteria; 423 were women (75%). Mean age was 58.6 ± 16.7 years. Of these 562, 459 patients (82%) rated their response to GON block as moderate or significant. No statistically significant relationship existed between previous treatment regimens and response to GON block. GON block was equally effective across the different age and sex groups. Greater occipital block seems to be an effective option for acute management of migraine headache, with promising reductions in pain scores. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  16. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  17. Climate Change Transforms Fire Regimes but Does not Eliminate Forest Carbon Sequestration in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, P. D.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Berryman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Annual area burned in the Rocky Mountains varies with climatic conditions. However, projecting long-term changes in wildfire presents an enduring challenge because climate also constrains vegetation and fuel availability. We combined an aridity-threshold fire model with the Landis-II dynamic landscape vegetation model (NECN extension) to project climate change impacts on vegetation, area burned, and ecosystem carbon balance in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). We developed a fire model that relates drought stress to area burned by quantifying an aridity threshold separating large and small years in 15 ecoregions in the Intermountain West. A significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.97) exists between mean fire-season aridity and ecoregion-specific aridity thresholds. We simulated vegetation and fire dynamics in the GYE at 250 m spatial resolution with Landis-II, using projections from five climate models and two emissions scenarios for the period 1980-2100 AD. We determined if each simulation year exceeded the regional aridity threshold, then randomly drew the number of fires and size of individual fires from fire-size distributions from large or small fire years. Burned area increases dramatically in most climate scenarios, especially after 2060, when most years exceed the aridity threshold. Productivity gains due to rising temperatures partially offset biomass lost to fire, but C stocks plateau or decline after 2060 in most simulations as burned area increases, and drought stress causes post-fire regeneration to decline at low elevations. However, species level changes (e.g. expansion by drought-tolerant Pseuodotsuga menziesii) help maintain productivity in sites where water becomes limiting. Fire-adapted Pinus contorta occupies less total area, but a greater proportion of remaining forests, and Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa significantly decline. Although fire and climate change will alter species distributions and forest structure, our results

  18. Using Copy Number Alterations to Identify New Therapeutic Targets for Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Conconi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents the ninth most widespread malignancy throughout the world. It is characterized by the presence of two different clinical and prognostic subtypes: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs. MIBCs have a poor outcome with a common progression to metastasis. Despite improvements in knowledge, treatment has not advanced significantly in recent years, with the absence of new therapeutic targets. Because of the limitations of current therapeutic options, the greater challenge will be to identify biomarkers for clinical application. For this reason, we compared our array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH results with those reported in literature for invasive bladder tumors and, in particular, we focused on the evaluation of copy number alterations (CNAs present in biopsies and retained in the corresponding cancer stem cell (CSC subpopulations that should be the main target of therapy. According to our data, CCNE1, MYC, MDM2 and PPARG genes could be interesting therapeutic targets for bladder CSC subpopulations. Surprisingly, HER2 copy number gains are not retained in bladder CSCs, making the gene-targeted therapy less interesting than the others. These results provide precious advice for further study on bladder therapy; however, the clinical importance of these results should be explored.

  19. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  1. Optokinetic stimulation modulates neglect for the number space: Evidence from mental number interval bisection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos ePriftis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data support the idea that numbers are represented along a mental number line (MNL, an analogical, visuo-spatial representation of number magnitude. The MNL is left-to-right oriented, with small numbers on the left and larger numbers on the right. Left neglect patients are impaired in processing the left side of the MNL and show a rightward deviation in the mental bisection of numerical intervals. In the present study we investigated the effects of optokinetic stimulation (OKS -a technique inducing spatial attention shifts by means of activation of the optokinetic nystagmus- on mental number interval bisection. One patient with left neglect following right hemisphere stroke (BG and four control patients with right hemisphere damage, but without neglect, performed the mental number interval bisection task in three experimental conditions of OKS: static, leftward, and rightward. In the static condition, BG misbisected to the right of the true midpoint. BG misbisected to the left following leftward OKS, but again to the right of the midpoint following rightward OKS. In contrast, the performance of controls was not significantly affected by the direction of OKS. We argue that shifts of visuospatial attention, induced by OKS, may affect the mental number interval bisection, suggesting the presence of an interaction between the processing of number magnitude and the processing of the perceptual space, in patients with neglect for the mental number space.

  2. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  3. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  4. Effect of movement velocity on the relationship between training load and the number of repetitions of bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Sinclair, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of movement velocity on the relationship between loading intensity and the number of repetitions of bench press. Thirteen healthy men (age = 21.7 +/- 1.0 years; weight = 76.8 +/- 2.5 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] = 99.5 +/- 6.0 kg), who were involved in regular weight training, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Subjects performed bench presses on a Smith machine at 5 different intensities (40-80% 1RM), repeated for 4 velocity conditions (slow: 0.15 +/- 0.03 m.s(-1); medium: 0.32 +/- 0.07 m.s(-1); fast: 0.52 +/- 0.12 m.s(-1); ballistic: maximum velocity), which were randomly assigned over 5 experimental sessions after a 1RM test. Velocity significantly changed the relationship between intensity (%1RM) and the number of reps performed (p velocities producing a higher number of reps. A significant interaction between intensity and velocity meant that velocity had a much greater effect on repetitions at lower intensities. These results suggest that the benefits of using a stretch-shortening cycle during faster movements outweigh the associated disadvantages from the force-velocity relationship. The practical applications of this study are that, when trainees are assigned a resistance training with specific RM values, the lifted intensity (%1RM) or weights will not be consistent unless velocity is controlled during training.

  5. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  6. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of hyperoxia on the number of nucleated cells and oxygen tension in rat bone marrow after whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, M.; Vodicka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The cell number in the femur bone marrow of rats determined three days after X-ray or gamma irradiation is inversely proportional to the dose while oxygen tension in the marrow shows direct dependence on the dose. With fractionation of the lethal dose of gamma radiation (9 Gy) into two doses with different time intervals between them, a greater number of bone marrow cells and a smaller oxygen tension are reached on the 3rd day after the second dose, reflecting the extent of bone marrow repair. A short-term hyperoxia (95% O 2 + 5% CO 2 ) lasting 20 min from the end of exposure compared with the euoxic conditions induced, on the 3rd day after the second fraction, a nonsignificant but reproducible increase in the marrow cell number and a decrease in partial oxygen tension in the distal part of femur marrow. The results obtained testify that immediate short-term hyperoxia facilitates regeneration of the marrow and that a greater number of cells accompanied by greater metabolic activity and oxygen consumption decrease the partial oxygen tension measured on the 3rd day following the last exposure. (author). 7 figs., 16 refs

  8. Greater vertical spot spacing to improve femtosecond laser capsulotomy quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Tim; Joachim, Stephanie C; Noristani, Rozina; Scott, Wendell; Dick, H Burkhard

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of adapted capsulotomy laser settings on the cutting quality in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Ruhr-University Eye Clinic, Bochum, Germany. Prospective randomized case series. Eyes were treated with 1 of 2 laser settings. In Group 1, the regular standard settings were used (incisional depth 600 μm, pulse energy 4 μJ, horizontal spot spacing 5 μm, vertical spot spacing 10 μm, treatment time 1.2 seconds). In Group 2, vertical spot spacing was increased to 15 μm and the treatment time was 1.0 seconds. Light microscopy was used to evaluate the cut quality of the capsule edge. The size and number of tags (misplaced laser spots, which form a second cut of the capsule with high tear risk) were evaluated in a blinded manner. Groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The study comprised 100 eyes (50 eyes in each group). Cataract surgery was successfully completed in all eyes, and no anterior capsule tear occurred during the treatment. Histologically, significant fewer tags were observed with the new capsulotomy laser setting. The mean score for the number and size of free tags was significantly lower in this group than with the standard settings (P laser settings improved cut quality and reduced the number of tags. The modification has the potential to reduce the risk for radial capsule tears in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. With the new settings, no tags and no capsule tears were observed under the operating microscope in any eye. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  10. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  11. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  12. Significance of abolishing British National Oil Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R

    1985-04-01

    The decision to abolish British National Oil Corporation has greater significance than any commentator, so far, has cared to admit. Mr. Mabro says the Government has done much more than get rid of an institution it had previously weakened and emasculated; in effect, it had abdicated its responsibilities for the pricing of North Sea oil. He further observes that these moves may be consistent with the tenets of a simplistic free-market ideology: they betray, however, a lack of understanding of the economics of oil, and of the UK economic interest in oil.

  13. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Ferguson, Sally A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Anderson, Clare; Kennaway, David J; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked. Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2-7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2-3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4-7 shifts. Following 4-7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2-3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4-7 nights. Those working 4-7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5 (th), 25 (th), 50 (th), 75 (th)percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift. A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

  14. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  15. Robust determination of effective atomic numbers for electron interactions with TLD-100 and TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are the most commonly implemented for clinical dosimetry. The small physical magnitude of TLDs makes them attractive for applications such as small field measurement, in vivo dosimetry and measurement of out-of-field doses to critical structures. The most broadly used TLD is TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) and, for applications requiring higher sensitivity to low-doses, TLD-100H (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) is frequently employed. The radiological properties of these TLDs are therefore of significant interest. For the first time, in this study effective atomic numbers for radiative, collisional and total electron interaction processes are calculated for TLD-100 and TLD-100H dosimeters over the energy range 1 keV-100 MeV. This is undertaken using a robust, energy-dependent method of calculation rather than typical power-law approximations. The influence of dopant concentrations and unwanted impurities is also investigated. The two TLDs exhibit similar effective atomic numbers, ranging from approximately 5.77-6.51. Differences arising from the different dopants are most pronounced in low-energy radiative effects. The TLDs have atomic numbers approximately 1.48-2.06 times that of water. The effective atomic number of TLD-100H is consistently higher than that of TLD-100 over a broad energy range, due to the greater influence of the higher-Z dopants on the electron interaction cross sections. Typical variation in dopant concentration does not significantly influence the effective atomic number. The influence on TLD-100H is comparatively more pronounced than that on TLD-100. Contrariwise, unwanted hydroxide impurities influence TLD-100 more than TLD-100H. The effective atomic number is a key parameter that influences the radiological properties and energy response of TLDs. Although many properties of these TLDs have been studied rigorously, as yet there has been no investigation of their effective atomic numbers for electron interactions. The

  16. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  17. Accuracy of Carotid Duplex Criteria in Diagnosis of Significant Carotid Stenosis in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr A; Uransilp, Nattaphol; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Piyabhan, Pritsana

    2018-03-01

    Extracranial carotid stenosis can be diagnosed by velocity criteria of carotid duplex. Whether they are accurately applied to define severity of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis in Asian patients needs to be proved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 2 carotid duplex velocity criteria in defining significant carotid stenosis. Carotid duplex studies and magnetic resonance angiography were reviewed. Criteria 1 was recommended by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound; moderate stenosis (50%-69%): peak systolic velocity (PSV) 125-230 cm/s, diastolic velocity (DV) 40-100 cm/s; severe stenosis (>70%): PSV greater than 230 cm/s, DV greater than 100 cm/s. Criteria 2 used PSV greater than 140 cm/s, DV less than 110 cm/s to define moderate stenosis (50%-75%) and PSV greater than 140 cm/s, DV greater than 110 cm/s for severe stenosis (76%-95%). A total of 854 ICA segments were reviewed. There was moderate stenosis in 72 ICAs, severe stenosis in 50 ICAs, and occlusion in 78 ICAs. Criteria 2 had slightly lower sensitivity, whereas higher specificity and accuracy than criteria 1 were observed in detecting moderate stenosis (criteria 1: sensitivity 95%, specificity 83%, accuracy 84%; criteria 2: sensitivity 92%, specificity 92%, and accuracy 92%). However, in detection of severe ICA stenosis, no significant difference in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was found (criteria 1: sensitivity 82%, specificity 99.57%, accuracy 98%; criteria 2: sensitivity 86%, specificity 99.68%, and accuracy 99%). In the subgroup of moderate stenosis, the criteria using ICA PSV greater than 140 cm/s had higher specificity and accuracy than the criteria using ICA PSV 125-230 cm/s. However, there was no significant difference in detection of severe stenosis or occlusion of ICA. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for the functional significance of diazotroph community structure in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shi-Fang; Buckley, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    Microbial ecologists continue to seek a greater understanding of the factors that govern the ecological significance of microbial community structure. Changes in community structure have been shown to have functional significance for processes that are mediated by a narrow spectrum of organisms, such as nitrification and denitrification, but in some cases, functional redundancy in the community seems to buffer microbial ecosystem processes. The functional significance of microbial community structure is frequently obscured by environmental variation and is hard to detect in short-term experiments. We examine the functional significance of free-living diazotrophs in a replicated long-term tillage experiment in which extraneous variation is minimized and N-fixation rates can be related to soil characteristics and diazotroph community structure. Soil characteristics were found to be primarily impacted by tillage management, whereas N-fixation rates and diazotroph community structure were impacted by both biomass management practices and interactions between tillage and biomass management. The data suggest that the variation in diazotroph community structure has a greater impact on N-fixation rates than do soil characteristics at the site. N-fixation rates displayed a saturating response to increases in diazotroph community diversity. These results show that the changes in the community structure of free-living diazotrophs in soils can have ecological significance and suggest that this response is related to a change in community diversity.

  19. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  20. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Superposition of number and squeezed states of the quantized light field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brito, A.L.; Marques, G.A.; Baseia, B.; Dias, H.

    1998-01-01

    A recent paper in the literature (Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 9 (1995) 1673) introduced the Intermediate Number Squeezed State (INSS) of the quantized radiation field interpolating between the number state (n) and the squeezed-coherent state (z, α), exhibiting various nonclassical properties. Here, it's introduced an alternative state, interpolating between those limiting states and show that nonclassical effects in this new intermediate state can be greater than those exhibited by the INSS, depending on the values of the interpolating parameters. Although constituting an application of a general approach (Nuovo Cimento D, 18 (1996) 425), it concludes another case in the literature (Phys. Scr., 55 (1997) 179) as a particularisation of this

  4. A Group Contribution Method for Estimating Cetane and Octane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, William Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-07-28

    Much of the research on advanced biofuels is devoted to the study of novel chemical pathways for converting nonfood biomass into liquid fuels that can be blended with existing transportation fuels. Many compounds under consideration are not found in the existing fuel supplies. Often, the physical properties needed to assess the viability of a potential biofuel are not available. The only reliable information available may be the molecular structure. Group contribution methods for estimating physical properties from molecular structure have been used for more than 60 years. The most common application is estimation of thermodynamic properties. More recently, group contribution methods have been developed for estimating rate dependent properties including cetane and octane numbers. Often, published group contribution methods are limited in terms of types of function groups and range of applicability. In this study, a new, broadly-applicable group contribution method based on an artificial neural network was developed to estimate cetane number research octane number, and motor octane numbers of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The new method is more accurate over a greater range molecular weights and structural complexity than existing group contribution methods for estimating cetane and octane numbers.

  5. Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric M; Halees, Anason; Itan, Yuval; Spencer, Emily G; He, Yupeng; Azab, Mostafa Abdellateef; Gabriel, Stacey B; Belkadi, Aziz; Boisson, Bertrand; Abel, Laurent; Clark, Andrew G; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. The tradition of consanguinity, variably practiced in the Persian Gulf region, North Africa, and Central Asia, has resulted in an elevated burden of recessive disease. Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1,111 unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks. Measured consanguinity rates were an order of magnitude above those in other sampled populations, and the GME population exhibited an increased burden of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) but showed no evidence for reduced burden of deleterious variation due to classically theorized 'genetic purging'. Applying this database to unsolved recessive conditions in the GME population reduced the number of potential disease-causing variants by four- to sevenfold. These results show variegated genetic architecture in GME populations and support future human genetic discoveries in Mendelian and population genetics.

  6. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  7. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  8. Permutations avoiding an increasing number of length-increasing forbidden subsequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barcucci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A permutation π is said to be τ-avoiding if it does not contain any subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons as τ. This paper concerns the characterization and enumeration of permutations which avoid a set F j of subsequences increasing both in number and in length at the same time. Let F j be the set of subsequences of the form σ(j+1(j+2, σ being any permutation on {1,...,j}. For j=1 the only subsequence in F 1 is 123 and the 123-avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Catalan numbers; for j=2 the subsequences in F 2 are 1234 2134 and the (1234,2134 avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Schröder numbers; for each other value of j greater than 2 the subsequences in F j are j! and their length is (j+2 the permutations avoiding these j! subsequences are enumerated by a number sequence {a n } such that C n ≤ a n ≤ n!, C n being the n th Catalan number. For each j we determine the generating function of permutations avoiding the subsequences in F j according to the length, to the number of left minima and of non-inversions.

  9. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  10. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  11. Which Criteria are More Valuable in Defining Hemodynamic Significance of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants? Respiratory or Echocardiographic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Oğuz Şahin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is a frequent health problem in premature infants. Pharmacologic closure is recommended only for hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA that is defined according to the clinical and echocardiographic criteria. The aim of this study was to explore the value of commonly used criteria in defining hsPDA and predicting the required number of courses of ibuprofen treatment to close PDA in premature infants. Methods: Sixty premature infants with a gestational age of ≤33 weeks were evaluated prospectively. Clinical and echocardiographic criteria [O2 requirement, ductus diameter (DD and left atrial-to-aortic root diameter ratio (LA:Ao] were used to define hsPDA. Clinical improvement after pharmacologic closure of PDA and association between the criteria and required number of ibuprofen courses were investigated. Results: O2 requirement decreased by PDA closure but was not different between patients with hsPDA and the others with PDA. Also, O2 requirement was not found to be associated with required number of ibuprofen courses. DD and LA:Ao were greater in patients with hsPDA. DD was found to be associated with required number of courses of ibuprofen treatment. Conclusion: Although there was an improvement in O2 requirement with PDA closure, echocardiographic criteria were found to be more valuable in defining hsPDA. DD should also be used to estimate the duration of treatment.

  12. Gender differences in commuting behavior: Women's greater sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo Sanchez, M.I.; Maeso Gonzalez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Women's greater sensitivity to changes in their environment is one of the most distinguishing features between both genders. This article raises women's greater sensitivity to the different variables which influence their commuting modal choice. In order to do this, gender gaps detected in the choice of means of transport in commuting trips with respect to the decision factors such as age, education level, driver's license, private transport access; location, household size and net income, are quantified.The results show a greater female sensitivity to the different variables that affect their modal choice, which helps to better understand the different mobility patterns and it is useful for planning measures favoring sustainable mobility policies and equity. (Author)

  13. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonatal Patients with Birth Weight Greater than 1500 g in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsing Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients with birth weight (BW greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined. Methods: The study included 104 eyes from 54 ROP patients who had BW greater than 1500 g from 1981 to 2008. Demographic information, disease courses, ophthalmic outcomes, and possible systemic risk factors were recorded. The infants were divided into groups of mild and severe ROP for a risk factor analysis. Results: The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31 ± 1.3 weeks, and the mean BW was 1675 ± 249 g. Mild ROP regressed in 94 eyes (90%, and 10 eyes (10% developed severe ROP. After various treatments, the regression rates for prethreshold or threshold ROP (n = 8 and stage 4 ROP (n = 2 were 100% and 50%, respectively. Forty-eight patients (85% had at least three associated systemic risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with an intraventricular hemorrhage were found to have an increased chance of developing severe ROP, especially those with BW greater than 1500 g (p = 0.015. There was also a significant association between patients who had severe ROP and an increased risk of having cerebral palsy (CP at 1.5 years of age (p = 0.013. Conclusion: The majority of patients with BW greater than 1500 g developed mild ROP. However, advanced ROP with poor visual outcome was also encountered in some patients.

  14. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  15. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  16. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  17. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  18. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  19. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot S Bass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in

  20. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  1. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; White, Gary C.; Harris, Richard B.; Cherry, Steve; Keating, Kim A.; Moody, Dave; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has increased in numbers and expanded in range. Understanding temporal, environmental, and spatial variables responsible for this change is useful in evaluating what likely influenced grizzly bear demographics in the GYE and where future management efforts might benefit conservation and management. We used recent data from radio-marked bears to estimate reproduction (1983–2002) and survival (1983–2001); these we combined into models to evaluate demographic vigor (lambda [λ]). We explored the influence of an array of individual, temporal, and spatial covariates on demographic vigor.

  2. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (pbedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  3. Rural Livelihoods, Climate Change and Micro-Level Adaptive Capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is one of the fastest developing regions in the world, experiencing significant economic, environmental and social transformations. There is an increasing demand for policy relevant and decision support information at micro level. This PhD research contributes...... and Laos, two of the poorest countries in the GMS. Structured household surveys and participatory focus group discussions were the primary data collection methods. The findings provide new, additional and much needed quantitative information in the region, and several policy implications for rural...

  4. CSR Strategies in Greater China: Global, East Asian, American, European Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiduk Guenter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.

  5. Fully digital 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos as hardware pseudo random number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-10-07

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos using the sawtooth nonlinearity in a 3rd order ODE with the Euler approximation. Systems indicate chaotic behaviour through phase space boundedness and positive Lyapunov exponent. Low-significance bits form a PRNG and pass all tests in the NIST SP. 800-22 suite without post-processing. Real-time control of the number of scrolls allows distinct output streams with 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos enabling greater controllability. The proposed PRNGs are experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.25%, throughput up to 5.25 Gbits/s and up to 512 distinct output streams with low cross-correlation.

  6. Trends in size classified particle number concentration in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, based on a 5 year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, J. F.; Wraith, D.; Mengersen, K.; Morawska, L.

    Particle number size distribution data in the range from 0.015 to 0.630 μm were collected over a 5-year period in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia. Particle size distribution was summarised by total number concentration and number median diameter (NMD) as well as the number concentration of the 0.015-0.030 ( N15-30), 0.030-0.050 ( N30-50), 0.050-0.100 ( N50-100), 0.100-0.300 ( N100-300) and 0.300-0.630 ( N300-630) μm size classes. Morning (6:00-10:00) and afternoon (16:00-19:00) measurements, the former representing fresh traffic emissions (based on the local meteorological conditions) and the latter well-mixed emissions from the CBD, during weekdays were extracted and the respective monthly mean values were estimated for time series analysis. For all size fractions, average morning concentrations were about 1.5 higher than in the afternoon whereas NMD did not vary between the morning and afternoon. The trend and seasonal components were extracted through weighted linear regression models, using the monthly variance as weights. Only the morning measurements exhibited significant trends. During this time of the day, total particle number increased by 105.7% and the increase was greater for larger particles, resulting in a shift in NMD by 7.9%. Although no seasonal component was detected the evidence against it remained weak due to the limitations of the database.

  7. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  8. The somatically significant dose, SSD, and analog of the GSD, the genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beentjes, L.B.; Duijsings, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The medical applications of radiation comprise three main fields namely: Diagnostic Radiology, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine. With the new weighting factors of ICRP (IC91a) the effective dose due to medical applications can be established. I is common to separate the effective dose into the genetic part and the somatic part, SED. In dealing with gonad doses it is important to account for the age of the person at the time of exposure as this will influence the number of children still to be expected from that person. The resulting dose will then be called the genetically significant dose, GSD. In a similar fashion this age factor will be important in considering the chance of tumor induction. The age of patients differs considerably from the average age of the general population. This age difference has to be accounted for if a comparison is to be made with other sources of radiation. This justifies establishing a somatically significant dose, SSD. The reduction of the SED value to a SSD for the medical field due to this phenomenon is .6 for diagnostic radiology, .5 for nuclear medicine and .3 for radiotherapy. Also the extension to more organs at risk, which result in a larger number of weighting factors published by ICRP (IC91a) tends to lower the calculated effective doses. (author)

  9. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  10. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, V.; Bonchev, Ts.; Mavrodiev, V.; Kyrdzhilov, N.

    1995-01-01

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio η i of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that η i has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. η i = 2.10 -4 for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm; η i = 5 for 89 Sr, 91 Y; 93 Nb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs; η i = 50 for 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 140 Ba, 140 La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity η iexp , derived from surface contamination data. The ratio η iexp /η i is plotted against log η i . The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Loc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

  12. Factors that influence soft tissue thickness over the greater trochanter: application to understanding hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Iris C; Minty, Lauren E; Laing, Andrew C

    2015-03-01

    Fall-related hip injuries are a concern for the growing population of older adults. Evidence suggests that soft tissue overlying the greater trochanter attenuates the forces transmitted to the proximal femur during an impact, reducing mechanical risk of hip fracture. However, there is limited information about the factors that influence trochanteric soft tissue thickness. The current study used ultrasonography and electromyography to determine whether trochanteric soft tissue thickness could be quantified reproducibly and whether it was influenced by: (1) gender; (2) hip postures associated with potential falling configurations in the sagittal plane (from 30° of extension to 60° of flexion, at 15° intervals), combined adduction-flexion, and combined adduction-extension; and (3) activation levels of the tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Our results demonstrated that soft tissue thickness can be measured reliably in nine hip postures and three muscle activation conditions (for all conditions, ICC >0.98). Mean (SD) thickness in quiet stance was 2.52 cm. Thickness was 27.0% lower for males than females during quiet stance. It was 16.4% greater at maximum flexion than quiet standing, 27.2% greater at maximum extension, and 12.5% greater during combined adduction-flexion. However, there was no significant difference between combined adduction-extension and quiet standing. Thickness was not affected by changes in muscle activity. Forces applied to the femoral neck during a lateral fall decrease as trochanteric soft tissue thickness increases; gender and postural configuration at impact could influence the loads applied to the proximal femur (and thus hip fracture risk) during falls on the hip. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of provincial characteristics on the number of traffic accident victims on interurban roads in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, María Pilar; Escribano Sotos, Francisco; Tejada Ponce, Ángel

    2018-02-21

    This study has two aims. The first is to determine how various factors impact on the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for the level of traffic on interurban roads in Spain. The second is to establish the number of victims per million vehicle-kilometres (veh-km) travelled on interurban roads in each province resulting from the effect of its specific characteristics. To this end, we developed six fixed effect panel data models with panel corrected standard errors for the 1999-2015 period. Our results show that while the proportion of high capacity roads, the unemployment rate and the motorization rate contribute to a reduction in the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for level of traffic, the penalty-points licence system is effective in reducing the number of fatalities and serious injuries but not the number of slight injuries. Furthermore, the specific conditions in Ávila, Toledo, Madrid, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, the Balearic Islands, Lleida and all the provinces on the Mediterranean coast cause a higher number of victims per million veh-km travelled than in the remaining provinces. Thus, greater public investment and more socially responsible behaviour are essential tools for reducing the number of traffic accident victims on Spanish interurban roads. Moreover, the provincial institutions emerge as key agents in improving road safety, due to their greater knowledge of the specific conditions and factors affecting each province. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Number theory and modular forms papers in memory of Robert A Rankin

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Robert A. Rankin, one of the world's foremost authorities on modular forms and a founding editor of The Ramanujan Journal, died on January 27, 2001, at the age of 85. Rankin had broad interests and contributed fundamental papers in a wide variety of areas within number theory, geometry, analysis, and algebra. To commemorate Rankin's life and work, the editors have collected together 25 papers by several eminent mathematicians reflecting Rankin's extensive range of interests within number theory. Many of these papers reflect Rankin's primary focus in modular forms. It is the editors' fervent hope that mathematicians will be stimulated by these papers and gain a greater appreciation for Rankin's contributions to mathematics. This volume would be an inspiration to students and researchers in the areas of number theory and modular forms.

  15. Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0704 TITLE: Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility Impairment...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing ...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physical Telerehabilitation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Significant Mobility

  16. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining large number of weak biomarkers based on AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Tian, Lili; Liu, Song

    2015-12-20

    Combining multiple biomarkers to improve diagnosis and/or prognosis accuracy is a common practice in clinical medicine. Both parametric and non-parametric methods have been developed for finding the optimal linear combination of biomarkers to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), primarily focusing on the setting with a small number of well-defined biomarkers. This problem becomes more challenging when the number of observations is not order of magnitude greater than the number of variables, especially when the involved biomarkers are relatively weak. Such settings are not uncommon in certain applied fields. The first aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate the performance of existing linear combination methods under such settings. The second aim is to propose a new combination method, namely, the pairwise approach, to maximize AUC. Our simulation studies demonstrated that the performance of several existing methods can become unsatisfactory as the number of markers becomes large, while the newly proposed pairwise method performs reasonably well. Furthermore, we apply all the combination methods to real datasets used for the development and validation of MammaPrint. The implication of our study for the design of optimal linear combination methods is discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Patients prefer pictures to numbers to express cardiovascular benefit from treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Arroll, Bruce; Chan, Lydia; Jackson, Rod; Wells, Sue; Kenealy, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which methods of expressing a preventive medication's benefit encourage patients with known cardiovascular disease to decide to take the medication and which methods patients prefer. We identified patients in Auckland, New Zealand, family practices located in areas of differing socioeconomic status who had preexisting heart disease (myocardial infarction, angina, or both) and were taking statins. The patients were interviewed about their preference for methods of expressing the benefit of a hypothetical medication. Benefits were expressed numerically (relative risk, absolute risk, number needed to treat, odds ratio, natural frequency) and graphically. Statistical testing was adjusted for practice. We interviewed 100 eligible patients, representing a 53% response rate. No matter how the risk was expressed, the majority of patients indicated they would be encouraged to take the medication. Two-thirds (68) of the patients preferred 1 method of expressing benefit over others. Of this group, 57% preferred the information presented graphically. This value was significantly greater (P framing preferred positive framing (description of the benefit of treatment) over negative framing (description of the harm of not being treated). Although number needed to treat is a useful tool for communicating risk and benefit to clinicians, this format was the least likely to encourage patients to take medication. As graphical representation of benefit was the method patients preferred most, consideration should be given to developing visual aids to support shared clinical decision making.

  19. Appendices on provisional nomenclature, symbols, terminology and conventions - number 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Ten numerically-based syllables (nil, un, bi, etc) are used to provide recommended names of elements of atomic numbers greater than 100. The symbol of the element is composed of the initial letters of the numerical roots which make up the name. Abbreviated forms of the names of elements 101 to 199 are proposed. Thus: element 105 would be named Un-nil-pentium [hyphens not part of name but shown in the recommendatoins to assist comprehension], symbol Unp, abbreviation Pentium. (U.K.)

  20. Probability of pregnancy as affected by oestrus number and days to first oestrus in dairy cows of three breeds and parities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friggens, N C; Labouriau, R

    2010-01-01

    An improved understanding of the animal factors that affect measures such as conception rate would contribute to solving the problem of impaired reproductive performance in modern dairy cows. A question of particular interest relates to the observed improvement in conception rates from first...... to second and third oestrus cycle: is the increase in conception rate related to cycle number per se or to increasing days from calving? A 5-year study using three breeds (Holstein, Jersey and Danish Red) allowed this issue to be examined. In 560 lactations, from calving until confirmed pregnancy or until...... model. Danish Red cows had a significantly greater rate of occurrence of first oestrus over time. Generalized linear mixed models defined using a binomial distribution and logit link function were used to estimate probability of pregnancy as affected by: breed, parity, oestrus number and days from...

  1. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  2. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A; Mora, Camilo; Lotze, Heike K; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy; McClenachan, Loren; Arias-Castro, Ery; Myers, Ransom A

    2010-08-05

    In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  3. A Chain Perspective on Large-scale Number Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As large-scale number systems gain significance in social and economic life (electronic communication, remote electronic authentication), the correct functioning and the integrity of public number systems take on crucial importance. They are needed to uniquely indicate people, objects or phenomena

  4. The effect of the number of seed variables on the performance of Cooke′s classical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggstaff, Justin W.; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Sarkani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    In risk analysis, Cooke′s classical model for aggregating expert judgment has been widely used for over 20 years. However, the validity of this model has been the subject of much debate. Critics assert that this model′s scoring rule may unintentionally reward experts who manipulate their quantile estimates in order to receive a greater weight. In addition, the question of the number of seed variables required to ensure adequate performance of Cooke′s classical model remains unanswered. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive examination of the model through an iterative, cross validation test to perform an out-of-sample comparison between Cooke′s classical model and the equal-weight linear opinion pool method on almost all of the expert judgment studies compiled by Cooke and colleagues to date. Our results indicate that Cooke′s classical model significantly outperforms equally weighting expert judgment, regardless of the number of seed variables used; however, there may, in fact, be a maximum number of seed variables beyond which Cooke′s model cannot outperform an equally-weighted panel. - Highlights: • We examine Cooke′s classical model through an iterative, cross validation test. • The performance-based and equally weighted decision makers are compared. • Results strengthen Cooke′s argument for a two-fold cross-validation approach. • Accuracy test results show strong support in favor of Cooke′s classical method. • There may be a maximum number of seed variables that ensures model performance

  5. Fas Ligand Has a Greater Impact than TNF-α on Apoptosis and Inflammation in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Furuichi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Fas ligand (FasL and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α are major pro-apoptotic molecules and also induce inflammation through cytokine and chemokine production. Although precise intracellular mechanisms of action have been reported for each molecule, the differential impact of these molecules on kidney injury in vivo still requires clarification. Methods: We explored the differential impact of FasL and TNF-α upon apoptosis and inflammation in ischemic acute kidney injury using neutralizing anti-FasL antibodies and TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1-deficient mice. Results: TNFR1 deficiency was associated with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect upon leukocyte infiltration and tubular necrosis than treatment with anti-FasL antibody. Furthermore, the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly reduced in anti-FasL antibody-treated mice, whereas it was only partially diminished in TNFR1-deficient mice. In vitro studies confirmed these findings. FasL administration induced both apoptosis and cytokine/chemokine production from cultured tubular epithelial cells. However, TNF-α had a limited effect upon tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: In ischemic acute kidney injury, FasL has a greater impact than TNF-α on the apoptosis and inflammatory reaction through cytokine/chemokine production from tubular epithelial cells.

  6. Exploratory graph analysis: A new approach for estimating the number of dimensions in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golino, H.F.; Epskamp, S.

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of the correct number of dimensions is a long-standing problem in psychometrics. Several methods have been proposed, such as parallel analysis (PA), Kaiser-Guttman’s eigenvalue-greater-than-one rule, multiple average partial procedure (MAP), the maximum-likelihood approaches that use

  7. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Le Treut, H.; Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO 2 . The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO 2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO 2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH 4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH 4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the

  8. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  9. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  10. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  11. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. The additive congruential random number generator--A special case of a multiple recursive generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, Roy S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper considers an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers which works well in serial applications but which also appears particularly well-suited for application on parallel processing systems. Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators are straightforward to implement for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. Previously published theoretical analysis has demonstrated that a kth order ACORN sequence approximates to being uniformly distributed in up to k dimensions, for any given k. ACORN generators can be constructed to give period lengths exceeding any given number (for example, with period length in excess of 230p, for any given p). Results of empirical tests have demonstrated that, if p is greater than or equal to 2, then the ACORN generator can be used successfully for generating double precision uniform random variates. This paper demonstrates that an ACORN generator is a particular case of a multiple recursive generator (and, therefore, also a special case of a matrix generator). Both these latter approaches have been widely studied, and it is to be hoped that the results given in the present paper will lead to greater confidence in using the ACORN generators.

  13. Number of Children, Partnership Status, and Later-life Depression in Eastern and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Emily; van den Broek, Thijs; Keenan, Katherine

    2017-05-03

    To investigate associations between number of children and partnership with depressive symptoms among older Europeans and assess whether associations are greater in Eastern than Western countries. We further analyze whether associations are mediated by provision and receipt of emotional and financial support. Using cross-sectional data for five Eastern (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Romania, and Russia) and four Western European countries (Belgium, France, Norway, and Sweden) (n = 15,352), we investigated variation in depressive symptoms using linear regression. We fitted conditional change score models for depressive symptoms using longitudinal data for four countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, and France) (n = 3,978). Unpartnered women and men had more depressive symptoms than the partnered. In Eastern, but not Western, European countries childlessness and having one compared with two children were associated with more depressive symptoms. Formal tests indicated that partnership and number of children were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in Eastern than Western Europe. Availability of close family is more strongly associated with older people's depressive symptoms in Eastern than Western Europe. The collapse of previous state supports and greater economic stress in Eastern Europe may mean that having a partner and children has a greater psychological impact than in Western countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  14. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  15. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  16. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Wolfe, Rory; Walls, Helen; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2011-10-25

    Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC) following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after) was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in WC, the other variables associated with greater WC improvement

  17. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  18. Virginia Tech launches Energy Efficiency Partnership with Hannon Armstrong and Pepco Energy Services aimed at greening greater Washington, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech announced Monday the "Energy Efficiency Partnership of Greater Washington," a landmark initiative to tackle the problem of global warming by retrofitting existing buildings with energy efficiency products designed to decrease energy use and significantly cut carbon emissions.

  19. Association of market, organizational and financial factors with the number, and types of capital expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Prior literature provides only a descriptive view of the types and numbers of capital expenditures made by hospitals. This study conducted an empirical analysis to assess simultaneously what market, organizational, and financial factors relate to the number of capital projects as well as the specific types: medical equipment, expansion, and maintenance projects. Sampling California hospital capital expenditure data from 2002 to 2007, this study aggregated the number of capital projects by each type of capital investment decision: medical equipment, expansion, and maintenance/renovation per hospital. Using ordinary least squares regression, this study evaluated the association of these factors with these types of capital investment projects. This study found that hospitals capturing a greater share of the market, maintaining high levels of liquidity, and operating with more than 350 beds invested in a greater number of capital projects per hospital as well as medical equipment and expansionary projects per hospital. Within the state of California, the demand for health care services within a hospital market as well as cash and investment reserves were key drivers in the hospital CEOs and boards' decision to increase their capital purchases. The types of purchases included capital outlays related to medical equipment, such as CT scanners, MRIs, and surgical systems, and revenue-generating expansionary projects, such as new bed towers, hospitals wings, operating and emergency rooms, and replacement hospitals from 2002 to 2007.

  20. Effect of exposure to greater active videogame variety on time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Cardoso, Chelsi; Bond, Dale S

    2016-07-01

    This investigation examined whether exposure to greater active videogame variety increases moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Twenty-three participants (age=22.7±4.2yrs; body mass index=23.5±3.0kg/m(2); self-reported MVPA=298.7±116.7min/wk; 62.2% female; 73.9% Caucasian) participated in VARIETY (4 different active videogames during 4, 15-min bouts) and NON-VARIETY (only 1 active videogame during 4, 15-min bouts) counterbalanced sessions. VARIETY provided a different active videogame in each bout. NON-VARIETY provided participants their most highly liked active videogame in each bout. The Sensewear Mini Armband objectively assessed MVPA. For MVPA minutes, a session×bout (p<0.05) interaction occurred. In NON-VARIETY, bouts 2, 3, and 4 had significantly (p<0.05) fewer minutes than bout 1, with no decrease occurring in VARIETY. In bout 4, VARIETY had significantly (p<0.05) more minutes than NON-VARIETY. A main effect of session (p<0.05) occurred for MVPA minutes and energy expenditure, with VARIETY achieving greater amounts (31.8±14.3min vs. 27.6±16.9min; 186.1±96.8kcal vs. 171.2±102.8kcal). Exposure to greater activity variety within a session increased MVPA. Future research should examine exposure to a variety of activities over a longer time frame with participants of differing lifestyles in free-living environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Reasoning strategies with rational numbers revealed by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Patrick; DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Gordon, Peter C; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has begun to investigate the impact of different formats for rational numbers on the processes by which people make relational judgments about quantitative relations. DeWolf, Bassok, and Holyoak (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 127-150, 2015) found that accuracy on a relation identification task was highest when fractions were presented with countable sets, whereas accuracy was relatively low for all conditions where decimals were presented. However, it is unclear what processing strategies underlie these disparities in accuracy. We report an experiment that used eye-tracking methods to externalize the strategies that are evoked by different types of rational numbers for different types of quantities (discrete vs. continuous). Results showed that eye-movement behavior during the task was jointly determined by image and number format. Discrete images elicited a counting strategy for both fractions and decimals, but this strategy led to higher accuracy only for fractions. Continuous images encouraged magnitude estimation and comparison, but to a greater degree for decimals than fractions. This strategy led to decreased accuracy for both number formats. By analyzing participants' eye movements when they viewed a relational context and made decisions, we were able to obtain an externalized representation of the strategic choices evoked by different ontological types of entities and different types of rational numbers. Our findings using eye-tracking measures enable us to go beyond previous studies based on accuracy data alone, demonstrating that quantitative properties of images and the different formats for rational numbers jointly influence strategies that generate eye-movement behavior.

  2. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Zilin; Li, Xue; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Lan, Jing; Shi, Qing; Li, Dong; Ju, Xiuli

    2017-09-16

    While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential. It was found that the percentage of CD105-positive cells decreased significantly, whereas that of CD34- and CD271-positive cells increased significantly in 3D culture, compared to that in 2D culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in 2D culture. The numbers of migratory 3D hUCMSCs in the heart, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were significantly greater than the numbers of 2D hUCMSCs, and the worst migration occurred in 3D + AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) hUCMSCs. These results suggested that 3D culture of hUCMSCs with PADM could alter the phenotypic characteristics of hUCMSCs, increase their TLR and CXCR4 expression levels, and promote their migratory and homing capacity in which CXCR4 plays an important role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  4. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald McGregor

    Full Text Available The loss of specific neuronal phenotypes, as determined by immunohistochemistry, has become a powerful tool for identifying the nature and cause of neurological diseases. Here we show that the number of neurons identified and quantified using this method misses a substantial percentage of extant neurons in a phenotype specific manner. In mice, 24% more hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt neurons are seen in the night compared to the day, and an additional 17% are seen after inhibiting microtubule polymerization with colchicine. We see no such difference between the number of MCH (melanin concentrating hormone neurons in dark, light or colchicine conditions, despite MCH and Hcrt both being hypothalamic peptide transmitters. Although the size of Hcrt neurons did not differ between light and dark, the size of MCH neurons was increased by 15% in the light phase. The number of neurons containing histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine synthesizing enzyme, was 34% greater in the dark than in the light, but, like Hcrt, cell size did not differ. We did not find a significant difference in the number or the size of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, in the horizontal diagonal band (HBD during the dark and light conditions. As expected, colchicine treatment did not increase the number of these neurons. Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity.

  5. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ronald; Shan, Ling; Wu, Ming-Fung; Siegel, Jerome M

    2017-01-01

    The loss of specific neuronal phenotypes, as determined by immunohistochemistry, has become a powerful tool for identifying the nature and cause of neurological diseases. Here we show that the number of neurons identified and quantified using this method misses a substantial percentage of extant neurons in a phenotype specific manner. In mice, 24% more hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons are seen in the night compared to the day, and an additional 17% are seen after inhibiting microtubule polymerization with colchicine. We see no such difference between the number of MCH (melanin concentrating hormone) neurons in dark, light or colchicine conditions, despite MCH and Hcrt both being hypothalamic peptide transmitters. Although the size of Hcrt neurons did not differ between light and dark, the size of MCH neurons was increased by 15% in the light phase. The number of neurons containing histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the histamine synthesizing enzyme, was 34% greater in the dark than in the light, but, like Hcrt, cell size did not differ. We did not find a significant difference in the number or the size of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, in the horizontal diagonal band (HBD) during the dark and light conditions. As expected, colchicine treatment did not increase the number of these neurons. Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity.

  6. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  7. Emittance of a finite scattering medium with refractive index greater than unity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Refractive index and scattering can significantly influence the transfer of radiation in a semitransparent medium such as water, glass, plastics, or ceramics. In a recent article (1979), the author presented exact numerical results for the emittance of a semiinfinite scattering medium with a refractive index greater than unity. The present investigation extends the analysis to a finite medium. The physical situation consists of a finite planar layer. The isothermal layer emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters thermal radiation. It is characterized by single scattering albedo, optical thickness, refractive index, and temperature. A formula for the directional emittance is derived, the directional emittance being the emittance of the medium multiplied by the interface transmittance. The ratio of hemispherical to normal emittance is tabulated and discussed

  8. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonchev, Ts; Mavrodiev, V; Kyrdzhilov, N [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio {eta}{sub i} of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that {eta}{sub i} has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. {eta}{sub i} = 2.10{sup -4} for {sup 238} Pu, {sup 239} Pu, {sup 240} Pu, {sup 241} Am, {sup 244} Cm; {eta}{sub i} = 5 for {sup 89} Sr, {sup 91} Y; {sup 93} Nb, {sup 134} Cs, {sup 137} Cs; {eta}{sub i} = 50 for {sup 55} Fe, {sup 63} Ni, {sup 95} Zr, {sup 95} Nb, {sup 140} Ba, {sup 140} La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity {eta}{sub iexp}, derived from surface contamination data. The ratio {eta}{sub iexp}/{eta}{sub i} is plotted against log {eta}{sub i}. The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of sampling interval and number of projections on the quality of SR-XFMT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Biao; Yu Xiaohan; Xu Hongjie

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescent Microtomography (SR-XFMT) is a nondestructive technique for detecting elemental composition and distribution inside a specimen with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. In this paper, computer simulation of SR-XFMT experiment is performed. The influence of the sampling interval and the number of projections on the quality of SR-XFMT image reconstruction is analyzed. It is found that the sampling interval has greater effect on the quality of reconstruction than the number of projections. (authors)

  10. Bacterial Colonization of Disposable Soft Contact Lenses Is Greater during Corneal Infiltrative Events than during Asymptomatic Extended Lens Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja R.; Sharma, Savitri; Willcox, Mark; Naduvilath, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Deborah F.; Holden, Brien A.; Rao, Gullapalli N.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially gram-negative bacteria, are considered to play a role in the etiology of certain corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) observed during soft contact lens wear. This study explored the possibility of microbial colonization of soft contact lenses as a risk factor leading to CIEs. In a clinical trial conducted from March 1993 to January 1996, 330 subjects wore disposable soft contact lenses on a 6-night extended-wear and disposal schedule. During this period, 4,321 lenses (118 during CIEs; 4,203 during asymptomatic lens wear) were recovered aseptically and analyzed for microbial colonization. A greater percentage of lenses were free from microbial colonization during asymptomatic wear than during CIEs (42 versus 23%; P bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi was greater during CIEs than during asymptomatic lens wear (P bacteria were isolated most frequently and were usually normal external ocular microbiota. Of the gram-positive bacteria, the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae was greater during CIE than during asymptomatic wear (7.6 versus 0.6%; P bacteria were seen in few cases during asymptomatic wear, their incidence during CIE in comparison to asymptomatic wear was substantial and significant (23.7 versus 3.8%; P bacteria or S. pneumoniae. Colonization of soft contact lenses with pathogenic bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria and S. pneumoniae, appears to be a significant risk factor leading to CIE. PMID:11101574

  11. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  12. Defining greater-than-class-C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.A.; Oztunali, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) was signed by President Reagan on January 15, 1986. This act requires the federal government to be responsible for the disposal of greater-than-class-C low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that is generated commercially by state agencies and by federal entities (other than waste generated by atomic weapons research, development, or testing, or by decommissioning of vessels of the nuclear navy). To plan for disposal, the federal government will require estimates of the volume of waste involved and characterization of this waste. A clear definition of greater-than-class-C LLRW is the first step in determining what wastes will be included in the waste to be received by the federal government. This definition will influence major policy decisions to be made for management of such waste. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing information on greater-than-class-C LLRW in view of the current definition of such waste and potential changes in this definition - for example, an upper limit on the concentrations of radionuclides in LLRW. The paper identifies further information needs to develop a clear definition of such waste for use in federal planning for acceptance of responsibility for disposal of such waste

  13. Time, number and length: similarities and differences in discrimination in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clément, Angélique; Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on similarities in the discrimination of three different quantities--time, number, and line length--using a bisection task involving children aged 5 and 8 years and adults, when number and length were presented nonsequentially (Experiment 1) and sequentially (Experiment 2). In the nonsequential condition, for all age groups, although to a greater extent in the younger children, the psychophysical functions were flatter, and the Weber ratio higher for time than for number and length. Number and length yielded similar psychophysical functions. Thus, sensitivity to time was lower than that to the other quantities, whether continuous or not. However, when number and length were presented sequentially (Experiment 2), the differences in discrimination performance between time, number, and length disappeared. Furthermore, the Weber ratio values as well as the bisection points for all quantities presented sequentially appeared to be close to that found for duration in the nonsequential condition. The results are discussed within the framework of recent theories suggesting a common mechanism for all analogical quantities.

  14. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  15. Role of the greater sciatic notch of the hip bone in sexual dimorphism: a morphometric study of the north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Kalsey; R K, Singla; K, Sachdeva

    2011-04-01

    The distinctive morphology and sexual dimorphism of the human hip bone makes it of interest from the anatomical, anthropological and forensic points of view. The shape of the greater sciatic notch has attracted great attention in the past. In the current investigation, an attempt has been made to find the baseline data of various parameters pertaining to the greater sciatic notch of 100 hip bones of known sex (male:female = 80:20) and side (right:left = 50:50), obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India, during the period 2007-2009. Seven parameters of the notch, viz. width, depth, posterior segment width, total angle, posterior segment angle, index I and index II of the greater sciatic notch were studied. The results thus obtained were compiled, tabulated, statistically analysed and were compared with the accessible literature. Out of all the parameters studied, width of the notch, posterior segment width, total angle, posterior segment angle and index II of notch were found to be significantly greater in women as compared with men. Thus the greater sciatic notch can serve as a reliable sex indicator even when the complete hip bone has not been well preserved.

  16. Search for baryon-number and lepton-number violating decays of Λ hyperons using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, M. E.; Bellis, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, E.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moody, C. I.; Moriya, K.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present a search for ten baryon number violating decay modes of Λ hyperons using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. Nine of these decay modes result in a single meson and single lepton in the final state (Λ →m ℓ) and conserve either the sum or the difference of baryon and lepton number (B ±L ). The tenth decay mode (Λ →p ¯ π+ ) represents a difference in baryon number of two units and no difference in lepton number. We observe no significant signal and set upper limits on the branching fractions of these reactions in the range (4 - 200 )×10-7 at the 90% confidence level.

  17. Particle number size distributions in urban air before and after volatilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions (size range 0.003–10 μm in the urban atmosphere of Augsburg (Germany were examined with respect to the governing anthropogenic sources and meteorological factors. The two-year average particle number concentration between November 2004 and November 2006 was 12 200 cm−3, i.e. similar to previous observations in other European cities. A seasonal analysis yielded twice the total particle number concentrations in winter as compared to summer as consequence of more frequent inversion situations and enhanced particulate emissions. The diurnal variations of particle number were shaped by a remarkable maximum in the morning during the peak traffic hours. After a mid-day decrease along with the onset of vertical mixing, an evening concentration maximum could frequently be observed, suggesting a re-stratification of the urban atmosphere. Overall, the mixed layer height turned out to be the most influential meteorological parameter on the particle size distribution. Its influence was even greater than that of the geographical origin of the prevailing synoptic-scale air mass.

    Size distributions below 0.8 μm were also measured downstream of a thermodenuder (temperature: 300 °C, allowing to retrieve the volume concentration of non-volatile compounds. The balance of particle number upstream and downstream of the thermodenuder suggests that practically all particles >12 nm contain a non-volatile core while additional nucleation of particles smaller than 6 nm could be observed after the thermodenuder as an interfering artifact of the method. The good correlation between the non-volatile volume concentration and an independent measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient (R2=0.9 suggests a close correspondence of the refractory and light-absorbing particle fractions. Using the "summation method", an average diameter ratio of particles before and after volatilisation could

  18. Inter-comparison of interpolated background nitrogen dioxide concentrations across Greater Manchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S. J.; Walsh, T.

    There are many modelling methods dedicated to the estimation of spatial patterns in pollutant concentrations, each with their distinctive advantages and disadvantages. The derivation of a surface of air quality values from monitoring data alone requires the conversion of point-based data from a limited number of monitoring stations to a continuous surface using interpolation. Since interpolation techniques involve the estimation of data at un-sampled points based on calculated relationships between data measured at a number of known sample points, they are subject to some uncertainty, both in terms of the values estimated and their spatial distribution. These uncertainties, which are incorporated into many empirical and semi-empirical mapping methodologies, could be recognised in any further usage of the data and also in the assessment of the extent of an exceedence of an air quality standard and the degree of exposure this may represent. There is a wide range of available interpolation techniques and the differences in the characteristics of these result in variations in the output surfaces estimated from the same set of input points. The work presented in this paper provides an examination of uncertainties through the application of a number of interpolation techniques available in standard GIS packages to a case study nitrogen dioxide data set for the Greater Manchester conurbation in northern England. The implications of the use of different techniques are discussed through application to hourly concentrations during an air quality episode and annual average concentrations in 2001. Patterns of concentrations demonstrate considerable differences in the estimated spatial pattern of maxima as the combined effects of chemical processes, topography and meteorology. In the case of air quality episodes, the considerable spatial variability of concentrations results in large uncertainties in the surfaces produced but these uncertainties vary widely from area to area

  19. Development of Quantitative Framework for Event Significance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Durk Hun; Kim, Min Chull; Kim, Inn Seock

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing trend in quantitative evaluation of the safety significance of operational events using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique. An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance has been developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which consists of an assessment hierarchy and a number of matrices. The safety significance of various events, e.g., internal or external initiating events that occurred during at-power or shutdown conditions, can be quantitatively analyzed using this framework, and then, the events rated according to their significance. This paper briefly describes the basic concept of the integrated quantitative framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  20. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  1. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  2. Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John

    2015-01-01

    statistically significant meta-analyses of anesthesiologic interventions, we used TSA to estimate power and imprecision in the context of sparse data and repeated updates. METHODS: We conducted a search to identify all systematic reviews with meta-analyses that investigated an intervention that may......: From 11,870 titles, we found 682 systematic reviews that investigated anesthesiologic interventions. In the 50 sampled meta-analyses, the median number of trials included was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5-14), the median number of participants was 964 (IQR, 523-1736), and the median number...

  3. Overview of Milestone E activities, greater confinement than shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the objective of Milestone E is to provide the technology and documentation needed to open a site providing greater confinement than shallow land burial. To that end, ORNL has prepared a technical position paper defining greater confinement disposal, options for achieving it, and the need for this disposal technology. In order to meet the objective of the milestones, the LLWMP evaluated the full range of options to shallow land burial and decided to focus on a combination of greater depth solidification containment and engineered barriers. The program identified a series of research needs and then focused program efforts on resolving those needs. These tasks are proceeding on schedule at this time but budget reductions may have an impact on our ability to maintain the schedule

  4. Evidence of significant central fatigue in patients with cancer-related fatigue during repetitive elbow flexions till perceived exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.

  5. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    to predict CCN number concentrations. The ratio of predicted to measured CCN concentrations is between 0.87 and 1.4 for five different types of κ. The temporal variability is also well captured, with Pearson correlation coefficients exceeding 0.87. Information on CCN number concentrations at many locations is important to better characterise ACI and their radiative forcing. But long-term comprehensive aerosol particle characterisations are labour intensive and costly. Hence, we recommend operating migrating-CCNCs to conduct collocated CCN number concentration and particle number size distribution measurements at individual locations throughout one year at least to derive a seasonally resolved hygroscopicity parameter. This way, CCN number concentrations can only be calculated based on continued particle number size distribution information and greater spatial coverage of long-term measurements can be achieved.

  6. The Stereotype-Matching Effect: Greater Influence on Functioning When Age Stereotypes Correspond to Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R.; Leifheit-Limson, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Older individuals assimilate, and are targeted by, contradictory positive and negative age stereotypes. It was unknown whether the influence of stereotype valence is stronger when the stereotype content corresponds to the outcome domain. We randomly assigned older individuals to either positive-cognitive, negative-cognitive, positive-physical, or negative-physical subliminal-age-stereotype groups and assessed cognitive and physical outcomes. As predicted, when the age stereotypes corresponded to the outcome domains, their valence had a significantly greater impact on cognitive and physical performance. This suggests that if a match occurs, it is more likely to generate expectations that become self-fulfilling prophecies. PMID:19290757

  7. Comparison of a quantum random number generator with pseudorandom number generators for their use in molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly

    2017-12-05

    Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  9. The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access from Symbolic Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a…

  10. Predicting Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek Site Suitability to Inform Conservation Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre J Hovick

    Full Text Available The demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. Particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. This has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. We used nine years (2003-2011 of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido lek locations totaling 870 unique leks sites in Kansas and seven geographic information system (GIS layers describing land cover, topography, and anthropogenic structures to model habitat suitability across the state. The models obtained had low omission rates (0.81, indicating high model performance and reliability of predicted habitat suitability for Greater Prairie-Chickens. We found that elevation was the most influential in predicting lek locations, contributing three times more predictive power than any other variable. However, models were improved by the addition of land cover and anthropogenic features (transmission lines, roads, and oil and gas structures. Overall, our analysis provides a hierarchal understanding of Greater Prairie-Chicken habitat suitability that is broadly based on geomorphological features followed by land cover suitability. We found that when land features and vegetation cover are suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens, fragmentation by anthropogenic sources such as roadways and transmission lines are a concern. Therefore, it is our recommendation that future human development in Kansas avoid areas that our models identified as highly suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens and focus development on land cover types that are of lower conservation concern.

  11. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Pcurve (AUC) and incremental AUC (P ≤0.016) for the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Pglucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance. In vitro temporal stability was analyzed for both individual MIRU-VNTR loci, and for several combinations of loci. In the present study, four MIRU-VNTR combinations, including the hypervariable loci 3820, 3232, 2163a, and 4120, were evaluated. All of these combinations obtained a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI value over 0.9900 with a reduced clustering proportion (from 32.0% to 25.6%. By comparing epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance, we found that the performances of the four MIRU-VNTR combinations were comparable to the insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP, and significantly better than that of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping alone. The proportion of temporally stable loci ranged from 90.5% to 92.5% within the combined MIRU-VNTR genotyping, which is higher than IS6110-RFLP (85.4%. By adding four hypervariable loci to the standard 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping, we obtained a high discriminatory power, stability and epidemiological significance. This algorithm could therefore be used to improve tuberculosis transmission surveillance and outbreak investigation in China.

  13. Impact of High Mathematics Education on the Number Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Julie; Göbel, Silke M.

    2012-01-01

    In adult number processing two mechanisms are commonly used: approximate estimation of quantity and exact calculation. While the former relies on the approximate number sense (ANS) which we share with animals and preverbal infants, the latter has been proposed to rely on an exact number system (ENS) which develops later in life following the acquisition of symbolic number knowledge. The current study investigated the influence of high level math education on the ANS and the ENS. Our results showed that the precision of non-symbolic quantity representation was not significantly altered by high level math education. However, performance in a symbolic number comparison task as well as the ability to map accurately between symbolic and non-symbolic quantities was significantly better the higher mathematics achievement. Our findings suggest that high level math education in adults shows little influence on their ANS, but it seems to be associated with a better anchored ENS and better mapping abilities between ENS and ANS. PMID:22558077

  14. Labour intensity of guidelines may have a greater effect on adherence than GPs' workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians' heavy workload is often thought to jeopardise the quality of care and to be a barrier to improving quality. The relationship between these has, however, rarely been investigated. In this study quality of care is defined as care 'in accordance with professional guidelines'. In this study we investigated whether GPs with a higher workload adhere less to guidelines than those with a lower workload and whether guideline recommendations that require a greater time investment are less adhered to than those that can save time. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2. This nationwide study was carried out between April 2000 and January 2002. A multilevel logistic-regression analysis was conducted of 170,677 decisions made by GPs, referring to 41 Guideline Adherence Indicators (GAIs, which were derived from 32 different guidelines. Data were used from 130 GPs, working in 83 practices with 98,577 patients. GP-characteristics as well as guideline characteristics were used as independent variables. Measures include workload (number of contacts, hours spent on continuing medical education, satisfaction with available time, practice characteristics and patient characteristics. Outcome measure is an indicator score, which is 1 when a decision is in accordance with professional guidelines or 0 when the decision deviates from guidelines. Results On average, 66% of the decisions GPs made were in accordance with guidelines. No relationship was found between the objective workload of GPs and their adherence to guidelines. Subjective workload (measured on a five point scale was negatively related to guideline adherence (OR = 0.95. After controlling for all other variables, the variation between GPs in adherence to guideline recommendations showed a range of less than 10%. 84% of the variation in guideline adherence was located at the GAI-level. Which means that the differences in

  15. Aging gracefully in Greater Beirut: are there any gender-based differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Rosy N; Boulos, Christa M; Adib, Salim M

    2017-06-01

    The implications of rapid aging of the Lebanese population are under-researched. No national studies have so far investigated the living conditions and the health status of urban Lebanese elderly across gender. This was a cross-sectional study involving 905 randomly selected community dwelling elderly aged ≥65 years living in Greater Beirut. Gender differences were assessed among participants who completed a standardized questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, nutritional, health, and functional characteristics. The sample included 533 men (59%) and 372 women (41%). Elderly were regrouped into 'younger elderly' (≤70 years), and 'older elderly' (>70 years) which represented respectively 44.3% and 55.7% of the total population. Women, regardless of their age, were less educated and more likely to live alone. Moreover, poor nutritional status, self-perceived health, absence of physical activity, comorbidity, polymedication and depression were significantly higher among women. 'Older elderly' women became significantly more functionally disabled compared with men of their age. This study evidenced that Lebanese elderly women were disadvantaged regarding their socio-economic, health and functional status. It is requested a nationwide effort to improve the socio-economic status and the health of Lebanese elderly, especially women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  17. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  18. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  20. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  1. Factors associated with the number of consultations per dietetic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Jacqueline

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater understanding of the variance in the number of consultations per dietetic treatment will increase the transparency of dietetic healthcare. Substantial inter-practitioner variation may suggest a potential to increase efficiency and improve quality. It is not known whether inter-practitioner variation also exists in the field of dietetics. Therefore, the aims of this study are to examine inter-practitioner variation in the number of consultations per treatment and the case-mix factors that explain this variation. Methods For this observational study, data were used from the National Information Service for Allied Health Care (LiPZ. LiPZ is a Dutch registration network of allied health care professionals, including dietitians working in primary healthcare. Data were used from 6,496 patients who underwent dietetic treatment between 2006 and 2009, treated by 27 dietitians working in solo practices located throughout the Netherlands. Data collection was based on the long-term computerized registration of healthcare-related information on patients, reimbursement, treatment and health problems, using a regular software program for reimbursement. Poisson multilevel regression analyses were used to model the number of consultations and to account for the clustered structure of the data. Results After adjusting for case-mix, seven percent of the total variation in consultation sessions was due to dietitians. The mean number of consultations per treatment was 4.9 and ranged from 2.3–10.1 between dietitians. Demographic characteristics, patients’ initiative and patients’ health problems explained 28% of the inter-practitioner variation. Certain groups of patients used significantly more dietetic healthcare compared to others, i.e. older patients, females, the native Dutch, patients with a history of dietetic healthcare, patients who started the treatment on their own initiative, patients with multiple diagnoses, overweight

  2. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  3. Foraging plasticity in seabirds: A non-invasive study of the diet of greater crested terns breeding in the Benguela region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Marine predators, such as seabirds, are useful indicators of marine ecosystem functioning. In particular, seabird diet may reflect variability in food-web composition due to natural or human-induced environmental change. Diet monitoring programmes, which sample diet non-invasively, are valuable aids to conservation and management decision-making. We investigated the diet of an increasing population of greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii in the Western Cape, South Africa, during three successive breeding seasons (2013 to 2015), when populations of other seabirds feeding on small pelagic schooling fish in the region were decreasing. Breeding greater crested terns carry prey in their bills, so we used an intensive photo-sampling method to record their diet with little disturbance. We identified 24,607 prey items from at least 47 different families, with 34 new prey species recorded. Fish dominated the diet, constituting 94% of prey by number, followed by cephalopods (3%), crustaceans (2%) and insects (1%). The terns mainly targeted surface-schooling Clupeiformes, with anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus the most abundant prey in all three breeding seasons (65% overall). Prey composition differed significantly between breeding stages and years, with anchovy most abundant at the start of the breeding season, becoming less frequent as the season progressed. The proportion of anchovy in the diet also was influenced by environmental factors; anchovy occurred more frequently with increasing wind speeds and was scarce on foggy days, presumably because terns rely in part on social facilitation to locate anchovy schools. The application of this intensive and non-invasive photo-sampling method revealed an important degree of foraging plasticity for this seabird within a context of locally reduced food availability, suggesting that, unlike species that specialise on a few high-quality prey, opportunistic seabirds may be better able to cope with reductions in the abundance of

  4. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  5. Angiogenesis in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis: predominance of the inhibitor endostatin is related to a greater extent and risk of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Montaner, Joan; Rosell, Anna; Molina, Carlos A; Rovira, Alex; Ribó, Marc; Sánchez, Esther; Quintana, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis may be beneficial in chronic myocardial and limb ischemia, but its role in intracranial atherosclerosis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic endostatin, and the extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. Of a total of 94 consecutive patients with symptomatic intracranial stenoses, 40 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Intracranial stenoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted sequences was conducted. Plasmatic VEGF and endostatin were determined from blood samples obtained 3 months after stroke onset, and patients were followed-up thereafter. A total of 144 intracranial stenoses were confirmed (median number per patient=3). Endostatin/VEGF ratio gradually augmented with the increasing number of intracranial stenoses (r=0.35, P=0.02). Diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.04; CI, 1.1 to 32.2; P=0.03) and a higher endostatin/VEGF ratio (OR, 15.7; CI, 2.2 to 112.3; P=0.006) were independently associated with a greater extent of intracranial atherosclerosis. During a median follow-up of 13 months, 8 patients (20%) experienced a new cerebral ischemic event. A higher baseline endostatin concentration was an independent predictor of new events (hazard ratio, 7.24; CI, 1.6 to 33.8; P=0.011) in a Cox regression model after adjustment for age, sex, number of stenotic vessels, and risk factors. Patients with a higher endostatin level had a lower survival free of new events (P=0.01, log-rank test). A predominance of the inhibitor endostatin within the endogenous angiogenic response is associated with a greater extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis, suggesting that angiogenesis may be beneficial in this condition.

  6. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  7. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  8. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  9. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  10. Prognostic value of tumor burden measurement using the number of tumors in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Wroblewski, Kristen; Pu, Yonglin

    2012-01-01

    Background: No study to test the feasibility and prognostic value of the number of primary tumors, the number of positive lymph nodes, and the total number of tumors in the whole body as tumor burden measurements on FDG PET/CT imaging has been reported. Purpose: To determine whether the number of tumors seen in 18F-FDG PET scans can be a prognostic factor in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods: One hundred and forty patients with histologically proven NSCLC and baseline 18F-FDG PET scan before therapy were identified in this retrospective analysis. The total number of tumors (TTn) in the whole body, the number of primary tumors (Tn), positive lymph nodes (Nn), and distant metastases (Mn), along with the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the tumors were measured. Inter-observer variability of the total number of tumors, counted by two radiologists, was assessed. Survival analyses were performed to determine the prognostic value of the number of tumors. Results: Concordance correlation coefficients for the TTn, Tn, Nn, and Mn were all greater than 0.85. TTn and Nn were strong prognostic factors of NSCLC patients' overall survival (OS). In univariate Cox regression models, gender, stage, TTn, Nn, and Mn were statistically significant factors (P = 0.016, 0.032, 4. Conclusion: Measuring the number of tumors on FDG PET imaging is easy to perform with minimal inter-observer variability. The total number of tumors and number of nodal metastases, as metabolic tumor burden measurements in 18F-FDG PET/CT, are prognostic markers independent of clinical stage, age, gender, and SUV measurement in non-surgical patients with NSCLC

  11. Work Overload and Turnover Intention of Junior Auditors in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increasing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  12. Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Irik Valley, Mount Elbrus (Greater Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Horia HOLOBÂCĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier retreat in Greater Caucasus after 1980. For the same period a significant summer temperature warming trend and little or no change in precipitation variation have been observed. In this paper we seek to find similar past climatic conditions using a dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures from upper treeline sites after the Little Ice Age (LIA. Dendroclimatological sampling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris has been made in Irik Valley, near Elbrus glacier, and a tree-ring width (TRW chronology has been used to reconstruct May – August (MJJA temperatures back to 1830. Three warm periods were identified in the MJJA temperatures reconstructed data (1830 - 1900, but we cannot appreciate if they had the same intensity as the recent warm period

  13. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122±18 H.U.(±SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number (±SD) of 85±22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116±22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T 3 were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65±11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76±14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102±11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84±16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57±7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61±5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author)

  14. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  15. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  16. The Effect of Vitamin C and / Or Gamma Irradiation on Some Biological Aspects of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Mohamed, H.F.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the impact of unilateral and joint with vitamin C concentrations (0.25 Molar) and gamma rays in artificial diets on some biological aspects of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. Vitamin C showed the positive impact of combined treatment with the dose rate 100 Gy on the average number of eggs per mated female and on percentage of the eggs hatched through the crosses T male X N female and N male X T female. Larval and Pupal period for both sexes did much affect by either radiation or vitamin C or both together. The average weights of larvae and pupae were significantly increased in the most concentrations when compared with the untreated control group. The highest percentage of survived larvae was 96.30 % from the control at the concentration 0.25 Molar of vitamin C and the lowest percentage was 61.11% from the control at dose rate 300 Gy only. While highest rate of the emergence was found by the treatments of vitamin C only or combined with the dose rate 100 Gy. The percentage of sex ratio was in favor of males at the dose rate 300 Gy only. Vitamin C significantly increased the activity of GOT and GPT enzymes by increasing the dose of gamma radiation in larvae of G. mellonella as compared to the control group

  17. Iliotibial band syndrome: an examination of the evidence behind a number of treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falvey, E C

    2010-08-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome (ITBS) is a common cause of distal lateral thigh pain in athletes. Treatment often focuses on stretching the ITB and treating local inflammation at the lateral femoral condyle (LFC). We examine the area\\'s anatomical and biomechanical properties. Anatomical studies of the ITB of 20 embalmed cadavers. The strain generated in the ITB by three typical stretching maneuvers (Ober test; Hip flexion, adduction and external rotation, with added knee flexion and straight leg raise to 30 degrees ) was measured in five unembalmed cadavers using strain gauges. Displacement of the Tensae Fasciae Latae (TFL)\\/ITB junction was measured on 20 subjects during isometric hip abduction. The ITB was uniformly a lateral thickening of the circumferential fascia lata, firmly attached along the linea aspera (femur) from greater trochanter up to and including the LFC. The microstrain values [median (IQR)] for the OBER [15.4(5.1-23.3)me], HIP [21.1(15.6-44.6)me] and SLR [9.4(5.1-10.7)me] showed marked disparity in the optimal inter-limb stretching protocol. HIP stretch invoked significantly (Z=2.10, P=0.036) greater strain than the SLR. TFL\\/ITB junction displacement was 2.0+\\/-1.6 mm and mean ITB lengthening was <0.5% (effect size=0.04). Our results challenge the reasoning behind a number of accepted means of treating ITBS. Future research must focus on stretching and lengthening the muscular component of the ITB\\/TFL complex.

  18. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldekoa, Joana; Medici, Chiara; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Marcé, Rafael; Barceló, Damià; Francés, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results

  19. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldekoa, Joana, E-mail: joaalma2@cam.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Medici, Chiara [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Marcé, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Francés, Félix [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results.

  20. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B

    2008-11-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.

  1. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  2. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how th......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....

  4. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  6. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  7. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  8. Constraints facing the implementation of the greater New Orleans urban water plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    On September 6th of last year the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (UWP) was presented. A comprehensive plan which addresses flooding caused by heavy rainfall and soil subsidence caused by excessive drainage. Every year parts of the Greater New Orleans Area flood due to severe rainfall events in

  9. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freak-Poli Rosanne LA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in

  10. Decreased Numbers of CD57+CD3- Cells Identify Potential Innate Immune Differences in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Mijatovic, Tatjana; Bosmans, Eugene; Cirillo, Alessandra; Kruzliak, Peter; Lombardi, Vincent C; De Meirleir, Kenny; Antonucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex, and severe heterogeneous neurodevelopmental pathologies with accepted but complex immune system abnormalities. Additional knowledge regarding potential immune dysfunctions may provide a greater understanding of this malady. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CD57(+)CD3(-) mature lymphocyte subpopulation of natural killer cells as a marker of immune dysfunction in ASD. Three-color flow cytometry-based analysis of fresh peripheral blood samples from children with autism was utilized to measure CD57(+)CD3(-) lymphocytes. A reduction of CD57(+)CD3(-) lymphocyte count was recorded in a significant number of patients with autism. We demonstrated that the number of peripheral CD57(+)CD3(-) cells in children with autism often falls below the clinically accepted normal range. This implies that a defect in the counter-regulatory functions necessary for balancing pro-inflammatory cytokines exists, thus opening the way to chronic inflammatory conditions associated with ASD. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Association between the number of early carious lesions and diet in children with a high prevalence of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, C; Leyda, A; Forner, L; Garcet, S

    2015-03-01

    An investigation was conducted in a population of paediatric patients with a high risk of caries in order to assess the association between caries history (CH) and the number of early carious lesions (ECLs) and the frequency and timing of cariogenic food and beverage intake, sugar-containing medication, the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing, and the use of topical fluorides. Study design: descriptive study. One hundred children aged 6-15 years with≥ ECL of a permanent tooth and not enrolled in any dental health educational or preventive programme were selected. For diagnosis it was used an explorer according to the ICDAS II criteria. The participants completed a closed-list questionnaire on the frequency and timing of cariogenic food intake. There was a nonsignificant tendency to present more ECLs and a greater CH among patients who consumed cariogenic foods and beverages. A significant relationship (pcariogenic beverages and the number of ECL or CH. Using the number of ECLs as dependent variable, regular fluoridated rinses (p=0.003), frequent sugar-containing medication (p=0.007), and cariogenic beverage consumption (p=0.024) were identified as explanatory parameters in the linear regression model. The Student t-test was used to compare ECL and CH with dietetic factors, fluoridated rinses, sugar- containing medicines, and the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing. Linear regression analysis correlated the number of ECLs to the mentioned explanatory variables. The frequent consumption of sugary beverages and medications, and failure to regularly use fluoridated rinses, were positively correlated to an increased number of ECLs in patients with a high prevalence of caries.

  12. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  13. Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Ungaro, Paola; Cimmino, Amelia; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-05-27

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS) has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10-15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D) and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one) are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement). More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI), the 4 Kallikrein (4K) score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the potential of

  14. Optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation are associated with lower likelihood of cognitive impairment and greater positive affect among cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M.; Klein, William M. P.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Kent, Erin E.; Harris, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimism and self-affirmation promote adaptive coping, goal achievement, and better health. Purpose To examine the associations of optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation (SSA) with physical, mental, and cognitive health and information seeking among cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors (n=326) completed the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013, a national survey of U.S. adults. Participants reported optimism, SSA, cognitive and physical impairment, affect, health status, and information seeking. Results Participants higher in optimism reported better health on nearly all indices examined, even when controlling for SSA. Participants higher in SSA reported lower likelihood of cognitive impairment, greater happiness and hopefulness, and greater likelihood of cancer information seeking. SSA remained significantly associated with greater hopefulness and cancer information seeking when controlling for optimism. Conclusions Optimism and SSA may be associated with beneficial health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. Given the demonstrated malleability of self-affirmation, these findings represent important avenues for future research. PMID:26497697

  15. Optimism and Spontaneous Self-affirmation are Associated with Lower Likelihood of Cognitive Impairment and Greater Positive Affect among Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Kent, Erin E; Harris, Peter R

    2016-04-01

    Optimism and self-affirmation promote adaptive coping, goal achievement, and better health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations of optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation (SSA) with physical, mental, and cognitive health and information seeking among cancer survivors. Cancer survivors (n = 326) completed the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013, a national survey of US adults. Participants reported optimism, SSA, cognitive and physical impairment, affect, health status, and information seeking. Participants higher in optimism reported better health on nearly all indices examined, even when controlling for SSA. Participants higher in SSA reported lower likelihood of cognitive impairment, greater happiness and hopefulness, and greater likelihood of cancer information seeking. SSA remained significantly associated with greater hopefulness and cancer information seeking when controlling for optimism. Optimism and SSA may be associated with beneficial health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. Given the demonstrated malleability of self-affirmation, these findings represent important avenues for future research.

  16. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamijo, Keiichi (Kamijo Thyroid and Pituitary Clinic, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122[+-]18 H.U.([+-]SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number ([+-]SD) of 85[+-]22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116[+-]22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T[sub 3] were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65[+-]11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76[+-]14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102[+-]11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84[+-]16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57[+-]7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61[+-]5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author).

  17. A Research on a Certain Family of Numbers and Polynomials Related to Stirling Numbers, Central Factorial Numbers, and Euler Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.

  18. The Arab Awakening and US counterterrorism in the Greater Middle East: A missed opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Lilli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 'In 2011, the Arab Awakening offered an opportunity to the Obama administration to advance the US interest to counter terrorism in the Greater Middle East without compromising its commitment to the promotion of democracy. As of early 2015, however, with the exception of still-hopeful Tunisia, democracy has not made any significant progress in Middle Eastern countries. Additionally, old and new regional extremist groups have become increasingly active. How did the Obama administration miss the opportunity offered by the Arab Awakening? What actions could the United States take to reverse current unfavorable trends and advance US policies of counterterrorism and democratization in the region?'''

  19. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2018-02-01

    studies based on κ–Köhler theory to predict CCN number concentrations. The ratio of predicted to measured CCN concentrations is between 0.87 and 1.4 for five different types of κ. The temporal variability is also well captured, with Pearson correlation coefficients exceeding 0.87. Information on CCN number concentrations at many locations is important to better characterise ACI and their radiative forcing. But long-term comprehensive aerosol particle characterisations are labour intensive and costly. Hence, we recommend operating migrating-CCNCs to conduct collocated CCN number concentration and particle number size distribution measurements at individual locations throughout one year at least to derive a seasonally resolved hygroscopicity parameter. This way, CCN number concentrations can only be calculated based on continued particle number size distribution information and greater spatial coverage of long-term measurements can be achieved.

  20. Some types of parent number talk count more than others: relations between parents' input and children's cardinal-number knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C

    2011-09-01

    Before they enter preschool, children vary greatly in their numerical and mathematical knowledge, and this knowledge predicts their achievement throughout elementary school (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Ginsburg & Russell, 1981). Therefore, it is critical that we look to the home environment for parental inputs that may lead to these early variations. Recent work has shown that the amount of number talk that parents engage in with their children is robustly related to a critical aspect of mathematical development - cardinal-number knowledge (e.g. knowing that the word 'three' refers to sets of three entities; Levine, Suriyakham, Rowe, Huttenlocher & Gunderson, 2010). The present study characterizes the different types of number talk that parents produce and investigates which types are most predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge. We find that parents' number talk involving counting or labeling sets of present, visible objects is related to children's later cardinal-number knowledge, whereas other types of parent number talk are not. In addition, number talk that refers to large sets of present objects (i.e. sets of size 4 to 10 that fall outside children's ability to track individual objects) is more robustly predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge than talk about smaller sets. The relation between parents' number talk about large sets of present objects and children's cardinal-number knowledge remains significant even when controlling for factors such as parents' socioeconomic status and other measures of parents' number and non-number talk. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Random numbers spring from alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Clark, N.A.; Tyler, S.A.

    1980-05-01

    Congruential random number generators, which are widely used in Monte Carlo simulations, are deficient in that the number they generate are concentrated in a relatively small number of hyperplanes. While this deficiency may not be a limitation in small Monte Carlo studies involving a few variables, it introduces a significant bias in large simulations requiring high resolution. This bias was recognized and assessed during preparations for an accident analysis study of nuclear power plants. This report describes a random number device based on the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a 235 U source in a high-resolution gas proportional counter. The signals were fed to a 4096-channel analyzer and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts (0 for an even count and 1 for an odd count) were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit binary random numbers and transcribed to a magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated as many times as were necessary to create 3 million random numbers. The frequency distribution of counts from the present device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution, which takes into account the dead time of the counter (both the dead time and decay constant of the underlying Poisson process were estimated). Analysis of the count data and tests of randomness on a sample set of the 31-bit binary numbers indicate that this random number device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. Its use is, therefore, recommended in Monte Carlo simulations for which the congruential pseudorandom number generators are found to be inadequate. 6 figures, 5 tables

  2. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  3. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-06-01

    Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one's health: Socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clinical significance of inadequate endometrial biopsies prior to hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Emily H; Farghaly, Hanan; Eskew, Ashley M; Parker, Lynn P; Milam, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate preoperative clinical risk factors associated with significant uterine histopathologic abnormalities in final hysterectomy specimens in patients with inadequate preoperative endometrial biopsies. This is an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort analysis of 469 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative endometrial biopsies with subsequent hysterectomy from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009, at the University of Louisville Medical Center. We analyzed risk factors for inadequate biopsy and for final diagnosis of endometrial pathology (defined as endometrial hyperplasia or uterine cancer). Of the 469 preoperative endometrial biopsies reviewed, 26.2% (123/469) were inadequate (IBx) and 73.8% (346/469) were adequate and benign. IBx on endometrial biopsies was associated with a greater risk of having significant uterine histopathologic abnormalities on final hysterectomy specimens (6.5% vs. 2.3%, RR 2.8 [95% CI 1.1-7.3], p = 0.04). Although inadequate endometrial biopsies are a common finding, they can be associated with significant uterine histopathologic abnormalities on final hysterectomy specimens.

  5. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslims in Greater Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I.; Peek, Monica; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E.; Hosseinian, Zahra; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing and associations between religion-related factors and these rates among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of American Muslim women. Materials and Methods A community-based participatory research design was used in partnering with the Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago to recruit Muslim women attending mosque and community events. These participants self-administered surveys incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, perceived discrimination, Islamic modesty, and a marker of Pap test use. Results A total of 254 survey respondents were collected with nearly equal numbers of Arabs, South Asians, and African American respondents. Of these respondents, 84% had obtained a Pap test in their lifetime, with individuals who interpret disease as a manifestation of God’s punishment having a lower odds of having had Pap testing after controlling for sociodemographic factors (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77–1.0). In multivariate models, living in the United States for more than 20 years (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.4–16) and having a primary care physician (OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.5–23.4) were positive predictors of having had a Pap test. Ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, perceived discrimination, and modesty levels were not significantly associated with Pap testing rates. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess Pap testing behaviors among a diverse sample of American Muslim women and to observe that negative religious coping (e.g., viewing health problems as a punishment from God) is associated with a lower odds of obtaining a Pap test. The relationship between religious coping and cancer screening behaviors deserves further study so that religious values can be appropriately addressed through cancer screening programs. PMID:24914883

  6. Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Sarıoğlu, Celal; Soulé, Christophe; Zeytin, Ayberk

    2017-01-01

    This lecture notes volume presents significant contributions from the “Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory” Summer School, held at Galatasaray University, Istanbul, June 2-13, 2014. It addresses subjects ranging from Arakelov geometry and Iwasawa theory to classical projective geometry, birational geometry and equivariant cohomology. Its main aim is to introduce these contemporary research topics to graduate students who plan to specialize in the area of algebraic geometry and/or number theory. All contributions combine main concepts and techniques with motivating examples and illustrative problems for the covered subjects. Naturally, the book will also be of interest to researchers working in algebraic geometry, number theory and related fields.

  7. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  8. Straight flavor of Binary Number in Decimal Number System

    OpenAIRE

    MD. Abdul Awal Ansary; Sushanta Acharjee

    2012-01-01

    Different number systems are available on the basis of their base numbers. For instance, decimal number system is of base 10, hexadecimal number system which base is 16 and, Binary number system which base is 2 etc. Some numbers systems are easy to understand by the human being and some are easy to understand by electronics machine for instance digital computers. Computers only can understand data and instructions that are stored in binary form, though we input the data and instruction in dec...

  9. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  10. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  11. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  12. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  14. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Floating point numbers are an important data type in compu- tation which is used ... quite large! Integers are ... exp, the value of the exponent will be taken as (exp –127). The ..... bit which is truncated is 1, add 1 to the least significant bit, else.

  15. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canessa, Enrique [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-08-01

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions p{sub x} for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering p{sub x} to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force f{sub x} on number sets proportional to ({partial_derivative}p{sub x}/{partial_derivative}x){sub T} at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed. (author)

  19. Spatiotemporal distribution and variation of GPP in the Greater Khingan Mountains from 1982 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Fan, W.; Liu, S.; Ren, H.; Xu, X.

    2017-12-01

    GPP (Gross Primary Productivity) is an important index to reflect the productivity of plants because it refers to the organic accumulated by green plants on land through assimilating the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by photosynthesis and a serial of physiological processes in plants. Therefore, GPP plays a significant role in studying the carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem and plants' reaction to global climate change. Remote sensing provides an efficient way to estimate GPP at regional and global scales and its products can be used to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of terrestrial ecosystem.As the Greater Khingan Mountains is the only bright coniferous forest of cool temperate zone in China and accounts for about 30% of the forest in China. This region is sensitive to climate change, but its forest coverage presented a significant variation due to fire disasters, excessive deforestation and so on. Here, we aimed at studying the variation pattern of GPP in the Greater Khingan Mountains and further found impact factors for the change in order to improve the understanding of what have and will happen on plants and carbon cycle under climate change.Based on GPP product from the GLASS program, we first studied spatial distribution of plants in the Greater Khingan Mountains from 1982 to 2015. With a linear regression model, seasonal and inter-annual GPP variability were explored on pixel and regional scale. We analyzed some climatic factors (e.g. temperature and precipitation) and terrain in order to find the driven factors for the GPP variations. The Growing Season Length (GSL) was also regarded as a factor and was retrieved from GIMMS 3g NDVI datasets using dynamic threshold method. We found that GPP in study area linearly decreased with the increasing elevation. Both annual accumulated GPP (AAG) and maximum daily GPP (during mid-June to mid-July) gained obvious improvement over the past 34 years under climate warming and drying (Fig.1 and Fig.2). Further

  20. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  1. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  2. Why shorter half-times of repair lead to greater damage in pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed brachytherapy consists of replacing continuous irradiation at low dose-rate with a series of medium dose-rate fractions in the same overall time and to the same total dose. For example, pulses of 1 Gy given every 2 hr or 2 Gy given every 4 hr would deliver the same 70 Gy in 140 hr as continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. If higher dose-rates are used, even with gaps between the pulses, the biological effects are always greater. Provided that dose rates in the pulse do not exceed 3 Gy/hr, and provided that pulses are given as often as every 2 hr, the inevitable increases of biological effect are no larger than a few percent (of biologically effective dose or extrapolated response dose). However, these increases are more likely to exceed 10% (and thus become clinically significant) if the half-time of repair of sublethal damage is short (less than 1 hr) rather than long. This somewhat unexpected finding is explained in detail here. The rise and fall of Biologically Effective Dose (and hence of Relative Effectiveness, for a constant dose in each pulse) is calculated during and after single pulses, assuming a range of values of T 1/2 , the half-time of sublethal damage repair. The area under each curve is proportional to Biologically Effective Dose and therefore to log cell kill. Pulses at 3 Gy/hr do yield greater biological effect (dose x integrated Relative Effectiveness) than lower dose-rate pulses or continuous irradiation at 0.5 Gy/hr. The contrast is greater for the short T 1/2 of 0.5 hr than for the longer T 1/2 of 1.5 hr. More biological damage will be done (compared with traditional low dose rate brachytherapy) in tissues with short T 1/2 (0.1-1 hr) than in tissues with longer T 1/2 values. 8 refs., 3 figs

  3. Number As a Primary Perceptual Attribute: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anobile, Giovanni; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Burr, David C

    2016-01-01

    Although humans are the only species to possess language-driven abstract mathematical capacities, we share with many other animals a nonverbal capacity for estimating quantities or numerosity. For some time, researchers have clearly differentiated between small numbers of items--less than about four--referred to as the subitizing range, and larger numbers, where counting or estimation is required. In this review, we examine more recent evidence suggesting a further division, between sets of items greater than the subitizing range, but sparse enough to be individuated as single items; and densely packed stimuli, where they crowd each other into what is better considered as a texture. These two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws and show different dependencies on eccentricity and on luminance levels. But provided the elements are not too crowded (less than about two items per square degree in central vision, less in the periphery), there is little evidence that estimation of numerosity depends on mechanisms responsive to texture. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases stromal cell derived factor 1 and the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in high cardiovascular risk subjects: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Condines, Ximena; Magraner, Emma; Roth, Irene; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Casas, Rosa; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Quifer-Rada, Paola; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular risk, but fermented beverages seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection due to their polyphenolic content. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone-marrow-derived stem cells with the ability to repair and maintain endothelial integrity and function and are considered as a surrogate marker of vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, no study has been carried out on the effects of moderate beer consumption on the number of circulating EPC in high cardiovascular risk patients. To compare the effects of moderate consumption of beer, non-alcoholic beer and gin on the number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors. In this crossover trial, 33 men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized to receive beer (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of polyphenols in the form of non-alcoholic beer, or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 weeks. Diet and physical exercise were carefully monitored. The number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors were determined at baseline and after each intervention. After the beer and non-alcoholic beer interventions, the number of circulating EPC significantly increased by 8 and 5 units, respectively, while no significant differences were observed after the gin period. In correlation, stromal cell derived factor 1 increased significantly after the non-alcoholic and the beer interventions. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases the number of circulating EPC in peripheral blood from high cardiovascular risk subjects. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95345245 ISRCTN95345245. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Sun, Keping; Park, Yung Chul; Feng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum , is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  6. Determination of seasonal, diurnal, and height resolved average number concentration in a pollution impacted rural continental location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Robert L.; Stanier, Charles O.; Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    The impact of aerosols on Earth's radiation balance and the associated climate forcing effects of aerosols represent significant uncertainties in assessment reports. The main source of ultrafine aerosols in the atmosphere is the nucleation and subsequent growth of gas phase aerosol precursors into liquid or solid phase particles. Long term records of aerosol number, nucleation event frequency, and vertical profiles of number concentration are rare. The data record from multiagency monitoring assets at Bondville, IL can contribute important information on long term and vertically resolved patterns. Although particle number size distribution data are only occasionally available at Bondville, highly time-resolved particle number concentration data have been measured for nearly twenty years by the NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division. Furthermore, vertically-resolved aerosol counts and other aerosol physical parameters are available from more than 300 flights of the NOAA Airborne Aerosol Observatory (AAO). These data sources are used to better understand the seasonal, diurnal, and vertical variation and trends in atmospheric aerosols. The highest peaks in condensation nuclei greater than 14 nm occur during the spring months (May, April) with slightly lower peaks during the fall months (September, October). The diurnal pattern of aerosol number has a midday peak and the timing of the peak has seasonal patterns (earlier during warm months and later during colder months). The seasonal and diurnal patterns of high particle number peaks correspond to seasons and times of day associated with low aerosol mass and surface area. Average vertical profiles show a nearly monotonic decrease with altitude in all months, and with peak magnitudes occurring in the spring and fall. Individual flight tracks show evidence of plumes (i.e., enhanced aerosol number is limited to a small altitude range, is not homogeneous horizontally, or both) as well as periods with enhanced particle number

  7. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  8. Intermittent whole-body vibration attenuates a reduction in the number of the capillaries in unloaded rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneguchi, Akinori; Ozawa, Junya; Kawamata, Seiichi; Kurose, Tomoyuki; Yamaoka, Kaoru

    2014-09-26

    Whole-body vibration has been suggested for the prevention of muscle mass loss and muscle wasting as an attractive measure for disuse atrophy. This study examined the effects of daily intermittent whole-body vibration and weight bearing during hindlimb suspension on capillary number and muscle atrophy in rat skeletal muscles. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (CONT), hindlimb suspension (HS), HS + weight bearing (WB), and HS + whole-body vibration (VIB) (n = 15 each). Hindlimb suspension was applied for 2 weeks in HS, HS + WB, and HS + VIB groups. During suspension, rats in HS + VIB group were placed daily on a vibrating whole-body vibration platform for 20 min. In HS + WB group, suspension was interrupted for 20 min/day, allowing weight bearing. Untreated rats were used as controls. Soleus muscle wet weights and muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) significantly decreased in HS, HS + WB, and HS + VIB groups compared with CONT group. Both muscle weights and CSA were significantly greater in HS + WB and HS + VIB groups compared with HS group. Capillary numbers (represented by capillary-to-muscle fiber ratio) were significantly smaller in all hindlimb suspension-treated groups compared with CONT group. However, a reduction in capillary number by unloading hindlimbs was partially prevented by whole-body vibration. These findings were supported by examining mRNA for angiogenic-related factors. Expression levels of a pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA, were significantly lower in all hindlimb suspension-treated groups compared with CONT group. There were no differences among hindlimb suspension-treated groups. Expression levels of an anti-angiogenic factor, CD36 (receptor for thrombospondin-1) mRNA, were significantly higher in all hindlimb suspension-treated groups compared with CONT group. Among the hindlimb suspension-treated groups, expression of CD

  9. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report

  10. Evaluation of Department of Energy-Held Potential Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    A number of commercial facilities have generated potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), and, through contractual arrangements with the US Department of Energy (DOE) or for health and safety reasons, DOE is storing the waste. This report presents the results of an assessment conducted by the GTCC LLW Management Program to consider specific circumstances under which DOE accepted the waste, and to determine whether disposal in a facility licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or by DOE in a nonlicensed facility, is appropriate. Input from EG&G Idaho, Inc., and DOE Idaho Operations Office legal departments concerning the disposal requirements of this waste were the basis for the decision process used in this report.

  11. Test for the statistical significance of differences between ROC curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Kronman, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    A test for the statistical significance of observed differences between two measured Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves has been designed and evaluated. The set of observer response data for each ROC curve is assumed to be independent and to arise from a ROC curve having a form which, in the absence of statistical fluctuations in the response data, graphs as a straight line on double normal-deviate axes. To test the significance of an apparent difference between two measured ROC curves, maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters of each curve and the associated parameter variances and covariance are calculated from the corresponding set of observer response data. An approximate Chi-square statistic with two degrees of freedom is then constructed from the differences between the parameters estimated for each ROC curve and from the variances and covariances of these estimates. This statistic is known to be truly Chi-square distributed only in the limit of large numbers of trials in the observer performance experiments. Performance of the statistic for data arising from a limited number of experimental trials was evaluated. Independent sets of rating scale data arising from the same underlying ROC curve were paired, and the fraction of differences found (falsely) significant was compared to the significance level, α, used with the test. Although test performance was found to be somewhat dependent on both the number of trials in the data and the position of the underlying ROC curve in the ROC space, the results for various significance levels showed the test to be reliable under practical experimental conditions

  12. IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY DENGAN METODE LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT (LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miftakul Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Security in delivering a secret message is an important factor in the spread of information in cyberspace. Protecting that message to be delivered to the party entitled to, should be made a message concealment mechanism. The purpose of this study was to hide a secret text message into digital images in true color 24 bit RGB format. The method used to insert a secret message using the LSB (Least Significant Bit by replacing the last bit or 8th bit in each RGB color component. RGB image file types option considering that messages can be inserted capacity greater than if use a grayscale image, this is because in one pixel can be inserted 3 bits message. Tests provide results that are hidden messages into a digital image does not reduce significantly the quality of the digital image, and the message has been hidden can be extracted again, so that messages can be delivered to the recipient safely.

  13. Greater physician involvement improves coding outcomes in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Medford, Andrew R L

    2013-01-01

    Correct coding is essential for accurate reimbursement for clinical activity. Published data confirm that significant aberrations in coding occur, leading to considerable financial inaccuracies especially in interventional procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Previous data reported a 15% coding error for EBUS-TBNA in a U.K. service. We hypothesised that greater physician involvement with coders would reduce EBUS-TBNA coding errors and financial disparity. The study was done as a prospective cohort study in the tertiary EBUS-TBNA service in Bristol. 165 consecutive patients between October 2009 and March 2012 underwent EBUS-TBNA for evaluation of unexplained mediastinal adenopathy on computed tomography. The chief coder was prospectively electronically informed of all procedures and cross-checked on a prospective database and by Trust Informatics. Cost and coding analysis was performed using the 2010-2011 tariffs. All 165 procedures (100%) were coded correctly as verified by Trust Informatics. This compares favourably with the 14.4% coding inaccuracy rate for EBUS-TBNA in a previous U.K. prospective cohort study [odds ratio 201.1 (1.1-357.5), p = 0.006]. Projected income loss was GBP 40,000 per year in the previous study, compared to a GBP 492,195 income here with no coding-attributable loss in revenue. Greater physician engagement with coders prevents coding errors and financial losses which can be significant especially in interventional specialties. The intervention can be as cheap, quick and simple as a prospective email to the coding team with cross-checks by Trust Informatics and against a procedural database. We suggest that all specialties should engage more with their coders using such a simple intervention to prevent revenue losses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochdansky, A.B.; Clouse, M.A.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000?m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500?m

  15. Serum lutein response is greater from free lutein than from esterified lutein during 4 weeks of supplementation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, Edward P; Norkus, Katherine L; Dharmarajan, T S; Schierle, Joseph; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Current data suggest great variability in serum response following lutein ingestion from various sources. To compare the relative serum response during supplementation with free lutein (fL) and lutein esters (Le). 72 volunteers (23-52 years; body mass index [BMI] >20 and lutein lutein or 27 mg of lutein ester (equivalent to 13.5 mg free lutein), respectively. Fasting blood was obtained at baseline and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of supplementation. Supplements were consumed with standard portions of dry, ready-to-eat cereal and 2% cow's milk. Absolute changes in serum lutein, per mg daily dose, were significantly greater in fL vs. Le after 21 days (p  =  0.0012) and remained so after 28 days (p  =  0.0011) of supplementation. Serum lutein Area Under the Curve [AUC((day 0-28))] response was 17% greater for fL vs. Le (p  =  0.0187). Regression models were used and determined that (1) baseline serum lutein levels and (2) the form of lutein ingested (fL > Le) influence the serum lutein response during supplementation, while subject age, gender, BMI, and serum lipids do not affect serum response. These results suggest that the relative serum lutein response will be significantly greater from supplements containing free lutein than from supplements containing lutein esters. These findings should be useful for future clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of lutein supplementation in the prevention of or protection against age-related macular degeneration and/or cataracts.

  16. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: charlottedai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  17. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  18. Room Airflows with Low Reynolds Number Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Davidson, Lars

    The behaviour of room airflows under fully turbulent conditions is well known both in terms of experiments and, numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For room airflows where turbulence is not fully developed though, i.e. flows at low Reynolds numbers, the existing knowledge...... is limited. It has been the objective to investigate the behaviour of a plane isothermal wall jet in a full-scale ventilated room at low Reynolds numbers, i.e. when the flow is not fully turbulent. The results are significantly different from known theory for fully turbulent flows. It was found that the jet...... constants are a strong function of the Reynolds number up to a level of Reh≈500....

  19. The effect of growth conditions on the seed size/number trade-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Paul-Victor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available If the amount of resources allocated to reproduction (K is fixed, then an increase in seed mass (S can only be achieved by a decrease in seed number (n = K/S. Thus, log(n = log(K-log(S producing a slope of -1 when seed mass and number are plotted on log-log axes. However, in comparative studies, empirical support for a slope of -1 is limited and contentious, leading some to question the utility of this concept.First, we show that the expected slope depends on whether genotypes and species producing seeds of different mass are expected to reach the same adult size and that this in turn depends partly on the nature of growth. Second, we present experimental results using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs of Arabidopsis thaliana. When these RILs are grown in large pots with plentiful nutrients, they exhibit a trade-off between seed size and number with a slope of -1.68 (+/-0.18 on log-log axes. This occurs because of genetic correlations between seed mass and adult size so that, under the right growth conditions, lines producing lighter seeds have the genetic potential to produce larger rosettes and hence a greater total mass of seeds. We re-grew lines in small pots (10 and 40 mm diameter in a nutrient-poor substrate so that final adult size was heavily restricted by pot size.Under our growth conditions, small-seeded lines were unable to produce a greater total mass of seeds. Hence a trade-off emerged between seed mass and seed number with a slope of -1.166+/-0.319 on log-log axes in 40-mm diameter pots (close to the expected value of -1, although the slope was 0.132+/-0.263 in 10-mm diameter pots, demonstrating that the nature of the trade-off is sensitive to the growth conditions.

  20. Quantify Your Self! Numbers in Ambiguous Borderlands of Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka; Grøn, Lone

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the widespread use of numbers in health education programs and provides a reflection on the interplay of the medical and moral significance of numbers. Furthermore, the paper points out how patient schools are captured in a borderland space where moral and medical rationalities...... merge, clash, and collide. Empirical examples from an ethnographic study of six patient schools illustrate different practices where educators and participants reflect and act upon numbers in different ways....

  1. Experimental study on the Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study for Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent mixing between fuel-bundle subchannels, was performed. The measurements were done on a triangular array bundle with a 1.20 pitch to diameter relation and 10 mm rod diameter, in a low-pressure water loop, at Reynolds numbers between 1.4 x 10 3 and 1.3 x 10 5 . The high accuracy of the results was obtained by improving a thermal tracing technique recently developed. The Reynolds exponent on the mixing rate correlation was obtained with two-digit accuracy for Reynolds numbers greater than 3 x 10 3 . It was also found a marked increase in the mixing rate for lower Reynolds numbers. The weak theoretical base of the accepted Reynolds dependence was pointed out in light of the later findings, as well as its ambiguous supporting experimental data. The present results also provide indirect information about dominant large scale flow pulsations at different flow regimes

  2. Experimental study of pitching and plunging airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Yeon Sik; Bernal, Luis P. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Measurements of the unsteady flow structure and force time history of pitching and plunging SD7003 and flat plate airfoils at low Reynolds numbers are presented. The airfoils were pitched and plunged in the effective angle of attack range of 2.4 -13.6 (shallow-stall kinematics) and -6 to 22 (deep-stall kinematics). The shallow-stall kinematics results for the SD7003 airfoil show attached flow and laminar-to-turbulent transition at low effective angle of attack during the down stroke motion, while the flat plate model exhibits leading edge separation. Strong Re-number effects were found for the SD7003 airfoil which produced approximately 25 % increase in the peak lift coefficient at Re = 10,000 compared to higher Re flows. The flat plate airfoil showed reduced Re effects due to leading edge separation at the sharper leading edge, and the measured peak lift coefficient was higher than that predicted by unsteady potential flow theory. The deep-stall kinematics resulted in leading edge separation that led to formation of a large leading edge vortex (LEV) and a small trailing edge vortex (TEV) for both airfoils. The measured peak lift coefficient was significantly higher ({proportional_to}50 %) than that for the shallow-stall kinematics. The effect of airfoil shape on lift force was greater than the Re effect. Turbulence statistics were measured as a function of phase using ensemble averages. The results show anisotropic turbulence for the LEV and isotropic turbulence for the TEV. Comparison of unsteady potential flow theory with the experimental data showed better agreement by using the quasi-steady approximation, or setting C(k) = 1 in Theodorsen theory, for leading edge-separated flows. (orig.)

  3. MRI and US of gluteal tendinopathy in greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Andrew; Van der Vliet, Andrew [Regional Imaging Border, Albury, NSW (Australia); Zadow, Steven [Dr Jones and Partners Medical Imaging, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is commonly due to gluteus minimus or medius injury rather than trochanteric bursitis. Gluteal tendinopathy most frequently occurs in late-middle aged females. In this pictorial review the pertinent MRI and US anatomy of the gluteal tendon insertions on the greater trochanter and the adjacent bursae are reviewed. The direct (peritendinitis, tendinosis, partial and complete tear) and indirect (bursal fluid, bony changes and fatty atrophy) MRI signs of gluteal tendon injury are illustrated. The key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Reconstructing the paleogeography and subduction geodynamics of Greater India: how to apply Ockham's Razor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Li, S.; Lippert, P. C.; Huang, W.; Advokaat, E. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Key in understanding the geodynamics governing subduction and orogeny is reconstructing the paleogeography of `Greater India', the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted since Tibetan Himalayan continental crustal collision with Asia. Here, we discuss how the principle of Ockham's Razor, favoring the simplest scenario as the most likely, may apply to three perspectives on Greater India's paleogeography. We follow recent constraints suggesting a 58 Ma initial collision and update the kinematic restoration of intra-Asian shortening with a recently proposed Indochina extrusion model that reconciles long-debated large and small estimates of Indochina extrusion. The reconstruction is tested against Tibetan paleomagnetic rotation data, and against seismic tomographic constraints on paleo-subduction zone locations. The resulting restoration shows 1000-1200 km of post-collisional intra-Asian shortening, leaving a 2600-3400 km wide Greater India. Ockham's Razor from a paleogeographic, sediment provenance perspective would prefer a fully continental Greater India, although these sediments may also source from the Paleocene-Eocene west Indian orogen unrelated to the India-Asia collision. Ockham's Razor applied from a kinematic, paleomagnetic perspective, prefers major Cretaceous extension and `Greater India Basin' opening within Greater India, but data uncertainty may speculatively allow for minimal extension. Finally, from a geodynamic perspective, assuming a fully continental Greater India would require that the highest subduction rates recorded in the Phanerozoic would have been driven by a subduction of a lithosphere-crust assemblage more buoyant than the mantle, which seems physically improbable. Ockhams Razor thereby isolates the Greater India Basin hypothesis as the only scenario sustainable from all perspectives. Finally, we infer that the old pre-collisional lithosphere rapidly entered the lower mantle sustaining high subduction rates, whilst post

  5. Foreign Food Technology of Military Significance. Volume 5, Number 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-18

    Japanese diet may make in lowering serum cholesterol levels. Seaweeds are used extensively in traditional Japanese cuisine . They are used, for instance...Western packaging materials, equipment, and equipment design allows Chinese firms to complete in the world market. French Retort Pouch Entree Introduced...The French food company, Flodor, located at 202 Bureaux de la Colline, 9221313 Saint-Cloud, France, has introduced a potato dish in a retort pouch. The

  6. Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers with Stirling-Carlitz numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Hajime; Komatsu, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the Cauchy-Carlitz number was defined as the counterpart of the Bernoulli-Carlitz number. Both numbers can be expressed explicitly in terms of so-called Stirling-Carlitz numbers. In this paper, we study the second analogue of Stirling-Carlitz numbers and give some general formulae, including Bernoulli and Cauchy numbers in formal power series with complex coefficients, and Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers in function fields. We also give some applications of Hasse-Teichm...

  7. Neural activation patterns and connectivity in visual attention during Number and Non-number processing: An ERP study using the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marri, Faraj; Reza, Faruque; Begum, Tahamina; Hitam, Wan Hazabbah Wan; Jin, Goh Khean; Xiang, Jing

    2017-10-25

    Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing. However, there is a lack of study of visual cognitive function assessment using these pseudoisochromatic plates. We recruited 25 healthy normal trichromat volunteers and extended these studies using a 128-sensor net to record event-related EEG. Subjects were asked to respond by pressing Numbered buttons when they saw the Number and Non-number plates of the Ishihara colour vision test. Amplitudes and latencies of N100 and P300 event related potential (ERP) components were analysed from 19 electrode sites in the international 10-20 system. A brain topographic map, cortical activation patterns and Granger causation (effective connectivity) were analysed from 128 electrode sites. No major significant differences between N100 ERP components in either stimulus indicate early selective attention processing was similar for Number and Non-number plate stimuli, but Non-number plate stimuli evoked significantly higher amplitudes, longer latencies of the P300 ERP component with a slower reaction time compared to Number plate stimuli imply the allocation of attentional load was more in Non-number plate processing. A different pattern of asymmetric scalp voltage map was noticed for P300 components with a higher intensity in the left hemisphere for Number plate tasks and higher intensity in the right hemisphere for Non-number plate tasks. Asymmetric cortical activation

  8. The Challenges Faced by Informal Traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Legodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal trade has grown at an alarming rate in South Africa because of lack of employment opportunities in both the private and public sectors. This has resulted in many unemployed members of the population joining the informal business sector. The majority of people in this sector do not have skills that are needed in the formal employment sector, others are semi-literate and a small percentage has some level of qualification. Nevertheless, this sector is plagued by a number of challenges which this article presents.  The article reports on the study that was conducted at Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province. The aim of the study was to investigate the challenges that were faced by informal traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province in South Africa. The area was chosen because of its accessibility to the researchers and its potential to provide relevant and accurate information for the research project. Thus, a qualitative research method was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal traders in the area ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity. Furthermore, other challenges concerned safety and health issues that were also gender based. Most of the traders in the area were women; an element which attest to the fact that it is difficult to find employment in the country when one is less educated and is also a woman.

  9. Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C

    2007-01-01

    Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters

  10. Air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris: exploring sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Canal, D J; Chardon, B; Lefranc, A; Gremy, I

    2005-01-01

    The subject of sex and gender differences is relevant to the study of health effects of environmental exposures. In this study the authors aim at assessing the differences that may exist between males and females regarding short-term air pollution health effects. They studied the short-term relationships between air pollution levels and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris area for patients older than 15 years between 2000 and 2003. They also conducted time series analyses by using generalized additive models. For an increase of 10 microg/m3 in the air pollutant levels, the increase in relative risk of hospitalization was higher for males than for females and was significant only for males. These differences may not result solely from differences in biological susceptibility to air pollution because other factors related to gender (differences in individual exposures, in health care management, and so on) may play a role.

  11. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  12. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  13. An alternative clinical approach to achieve greater anterior than posterior maxillary expansion in cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; Bartolomeo, Flávia Uchôa Costa; Cardinal, Lucas; Figueiredo, Daniel Santos Fonseca; Palomo, Juan Martin; Andrade, Ildeu

    2014-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients commonly present maxillary constriction, particularly in the anterior region. The aim of this case report was to describe an alternative clinical approach that used a smaller Hyrax screw unconventionally positioned to achieve greater anterior than posterior expansion in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. The idea presented here is to take advantage of a reduced dimension screw to position it anteriorly. When only anterior expansion was needed (patient 1), the appliance was soldered to the first premolar bands and associated to a transpalatal arch cemented to the first molars. However, when overall expansion was required (patient 2), the screw was positioned anteriorly, but soldered to the first molar bands. Intercanine, premolar, and first molar widths were measured on dental casts with a digital caliper. Pre-expansion and postexpansion radiographs and tomographies were also evaluated. A significant anterior expansion and no intermolar width increase were registered in the first patient. Although patient 2 also presented a greater anterior than posterior expansion, a noteworthy expansion occurred at the molar region. The alternative approach to expand the maxilla in cleft patients reported here caused greater anterior than posterior expansion when the Mini-Hyrax was associated to a transpalatal arch, and its reduced dimension also minimized discomfort and facilitated hygiene.

  14. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  15. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  16. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paasonen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response

  17. The Influence of Higher Protein Intake and Greater Eating Frequency on Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J.; Armstrong, Cheryl L.H.; Tang, Minghua; Mattes, Richard D.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dietary protein intake and eating frequency on perceived appetite, satiety, and hormonal responses in overweight/obese men. Thirteen men (age 51 ± 4 years; BMI 31.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2) consumed eucaloric diets containing normal protein (79 ± 2 g protein/day; 14% of energy intake as protein) or higher protein (138 ± 3 g protein/day; 25% of energy intake as protein) equally divided among three eating occasions (3-EO; every 4 h) or six eating occasions (6-EO; every 2 h) on four separate days in randomized order. Hunger, fullness, plasma glucose, and hormonal responses were assessed throughout 11 h. No protein × eating frequency interactions were observed for any of the outcomes. Independent of eating frequency, higher protein led to greater daily fullness (P < 0.05) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations (P < 0.05). In contrast, higher protein led to greater daily ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.05) vs. normal protein. Protein quantity did not influence daily hunger, glucose, or insulin concentrations. Independent of dietary protein, 6-EO led to lower daily fullness (P < 0.05) and PYY concentrations (P < 0.05). The 6-EO also led to lower glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin concentrations (P < 0.05) vs. 3-EO. Although the hunger-related perceived sensations and hormonal responses were conflicting, the fullness-related responses were consistently greater with higher protein intake but lower with increased eating frequency. Collectively, these data suggest that higher protein intake promotes satiety and challenge the concept that increasing the number of eating occasions enhances satiety in overweight and obese men. PMID:20339363

  18. Number of patients needed to discriminate between subgroups in patient reported outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    analysis of variance. The hypothetical number of subjects needed to find the significant difference in PRO mean value between groups (assuming a significance level of 5 % and a power of 85 % to detect differences between the actual groups in our current study) was estimated for each PRO subscales...... with sample size calculations or by power calculations and simulated ANOVA F tests, depending on the number of groups. Results: To discriminate between gender, the least number needed to find a statistically significant difference in mean sum score in each group was 298 (OHS) while HOOS QoL required the most...... number of subjects (760 in each group). PCS had the least number needed in relation to diagnoses (51 patients per group needed), while HOOS Pain required the most (116 patients per group needed). Concerning age, the least number needed was 270 (EQ-VAS), and OHS required the most (1566 in each group...

  19. Earth's magnetic field as a radiator to detect cosmic ray electrons of energy greater than 10 to the 12th power eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1983-01-01

    The synchrotron emission by electrons of energy greater than a few TeV in Earth's magnetic field was examined. An omnidirectional detector, it is shown, can be satisfactorily used to estimate the energy. The collecting power of the detector, it is also shown, is a sensitive function of the area of the detector, the energy of electron, and the number of photons required to identify an electron. The event rate expected was calculated using an ideal balloon-borne detector.

  20. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  1. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS OF AUTOMATION IN ASSET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Britton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the implications of applying automation, a technological force in which computer systems can fulfill human tasks, into the asset management industry. The investigation explores a number of significant topics in which managers should begin contemplating, including workforce origination post automation, the primary skills necessary to facilitate augmentation, and how robo advisors could challenge an organization’s value proposition. The investigation was centered on Jupiter Asset Management (JAM to support their preparations for automation, as well as to provide insight from the ‘grass roots’. Research centered on interviews with experienced individuals within automative and asset management. The findings identify that current entry level occupations with systematic, repetitive tasks in a fixed domain, will be automated. Placing a greater demand for analytical abilities in junior recruits as the cognitive understanding of what data represents is a weakness of artificial intelligence (AI thus strengthening augmentation between employees and technology. Automated investment profilers known as robo advisors will challenge the value proposition of organizations, such as JAM, which in time will need to be onboard with the technology to remain competitive within a growing millennial market. The paper concludes that there is an evident need for asset management firms to design training processes that blend enhanced senior level shadowing, with programmes focused on broadening juniors’ abilities to interpret and apply AI generated data through a series of newly identified skills.

  2. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    agreement between modelled and observed concentrations. Unlike many other water quality models, GREAT-ER is relatively simple to setup and use. This provides value for catchment managers, and for chemical end-users and manufacturers alike. As of yet, GREAT-ER has not been used in Chinese catchments, but there is much potential. Our study involves the creation and validation of a model for the Dongjiang catchment, South China. The Dongjiang catchment is a highly populated area, draining into Guangzhou and the Pearl River delta. The catchment area is 25,325 km2 (above Boluo gauging station), of which approximately 90% resides in Guangdong Province. The downstream section of the catchment is densely populated, whilst upstream there is a more significant rural population. This study focuses upon chemical ingredients found in personal care products and pharmaceuticals and the potential risk they may impose upon the catchment. The relative impact of rural discharges has also been examined along with the potential effect of a range of future wastewater upgrade scenarios. The model has been validated with measurement data collected over a number of sampling campaigns. We believe that this study provides insights into the challenges faced by China as it drives to improve water quality.

  3. Clinical evaluation of radiation oncology greater area database (ROGAD). From 1992 to 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari; Umeda, Tokuo

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy clinical records of 8,950 cases were collected from 251 hospitals in the period from 1992 to 1998 by the activity of Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database ROGAD under the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology JASTRO, and their data were analyzed. Outlines of analysis are presented in this paper and other 5 papers in series. Also follow-up data of 814 cases by the 4th follow-up survey study carried out in 1998 were retrieved and examined. Case distribution survey according to ICD-O code for primary tumor region were worked out. Chronological change of case distribution during these seven years were examined and briefly stated in this paper. Case analyses in terms of 5 portions of topographical region were also done, and 5 papers together with this paper describe the results of the analyses. Data analysis comparison between ROGAD and the regular census revealed that the resulted analyses of collected clinical data by ROGAD from 1992 to 1998 indicated the real world of radiation therapy situation in Japan. One of the reason to state this is that ROGAD covers 34.7% of number of facilities and 36.1% of number of cases treated in Japan. The another reason is that we could reduce the rate of mis-registration and items of blanked registration by means of improvement of registration software with logical check. We made sure from our effort of this ROGAD activity for these 7 years experiences that continuation of the run of this database ROGAD would bring us much more accurate information on the radiation oncology situation in Japan. (author)

  4. Nonoxidative free fatty acid disposal is greater in young women than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsari, Christina; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Khosla, Sundeep; Jensen, Michael D

    2011-02-01

    Large increases in systemic free fatty acid (FFA) availability in the absence of a corresponding increase in fatty acid oxidation can create a host of metabolic abnormalities. These adverse responses are thought to be the result of fatty acids being shunted into hepatic very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride production and/or intracellular lipid storage and signaling pathways because tissues are forced to increase nonoxidative FFA disposal. The objective of the study was to examine whether variations in postabsorptive nonoxidative FFA disposal within the usual range predict insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. We measured: systemic FFA turnover using a continuous iv infusion of [9-10, (3)H]palmitate; substrate oxidation with indirect calorimetry combined with urinary nitrogen excretion; whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity with the labeled iv glucose tolerance test minimal model. the study was conducted at the Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center. Participants included healthy, postabsorptive, nonobese adults (21 women and 21 men). There were no interventions. Nonoxidative FFA disposal (micromoles per minute), defined as the FFA disappearance rate minus fatty acid oxidation. Women had 64% greater nonoxidative FFA disposal rate than men but a better lipid profile and similar insulin sensitivity. There was no significant correlation between nonoxidative FFA disposal and whole-body sensitivity, peripheral insulin sensitivity, or fasting serum triglyceride concentrations in men or women. Healthy nonobese women have greater rates of nonoxidative FFA disposal than men, but this does not appear to relate to adverse health consequences. Understanding the sex-specific interaction between adipose tissue lipolysis and peripheral FFA removal will help to discover new approaches to treat FFA-induced abnormalities.

  5. Modified Mason number for charged paramagnetic colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Di; Hilou, Elaa; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of magnetorheological fluids have typically been described by the Mason number, a governing parameter defined as the ratio between viscous and magnetic forces in the fluid. For most experimental suspensions of magnetic particles, surface forces, such as steric and electrostatic interactions, can significantly influence the dynamics. Here we propose a theory of a modified Mason number that accounts for surface forces and show that this modified Mason number is a function of interparticle distance. We demonstrate that this modified Mason number is accurate in describing the dynamics of a rotating pair of paramagnetic colloids of identical or mismatched sizes in either high or low salt solutions. The modified Mason number is confirmed to be pseudoconstant for particle pairs and particle chains undergoing a stable-metastable transition during rotation. The interparticle distance term can be calculated using theory or can be measured experimentally. This modified Mason number is more applicable to magnetorheological systems where surface forces are not negligible.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  7. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  8. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  9. Self-Organization, Urban Transformation, and Spatial Planning in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovi Dzulhijjah Rahmawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi peran sistem perencanaan tata ruang dalam menghadapi proses perorganisasian diri, sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh transformasi perkotaan yang kompleks di wilayah Jakarta. Wilayah Jakarta adalah salah satu wilayah megapolitan di Asia Tenggara yang mengalami proses transformasi yang cepat. Sangat disayangkan bahwa sistem perencanaan tata ruang yang ada sekarang di wilayah Jakarta belum mampu merespon transformasi kota secara non-linier. Kekurangan ini terbukti dari ketidaksinkronan antara dokumen-dokumen perencanaan tata ruang dan perubahan tata guna lahan perkotaan yang diperkuat dengan proses pengorganisasian diri. Perbedaan antara situasi empiris dan dokumen-dokumen perencanaan tata ruang yang ada telah menghasilkan ketidakcocokan antara sistem perencanaan tata ruang dengan sistem tata ruang di wilayah Jakarta. Ketidakcocokan ini terjadi karena sistem perencanaan tata ruang saat ini tidak mempertimbangkan ketidakpastian di masa depan. Situasi ini mengindikasikan adanya ‘fuzziness’ dalam implementasi sistem dan proses perencanaan tata ruang, sementara transformasi perkotaan telah berkembang sedemikian kompleksnya dan membutuhkan respon yang cepat dan tepat. Untuk dapat merespon ketidakcocokan ini, sistem perencanaan tata ruang di wilayah Jakarta harus lebih memperhatikan sistem perkotaan yang berkembang dalam proses yang tidak linear.Kata kunci. Pengorganisasian diri, transformasi perkotaan, ketidaklinieran, sistem perencanaan, Megapolitan Jakarta. This study aimed to identify the role of spatial planning in facing self-organizing processes as evidenced by a complex urban transformation in Greater Jakarta. Greater Jakarta is one of the mega urban-regions in Southeast Asia that are undergoing a rapid urban transformation process. This urban transformation has been developing through a non-linear transition. Unfortunately, the current spatial planning system in Greater Jakarta is not yet adequately

  10. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  11. Significance of flow clustering and sequencing on sediment transport: 1D sediment transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather

    2016-04-01

    . Results illustrate that clustered flood events generated sediment loads up to an order of magnitude greater than that of individual events of the same flood volume. Correlations were significant for sediment volume compared to both maximum flow discharge (R2<0.8) and number of events (R2 -0.5 to -0.7) within the cluster. The strongest correlations occurred for clusters with a greater number of flow events only slightly above-threshold. This illustrates that the numerical model can capture a degree of the non-linear morphological response to flow magnitude. Analysis of the relationship between morphological change and the skewness of flow events within each cluster was also determined, illustrating only minor sensitivity to cluster peak distribution skewness. This is surprising and discussion is presented on model limitations, including the capability of sediment transport formulae to effectively account for temporal processes of antecedent flow, hysteresis, local supply etc.

  12. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  13. Environmental characteristics of shallow bottoms used by Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in a northern Adriatic lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarton Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus flocks have been observed regularly when feeding in the large extensions of shallow bottoms in the Lagoon of Venice (NE Italy, the largest lagoon along the Mediterranean. Nowadays thousands of flamingos are present throughout the year. Between 2013 and 2017 I collected data on the environmental features of the shallow bottoms used by feeding flocks, along with measurements of flight initiation distance (FID of Greater Flamingo in response to the approach of boats and pedestrians. Shallow bottoms were shown to be used when covered with approximately 10 to 60 cm of water. All the feeding sites were in open landscapes, with low occurrence of saltmarshes in a radius of 500 m. The bottoms were barely covered with seagrasses (<4% of the surface around the survey points and were mostly silty. Feeding flocks were on average 1.2 km far from the nearest road or dyke, while the mean distance from channels that could be used by boats was about 420 m. The mean FID caused by boats or pedestrians was 241 m ± 117 m (N = 31, ± 1 SD without significant differences between those for the two disturbance sources. The use of shallow bottoms by the Greater Flamingo appears governed primarily by the tidal cycle, but boat disturbance probably modifies this effect. According to FID values, a set-back distance of 465 m is suggested to reduce the disturbance caused by boats and pedestrians to the flamingo feeding flocks.

  14. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  15. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  16. A Numbers Game: Ribosome Densities, Bacterial Growth, and Antibiotic-Mediated Stasis and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Levin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective ribosomes. We tested this hypothesis with Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and constructs that had been deleted for 1 to 6 of the 7 rRNA (rrn operons. In the absence of antibiotics, constructs with fewer rrn operons have lower maximum growth rates and longer lag phases than those with more ribosomal operons. In the presence of the ribosome-binding “bacteriostatic” antibiotics tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin, E. coli strains with 1 and 2 rrn operons are killed at a substantially higher rate than those with more rrn operons. This increase in the susceptibility of E. coli with fewer rrn operons to killing by ribosome-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics is not reflected in their greater sensitivity to killing by the bactericidal antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which does not target ribosomes, but also to killing by gentamicin, which does. Finally, when such strains are exposed to these ribosome-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE, is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures.

  17. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  18. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  19. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics and Wing Pressure Distributions of a Blended-Wing-Body Configuration at Low and High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Force balance and wing pressure data were obtained on a 0.017-Scale Model of a blended-wing-body configuration (without a simulated propulsion system installation) to validate the capability of computational fluid dynamic codes to predict the performance of such thick sectioned subsonic transport configurations. The tests were conducted in the National Transonic Facility of the Langley Research Center at Reynolds numbers from 3.5 to 25.0 million at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.86. Data were obtained in the pitch plane only at angles of attack from -1 to 8 deg at Mach numbers greater than 0.25. A configuration with winglets was tested at a Reynolds number of 25.0 million at Mach numbers from 0.83 to 0.86.

  1. Rational-number comparison across notation: Fractions, decimals, and whole numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e.g., fractions vs. fractions) and across different notations (e.g., fractions vs. decimals), pointing to an integrated mental continuum for rational numbers across notation types. In addition, eye-tracking analyses provided evidence of an implicit whole-number bias when we compared values in fraction notation, and individual differences in this whole-number bias were related to the individual's performance on a fraction arithmetic task. Implications of our results for both cognitive development research and math education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Hierarchical population structure in greater sage-grouse provides insight into management boundary delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd B. Cross; David E. Naugle; John C. Carlson; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population structure is important for guiding ongoing conservation and restoration efforts. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a species of concern distributed across 1.2 million km2 of western North America. We genotyped 1499 greater sagegrouse from 297 leks across Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota using a 15 locus...

  3. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  4. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  5. Contraception knowledge and attitudes: truths and myths among African Australian teenage mothers in Greater Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie C; Liamputtong, Pranee; Carolan, Mary

    2014-08-01

    To discuss the contraception knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of African Australian teenagers and women with a refugee background in Melbourne. The numbers of African Australian persons continue to increase, with a significant proportion being refugee women and children. Attitudes and behaviours towards contraception in this group continue to be influenced by culture, family and beliefs. This study is based on qualitative research that was underpinned by intersectionality theory, cultural competency and phenomenology. Sixteen teenagers and women who had experienced teenage pregnancy in Greater Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with the sixteen African Australian teenagers and women. Following data collection, data were transcribed verbatim, and coded, and key themes identified and analysed using thematic analysis. Knowledge of contraception among this group of migrants was low and filled with myths. Attitudes towards contraception use were insufficient and influenced by beliefs and external factors such as partner, family and community attitudes towards contraception. Migration status and other instabilities in the lives of these participants all intersected to shape their health beliefs and contraception decision-making. Refugee teenage mothers' knowledge of contraception was low and their attitude towards contraceptive use was poor. Myths and external factors continued to influence teenagers' and women's attitudes towards contraceptives. The events and life experiences of African Australian teenagers/women, culture, and family and community influences should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services and sexual health education to this migrant group. Service providers should consider the multiple intersections in the lives of these women when delivering healthcare services and information to them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on puberty progression, reproductive function and testicular cell numbers in marmoset monkeys in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karen A L; Walker, Marion; Morris, Keith; Greig, Irene; Mason, J Ian; Sharpe, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    This marmoset study addresses concerns about feeding human male infants with soy formula milk (SFM). From age 4 to 5 days, seven male co-twin sets were fed standard formula milk (SMA) or SFM for 5-6 weeks; blood samples were subsequently collected at 10-week intervals. Testes from co-twins killed at 120-138 weeks were fixed for cell counts. SFM- and SMA-fed twins showed normal weight gain; puberty started and progressed normally, based on blood testosterone measurements. Body weight, organ weights (prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, thymus and spleen) and penis length were comparable in co-twins. All SMA- and 6/7 SFM-fed males were fertile. Unexpectedly, testis weight (P = 0.041), Sertoli (P = 0.025) and Leydig cell (P = 0.026) numbers per testis were consistently increased in SFM-fed co-twins; the increase in Leydig cell numbers was most marked in males with consistently low-normal testosterone levels. Seminiferous epithelium volume per tubule showed a less consistent, non-significant increase in SFM-fed males; raised germ cell numbers per testis, probably due to increased Sertoli cells, conceivably resulted in larger testes. Average lumen size, although greater in SFM-fed group, was inconsistent between co-twins and the difference was not significant. Infant feeding with SFM has no gross adverse reproductive effects in male marmosets, though it alters testis size and cell composition, and there is consistent, if indirect, evidence for possible 'compensated Leydig cell failure'. Similar and perhaps larger changes likely occur in adult men who were fed SFM as infants.

  7. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  8. Effects of the distribution of female primates on the number of males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Mariah Carnes

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal distribution of females is thought to drive variation in mating systems, and hence plays a central role in understanding animal behavior, ecology and evolution. Previous research has focused on investigating the links between female spatiotemporal distribution and the number of males in haplorhine primates. However, important questions remain concerning the importance of spatial cohesion, the generality of the pattern across haplorhine and strepsirrhine primates, and the consistency of previous findings given phylogenetic uncertainty. To address these issues, we examined how the spatiotemporal distribution of females influences the number of males in primate groups using an expanded comparative dataset and recent advances in bayesian phylogenetic and statistical methods. Specifically, we investigated the effect of female distributional factors (female number, spatial cohesion, estrous synchrony, breeding season duration and breeding seasonality on the number of males in primate groups. Using bayesian approaches to control for uncertainty in phylogeny and the model of trait evolution, we found that the number of females exerted a strong influence on the number of males in primate groups. In a multiple regression model that controlled for female number, we found support for temporal effects, particularly involving female estrous synchrony: the number of males increases when females are more synchronously receptive. Similarly, the number of males increases in species with shorter birth seasons, suggesting that greater breeding seasonality makes defense of females more difficult for male primates. When comparing primate suborders, we found only weak evidence for differences in traits between haplorhines and strepsirrhines, and including suborder in the statistical models did not affect our conclusions or give compelling evidence for different effects in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Collectively, these results demonstrate that

  9. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Jia 11, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Freeman Spogli Institute of International Studies, Stanford University, East Encina Hall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sombilla, Mercy A. [Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, College, Laguna 4031 (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  10. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang; Rozelle, Scott; Sombilla, Mercy A.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  11. Crime in relation to urban design. Case study: The Greater Cairo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Adel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a part of any social system and known to human communities since its origins. It differs from community to another, even within one community it doesn’t occur equally in all places and nor by the same way. It is also concentrated in some places more than others, sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, etc. Previous researches have proved that crime rate has significant correlation with different social factors: education levels, poverty rates and lack of social organization, while others have drawn the attention to its relation with the built environment. They proposed that crime occurs in places where both opportunities and criminals are available. The role of this paper is to identify urban circumstances related to crime occurrence within the Greater Cairo Region, and to propose different ways to reduce these crimes. Consecutively, agglomeration’s main districts were scrutinized according to social analysis, street-network pattern and land-use.

  12. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development.

  13. Numerical study about the effect of the low Reynolds number on the performance in an axial compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min Suk; Baek, Je Hyun; Chung, Hee Taeg; Oh, Seong Hwan; Ko, Han Young

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional computation was conducted to understand effects of the low Reynolds number on the performance in a low-speed axial compressor at the design condition. The low Reynolds number can originates from the change of the air density because it decreases along the altitude in the troposphere. The performance of the axial compressor such as the static pressure rise was diminished by the separation on the suction surface with full span and the boundary layer on the hub, which were caused by the low Reynolds number. The total pressure loss at the low Reynolds number was found to be greater than that at the reference Reynolds number at the region from the hub to 85% span. Total pressure loss was scrutinized through three major loss categories in a subsonic axial compressor such as the profile loss, the tip leakage loss and the endwall loss using Denton's loss model, and the effects of the low Reynolds number on the performance were analyzed in detail

  14. Numerical study about the effect of the low Reynolds number on the performance in an axial compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Suk; Baek, Je Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee Taeg [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong Hwan; Ko, Han Young [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    A three-dimensional computation was conducted to understand effects of the low Reynolds number on the performance in a low-speed axial compressor at the design condition. The low Reynolds number can originates from the change of the air density because it decreases along the altitude in the troposphere. The performance of the axial compressor such as the static pressure rise was diminished by the separation on the suction surface with full span and the boundary layer on the hub, which were caused by the low Reynolds number. The total pressure loss at the low Reynolds number was found to be greater than that at the reference Reynolds number at the region from the hub to 85% span. Total pressure loss was scrutinized through three major loss categories in a subsonic axial compressor such as the profile loss, the tip leakage loss and the endwall loss using Denton's loss model, and the effects of the low Reynolds number on the performance were analyzed in detail.

  15. Critical number of flavors in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors N f . This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling α beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in α to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of α and N f . Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (α,α c )↔(1/N f ,1/N f c ). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension γ m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the β function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (α,N f ) phase space which clearly depicts how larger N f is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  16. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  17. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  18. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin; Yu, Tong Gang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  19. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin [School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Medical Instrument College, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yu, Tong Gang [Dept. of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  20. Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  1. Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yoshihiro [Faculty of Education Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Takeda, Kofu (Japan)

    2011-10-31

    The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  2. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  3. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  4. [Three-dimensional gait analysis of patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head before and after treatments with vascularized greater trochanter bone flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daping; Zhao, Dewei

    2011-03-01

    To provide the objective basis for the evaluation of the operative results of vascularized greater trochanter bone flap in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) by three-dimensional gait analysis. Between March 2006 and March 2007, 35 patients with ONFH were treated with vascularized greater trochanter bone flap, and gait analysis was made by using three-dimensional gait analysis system before operation and at 1, 2 years after operation. There were 23 males and 12 females, aged 21-52 years (mean, 35.2 years), including 8 cases of steroid-induced, 7 cases of traumatic, 6 cases of alcoholic, and 14 cases of idiopathic ONFH. The left side was involved in 15 cases, and right side in 20 cases. According to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification, all patients were diagnosed as having femoral-head necrosis at stage III. Preoperative Harris hip functional score (HHS) was 56.2 +/- 5.6. The disease duration was 1.5-18.6 years (mean, 5.2 years). All incisions healed at stage I without early postoperative complications of deep vein thrombosis and infections of incision. Thirty-five patients were followed up 2-3 years with an average of 2.5 years. At 2 years after operation, the HHS score was 85.8 +/- 4.1, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative score (t = 23.200, P = 0.000). Before operation, patients showed a hip muscles gait, short gait, reduce pain gait, and the pathological gaits significantly improved at 1 year after operation. At 1 year and 2 years after operation, step frequency, pace, step length and hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, ankle flexion were significantly improved (P petronas wave appeared at swing phase; the preoperative situation was three normal phase waves. These results suggest that three-dimensional gait analysis before and after vascularized greater trochanter for ONFH can evaluate precisely hip vitodynamics variation.

  5. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  6. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  7. Duration in Poverty-Related Programs and Number of Child Maltreatment Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunil; Drake, Brett

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of a family's duration in poverty-related programs (i.e., Aid to Families with Dependent Children/Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and Medicaid) to the subject child's number of maltreatment reports while considering race and baseline neighborhood poverty. Children from a large Midwestern metropolitan area were followed through a linked cross-sector administrative database from birth to age 15. Generalized multilevel models were employed to account for the multilevel structure of the data (i.e., nesting of families within neighborhoods). The data showed a unique and significant contribution of duration in poverty-related programs to the number of maltreatment reports. The predicted number of maltreatment reports increased by between 2.5 and 3.7 times, as duration in poverty-related programs increased from 0 to 9 years. This relationship was consistent between Whites and non-Whites (over 98% Black), but non-Whites showed a significantly lower number of total maltreatment reports while controlling for duration in poverty-related programs. We were unable to find a significant association between child maltreatment reports and baseline neighborhood poverty.

  8. The influence of a change in medicare reimbursement on the effectiveness of stage III or greater decubitus ulcer home health nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Melody K

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to describe and evaluate the influence of a change in a Medicare reimbursement on the effectiveness of home health nursing care for stage III or greater decubitus ulcer patients. This health policy originated from the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and took its full effect with initiation of the Prospective Payment System (PPS) on October 1, 2000. A quantitative quasi-experimental design used OASIS data from the state of Virginia to evaluate 555 stage III or greater decubitus ulcer patients, age 65 or older. Comparisons were investigated between pre-PPS, 2000, and post-PPS, 2001, outcomes related to reported ulcer healing, lengths of stay, and discharge disposition. Results demonstrated significant differences for the outcomes studied. In addition, sanitation, ulcer healing, and discharge disposition were linked as predictors for length of stay. Results demonstrated that PPS has affected nursing care effectiveness for stage III or greater decubitus ulcer home health patients.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors cause premature rarefaction of the collateral circulation and greater ischemic tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Scott M; Zhang, Hua; Maeda, Nobuyo; Doerschuk, Claire M; Faber, James E

    2015-07-01

    Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies. We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention. Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction. Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.

  10. Betting on Life: Associations Between Significant Life Events and Gambling Trajectories Among Gamblers with the Intent to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2018-03-24

    Considerable evidence has suggested that problem gambling may be transitory and episodic, with gamblers routinely moving in and out of clinical thresholds. Findings in qualitative and quantitative studies have converged on identifying preliminary evidence for the role of life events as motivators and contributing factors for gambling changes over time. The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the relationship between life events, their respective experience as positive or negative, and gambling trajectories among problem gamblers intending to quit. Life event occurrence and ratings as positive or negative, and changes in gambling severity were analyzed over a 12-month period for 204 adult problem gamblers intending to reduce or quit their gambling. Overall, mixed effects models revealed several relationships between life events and both the magnitude and direction of gambling change over time. In particular, gamblers who experienced a greater number of positive events or specific events such as legal events, the adoption/loss of a child, or negative changes to their social relationships, finances, work environments or social/health activities were more likely to exhibit greater gambling reductions over time. Conversely, gamblers who experienced a greater number of negative events, such as family bereavement, the dissolution of a marriage, or negative changes to their residence exhibited smaller gambling reductions or increases in gambling severity. Possible mechanisms which may explain the findings and the importance of examining the subjective experience of life events are discussed. Recommendations for future studies examining associations between life events and gambling trajectories are provided.

  11. Sparse representation and Bayesian detection of genome copy number alterations from microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique-Regi, Roger; Monso-Varona, Jordi; Ortega, Antonio; Seeger, Robert C; Triche, Timothy J; Asgharzadeh, Shahab

    2008-02-01

    Genomic instability in cancer leads to abnormal genome copy number alterations (CNA) that are associated with the development and behavior of tumors. Advances in microarray technology have allowed for greater resolution in detection of DNA copy number changes (amplifications or deletions) across the genome. However, the increase in number of measured signals and accompanying noise from the array probes present a challenge in accurate and fast identification of breakpoints that define CNA. This article proposes a novel detection technique that exploits the use of piece wise constant (PWC) vectors to represent genome copy number and sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) to detect CNA breakpoints. First, a compact linear algebra representation for the genome copy number is developed from normalized probe intensities. Second, SBL is applied and optimized to infer locations where copy number changes occur. Third, a backward elimination (BE) procedure is used to rank the inferred breakpoints; and a cut-off point can be efficiently adjusted in this procedure to control for the false discovery rate (FDR). The performance of our algorithm is evaluated using simulated and real genome datasets and compared to other existing techniques. Our approach achieves the highest accuracy and lowest FDR while improving computational speed by several orders of magnitude. The proposed algorithm has been developed into a free standing software application (GADA, Genome Alteration Detection Algorithm). http://biron.usc.edu/~piquereg/GADA

  12. Recognition of sport players' numbers using fast-color segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleysen, Cédric; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a prior work for player detection, and proposes an efficient and effective method to distinguish among players based on the numbers printed on their jerseys. To extract the numbers, the dominant colors of the jersey are learnt during an initial phase and used to speed up the segmentation of the candidate digit regions. An additional set of criteria, considering the relative position and size (compared to the player bounding box) and the density (compared to the digit rectangular support) of the digit, are used to filter out the regions that obviously do not correspond to a digit. Once the plausible digit regions have been extracted, their recognition is based on feature-based classification. A number of original features are proposed to increase the robustness against digit appearance changes, resulting from the font thickness variability and from the deformations of the jersey during the game. Finally, the efficiency and the effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated on a real-life basketball dataset. It shows that the proposed segmentation runs about ten times faster than the mean-shift algorithm, but also outlines that the proposed additional features significantly increase the digit recognition accuracy. Despite significant deformations, 40% of the samples, that can be visually recognized as digits, are well classified as numbers. Out of these classified samples, more than 80% of them are correctly recognized. Besides, more than 95% of the samples, that are not numbers, are correctly identified as non-numbers.

  13. The crowded sea: incorporating multiple marine activities in conservation plans can significantly alter spatial priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Mazor

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes. We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b the change in opportunity cost and c the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and

  14. Rigorous Analysis of a Randomised Number Field Sieve

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonathan; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam

    2018-01-01

    Factorisation of integers $n$ is of number theoretic and cryptographic significance. The Number Field Sieve (NFS) introduced circa 1990, is still the state of the art algorithm, but no rigorous proof that it halts or generates relationships is known. We propose and analyse an explicitly randomised variant. For each $n$, we show that these randomised variants of the NFS and Coppersmith's multiple polynomial sieve find congruences of squares in expected times matching the best-known heuristic e...

  15. Numerical study of circular synthetic jets at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Lei, Shenghui; Ma, Jieyan; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter maps depicting different flow regimes of synthetic jets are produced. • Boundaries separating these regimes are defined using quantitative criteria. • The Reynolds number is most appropriate for classifying different flow regimes. • A use of high suction cycle factors enhances the effectiveness of synthetic jets. - Abstract: In this paper, the flow patterns of circular synthetic jets issuing into a quiescent flow at low Reynolds numbers are studied numerically. The results confirm the presence of the three jet flow regimes, i.e. no jet formation, jet flow without rollup and jet flow with rollup reported in the literature. The boundaries of the different jet flow regimes are determined by tracking the structures produced by the synthetic jets in the near field of the jet orifice over several actuation cycles and examining the cycle-averaged streamwise velocity profiles along the jet central axis. When the Stokes number is above a certain threshold value appropriate for the corresponding flow regime, a good correlation between the flow patterns and the jet Reynolds number defined using the jet orifice diameter, Re Do , is also found. Furthermore, the flow structures of synthetic jets with different suction duty cycle factors are compared. The use of a high suction duty cycle factor strengthens the synthetic jet resulting in a greater penetration depth into the surrounding fluid. Overall, the finding from this study enables the flow regimes, in which a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice operates, to be determined. It also provides a way of designing more effective synthetic jet actuators for enhancing mass and momentum transfer at very low Reynolds numbers

  16. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  17. Adrenal adenomas: relationship between histologic lipid-rich cells and CT attenuation number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Saito, Haruo; Matsuhashi, Toshio; Majima, Kazuhiro; Tsuda, Masashi; Takahashi, Shoki; Moriya, Takuya

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between lipid-rich cells of the adrenal adenoma and precontrast computed tomographic (CT) attenuation numbers in three clinical groups. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five surgically resected adrenal adenomas were used. The clinical diagnoses of the patients included 13 cases of primary aldosteronism, 15 cases of Cushing's syndrome, and 7 non-functioning tumors. The number of lipid-rich clear cells was counted using a microscopic eyepiece grid that contained 100 squares. The results were expressed as the percentages of lipid-rich areas. Results: There was a strong inverse linear relationship between the percentage of lipid-rich cells and the precontrast CT attenuation number (R 2 =0.724, P<0.0001). There were significantly more lipid-rich cells in the primary aldosteronism and non-functioning tumor cases compared to cases of Cushing's syndrome (P=0.007 and 0.015, respectively). The CT attenuation numbers of the primary aldosteronism cases were significantly lower than those of Cushing's syndrome (P=0.0052). Furthermore, the CT attenuation numbers of the non-functioning tumor cases were lower than those of Cushing's syndrome cases. Conclusion: We showed that adrenal adenomas in primary aldosteronism and non-functioning tumors contain significantly more lipid-rich cells than those in Cushing's syndrome. They also showed significantly lower attenuation than that in Cushing's syndrome on CT scans. Our results suggest that precontrast CT attenuation numbers may be helpful in the differentiation of adenomas from non-adenomatous lesions, which include malignancies

  18. Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Beatriz Lopes-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (nonsymbolic magnitude comparison performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.

  19. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  20. Approximation of complex algebraic numbers by algebraic numbers of bounded degree

    OpenAIRE

    Bugeaud, Yann; Evertse, Jan-Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic numbers of degree at most n. We also investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic integers of degree at most n+1. It follows from our investigations that for every positive integer n there are complex algebraic numbers of degree larger than n that are better approximable by algebraic numbers of degree at most n than almost all complex numbers. As it turns out, these numbers ar...

  1. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  2. "What shall I do? The more I kill the greater becomes their number!": the suppression of Anabaptism in early sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Kottelin-Longley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anabaptist movement was a ‘common man’s reform movement’ in Luther’s Europe. The Anabaptists wanted to reform the church according to New Testament guidelines more radically than either Luther or Zwingli were ready to do. For example, they baptised adults instead of infants, because they had observed that only adults were baptised in the Gospels, including the baptism of Jesus. In reformation Europe any adults baptised by these reformers would have already received baptism as infants. It was this practise of re-baptising members of the Catholic Church that gave them the name ‘Anabaptists’. ‘Re-baptism’ was a heresy deserving death, and to classify these radical reformers thus made them legally subject to execution. In this article the author first explains what she means by the ‘Anabaptist movement’. This includes an introduction to early Swiss Anabaptism and to the way in which it was speedily persecuted by the religious authorities. This persecution caused flight and that in turn caused the movement to spread. As the number of Anabaptists increased to thousands, so did the persecution by torture and death. Stories of some Anabaptist martyrs are recounted during the course of this article. The author also looks at the various justifications for the burning of heretics, as well as at the corresponding theological understanding by those who were burned.

  3. A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph H; Ward, Eric J; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (μ) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the μ and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (χ(2) goodness-of-fit test p value reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.

  4. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  5. Secure equality and greater-than tests with sublinear online complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipmaa, Helger; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to evaluate functions without disclosing the private inputs. Secure comparisons (testing equality and greater-than) are important primitives required by many MPC applications. We propose two equality tests for ℓ-bit values with O(1) online...

  6. “NOAH´S ARK”: EL ARTE DE HUMANIZAR EL GRAN NÚMERO / “Noah´s Ark”: the art of humanising the greater number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Palacios Labrador

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN 1962. Royaumont (Francia. Debate del Team 10 entorno a las grandes estructuras urbanas. Van Eyck presentó la propuesta “Noah´s Ark”, obra de su mejor estudiante, Piet Blom, como ejemplo que aunaba arquitectura y urbanismo para afrontar la gran escala; para “humanizar el gran número” en la difícil tarea de construir para las masas. Ensalzado por unos y criticado duramente por otros, el proyecto desató la polémica en el seno del Team 10. Alison Smithson, encargada de recoger los encuentros del grupo y una de las mayores críticas del proyecto, dejó fuera de la publicación “Team 10 Primer” todo pasaje que elogiaba “Noah´s Ark”. Blom, desesperado, destrozó la maqueta y regaló los planos del proyecto, que años después se perderían. El presente artículo se centra en la recuperación del proyecto “Noah´s Ark” y su valoración como punto de inflexión entre dos corrientes culturales: fue el máximo exponente del pensamiento configurativo, desarrollado por Van Eyck en la década de los años 50 y anunció las características de un incipiente movimiento en arquitectura: el estructuralismo holandés. El artículo destaca la influencia de “Noah´s Ark” como claro punto de partida, inspiración o germen proyectual para obras de mayor repercusión en la historia de la arquitectura, como el Hospital de Venecia de Le Corbusier y Jullian de la Fuente. SUMMARY 1962. Royaumont (France. Team 10’s debate about large urban structures. Van Eyck presented the “Noah´s Ark” proposal, work of his favourite student, Piet Blom, as an example which combined architecture and urbanism to confront the large scale; to “humanise the greater number” in the difficult task of building for the masses. Praised by some, and harshly criticised by others, the project unleashed controversy in the heart of Team 10. Alison Smithson, who minuted the meetings of the group, and one of the greatest critics of the project, omitted all

  7. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  8. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Draft... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management.../or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse...

  9. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  10. Plerixafor mobilization leads to a lower ratio of CD34+ cells to total nucleated cells which results in greater storage costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhehco, Yvette C; Adamski, Jill; Sell, Mary; Cunningham, Kathleen; Eisenmann, Christa; Magee, Deborah; Stadtmauer, Edward A; O'Doherty, Una

    2010-01-01

    Plerixafor (Mozobil, AMD3100) with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes more CD34+ cells/kg compared to G-CSF alone. Given that plerixafor enhances mobilization of multiple white blood cell lineages, we determined if more storage space is required for products collected from patients mobilized with plerixafor. A review of the medical records of 15 patients mobilized with chemotherapy and G-CSF (control) and 14 patients mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF (plerixafor) was performed. Data on demographics, baseline characteristics, CD34+ cells/kg, total nucleated cells, total mononuclear cells, total apheresis sessions, and total bags for storage were collected. Mean values were determined and compared using Student's t-test. We found that the proportion of CD34+ cells among total nucleated cells was less in the plerixafor group compared to the control group (P = 0.0427). More nucleated cells (10.7 x 10(10) vs. 7.1 x 10(10), P =0.0452) and mononuclear cells (9.7 x 10(10) vs. 5.9 x 10(10), P = 0.0059) were mobilized with plerixafor plus G-CSF. However, there was no significant difference in CD34+ cells/kg, total CD34+ cells or the proportion of mononuclear cells among total nucleated cells between the two groups. More storage bags were required for the plerixafor group compared to the control group (15 vs. 9, P = 0.0299). Mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF resulted in a smaller proportion of CD34+ cells collected and a greater number of storage bags. An increase in the number of bags required for stem cell storage may be logistically problematic and will also lead to increased costs for storage of stem cells.