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Sample records for significant volume reduction

  1. Significant volume reduction of tank waste by selective crystallization: 1994 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herting, D.L.; Lunsford, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this technology task plan is to develop and demonstrate a scaleable process of reclaim sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) from Hanford waste tanks as a clean nonradioactive salt. The purpose of the so-called Clean Salt Process is to reduce the volume of low level waste glass by as much as 70%. During the reporting period of October 1, 1993, through May 31, 1994, progress was made on four fronts -- laboratory studies, surrogate waste compositions, contracting for university research, and flowsheet development and modeling. In the laboratory, experiments with simulated waste were done to explore the effects of crystallization parameters on the size and crystal habit of product NaNO 3 crystals. Data were obtained to allows prediction of decontamination factor as a function of solid/liquid separation parameters. Experiments with actual waste from tank 101-SY were done to determine the extent of contaminant occlusions in NaNO 3 crystals. In preparation for defining surrogate waste compositions, single shell tanks were categorized according to the weight percent NaNO 3 in each tank. A detailed process flowsheet and computer model were created using the ASPENPlus steady state process simulator. This is the same program being used by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program for their waste pretreatment and disposal projections. Therefore, evaluations can be made of the effect of the Clean Salt Process on the low level waste volume and composition resulting from the TWRS baseline flowsheet. Calculations, using the same assumptions as used for the TWRS baseline where applicable indicate that the number of low level glass vaults would be reduced from 44 to 16 if the Clean Salt Process were incorporated into the baseline flowsheet

  2. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  3. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm 3 (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm 3 , (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence

  4. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  5. Significant lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves in a patient despite the presence of microcollaterals masked by low-flow Chartis phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan Yin,1 Gang Hou,1 Felix J Herth,2 Xiao-bo Wang,1 Qiu-yue Wang,1 Jian Kang1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: Satisfactory functional outcomes following bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR using endobronchial valves (EBVs depend on the absence of collateral ventilation (CV between the target and adjunct lobes. The Chartis system has proven to be useful for determining whether CV is present or absent, but this system can also erroneously indicate the absence of CV, which can lead to BLVR failure. Here, we describe low-flow Chartis phenotype in the target lobe resulted in difficult judgment of existence of CV. Consequently, BLVR with EBVs implanted into the right upper bronchus failed to reduce lung volume or induce atelectasis. Inserting another EBV into the right middle bronchus blocked the latent CV, which led to significant lung volume reduction in the right upper lobe (RUL and right middle lobe (RML and to improve the pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance, and St George respiratory questionnaire scores over a 2-week follow-up period. Low flow in the target lobe is a unique Chartis phenotype and represents the uncertainty of CV, which is a risk factor for the failure of BLVR using EBVs. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility and might be able to resolve the problem by blocking the RUL and RML between which the CV occurs. Keywords: COPD, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction, collateral ventilation, endobronchial valves, Chartis assessment

  6. Lung volume reduction for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-02-01

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  8. Modeling the economics of LLW volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, M.H.; Witzig, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Generators of low-level (radioactive) waste (LLW) are under pressure to implement volume reduction (VR) programs for political and economic reasons. Political reasons include the appearance of generating less waste or meeting quotas. Economic reasons include avoiding high disposal costs and associated surcharges. Volume reduction results in less total volume over which fixed disposal costs are allocated and therefore higher unit costs for disposal. As numerous small compacts are developed, this often overlooked effect becomes more pronounced. The described model presents two unique significant features. First, a feedback loop considers the impact of VR on disposal rates, and second, it appeals to logic without extensive knowledge of VR technology or computer modeling. The latter feature is especially useful in conveying information to students and nontechnical decision makers, demonstrating the impact of each of a complicated set of variables with reproducible results

  9. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Disc volume reduction with percutaneous nucleoplasty in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kasch

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. PURPOSE: To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. METHODS: We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. RESULTS: The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml. In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21 volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21 volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs.

  11. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  12. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de

    2017-01-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  13. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agteren, Joseph Em; Carson, Kristin V; Tiong, Leong Ung; Smith, Brian J

    2016-10-14

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) performed to treat patients with severe diffuse emphysema was reintroduced in the nineties. Lung volume reduction surgery aims to resect damaged emphysematous lung tissue, thereby increasing elastic properties of the lung. This treatment is hypothesised to improve long-term daily functioning and quality of life, although it may be costly and may be associated with risks of morbidity and mortality. Ten years have passed since the last version of this review was prepared, prompting us to perform an update. The objective of this review was to gather all available evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) versus non-surgical standard therapy in improving health outcomes for patients with severe diffuse emphysema. Secondary objectives included determining which subgroup of patients benefit from LVRS and for which patients LVRS is contraindicated, to establish the postoperative complications of LVRS and its morbidity and mortality, to determine which surgical approaches for LVRS are most effective and to calculate the cost-effectiveness of LVRS. We identified RCTs by using the Cochrane Airways Group Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) register, in addition to the online clinical trials registers. Searches are current to April 2016. We included RCTs that studied the safety and efficacy of LVRS in participants with diffuse emphysema. We excluded studies that investigated giant or bullous emphysema. Two independent review authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. When possible, we combined data from more than one study in a meta-analysis using RevMan 5 software. We identified two new studies (89 participants) in this updated review. A total of 11 studies (1760 participants) met the entry criteria of the review, one of which accounted for 68% of recruited participants. The quality of evidence ranged from low to moderate owing to an unclear risk

  14. Update on Nonsurgical Lung Volume Reduction Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Neder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR, bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC 225% predicted and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Pre-LVRS or ELVR assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high resolution CT scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ELVR procedures are currently available in selected Canadian research centers as part of ethically approved clinical trials. If a decision is made to offer an ELVR procedure, one-way valves are the first option in the presence of complete lobar exclusion and no significant collateral ventilation. When the fissure is not complete, when collateral ventilation is evident in heterogeneous emphysema or when emphysema is homogeneous, coil implants or BioLVR (in that order are the next logical alternatives.

  15. The economics of radwaste volume reduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffre, M.; Ensminger, D.; Nalbandian, J.; Naughton, M.

    1984-01-01

    A recently concluded EPRI study has generated much of the information needed by utilities when they consider the purchase of volume reduction equipment. This paper presents some of the study's results on volume reduction economics. The paper contains two types of results. The first is a detailed look at the economics of fourteen equipment options at a hypothetical reactor station. Costs were calculated with VRTECH, a radwaste economics computer program developed by TASC. This analysis illustrates the major points of the project conclusions. Second, the effects of the major assumptions used in the hypothetical case are examined. This analysis shows that the radwaste generation rate and the burial cost escalation rate are primary considerations when evaluating the benefit of each option

  16. Contaminated metallic melt volume reduction testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale metallic melts (stainless steel) were accomplished in support of Decontamination and Decommissioning's (D and D) contaminated equipment volume reduction and Low-Level Lead Site Waste programs. Six laboratory scale melts made with contaminated stainless steel provided data that radionuclide distribution can be predicted when proper temperature rates and ranges are employed, and that major decontamination occurs with the use of designed slagging materials. Stainless steel bars were contaminated with plutonium, cobalt, cesium and europium. This study was limited to stainless steel, however, further study is desirable to establish data for other metals and alloys. This study represents a positive beginning in defining the feasibility of economical volume reduction or conversion from TRU waste forms to LLW forms for a large portion of approximately 50 thousand tons of contaminated metal waste now being stored at Hanford underground or in deactivated facilities

  17. Radioactive wastes: the challenge of volumes reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of radioactive waste volumes is a priority for the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and for the Areva group. This article gives a rapid overview of the equipments and processes used to separate the valorizable materials from the ultimate wastes: pulsed separation columns and evaporators for the liquid-liquid extraction, compactification of spent fuel hulls, remote handling systems, recoverable colloid for surface decontamination, decontaminating foam, hydrothermal oxidation of organic and aqueous effluents, cold crucible vitrification etc. (J.S.)

  18. Fluidized bed volume reduction of diverse radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.N.; McConnell, J.W.; Waddoups, D.A.; Gray, M.F.; Harwood, L.E.; Clayton, N.J.; Drown, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for a fluidized bed radwaste volume reduction system are claimed. Low level radioactive wastes, combustible solids, ion exchange resins and filter sludges, and liquids, emanating from a reactor facility are introduced separately through an integrated waste influent system into a common fluidized bed vessel where volume reduction either through incineration or calcination occurs. Addition of a substance to the ion exchange resin before incineration inhibits the formation of low-melting point materials which tend to form clinkers in the bed. Solid particles are scrubbed or otherwise removed from the gaseous effluent of the vessel in an off-gas system, before the cooled and cleaned off-gas is released to the atmosphere. Iodine is chemically or physically removed from the off-gas. Otherwise, the only egress materials from the volume reduction system are containerized dry solids and tramp material. The bed material used during each mode may be circulated, cleaned, stored and exchanged from within the bed vessel by use of a bed material handling system. An instrumentation and control system provides operator information, monitors performance characteristics, implements start up and shut down procedures, and initiates alarms and emergency procedures during abnormal conditions

  19. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  20. Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, K R; Martinez, F J

    2000-12-01

    Over the past decades, extensive literature has been published regarding surgical therapies for advanced COPD. Lung-volume reduction surgery would be an option for a significantly larger number of patients than classic bullectomy or lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the initial enthusiasm has been tempered by major questions regarding the optimal surgical approach, safety, firm selection criteria, and confirmation of long-term benefits. In fact, the long-term follow-up reported in patients undergoing classical bullectomy should serve to caution against unbridled enthusiasm for the indiscriminate application of LVRS. Those with the worst long-term outcome despite favourable short-term improvements after bullectomy have consistently been those with the lowest pulmonary function and significant emphysema in the remaining lung who appear remarkably similar to those being evaluated for LVRS. With this in mind, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Care Finance Administration to establish a multicenter, prospective, randomized study of intensive medical management, including pulmonary rehabilitation versus the same plus bilateral (by MS or VATS), known as the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. The primary objectives are to determine whether LVRS improves survival and exercise capacity. The secondary objectives will examine effects on pulmonary function and HRQL, compare surgical techniques, examine selection criteria for optimal response, identify criteria to determine those who are at prohibitive surgical risk, and examine long-term cost effectiveness. It is hoped that data collected from this novel, multicenter collaboration will place the role of LVRS in a clearer perspective for the physician caring for patients with advanced emphysema.

  1. Lung volume reduction surgery in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaplaouras, J; Heckmann, M; Reiss, I; Schaible, T; Waag, K L; Gortner, L

    2003-06-01

    We report on a female preterm infant of 29 wk gestational age, who developed acquired lobar emphysema after prolonged artificial ventilation secondary to respiratory disease syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The infant underwent atypical segmentectomy at the age of 12 mo because of life-threatening hypoxaemia with pulmonary hypertension and failure of conservative treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) dramatically improved the respiratory function and resulted in adequate weight gain and psychomotor development. In selected cases LVRS can be an option for lobar emphysema in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  2. Volume reduction of contaminated filter wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttedahl, O.I.; Terada, K.

    1976-01-01

    Reported are details of a pilot project to design and construct a compactor to reduce the handling of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in air filtration systems at facilities where radioactive materials are processed. In such systems at Rocky Flats Plant, filters require frequent change and removal. Large quantities are used and will be increased for future operations. With the completion of the pilot model, it has been demonstrated that volume reductions of more than 80% can be achieved and cost savings will be realized also

  3. Modular radwaste volume reduction and solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes both the modular transportable and the modular mobile liquid radwaste volume reduction and solidification units based on a General Electric Company developed and patented process called AZTECH (a trademark of GE). An AZTECH system removes all water by azeotropic distillation and encapsulates the remaining solids in a polyester compound. The resulting monolith is suitable for either long term above ground storage or shallow land burial. Pilot and demonstration plant testing has confirmed the design parameters. The three processing modules are covered together with data which resulted in Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval on Dec. 30, 1985

  4. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... loss to improve pulmonary mechanics and compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. ... of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, ...

  5. The Seabrook Conversion ''the volume reduction decision''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Kwasnik, J.; Strum, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management at commercial power facilities has come under extreme pressure to develop new process systems for the treatment of liquid and resin waste streams. This pressure arose from the elimination of all but three of the commercial radioactive waste burial sites, the increasing cost of transport and burial of the wastes and the elimination of urea-formaldehyde as an acceptable solidification agent. Nuclear plants (operating and under construction) have been forced to reassess their policies and programs regarding waste management. Seabrook Station under construction in Seabrook, New Hampshire, is no exception. Re-evaluation of the radwaste system at Seabrook and the subsequent choice of a new generation system took over three years to make. This paper presents a brief history of this effort and describes the system ultimately chosen as a replacement for the original urea-formaldehyde system. This integrated system features an asphalt extruder-evaporator, a forced circulation crystallizer-evaporator and a resin centrifuge to effect maximum volume reduction of both liquid and spent resin wastes. The full system also includes a supporting drum handling system to move drums throughout process and storage areas and a box compactor for DAW volume reduction. A single vendor was selected as prime contractor to supply this integrated radwaste plant. By choosing a single vendor as prime contractor, PSNH gained the added benefits of having a single contract to manage, uniformity in parts such as instrumentation and controls, and obtained an integrated system warranty

  6. Clinical significance of measurement of hepatic volume by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiro; Takada, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) in 91 patients with chronic liver diseases. Mean hepatic volume in alcoholic liver disease was significantly larger than that in non-alcoholic liver disease. Hepatic volumes in the majority of decompensated liver cirrhosis were significantly smaller than those of compensated liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, significant correlations between hepatic volume and various hepatic tests which reflect the total functioning hepatic cell masses were found. Combinations of hepatic volume with ICG maximum removal rate and with serum cholinesterase activity were most useful for the assessment of prognosis in liver cirrhosis. These results indicated that estimation of hepatic volume by CT is useful for analysis of pathophysiology and prognosis of chronic liver diseases, and for diagnosis of alcoholic liver diseases. (author)

  7. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  8. Clinically significant change in stroke volume in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolferen, Serge A; van de Veerdonk, Marielle C; Mauritz, Gert-Jan; Jacobs, Wouter; Marcus, J Tim; Marques, Koen M J; Bronzwaer, Jean G F; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Postmus, Pieter E; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2011-05-01

    Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory increased heart rate as is the case for cardiac output. For this reason, stroke volume, which can be measured noninvasively, is an important hemodynamic parameter to monitor during treatment. However, the extent of change in stroke volume that constitutes a clinically significant change is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in stroke volume in PH. One hundred eleven patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up with a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and cardiac MRI. Using the anchor-based method with 6MWT as the anchor, and the distribution-based method, the MID of stroke volume change could be determined. After 1 year of treatment, there was, on average, a significant increase in stroke volume and 6MWT. The change in stroke volume was related to the change in 6MWT. Using the anchor-based method, an MID of 10 mL in stroke volume was calculated. The distribution-based method resulted in an MID of 8 to 12 mL. Both methods showed that a 10-mL change in stroke volume during follow-up should be considered as clinically relevant. This value can be used to interpret changes in stroke volume during clinical follow-up in PH.

  9. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  10. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Strange, Charlie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  11. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Strange, Charlie; Tashkin, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  12. Pseudo tumors of the lung after lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Inger F; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Entwisle, James J; Waller, David A

    2004-03-01

    We describe 2 patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery, who postoperatively had computed tomographic scans that showed symptomatic mass lesions suggestive of malignancy and an inhaled foreign body. Investigations excluded these conditions with the remaining likely diagnosis of pseudotumor secondary to buttressing material. These potential sequelae of lung volume reduction surgery should be recognized in follow-up investigations.

  13. October 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The October 2015 pulmonary journal club focused on the review of older studies evaluating lung volume reduction surgery and how this has transitioned toward the development of non-surgical modes of lung volume reduction. The physiology behind dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex process. One of the proposed mechanisms has been hyperinflation associated with air trapping. In the mid 1990s studies by Cooper and Peterson (1 offered a promising approach in which lung volume reduction (LVR could improve ventilatory mechanics and improve dyspnea. As the procedure gained more popularity, additional larger scale trials were performed to support its validity. We reviewed 2 studies looking at lung volume reduction. The first was "The Effect of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery In Patients With Severe Emphysema” (2 . This was a smaller, randomized controlled trial (RCT that looked at 2 groups of 24 patients. Once group received LVR while the ...

  14. Significance and clinical value of the transitional zone volume (TZV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. El Ghoneimy

    2017-01-12

    Jan 12, 2017 ... Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the significance and clinical value of the TZI, which has been a point of ... Conclusion: Estimating the transition zone volume during TRUS is a reasonable way to obtain the required ... Besides the IPSS score, a complete medical and surgical history was also.

  15. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  16. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  17. Brain volume reduction after whole-brain radiotherapy: quantification and prognostic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Distel, Luitpold; Knippen, Stefan; Gryc, Thomas; Schmidt, Manuel Alexander; Fietkau, Rainer; Putz, Florian

    2018-01-22

    Recent studies have questioned the value of adding whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis treatment. Neurotoxicity, including radiation-induced brain volume reduction, could be one reason why not all patients benefit from the addition of WBRT. In this study, we quantified brain volume reduction after WBRT and assessed its prognostic significance. Brain volumes of 91 patients with cerebral metastases were measured during a 150-day period after commencing WBRT and were compared with their pretreatment volumes. The average daily relative change in brain volume of each patient, referred to as the "brain volume reduction rate," was calculated. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic significance of the brain volume reduction rate, as well as of 3 treatment-related and 9 pretreatment factors. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the brain volume reduction rate across recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the brain volume reduction rate was a significant predictor of overall survival after WBRT (P < 0.001), as well as the number of brain metastases (P = 0.002) and age (P = 0.008). Patients with a relatively favorable prognosis (RPA classes 1 and 2) experienced significantly less brain volume decrease after WBRT than patients with a poor prognosis (RPA class 3) (P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between delivered radiation dose and brain volume reduction rate (P = 0.147). In this retrospective study, a smaller decrease in brain volume after WBRT was an independent predictor of longer overall survival. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. ... with the objective of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, .... Any type of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy that cannot be discontinued for 7 days.

  19. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  20. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  1. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  2. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    The economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic wastes are evaluated by comparing the costs of reduction of the wastes with the savings possible in transportation and disposal. A general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings is developed, an initial set of cost data is established, conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste are developed. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled, newly generated and retrievably stored DOE transuranic wastes. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal and transportation savings, and volume reduction techniques and costs. Section IV contains the results and conclusions of the study. The major conclusions drawn from the study are: For DOE sites with a small amount of waste requiring disposal ( 3 /year) the cost of volume reduction is greater than the transportation and disposal savings from volume reduction provided the waste requires little additional preparation to meet transportation and disposal criteria. Wastes that do not meet these criteria require site specific economic analysis outside the general evaluations of this study. For Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, incineration and metal shredding are cost-effective, provided a facility is to be constructed as a consequence of repackaging the fraction of stored waste which may require repackaging and immobilizing chemical process waste to meet disposal criteria

  3. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  4. Liquide waste volume reduction by in-drum drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volaric, B.; Zorko, M.

    1998-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is becoming increasingly difficult because of the lack of available volume on site, the rising disposal costs and the lack of ultimate disposal sites. Optimized treatment and volume reduction of concentrates and spent resins prior to interim storage, final disposal, and solidification processes are major step to counteract the situation.(author)

  5. Reduction in cardiac volume during chemoradiotherapy for patients with esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J., E-mail: l.j.lutkenhaus@amc.uva.nl; Kamphuis, Martijn; Wieringen, Niek van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Bel, Arjan

    2013-11-15

    We investigated the change in cardiac volume over the course of chemoradiotherapy in 26 patients treated for esophageal cancer, using cone beam CT imaging. The cardiac volume reduced significantly, with a median reduction of 8%. A significant relationship with planned cardiac dose was not found.

  6. Reduction in cardiac volume during chemoradiotherapy for patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J.; Kamphuis, Martijn; Wieringen, Niek van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Bel, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the change in cardiac volume over the course of chemoradiotherapy in 26 patients treated for esophageal cancer, using cone beam CT imaging. The cardiac volume reduced significantly, with a median reduction of 8%. A significant relationship with planned cardiac dose was not found

  7. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  8. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  9. Volume reduction, a safer and cheaper way of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.P.; Storrer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of 'Volume Reduction' has demonstrated that it is a safer and cheaper radwaste management method. Safer, because of several advantages: decrease of solidified product volume, satisfactory product properties, absence of free water, better control of process parameters, increased encapsulation efficiency ... The corresponding impact on the waste management costs, results in important savings on different factors, as well as regards the operational costs as the investment expenses. Economy in the range of BF 35.000 per m 3 of incoming waste is achievable. The main volume reduction techniques readily available are briefly reviewed

  10. Significant thermal energy reduction in lactic acid production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Edreder, Elmahboub A.; Emtir, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid is widely used as a raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers and in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The global market for lactic acid is expected to reach 259 thousand metric tons by the year 2012. For batch production of lactic acid, the traditional process includes the following steps: (i) esterification of impure lactic acid with methanol in a batch reactor to obtain methyl lactate (ester), (ii) separation of the ester in a batch distillation, (iii) hydrolysis of the ester with water in a batch reactor to produce lactic acid and (iv) separation of lactic acid (in high purity) in a batch distillation. Batch reactive distillation combines the benefit of both batch reactor and batch distillation and enhances conversion and productivity (Taylor and Krishna, 2000 ; Mujtaba and Macchietto, 1997 ). Therefore, the first and the last two steps of the lactic acid production process can be combined together in batch reactive distillation () processes. However, distillation (batch or continuous) is an energy intensive process and consumes large amount of thermal energy (via steam). This paper highlights how significant (over 50%) reduction in thermal energy consumption can be achieved for lactic acid production process by carefully controlling the reflux ratio but without compromising the product specification. In this paper, only the simultaneous hydrolysis of methyl lactate ester and the separation of lactic acid using batch reactive distillation is considered.

  11. Resisting the therapeutic reduction: on the significance of sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Sin-talk, though politically incorrect, is indispensable. Placing human life under the "hermeneutic of sin" means acknowledging that one ought to aim flawlessly at God, and that one can fail in this endeavor. None of this can be appreciated within the contemporary post-Christian, mindset, which has attempted to reduce religion to morality and culture. In such a secular context, the guilt-feelings connected with the recognition of sin are considered to be harmful; the eternal benefit of a repentance is disregarded. Nevertheless, spirituality appears to have therapeutic benefits. Therefore attempts are made to re-locate within healthcare a religion shorn of its transcendent claims, so as then to harvest the benefits of a spirituality "saved from sin". This reduction of religiosity to its therapeutic function is nourished by a post-modern constructivist construal of religion. This article critically examines the dis-ingenuity marring such recasting, as well as the incoherence of related attempts to reduce transcendence to solidarity, and to re-shape the significance of religious rituals.

  12. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  13. Clinically significant change in stroke volume in pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, S.A.; van de Veerdonk, M.C.; Mauritz, G.J.; Jacobs, W.; Marcus, J.T.; Marques, K.M.J.; Bronzwaer, J.G.F.; Heijmans, M.W.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; Noordegraaf, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory

  14. Radwaste volume reduction and solidification by General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.; Weech, M.E.; Miller, G.P.; Eberle, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1978 General Electric has been actively engaged in developing a volume reduction and solidifcation system or treatment of radwaste generated in commercial nuclear power plants. The studies have been aimed at defining an integrated system that would be directly responsive to the rapid evolving needs of the industry for the volume reduction and solidification of low-level radwaste. The resulting General Electric Volume Reduction System (GEVRS) is an integrated system based on two processes: the first uses azeotropic distillation technology and is called AZTECH, and the second is controlled-air incineration...called INCA. The AZTECH process serves to remove water from concentrated salt solutions, ion exchange resins and filter sludge slurries and then encapsulates the dried solids into a dense plastic product. The INCA unit serves to reduce combustible wastes to ashes suitable for encapsulation into the same plastic product produced by AZTECH

  15. Significant reductions in heart and lung doses using semi lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amr Abdul Aziz

    decubitus techniques for left sided breast cancer patients: A comparative ... Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. ..... Percent of reduction is calculated as new number – original number/original number ...

  16. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company mobile volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, rapidly increasing costs for the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) have generated the need for utilities to volume-reduce their LLW prior to shipment and burial. Incineration systems have been selected by several utilities to fulfill this need for maximum volume reduction. Until recently, all of the incineration systems selected by utilities were designed to be housed and operated in a facility erected by the utility. Now, however, lack of capital and rising design/erection costs are causing utilities to reevaluate their plans for purchasing incineration systems to process their LLW. The result is a growing demand for incineration services. Once again, Commonwealth Edison Company (Com-Ed) is leading the industry with an ongoing program to utilize incineration services provided by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (AECC) for the Dresden Quad Cities, LaSalle, and Zion Nuclear Stations. At the stations, combustible dry active waste and contaminated oil will be processed in a Mobile Volume Reduction System (MVRS) designed and fabricated by AECC. The MVRS is a totally self-contained system consisting of a controlled-air incinerator and a liquid offgas cleanup system. No buildings are required to house the system, and the MVRS achieves volume reduction factors similar to systems currently available for permanent in-plant installation. The result is an option for the utility having the benefits of volume reduction without the capital commitment normally required by the utility

  17. Melting metal waste for volume reduction and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.; Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Melt-slagging was investigated as a technique for volume reduction and decontamination of radioactively contaminated scrap metals. Experiments were conducted using several metals and slags in which the partitioning of the contaminant U or Pu to the slag was measured. Concentrations of U or Pu in the metal product of about 1 ppM were achieved for many metals. A volume reduction of 30:1 was achieved for a typical batch of mixed metal scrap. Additionally, the production of granular products was demonstrated with metal shot and crushed slag

  18. Induction melting for volume reduction of metallic TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Montgomery, D.R.; Katayama, Y.B.; Ross, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Volume reduction of metallic transuranic wastes offers economic and safety incentives for treatment of wastes generated at a hypothetical commercial fuel reprocessing facility. Induction melting has been identified as the preferred process for volume reduction of spent fuel hulls, fuel assembly hardware, and failed equipment from a reprocessing plant. Bench-scale melting of Zircaloy and stainless steel mixtures has been successfully conducted in a graphite crucible inside a large vacuum chamber. A low-melting-temperature alloy forms that has demonstrated excellent leach resistance. The alloy can be used to encapsulate other metallic wastes that cannot be melted using the existing equipment design

  19. Induction melting for volume reduction of metallic TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Montgomery, D.R.; Katayama, Y.B.; Ross, W.A.

    1986-02-01

    Volume reduction of metallic transuranic wastes offers economic and safety incentives for treatment of wastes generated at a hypothetical commercial fuel reprocessing facility. Induction melting has been identified as the preferred process for volume reduction of spent fuel hulls, fuel assembly hardware, and failed equipment from a reprocessing plant. Bench-scale melting of Zircaloy and stainless steel mixtures has been successfully conducted in a graphite crucible inside a large vacuum chamber. A low-melting-temperature alloy forms that has demonstrated excellent leach resistance. The alloy can be used to encapsulate other metallic wastes that cannot be melted using the existing equipment design. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : An Expert Panel Recommendation - Update 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Criner, Gerard J.; Shah, Pallav L.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) technologies for emphysema is consistently growing. In the last couple of months, several endoscopic options (e.g., endo-or intrabronchial valves, coil implants, and thermal vapor ablation) that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials

  1. Minimally invasive non-surgical lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Liming; Zhou Dayong; Shen Junkang

    2006-01-01

    Minimally invasive treatment with lung volume reduction is the promising future for severe pulmonary emphysema patients. With emerging and improving of new techniques and instruments, it would become an important choice for managing severe emphysema. A comprehensive review is here documented through the correlative techniques, instruments, new achievements and latest research work. (authors)

  2. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables

  4. Time for the Global Rollout of Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Shah, Pallav L.; Theron, Johan; Dheda, Keertan; Allwood, Brian W.; Herth, Felix J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The disease is generally managed with pharmacotherapy, as well as guidance about smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) has been proposed

  5. Recycle operations as a methodology for radioactive waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The costs for packaging, transportation and burial of low-level radioactive metallic waste have become so expensive that an alternate method of decontamination for volume reduction prior to disposal can now be justified. The operation of a large-scale centralized recycle center for decontamination of selected low level radioactive waste has been proven to be an effective method for waste volume reduction and for retrieving valuable materials for unlimited use. The centralized recycle center concept allows application of state-of-the-art decontamination technology resulting in a reduction in utility disposal costs and a reduction in overall net amount of material being buried. Examples of specific decontamination process activities at the centralized facility will be reviewed along with a discussion of the economic impact of decontamination for recycling and volume reduction. Based on almost two years of operation of a centralized decontamination facility, a demonstrated capability exists. The concept has been cost effective and proves that valuable resources can be recycled

  6. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  7. Endobronchial Valves for Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : Best Practice Recommendations from Expert Panel on Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Shah, Pallav L.; Herth, Felix J. F.; Valipour, Arschang

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) is being adopted as a treatment option for carefully selected patients suffering from severe emphysema. ELVR with the one-way endobronchial Zephyr valves (EBV) has been demonstrated to improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in

  8. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  9. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas

  10. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  11. Low-level waste volume reduction--physicochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    In some cases, volume reduction (VR) equipment may be called upon to reduce noncombustible liquid wastes to essentially dry salts and/or oxides. In other cases, it may be called upon to reduce combustible solids and liquids to ashes and innocuous gases. In brand terms, four kinds of processes are available to further reduce the volume of waste generated at nuclear facilities. These include high-solids evaporation, alternative evaporative designs, extruders/mixers, and calciner/incinerators. This paper discusses the following VR processes for radioactive wastes at nuclear facilities: evaporator/crystallizer; fluid bed dryer/incinerator; fluid bed calciner/incinerator; inert carrier radwaste processor; and molten glass incinerator

  12. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  13. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  14. Activity measurements at a waste volume reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.; Lee, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The monitoring program for Ontario Hydro's radioactive waste management site will be described, several aspects of which will be discussed in detail. The program at this facility includes categorization, volume reduction processing, and storage of solid radioactive wastes from nuclear generating stations of the CANDU type. At the present time, two types of volume reduction process are in operation - incineration and compaction. Following categorization and processing, wastes are stored in in-ground concrete trenches or tile-holes, or in above-ground quadricells. The monitoring program is divided into three areas: public safety, worker safety, and structural integrity. Development projects with respect to the monitoring program have been undertaken to achieve activity accounting for the total waste management program. In particular, a field measurement for the radioactivity content of radioactive ash containers and compacted waste drums

  15. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  16. Lung Volume Reduction in Pulmonary Emphysema from the Radiologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellinger, F; Huebner, R H; Kuhnigk, J M; Poellinger, A

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of "collateral ventilation" has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results. Today, surgical and various minimal invasive methods of lung volume reduction are in use. Radiological and nuclear medical examinations are helpful in the evaluation of an appropriate lung area. Imaging can detect periinterventional complications. Reduction of lung

  17. Transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Nixon, Archie E.; Fife, Keith W.; Sandoval, Arnold M.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Dodge, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actinide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter or longer glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glovebox as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste volume generation by almost 2½ times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  18. Scintigraphic method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blønd, L; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    in the experiment. Evaluation of one versus two scintigraphic projections, trials for assessment of the reproducibility, a comparison of the scintigraphic method with a water-plethysmographic method and registration of the fractional reduction in blood volume caused by exsanguination as a result of simple elevation......% in the lower limb experiment and 6% in the upper limb experiment. We found a significant relation (r = 0.42, p = 0.018) between the results obtained by the scintigraphic method and the plethysmographic method. In fractions, a mean reduction in blood volume of 0.49+0.14 (2 SD) was found after 1 min of elevation......We introduce a new method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in extremities, based on the combined use of autologue injection of 99mTc-radiolabelled erythrocytes and clamping of the limb blood flow by the use of a tourniquet. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers participated...

  19. Region-specific reduction in brain volume in young adults with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregant, Tina; Rados, Milan; Vasung, Lana; Derganc, Metka; Evans, Alan C; Neubauer, David; Kostovic, Ivica

    2013-11-01

    A severe form of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) carries a high risk of perinatal death and severe neurological sequelae while in mild HIE only discrete cognitive disorders may occur. To compare total brain volumes and region-specific cortical measurements between young adults with mild-moderate perinatal HIE and a healthy control group of the same age. MR imaging was performed in a cohort of 14 young adults (9 males, 5 females) with a history of mild or moderate perinatal HIE. The control group consisted of healthy participants, matched with HIE group by age and gender. Volumetric analysis was done after the processing of MR images using a fully automated CIVET pipeline. We measured gyrification indexes, total brain volume, volume of grey and white matter, and of cerebrospinal fluid. We also measured volume, thickness and area of the cerebral cortex in the parietal, occipital, frontal, and temporal lobe, and of the isthmus cinguli, parahippocampal and cingulated gyrus, and insula. The HIE patient group showed smaller absolute volumetric data. Statistically significant (p right hemisphere, of cortical areas in the right temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus, of cortical volumes in the right temporal lobe and of cortical thickness in the right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were found. Comparison between the healthy group and the HIE group of the same gender showed statistically significant changes in the male HIE patients, where a significant reduction was found in whole brain volume; left parietal, bilateral temporal, and right parahippocampal gyrus cortical areas; and bilateral temporal lobe cortical volume. Our analysis of total brain volumes and region-specific corticometric parameters suggests that mild-moderate forms of perinatal HIE lead to reductions in whole brain volumes. In the study reductions were most pronounced in temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Volume reduction and material recirculation by freon decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berners, O.; Buhmann, D.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshiaki, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of freon in a large variety of decontamination in the nuclear and non-nuclear fields. As far as the contamination is loose or smerable, surfaces of nearly all materials can be decontaminated. Freon is electrically non-conductive, chemically neutral and has a low surface tension. So it is capable of creeping under the contaminant and loosening or dissolving it. Used freon can be collected, cleaned and recirculated. Its cleaning can be done easily by evaporation at its lower vapor point of about 48 degrees C (104 degrees F). Good decontamination results could be achieved, expensive materials, tools and equipment could be recirculated. Big volumes of materials could get separated from their contaminants, which is the real radioactive waste. Freon decontamination is an effective, overall economical and approved technology to volume reduction and material recirculation

  1. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  2. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  3. Significance of breast boost volume changes during radiotherapy in relation to current clinical interobserver variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important

  4. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  5. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  6. Korean working towards low and intermediate level waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Jae Song; Jong-Kil Park

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance. This paper describes the results, efforts, and prospects for the safe management of radioactive wastes having been performed by the Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) of the Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Firstly, KEPCO's efforts and results for waste volume reduction are summarized to show how the number of waste drums generated per reactor-year could be reduced by about 60% during the last 10 years. Secondly, a new treatment technology, a technology for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) vitrification, was introduced to prospect how the technology reduces the waste volume and increases the inherent safety for LILW disposal. It is expected that the vitrification technology will contribute not only to reduce LILW volume to around 1/14 ∼ 1/32 but also to change the 'Not In My Back Yard' (NIMBY) syndrome to the 'Please In My Front Yard' (PIMFY) attitude of local communities/residents for LILW disposal. (author)

  7. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  8. Thyroid volume reduction following radioiodine therapy in patients with autonomous goitre and Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, B.; Otte, R.; Klink, J.E.; Schicha, H.

    1996-01-01

    Aim: It is well known that radioiodine therapy (RITh) leads to a significant thyroid volume reduction (TVR). But until now only little data has been presented due to the course of time and the extent of TVR. Method: Therefore the data of 33 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 36 patients with multifocal (MAG) and 31 with solitary (SAG) autonomous goitre were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the patients showed a highly significant (p [de

  9. [Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema and bullous pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Das Neves-Pereira, J-C; Cazes, A; Arame, A; Grima, R; Hubsch, J-P; Zukerman, C; Hernigou, A; Badia, A; Bagan, P; Delclaux, C; Dusser, D; Riquet, M

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of respiratory symptoms for emphysematous patients by surgery is a concept that has evolved over time. Initially used for giant bullae, this surgery was then applied to patients with diffuse microbullous emphysema. The physiological and pathological concepts underlying these surgical procedures are the same in both cases: improve respiratory performance by reducing the high intrapleural pressure. The functional benefit of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in the severe diffuse emphysema has been validated by the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and the later studies which allowed to identify prognostic factors. The quality of the clinical, morphological and functional data made it possible to develop recommendations now widely used in current practice. Surgery for giant bullae occurring on little or moderately emphysematous lung is often a simpler approach but also requires specialised support to optimize its results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  11. Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mollock, J. [Devon Energy Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Produced water is wastewater that is brought to the surface from natural gas wells during natural gas production. Its constituents, mostly salt, with traces of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are a significant disposal problem. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in partnership with the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed a low-cost, low-tech method, in which green plants are used to reduce the volume of produced water. The authors have designed an engineered bioreactor system, which is modeled after natural saline wetland ecosystems. The plant bioreactor system maximizes plant evapotranspiration to reduce wastewater volume and, concurrently, may function as a biological filter to enhance contaminant degradation and immobilization in the root/rhizosphere zone. Halophyte plant species having high salt tolerance and high transpiration rates were selected after they tested them in greenhouse experiments. Models obtained by using their greenhouse findings reduced the volume of the wastewater (up to 6% salt) by 75% in about 8 days. A field demonstration of the bioreactor, designed on the basis of the results from the greenhouse study, is successfully under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma. The process could offer the petroleum industry a low-cost biological alternative to existing expensive options.

  12. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  13. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  14. Lung volume reduction surgery: an overview Cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to review the literature on the efficacy, safety and feasibility of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS in patients with advanced emphysema. Studies on LVRS from January 1995 to December 2009 were included by using Pubmed (MEDLINE and Cochrane Library literature in English. Search words such as lung volume reduction surgery or lung reduction surgery, pneumoplasty or reduction pneumoplasty, COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and surgery, were used. We also compared medical therapy and surgical technique. Studies consisting of randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials (randomized and nonrandomized, reviews and case series were analyzed. Questions regarding validity of the early clinical reports, incomplete follow-up bias, selection criteria and survival, confounded the interpretation of clinical data on LVRS. Patients with upper, lower and diffuse distribution of emphysema were included; we also analyzed as key points perioperative morbidity and mortality and lung function measurement as FEV1. Bullous emphysema was excluded from this review. Surgical approach included median sternotomy, unilateral or bilateral thoracotomy, and videothoracoscopy with stapled or laser ablation. Results of prospective randomized trials between medical management and LVRS are essential before final assessment can be established.O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura acerca da eficácia, segurança e viabilidade da cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar (CRVP em pacientes com enfisema pulmonar avançado. Estudos de CRVP de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2009 foram incluídos através de pesquisa na Pubmed (MEDLINE e Cochrane Library, na literatura inglesa. Palavras de busca tais como lung volume reduction surgery ou lung reduction surgery, pneumoplasty ou reduction pneumoplasty, COPD ou chronic obstructive pulmonary disease e surgery foram utilizadas. Também realizamos comparação entre terapia médica e cir

  15. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal model (activity-based anorexia, ABA). Female rats had 24 h/day running wheel access and received reduced food intake until a 25% weight reduction was reached and maintained for 2 weeks. In ABA rats, the volumes of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum were significantly reduced compared to controls by 6% and 9%, respectively. The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes in these regions decreased by 39% and 23%, total astrocyte-covered area by 83% and 63%. In neurons no changes were observed. The findings were complemented by a 60% and 49% reduction in astrocyte (GFAP) mRNA expression. Volumetric brain changes in ABA animals mirror those in human AN patients. These alterations are associated with a reduction of GFAP-positive astrocytes as well as GFAP expression. Reduced astrocyte functioning could help explain neuronal dysfunctions leading to symptoms of rigidity and impaired learning. Astrocyte loss could constitute a new research target for understanding and treating semi-starvation and AN.

  16. Lung protection: an intervention for tidal volume reduction in a teaching intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briva, Arturo; Gaiero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of feedback and education regarding the use of predicted body weight to adjust tidal volume in a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy. Methods The study was performed from October 2014 to November 2015 (12 months) in a single university polyvalent intensive care unit. We developed a combined intervention (education and feedback), placing particular attention on the importance of adjusting tidal volumes to predicted body weight bedside. In parallel, predicted body weight was estimated from knee height and included in clinical charts. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients were included. Predicted body weight assessed by knee height instead of visual evaluation revealed that the delivered tidal volume was significantly higher than predicted. After the inclusion of predicted body weight, we observed a sustained reduction in delivered tidal volume from a mean (standard error) of 8.97 ± 0.32 to 7.49 ± 0.19mL/kg (p < 0.002). Furthermore, the protocol adherence was subsequently sustained for 12 months (delivered tidal volume 7.49 ± 0.54 versus 7.62 ± 0.20mL/kg; p = 0.103). Conclusion The lack of a reliable method to estimate the predicted body weight is a significant impairment for the application of a worldwide standard of care during mechanical ventilation. A combined intervention based on education and repeated feedbacks promoted sustained tidal volume education during the study period (12 months). PMID:27925055

  17. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  18. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  19. Lung volume reduction of pulmonary emphysema: the radiologist task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Gianluca; Silva, Mario; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Several lung volume reduction (LVR) techniques have been increasingly evaluated in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema, especially in the last decade. Radiologist plays a pivotal role in the characterization of parenchymal damage and, thus, assessment of eligibility criteria. This review aims to discuss the most common LVR techniques, namely LVR surgery, endobronchial valves, and coils LVR, with emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT). Several trials have recently highlighted the importance of regional quantification of emphysema by computerized CT-based segmentation of hyperlucent parenchyma, which is strongly recommended for candidates to any LVR treatment. In particular, emphysema distribution pattern and fissures integrity are evaluated to tailor the choice of the most appropriate LVR technique. Furthermore, a number of CT measures have been tested for the personalization of treatment, according to imaging detected heterogeneity of parenchymal disease. CT characterization of heterogeneous parenchymal abnormalities provides criteria for selection of the preferable treatment in each patient and improves outcome of LVR as reflected by better quality of life, higher exercise tolerance, and lower mortality.

  20. Reduction volume of radioactive wastes using natural zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endro Kismolo; Nurimaniwathy; Vemi Ridantami

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experience was to know of the characteristics of zeolite as the sorbent for reduction volume of liquid waste with the Pb contaminant contain. The experiment was done by sorption method a batch performed by using zeolite from Gedangsari Gunung Kidul with the grain size (-60+80) mesh, (-80+100) mesh dan (-100+120) mesh which was activated by (NH 4 ) CI and NH 4 N0 3 1.0 M. Weight of sorbent was added was variated from 5.0 to 40.0 %, and variation of silica sand to added from 0.5 to 2.5 % of weight sorbent. Stirring speed was varied from 30 to 180 rpm and the stirring time of 10 to 120 minutes, and filtrates from filtering process to analyzed by Absorption Analysis Spectrophotometry utilities. From the experience can be achieved of data that the best sorption to obtained at the condition of zeolite on (-80+100) mesh, sorbent added of 25 %, stirring speed of 120 rpm, time of stirring of 90 minutes, and the setting time of 120 minutes. At this condition to obtained sorption efficiency are 64.162 % for natural zeolite, 7.034 % for zeolite be activated with NH 4 N0 3 and 77.414 % for zeolite be activated with NH 4 Cl 1.0 M. (author)

  1. Incineration method for volume reduction and disposal of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borham, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to process 7 TPD of transuranic (TRU) waste producing 8.5 TPD of cemented waste and 4100 ACFM of combustion gases with a volume reduction of up to 17:1. The waste and its container are shredded then fed to a rotary kiln heated to 1700 0 F, then cooled and classified by a trommel screen. The fine portion is mixed with a cement grout which is placed with the coarse portion in steel drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The kiln off-gas is reheated to 2000 0 F to destroy any remaining hydrocarbons and toxic volatiles. The gases are cooled and passed in a venturi scrubber to remove particulates and corrosive gases. The venturi off-gas is passed through a mist eliminator and is reheated to 50 0 F above the dew point prior to passing through a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter. The scrub solution is concentrated to 25% solids by an inertial filter. The sludge containing the combustion chemical contaminants is encapsulated with the residue of the incinerated waste

  2. Volume reduction of reactor wastes by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Three simulated low-level reactor wastes were dried using a spray dryer-baghouse system. The three aqueous feedstocks were sodium sulfate waste characteristic of a BWR, boric acid waste characteristic of a PWR, and a waste mixture of ion exchange resins and filter aid. These slurries were spiked with nonradioactive iron, cobalt, and manganese (representing corrosion products) and nonradioactive cesium and iodine (representing fission products). The throughput for the 2.1-m-diameter spray dryer and baghouse system was 160-180 kg/h, which is comparable to the requirements for a full-scale commercial installation. A free-flowing, dry product was produced in all of the tests. The volume reduction factor ranged from 2.5 to 5.8; the baghouse decontamination factor was typically in the range of 10 3 to 10 4 . Using an overall system decontamination factor of 10 6 , the activity of the off-gas was calculated to be one to two orders of magnitude less than the nuclide release limit of the major active species, Cs-137

  3. Porosity, Bulk Density, and Volume Reduction During Drying: Review of Measurement Methods and Coefficient Determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Khalloufi, S.; Martynenko, A.; Dalen, van G.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Almeida-Rivera, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several experimental methods for measuring porosity, bulk density and volume reduction during drying of foodstuff are available. These methods include among others geometric dimension, volume displacement, mercury porosimeter, micro-CT, and NMR. However, data on their accuracy, sensitivity, and

  4. [Prediction of the efficiency of endoscopic lung volume reduction by valves in severe emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, V; Briault, A; Reymond, E; Arbib, F; Jankowski, A; Ferretti, G; Pison, C

    2016-11-01

    In severe emphysema, endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves is an alternative to surgery with less morbidity and mortality. In 2015, selection of patients who will respond to this technique is based on emphysema heterogeneity, a complete fissure visible on the CT-scan and absence of collateral ventilation between lobes. Our case report highlights that individualized prediction is possible. A 58-year-old woman had severe, disabling pulmonary emphysema. A high resolution thoracic computed tomography scan showed that the emphysema was heterogeneous, predominantly in the upper lobes, integrity of the left greater fissure and no collateral ventilation with the left lower lobe. A valve was inserted in the left upper lobe bronchus. At one year, clinical and functional benefits were significant with complete atelectasis of the treated lobe. The success of endoscopic lung volume reduction with a valve can be predicted, an example of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  6. Leukocyte-reduction filters and radiation do not cause significant changes in platelet function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Yutaka; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Shibata, Yoichi; Takahashi, Koki

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of radiation and leukocyte-reduction filters on platelet function. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and ADP were measured prior to and after irradiation and filtration, as were the platelet recovery rate and complement factor C3. Four types of leukocyte-reduction filter were used, namely positively-, negatively-, and non-charged filters (all of polyester composition), as well as a polyurethane filter. Radiation itself did not significantly affect either the platelet recovery rate, platelet function, or C3 value. On the other hand, filtration through polyester leukocyte-reduction filters resulted in a significant reduction in the platelet recovery rate, an effect not observed with the polyurethane filter. However, none of the filters caused significant changes in platelet function or in C3 value. We concluded that radiation and filtration do not cause significant changes in platelet function, but polyurethane filters are superior to polyester filters in relation to platelet recovery. (author)

  7. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  8. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  9. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment of Patients With Severe Heterogeneous Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Klooster, Karin; Ernst, Armin; Herth, Felix J. F.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    Background: The lung volume reduction coil (LVR-coil), a new experimental device to achieve lung volume reduction by bronchoscopy in patients with severe emphysema, works in a manner unaffected by collateral airflow. We investigated the safety and efficacy of LVR-coil treatment in patients with

  10. Water volume reduction increases eutrophication risk in tropical semi-arid reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nascimento da Rocha Junior

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Global patterns of temperature and precipitation have significantly changed over the last century and nearly all predictions point to even greater changes by the end of 2100. Long periods of drought in semi-arid regions generally reduce reservoirs and lakes water level, increasing the nutrients concentrations in the water. Our principal hypothesis is that water volume reduction, driven by prolonged droughts, will increase reservoirs susceptibility to eutrophication and accordingly an increase in trophic state. To test this hypothesis, we used a comparative analysis of ecosystems in a space-for-time substitution approach, in a Brazilian semi-arid region, to predict the consequences of reservoirs water volume reduction on key limnological variables. Methods We sampled 16 reservoirs located in two sub-basins with contrasting rainfall regimes, inserted on Piranhas-Açu watershed. The Seridó River basin (SB is dry and the Piancó River basin (SB is humid, with annual mean precipitation of 500 and 700 mm, respectively. Linear regressions analyzes were performed to assess whether the percentage of maximum volume stored (%MVS is a good predictor for total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN and chlorophyll-a (CHLA. In addition, a two factorial analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was performed to test for period (dry, very dry and extremely dry, basin (SB and PB and their interactions effects on TP, TN, CHLA, conductivity, turbidity, and Secchi depth. Results The results showed a reduction in the reservoirs %MVS both for PB and SB regions. At the extremely dry period, all reservoirs were classified as eutrophic, but TP concentrations reached much higher values in SB than in PB. The linear regressions analyses showed that the TP and TN were negatively related to %MVS during all periods sampled. The two-way ANOVA showed that there were significant basin and period effects on TP, TN, Secchi depth and turbidity, whereas for CHLA and conductivity

  11. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  12. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Nixon, Archie E.; Dodge, Robert L.; Fife, Keith W.; Sandoval, Arnold M.; Garcia, Vincent E.

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National

  13. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts

  14. Amplification volume reduction on DNA database samples using FTA™ Classic Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hang Yee; Lim, Eng Seng Simon; Tan-Siew, Wai Fun

    2012-03-01

    The DNA forensic community always strives towards improvements in aspects such as sensitivity, robustness, and efficacy balanced with cost efficiency. Therefore our laboratory decided to study the feasibility of PCR amplification volume reduction using DNA entrapped in FTA™ Classic Card and to bring cost savings to the laboratory. There were a few concerns the laboratory needed to address. First, the kinetics of the amplification reaction could be significantly altered. Second, an increase in sensitivity might affect interpretation due to increased stochastic effects even though they were pristine samples. Third, statics might cause FTA punches to jump out of its allocated well into another thus causing sample-to-sample contamination. Fourth, the size of the punches might be too small for visual inspection. Last, there would be a limit to the extent of volume reduction due to evaporation and the possible need of re-injection of samples for capillary electrophoresis. The laboratory had successfully optimized a reduced amplification volume of 10 μL for FTA samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prefrontal cortex volume reductions and tic inhibition are unrelated in uncomplicated GTS adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Kühn, Simone; Kahl, Ursula; Schunke, Odette; Brandt, Valerie; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are repetitive patterned movements, resembling spontaneous motor behaviour, but escaping voluntary control. Previous studies hypothesised relations between structural alterations in prefrontal cortex of GTS adults and tic severity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), but could not demonstrate a significant association. The relation between prefrontal cortex structure and tic inhibition has not been investigated. Here, we used VBM to examine 14 GTS adults without associated comorbidities, and 15 healthy controls. We related structural alterations in GTS to clinical measures of tic severity and tic control. Grey matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left frontal pole were reduced in patients relative to healthy controls. These changes were not related to tic severity and tic inhibition. Prefrontal grey matter volume reductions in GTS adults are not related to state measures of tic phenomenology. © 2013.

  16. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  17. Does the pancreatic volume reduction rate using serial computed tomographic volumetry predict new onset diabetes after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Pil; Seo, Hyung-Il; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Volume reduction of the pancreatic tissues following a pancreatectomy can lead to the deterioration of glucose homeostasis. This is defined as pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of new-onset DM (NODM) and evaluate the risk factors, including the pancreas volume reduction rate in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Sixty-six patients without preoperative DM underwent PD for periampullary tumors between August 2007 and December 2012 and were included in this analysis. These patients underwent follow-up tests and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan 7 days, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months after the operation. The pancreas volume reduction rate was calculated by CT volumetry. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the postoperative development of DM. After PD, newly diagnosed DM occurred in 16 patients (24.2%). The incidence of DM was highest among patients with carcinomas with an advanced T stage. The pancreatic volume reduction rate after 6 and 12 months in the NODM group was significantly higher than the normal glucose group in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the pancreatic volume reduction rate 6 months after PD was the only significant predictive factor for the development of NODM (P = 0.002). This study suggests that the pancreatic volume reduction rate 6 months after PD was the only significant predictive factor for the development of NODM. CT volumetry of the pancreas may be useful as a predictor of NODM after PD. PMID:28353594

  18. Time to significant pain reduction following DETP application vs placebo for acute soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchick, J; Magelli, M; Bodie, J; Sjogren, J; Rovati, S

    2010-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provide fast and effective acute pain relief, but systemic administration has increased risk for some adverse reactions. The diclofenac epolamine 1.3% topical patch (DETP) is a topical NSAID with demonstrated safety and efficacy in treatment of acute pain from minor soft tissue injuries. Significant pain reduction has been observed in clinical trials within several hours following DETP application, suggesting rapid pain relief; however, this has not been extensively studied for topical NSAIDs in general. This retrospective post-hoc analysis examined time to onset of significant pain reduction after DETP application compared to a placebo patch for patients with mild-to-moderate acute ankle sprain, evaluating the primary efficacy endpoint from two nearly identical studies. Data from two double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled studies (N = 274) of safety and efficacy of the DETP applied once daily for 7 days for acute ankle sprain were evaluated post-hoc using statistical modeling to estimate time to onset of significant pain reduction following DETP application. Pain on active movement on a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) recorded in patient diaries; physician- and patient-assessed tolerability; and adverse events. DETP treatment resulted in significant pain reduction within approximately 3 hours compared to placebo. Within-treatment post-hoc analysis based on a statistical model suggested significant pain reduction occurred as early as 1.27 hours for the DETP group. The study may have been limited by the retrospective nature of the analyses. In both studies, the DETP was well tolerated with few adverse events, limited primarily to application site skin reactions. The DETP is an effective treatment for acute minor soft tissue injury, providing pain relief as rapidly as 1.27 hours post-treatment. Statistical modeling may be useful in estimating time to onset of pain relief for comparison of topical

  19. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper vs Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arschang eValipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema.Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therapy based on findings of radionucleotide scintigraphy scanning. CT analysis of lobar volumes showed that patients undergoing upper (n=18; -265 mL/site and lower lobe treatment (n=11; -217 mL/site experienced similar reductions in lung volume. However, only upper lobe treatment improved FEV1 (+11.1±14.7% vs -4.4±15.8% and RV/TLC (-5.4± 8.1% vs -2.4±8.6%. Model simulations provided an unexpected explanation for this response. Increases in transpulmonary pressure subsequent to volume reduction increased RV/TLC in upper lobe alveoli, while caudal shifts in airway closure decreased RV/TLC in lower lobe alveoli. Upper lobe treatment, which eliminates apical alveoli with high RV/TLC values, lowers the average RV/TLC of the lung. Conversely, lower lobe treatment, which eliminates caudal alveoli with low RV/TLC values, has less effect. Conclusions: Lower lobe treatment in homogeneous emphysema is uniformly less effective than upper lobe treatment.

  20. Scintigraphic method for evaluating reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blønd, L; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    were carried out. No significant differences between results obtained by the use of one or two scintigraphic projections were found. The between-subject coefficient of variation was 14% in the lower limb experiment and 11% in the upper limb experiment. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 6......% in the lower limb experiment and 6% in the upper limb experiment. We found a significant relation (r = 0.42, p = 0.018) between the results obtained by the scintigraphic method and the plethysmographic method. In fractions, a mean reduction in blood volume of 0.49+0.14 (2 SD) was found after 1 min of elevation...... of the lower limb and a mean reduction of 0.45+/-0.10 (2 SD) after half a minute of elevation of the upper limb. We conclude that the method is precise and can be used in investigating physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms in relation to blood volumes of limbs not subject to research previously....

  1. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of ∼1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit

  2. The significant reduction of precipitation in Southern China during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term observational data from 2001 to 2012 over 339 stations were used to analyze the precipitation in southern China during the Chinese Spring Festival (CSF). It reveals both the precipitation frequency and precipitation intensity have a significant reduction around CSF holiday. From the second day to the sixth day after the Lunar New Year's Day, the daily mean precipitation frequency anomaly is -9%. At the same time, more than 90% stations in the study area have negative anomalies. The precipitation intensity has a continuous reduction from day 2 to day 4, which is up to 2mm in day 3. Other relevant variables, such as relative humidity and sunshine duration, have corresponding results to the precipitation's reduction during CSF. Atmospheric water vapor field's change leads to the reduction phenomenon. We analyzed the circulation configuration using the ERA-interim reanalysis data. It shows the anomalous north wind decrease the vapor and further affects the precipitation during the CSF period. The pollutants' concentration decreased around CSF, which may influence the meteorological field and lead to the anomalous north wind. Based on the S2S (sub-seasonal to seasonal prediction project) data, we calculated the circulation forecast difference to CSF period between clean days and polluted days. The result proves the north wind's existence and suggests that the aerosol decrease because of human activity may be partly responsible for the precipitation reduction during CSF.

  3. Volume reduction and solidification of liquid and solid low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief background of the development of a method of radioactive waste volume reduction using a unique fluidized bed calciner/incinerator. The volume reduction system is capable of processing a variety of liquid chemical wastes, spent ion exchange resin beads, filter treatment sludges, contaminated lubricating oils, and miscellaneous combustible solids such as paper, rags, protective clothing, wood, etc. All of these wastes are processed in one chemical reaction vessel. Detailed process data is presented that shows the system is capable of reducing the total volume of disposable radioactive waste generated by light water reactors by a factor of 10. Equally important to reducing the volume of power reactor radwaste is the final form of the stored or disposable radwaste. This paper also presents process data related to a new radwaste solidification system, presently being developed, that is particularly suited for immobilizing the granular solids and ashes resulting from volume reduction by calcination and/or incineration

  4. Tumor Volume Changes Assessed by Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Volumetry in Rectal Cancer Patients After Preoperative Chemoradiation: The Impact of the Volume Reduction Ratio on the Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Young Wan; Hur, Hyuk; Kim, Jin Soo; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Hogeun; Lim, Joon Seok; Seong, Jinsil; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between tumor volume changes assessed by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry and the histopathologic tumor response in rectal cancer patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by radical surgery were prospectively enrolled in the study. The post-treatment tumor volume and tumor volume reduction ratio (% decrease ratio), as shown by 3D MR volumetry, were compared with the histopathologic response, as shown by T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: There were no significant differences in the post-treatment tumor volume and the volume reduction ratio shown by 3D MR volumetry with respect to T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade. In a multivariate analysis, the tumor volume reduction ratio was not significantly associated with T and N downstaging. The volume reduction ratio (>75%, p = 0.01) and the pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level (≤3 ng/ml, p = 0.01), but not the post-treatment volume shown by 3D MR (≤ 5ml), were, however, significantly associated with an increased pathologic complete response rate. Conclusion: More than 75% of the tumor volume reduction ratios were significantly associated with a high pathologic complete response rate. Therefore, limited treatment options such as local excision or simple observation might be considered after preoperative CRT in this patient population.

  5. Gamma, x-ray reduction system. Volume I: gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The starting premises for this data reduction system were (a) the individual researcher needs all the accuracy that can be achieved but he has neither the time nor the inclination to learn how to achieve it, and (b) if the data reduction system is to be centralized the people operating it will want to minimize conversation with the computer. This is a working system. All spectral data are stored on Data General 4234 discs after background normalization and strip. Storage is initiated from magnetic tapes loaded by detached pulse height analyzers or directly from Scorpio pulse height analyzers. The only restrictions placed on the individual researchers are that the pulse height analyzer energy scale be set up consistently, that a recovery standard be run at least once every day of use, and the total acquisition system be calibrated to its range of use. In many instances, and if desirable, the latter is provided as a service. At the time of writing this gamma data reduction system is actively being used to calculate net peak areas, activities with or without time correction, activations analysis results, counting precisions, and dynamic limits of detection for the spectral data output of 17 detached pulse height analyzers. To all modes of data reduction are applied background subtraction, random summing correction, detector recovery factor correction, peak interfernce correction (second-order product interference for activation analysis), geometry function correction, acquisition time decay corrections, external and internal sorber correction. All of this is accomplished and a customer report typed in a readable format after a halfline of noninteractive instruction

  6. Supercompactor force effectiveness as related to dry active waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.; Phillips, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    The first U.S. permanently installed supercompactor is now in operation at the Babcock and Wilcox volume reduction center, Parks Township, Pennsylvania. Tests with various DAW (dry active waste) material have been conducted, recording press force versus drum height as one means of estimating volume reduction capability of this machine at various compaction forces. The results of these tests, as well as other factors, are presented herein

  7. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  8. Trial operation of the advanced volume reduction facilities for LLW at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Hidekazu; Momma, Toshiyuki; Kozawa, Kazushige; Touhei, Toshio; Sudou, Tomoyuki; Mitsuda, Motoyuki; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Hemmi, Kou; Ishikawa, Joji; Kato, Mitsugu; Sato, Motoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) constructed the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVRF), in which volume reduction techniques are applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio, homogenization and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes for low level radioactive solid wastes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the volume of stored wastes by operating the AVRF. The AVRF consist of the Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities (WSRSF) and the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF); the former has cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter has melting units and a super compactor. Cutting installations in the WSRSF have been operating since July 1999. Radioactive wastes treated so far amount to 750 m 3 and the volume reduction ratio is from 1.7 to 3.7. The WVRF has been operating with non-radioactive wastes since February 2003 for the training and the homogeneity investigation in the melting processes. The operation of the pretreatment system in the WVRF with radioactive wastes has partly started in FY2005. (author)

  9. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0183] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume... Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction (Policy Statement). This statement encouraged licensees to take..., the NRC staff issued SECY-10-0043, ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No...

  10. The lung volume reduction coil for the treatment of emphysema : a new therapy in development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    Lung volume reduction (LVR) coil treatment is a novel therapy for patients with severe emphysema. In this bilateral bronchoscopic treatment, approximately 10 LVR coils per lobe are delivered under fluoroscopic guidance in two sequential procedures. The LVR coil reduces lung volume by compressing the

  11. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal

  12. The impact of a forced reduction in traffic volumes on urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuval; Broday, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Middle East military conflict of summer 2006 resulted in a few weeks in which the city of Haifa, Israel, and its environs experienced very profound variations in the commercial and personal activities. Large industrial plants continued almost normal operations but activities of small scale industry, shopping, and personal commuting were drastically reduced, leading to a dramatic decrease in the commercial and personal traffic volumes. This period of reduced activity serves as a real life experiment for assessment and demonstration of the impact that human activity, and mainly road traffic, may have on the air pollution levels in a bustling middle-sized city. The analysis is made especially sharp and reliable due to the abruptness of the beginning and the end of the reduced activity period, its length, and the stable summer meteorological conditions in the eastern Mediterranean region. The reduced traffic volumes resulted in lowered levels of NO 2 , hydrocarbons and particulate matter. The decrease in these pollutants' mean concentration was significantly larger than the reduction in the mean traffic volume. Slightly higher mean O 3 concentrations were observed during the reduced traffic period. (author)

  13. Clinical and radiological outcome following pneumothorax after endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompelmann, D; Benjamin, N; Kontogianni, K; Herth, Fjf; Heussel, C P; Hoffmann, H; Eberhardt, R

    2016-01-01

    Valve implantation has evolved as a therapy for patients with advanced emphysema. Although it is a minimally invasive treatment, it is associated with complications, the most common being pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurs due to the rapid target lobe volume reduction and may be a predictor of clinical benefit despite this complication. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory data analysis of patients who developed a pneumothorax following endoscopic valve therapy for emphysema. This study performed a retrospective evaluation of pneumothorax management and the impact of pneumothorax on clinical outcomes in 70 patients following valve therapy in 381 consecutive patients. Pneumothorax rate following valve therapy was 18%. Pneumothorax management consisted of chest tube insertion, valve removal, and surgical intervention in 87% (61/70), 44% (31/70), and 19% (13/70) of the patients, respectively. Despite pneumothorax, patients experienced modest but significant improvements in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 55±148 mL, residual volume: -390±964 mL, total lung capacity: -348±876; all P pneumothorax, which was associated with relevant clinical improvement, was observed in only 21% (15/70) of the patients. Pneumothorax is a frequent severe complication following valve therapy that requires further intervention. Nevertheless, the pneumothorax does not impair the clinical status in the majority of patients. Patients with lobar atelectasis benefit after recovering from pneumothorax in terms of lung function parameters.

  14. MRI estimation of total renal volume demonstrates significant association with healthy donor weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Emil I.; Kelly, Sarah A.; Edye, Michael; Mitty, Harold A.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate total renal volume (TRV) calculations, obtained through the voxel-count method and ellipsoid formula with various physical characteristics. Materials and methods: MRI reports and physical examination from 210 healthy kidney donors (420 kidneys), on whom renal volumes were obtained using the voxel-count method, were retrospectively reviewed. These values along with ones obtained through a more traditional method (ellipsoid formula) were correlated with subject height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and age. Results: TRV correlated strongly with body weight (r = 0.7) and to a lesser degree with height, age, or BMI (r = 0.5, -0.2, 0.3, respectively). The left kidney volume was greater than the right, on average (p < 0.001). The ellipsoid formula method over-estimated renal volume by 17% on average which was significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Body weight was the physical characteristic which demonstrated the strongest correlation with renal volume in healthy subjects. Given this finding, a formula was derived for estimating the TRV for a given patient based on the his or her weight: TRV = 2.96 x weight (kg) + 113 ± 64.

  15. Intraoperative Sensorcaine significantly improves postoperative pain management in outpatient reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Alfred T; Spector, Jason A; Flores, Roberto L; Louie, Otway; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2007-09-15

    Breast reduction is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgical procedures in the United States; more than 160,500 patients underwent the procedure in 2005. Many outpatient reduction mammaplasty patients report the greatest postoperative discomfort in the first 48 hours. The authors' investigated the effect of intraoperative topical application of the long-acting local anesthetic agent bupivacaine (Sensorcaine or Marcaine) on postoperative pain, time to postanesthesia care unit discharge, and postoperative use of narcotic medication. In a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial, intraoperative use of Sensorcaine versus placebo (normal saline) was compared. Postoperative pain was quantified using the visual analogue scale, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was recorded. Patients documented their outpatient pain medication usage. Of the 37 patients enrolled in the study, 20 were treated with intraoperative topical Sensorcaine and 17 received placebo. Patients treated with Sensorcaine were discharged home significantly faster (2.9 hours versus 3.8 hours, p = 0.002). The control arm consistently had higher pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (although not statistically significant) than the Sensorcaine group using the visual analogue scale system. Furthermore, patients receiving Sensorcaine required significantly less narcotic medication while recovering at home (mean, 3.5 tablets of Vicodin) than the control group (mean, 6.4 tablets; p = 0.001). There were no complications resulting from Sensorcaine usage. This prospective, randomized, single-blind study demonstrates that a single dose of intraoperative Sensorcaine provides a safe, inexpensive, and efficacious way to significantly shorten the length of postanesthesia care unit stay and significantly decrease postoperative opioid analgesic use in patients undergoing ambulatory reduction mammaplasty.

  16. Waste isolation in the U.S., technical programs and public education. Volume 2 - low level waste, volume reduction methodologies and economics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    This volume presents information regarding low-level waste, volume reduction methodologies and economics. Topics include: public education on nuclear waste; economics of low-level waste management systems; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques; solidification of waste; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques--incineration; regional plans for the disposal of low-level waste; radwaste system modifications at nuclear power plants; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques--operations and on-site storage issues; and economic impact of 10CFR61

  17. Volume reduction technology of radioactive waste and clearance practice of contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao

    2016-01-01

    • One of principles of RW management is minimization and reduction: - Advance process and facilities should be reasonably applied to reduce the waste generation (''Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution'', 2003); - Operator of RW storage facilities should dispose or clear up solid waste timely (''Regulations on the safety of RW management'', 2011); • Reduction principle: - Control of generation; - Use of volume reduction technique; - Clearance of slightly contaminated material

  18. Reduction of radioactive waste volumes by using supercompaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John Wagner A.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N. de

    2007-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Program from ELETRONUCLEAR comprises the use of techniques and technologies to reduce the volumes of processed radwaste, which aims to improve the storage capacity and also assure the protection for the environment, as part of ELETRONUCLEAR's business strategy. The Angra site stores radwaste in temporary storage facilities, named Store number 1 and Store number 2, which are routinely managed and surveyed periodically by the ELETRONUCLEAR's Radiological Protection Division and submitted to frequent CNEN inspections. Medium level and low level radwastes are stored on those storage facilities. In January 2005, ELETRONUCLEAR decided to realize the Supercompaction of drums with compacted radwaste, mostly from Angra 1 and a little from Angra 2. By that time, the Store 1 was near to achieve its nominal capacity; this situation demanded a prompt response, and the chosen option was to proceed the supercompaction by using a mobile supercompactor unit. In April, 2006, two thousand and twenty seven drums of 200 liters were supercompacted at the plant site, and as a result, the initial storage area became sufficient to store drums for about five more years of operation. The supercompaction process is achieved by using a hydraulic press with extra high force. The pellets (crashed drums) were placed inside a special metallic box with 2500 liters of capacity (the overpack). This operation produced 128 full boxes, varying from 12 to 19 pellets inside each box, and the boxes were stored inside the Store 1. (author)

  19. System of the advanced volume reduction facilities for LLW at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Hidekazu; Monma, Toshiyuki; Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Kozawa, Kazushige; Touhei, Toshio; Sudou, Tomoyuki; Mitsuda, Motoyuki; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Henmi, Kou; Ishikawa, Joji; Kato, Mitsugu; Sato, Motoaki

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) constructed the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVRF), in which volume reduction techniques are applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio, homogenization and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes for low level solid wastes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the amount of the wastes by operating the AVRF. The AVRF consist of the Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities (WSRSF) and the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF); the former have cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter have melting units and a super compactor. Cutting installations in the WSRSF have been operating since June 1999. Radioactive wastes treated so far amount to 600 m 3 and the volume reduction ratio is from 1/2 to 1/3. The WVRF have been operating with non-radioactive wastes since February 2003 for the training and the homogeneity investigation in the melting processes. The operation with radioactive wastes will start in FY2005. (author)

  20. Radiation dose reduction: comparative assessment of publication volume between interventional and diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Henzler, Thomas; Gaba, Ron C; Morelli, John N

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to quantify and compare awareness regarding radiation dose reduction within the interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology communities. Abstracts accepted to the annual meetings of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed using the search terms "interventional/computed tomography" and "radiation dose/radiation dose reduction." A PubMed query using the above-mentioned search terms for the years of 2005-2015 was performed. Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 14 520 abstracts (mean, 660±297 abstracts) and 80 614 abstracts (mean, 3664±1025 abstracts) were presented at interventional and diagnostic radiology meetings, respectively. Significantly fewer abstracts related to radiation dose were presented at the interventional radiology meetings compared with the diagnostic radiology meetings (162 abstracts [1% of total] vs. 2706 [3% of total]; P radiology abstracts (range, 6-27) and 246±105 diagnostic radiology abstracts (range, 112-389) pertaining to radiation dose were presented at each meeting. The PubMed query revealed an average of 124±39 publications (range, 79-187) and 1205±307 publications (range, 829-1672) related to interventional and diagnostic radiology dose reduction per year, respectively (P radiology community over the past 10 years has not mirrored the increased volume seen within diagnostic radiology, suggesting that increased education and discussion about this topic may be warranted.

  1. Volume reduction of low-level contaminated metal waste by melting: selection of method and conceptual plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.; Mateer, R.S.

    1978-06-01

    A review of the literature and prior experience led to selection of induction melting as the most promising method for volume reduction of low-level transuranic contaminated metal waste. The literature indicates that melting with the appropriate slags significantly lowers the total contamination level of the metals by preferentially concentrating contaminants in the smaller volume of slag. Surface contamination not removed to the slag is diluted in the ingot and is contained uniformly in the metal. This dilution and decontamination offers the potential of lower cost disposal such as shallow burial rather than placement in a national repository. A processing plan is proposed as a model for economic analysis of the collection and volume reduction of contaminated metals. Further development is required to demonstrate feasibility of the plan

  2. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  4. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  5. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    for breast reduction surgery, thus establishing a standard decision basis that can be shared by surgeons and departments to secure patients fair and equal treatment opportunities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who were referred to three Danish public hospitals with breast hypertrophy...... in the period from January 2007 to March 2011 were included prospectively in the study. The patients' subjective complaints, height, weight and standard breast measurements were registered as well as the decision for or against surgery. Breast volume was measured using transparent plastic cups. RESULTS: Cut......-off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...

  6. Research and development of improved type radioactive waste volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Yamaoka, Katsuaki; Masaki, Tetsuo; Akagawa, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    Development and research had been conducted since 1978 on an improved type radioactive waste volume reduction system incorporating calcining and incinerating fluidized bed type furnaces. This system can dispose of concentrated liquid wastes, combustible solid wastes, spent ion exchange resins and so forth by calcination or incineration to turn them into reduced-volume products. Recently a pilot test facility has constructed and tests has been conducted to demonstrate actual performance. Representative results of pilot tests are reported in this paper. (author)

  7. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during...... infusion while hyperthermic. Primary dependent variables were mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean), serving as an index of cerebral perfusion; mean arterial pressure (MAP); and cardiac output (thermodilution). During baseline, hyperthermia reduced MCAvmean (P = 0.001) by 12 ± 9% relative...

  8. A plasma melting technology for volume reduction of noncombustible radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Jae; Moon, Young Pyo

    1998-01-01

    In Korea, there is a strong need for the development of radioactive waste volume reduction technology. Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been searching for ways to reduce the radioactive volume significantly and to produce stable waste forms. In particular, plasma treatment technology has caught KEPR's attention for treating noncombustible radwaste because this technology may far surpass conventional methods. The potential for greater control of temperature, faster reaction times, better control of processing, lower capital costs, greater throughput and more efficient use of energy is there. For the plasma melting study of noncombustible waste, KEPRI has leased a lab scale multipurpose plasma furnace system and performed preliminary tests. Using simulated noncombustible waste based on field survey data from nuclear power plants, lab scale melting experiments have been carried out. The properties of molten slag vary with additives and noncombustible waste materials. KEPRI's current study is focused on finding an optimum composition ratio of various noncombustible wastes for melting, investigating physical properties of molten slag, and obtaining operating parameters for continuous operation. (author)

  9. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes are examined. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). The additional waste quantities must be considered in evaluating performance and overall volume reduction factors for the various systems. In the selection of an optimum waste management plan for a given facility, other important factors (e.g., relative stability of the waste product form) should be considered along with the savings accrued due to volume reduction

  10. A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Interventional Lung Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wansheng; Dong Yonghua; Liu Bin; Zhu Chi; Yu Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of lung volume reduction by transbronchial alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion with the aid of balloon-tipped catheter occlusion. Twenty-six healthy adult rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion (n = 8), lipiodol infusion (n = 8), alcohol infusion (n = 5), or bronchial lumen occlusion (n = 5). After selective lobar or segmental bronchial catheterization using a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter, the corresponding drug infusion was performed. Bone cement was used to occlude the bronchial lumen in the occlusion group. The animals were followed up for 10 weeks by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and then the whole lungs were harvested for histological examination. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension or lipiodol could be stably retained in alveoli in the first two groups based on chest X-ray and CT, but obvious collapse only occurred in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension or the bronchial lumen occlusion group. Histological examination revealed damage and disruption of the alveolar epithelium and fibrosis in related lung tissue in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension. Similar changes were seen in the bronchial lumen occlusion group, apart from obvious marginal emphysema of the target areas in two animals. Interstitial pneumonia and dilated alveoli existed in some tissue in target areas in the lipiodol group, in which pulmonary fibrosis obliterating alveoli also occurred. Chronic alveolitis and pleural adhesion in target areas occurred in the group infused with alcohol alone, whereas visceral pleura of the other three groups was regular and no pleural effusion or adhesion was found. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension that is stably retained in alveoli can result in significant lung volume reduction. Through alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion, obstructive emphysema or pneumonia arising from bronchial lumen

  11. Insular and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. Methods For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Results Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. Conclusions The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25051163

  12. Gray matter volume reduction in rostral middle frontal gyrus in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinis, Z; Fallon, J H; Niznikiewicz, M; Nestor, P; Davidson, C; Bobrow, L; Pelavin, P E; Fischl, B; Yendiki, A; McCarley, R W; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Shenton, M E

    2010-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a brain region that has figured prominently in studies of schizophrenia and working memory, yet the exact neuroanatomical localization of this brain region remains to be defined. DLPFC primarily involves the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The latter, however is not a single neuroanatomical entity but instead is comprised of rostral (anterior, middle, and posterior) and caudal regions. In this study we used structural MRI to develop a method for parcellating MFG into its component parts. We focused on this region of DLPFC because it includes BA46, a region involved in working memory. We evaluated volume differences in MFG in 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Mid-rostral MFG (MR-MFG) was delineated within the rostral MFG using anterior and posterior neuroanatomical landmarks derived from cytoarchitectonic definitions of BA46. Gray matter volumes of MR-MFG were then compared between groups, and a significant reduction in gray matter volume was observed (p<0.008), but not in other areas of MFG (i.e., anterior or posterior rostral MFG, or caudal regions of MFG). Our results demonstrate that volumetric alterations in MFG gray matter are localized exclusively to MR-MFG. 3D reconstructions of the cortical surface made it possible to follow MFG into its anterior part, where other approaches have failed. This method of parcellation offers a more precise way of measuring MR-MFG that will likely be important in further documentation of DLPFC anomalies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal tissue complication probabilities: dependence on choice of biological model and dose-volume histogram reduction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose-volume histogram (DVH) reduction schemes and models of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) on ranking of radiation treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Data for liver complications in humans and for spinal cord in rats were used to derive input parameters of four different NTCP models. DVH reduction was performed using two schemes: 'effective volume' and 'preferred Lyman'. DVHs for competing treatment plans were derived from a sample DVH by varying dose uniformity in a high dose region so that the obtained cumulative DVHs intersected. Treatment plans were ranked according to the calculated NTCP values. Results: Whenever the preferred Lyman scheme was used to reduce the DVH, competing plans were indistinguishable as long as the mean dose was constant. The effective volume DVH reduction scheme did allow us to distinguish between these competing treatment plans. However, plan ranking depended on the radiobiological model used and its input parameters. Conclusions: Dose escalation will be a significant part of radiation treatment planning using new technologies, such as 3-D conformal radiotherapy and tomotherapy. Such dose escalation will depend on how the dose distributions in organs at risk are interpreted in terms of expected complication probabilities. The present study indicates considerable variability in predicted NTCP values because of the methods used for DVH reduction and radiobiological models and their input parameters. Animal studies and collection of standardized clinical data are needed to ascertain the effects of non-uniform dose distributions and to test the validity of the models currently in use

  14. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Reopening of comment... for public comment a draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste...-based approaches to managing waste are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The...

  15. Technical evaluation of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's topical report on a mobile volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henscheid, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's (AECC's) topical report on a Mobile Volume Reduction System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with AECC by EG and G Idaho and the NRC, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made

  16. Lung volume reduction coil treatment for patients with severe emphysema : a European multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deslee, Gaetan; Klooster, Karin; Hetzel, Martin; Stanzel, Franz; Kessler, Romain; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Witt, Christian; Blaas, Stefan; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Herth, Felix J. F.; Hetzel, Juergen; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background The lung volume reduction (LVR) coil is a minimally invasive bronchoscopic nitinol device designed to reduce hyperinflation and improve elastic recoil in severe emphysema. We investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a prospective multicentre cohort trial

  17. Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology : an update on efficacy and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for

  18. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The indication for breast reduction in a public welfare or an insurance paid setting depends on the severity of the subjective symptoms and the clinical evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of breast volume as an objective criterion to establish the indication...

  19. The economic impact of regional waste disposal on advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Waste volume reduction has received increased emphasis over the past decade as annual operating costs have risen from $250,000/year to $3,500,000 for 1983. Emphasis has been given to developing and designing into new nuclear plants process and DAW volume reduction technologies such as fluidized-bed dryers incinerators, and evaporative-solidification systems. The basis for these systems was originally the correct perception that a crisis would be reached with the, then available, shallow land disposal sites which would increase costs substantially and possible jeopardize power plant operations. With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and increased emphasis on interim on-site storage of low-level waste, the ''economics of volume reduction'' are susceptible to increased uncertainties. This paper reviews some previous volume reduction economic analyses and evaluates the revised economics based upon the development of regional waste disposal sites, improved waste generation and processing practices, and the increased use of interim on-site storage. Several case studies are presented

  20. Technical evaluation of the ATI volume reduction and bitumen solidification topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henscheid, J.W.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of the Associated Technologies Inorporated (ATI) topical report on a Volume Reduction and Bitumen Solidification System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with ATI, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made

  1. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). 23 figures

  2. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  3. Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil

  4. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  5. Numerical Feynman integrals with physically inspired interpolation: Faster convergence and significant reduction of computational cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh S. Dattani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most successful methods for calculating reduced density operator dynamics in open quantum systems, that can give numerically exact results, uses Feynman integrals. However, when simulating the dynamics for a given amount of time, the number of time steps that can realistically be used with this method is always limited, therefore one often obtains an approximation of the reduced density operator at a sparse grid of points in time. Instead of relying only on ad hoc interpolation methods (such as splines to estimate the system density operator in between these points, I propose a method that uses physical information to assist with this interpolation. This method is tested on a physically significant system, on which its use allows important qualitative features of the density operator dynamics to be captured with as little as two time steps in the Feynman integral. This method allows for an enormous reduction in the amount of memory and CPU time required for approximating density operator dynamics within a desired accuracy. Since this method does not change the way the Feynman integral itself is calculated, the value of the density operator approximation at the points in time used to discretize the Feynamn integral will be the same whether or not this method is used, but its approximation in between these points in time is considerably improved by this method. A list of ways in which this proposed method can be further improved is presented in the last section of the article.

  6. Assembling of carbon nanotubes film responding to significant reduction wear and friction on steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Xue, Yong; Qiang, Li; Gao, Kaixong; Liu, Qiao; Yang, Baoping; Liang, Aiming; Zhang, Junyan

    2017-11-01

    Friction properties of carbon nanotubes have been widely studied and reported, however, the friction properties of carbon nanotubes related on state of itself. It is showing superlubricity under nanoscale, but indicates high shear adhesion as aligned carbon nanotube film. However, friction properties under high load (which is commonly in industry) of carbon nanotube films are seldom reported. In this paper, carbon nanotube films, via mechanical rubbing method, were obtained and its tribology properties were investigated at high load of 5 to 15 N. Though different couple pairs were employed, the friction coefficients of carbon nanotube films are nearly the same. Compared with bare stainless steel, friction coefficients and wear rates under carbon nanotube films lubrication reduced to, at least, 1/5 and 1/(4.3-14.5), respectively. Friction test as well as structure study were carried out to reveal the mechanism of the significant reduction wear and friction on steel surface. One can conclude that sliding and densifying of carbon nanotubes at sliding interface contribute to the sufficient decrease of friction coefficients and wear rates.

  7. Significant enhancement of magnetoresistance with the reduction of particle size in nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalipada; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.; Das, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Physics of materials with large magnetoresistance (MR), defined as the percentage change of electrical resistance with the application of external magnetic field, has been an active field of research for quite some times. In addition to the fundamental interest, large MR has widespread application that includes the field of magnetic field sensor technology. New materials with large MR is interesting. However it is more appealing to vast scientific community if a method describe to achieve many fold enhancement of MR of already known materials. Our study on several manganite samples [La1−xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55)] illustrates the method of significant enhancement of MR with the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale. Our experimentally observed results are explained by considering model consisted of a charge ordered antiferromagnetic core and a shell having short range ferromagnetic correlation between the uncompensated surface spins in nanoscale regime. The ferromagnetic fractions obtained theoretically in the nanoparticles has been shown to be in the good agreement with the experimental results. The method of several orders of magnitude improvement of the magnetoresistive property will have enormous potential for magnetic field sensor technology. PMID:26837285

  8. The significance of duration and amount of sodium reduction intervention in normotensive and hypertensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to establish the time for achievement of maximal blood pressure (BP) efficacy of a sodium reduction (SR) intervention and the relation between the amount of SR and the BP response in individuals with hypertension and normal BP. Relevant studies were retrieved.......12, P policy of sodium reduction....

  9. Changes in superior mesenteric artery Doppler waveform during reduction of cardiac stroke volume and hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Perko, Grazyna; Just, S

    1996-01-01

    the hypovolemia. Alterations in pV and pulsatility indices were closely related to changes in stroke volume, and a negative correlation was found between diastolic velocities and stroke volume. regression analysis showed no significant relation between variations in velocity parameters and blood pressure. Results...

  10. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraina S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV, which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS. RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in

  11. Meta-Analysis of Ultrafiltration versus Diuretics Treatment Option for Overload Volume Reduction in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoudah, Ebrahim; Kodali, Sindhura; Okoroh, Juliet; Sethi, Rosh; Hulten, Edward; Suemoto, Claudia; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer

    2015-05-01

    Although diuretics are mainly used for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), inadequate responses and complications have led to the use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF) as an alternative strategy for reducing volume overloads in patients with ADHF. The aim of our study is to perform meta-analysis of the results obtained from studies on extracorporeal venous ultrafiltration and compare them with those of standard diuretic treatment for overload volume reduction in acute decompensated heart failure. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were systematically searched using a pre‑specified criterion. Pooled estimates of outcomes after 48 h (weight change, serum creatinine level, and all-cause mortality) were computed using random effect models. Pooled weighted mean differences were calculated for weight loss and change in creatinine level, whereas a pooled risk ratio was used for the analysis of binary all-cause mortality outcome. A total of nine studies, involving 613 patients, met the eligibility criteria. The mean weight loss in patients who underwent UF therapy was 1.78 kg [95% Confidence Interval (CI): -2.65 to -0.91 kg; p diuretic therapy. The post-intervention creatinine level, however, was not significantly different (mean change = -0.25 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.56 to 0.06 mg/dL; p = 0.112). The risk of all-cause mortality persisted in patients treated with UF compared with patients treated with standard diuretics (Pooled RR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.64-1.56; p = 0.993). Compared with standard diuretic therapy, UF treatment for overload volume reduction in individuals suffering from ADHF, resulted in significant reduction of body weight within 48 h. However, no significant decrease of serum creatinine level or reduction of all-cause mortality was observed.

  12. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  13. Multisource radiofrequency for fractional skin resurfacing-significant reduction of wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Serge; Rousseaux, Isabelle; Cartier, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Skin roughness, color change, wrinkles and skin laxity are the main characteristics of aging skin. Dermatologists and plastic surgeons look for a treatment that will provide both epidermal resurfacing for the improvement of skin roughness and deep volumetric heating that will trigger collagen remodeling in the dermis to reduce wrinkles and skin laxity. These goals should be achieved with minimal pain and downtime. The study included 10 subjects (Fitzpatrick's skin type 2-3) with Fitzpatrick wrinkle and elastosis scale of 5-8 (average 7.3). Treatment was done with the Fractional skin resurfacing handpiece of the EndyMed PRO multisource radiofrequency system (EndyMed Ltd, Cesarea, Israel). Treatment was repeated each month up to a total of three treatment sessions. Patients photographs were graded according to accepted scales by a board certified dermatologists. Patients' pain and satisfaction were scored using dedicated questionnaires. Doctors' satisfaction was also evaluated. Post treatment skin erythema was noted in all treated patients, lasting up to 10 hours. Fifty six percent of patients reported no pain after treatment, and the rest (44%) reported minimal pain. All patients showed significant reduction in the Fitzpatrick wrinkle score. Average Fitzpatrick wrinkle score was 7.3 at baseline, 4.9 at 1 month after the first treatment, 4.2 at 1 month after the second treatment, and 4.1 at 1 month after the third treatment. The score was similar at 3 months after the third treatment with a score of 4.1. When asked at the end of three treatment sessions, all patients answered they will recommend the treatment to their friends (66% "definitely yes" and 33% "yes"). When asked the same question 3 months after the end of treatment, all patients (100%) answered "definitely yes".

  14. A logical approach to determine a waste segregation/volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, G.D.; Carmel, P.G.; Shimmura, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of hand sorting versus use of automated radioactive waste segregation monitors and makes an analysis of costs/versus benefits based on volume with time. Many programs to be employed to prevent unnecessary waste generation with little or no additional cost to the power plant. Parameters needed to perform a cost analysis and methods used to obtain them are discussed. Recommendations on use of vendor-supplied services for segregation, volume reduction, and decontamination are given. The data provided will enable the selection of a program(s) to benefit the individual user's requirements

  15. Scintigraphic and MR perfusion imaging in preoperative evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery. Pilot study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Mueller, N.L.; Kavanagh, P.V

    2000-01-01

    To compare MR perfusion imaging with perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary emphysema being considered for lung volume reduction surgery. Six patients with pulmonary emphysema and two normal individuals were evaluated by MR perfusion imaging, perfusion scintigraphy, and selective bilateral pulmonary angiography. MR images were obtained with an enhanced fast gradient recalled echo with three-dimensional Fourier transformation technique (efgre 3D) (6.3/1.3; flip angle, 30 deg C; field of view, 45-48 cm; matrix, 256 x 160). The presence or absence of perfusion defects in each segment was evaluated by two independent observers. Using angiography as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR perfusion imaging in detecting focal perfusion abnormalities were 90%, 87%, and 89%, respectively, while those of perfusion scintigraphy were 71%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MR perfusion imaging was significantly higher than that of scintigraphy (p<0.001, McNemar test). There was good agreement between two observers for MR perfusion imaging (kappa statistic, 0.66) and only moderate agreement for perfusion scintigraphy (kappa statistic, 0.51). MR perfusion imaging is superior to perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal perfusion in patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  16. The safety of dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy prior to lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M.R.; Angelides, S.; Parker, M.K.; Silva, I. da; Freeman, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) are at high risk of peri-operative cardiac complications, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is commonly used for risk stratification. This study prospectively assessed the safety of dipyridamole in these patients and compared the incidence of side-effects (particularly dyspnoea) with that in patients undergoing dipyridamole MPS prior to elective non-cardiothoracic surgery. Fifty patients were enrolled: 25 in the LVRS cohort (13 males, 12 females), with a mean age of 65 years and a mean FEV 1 of 0.79 l, and 25 (with no history of asthma or COPD) in the control cohort (14 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 66 years. Fourteen patients (56%) in each group developed side-effects. Dyspnoea was reported by five patients (20%) in the LVRS and two patients (8%) in the control cohort (P=NS). One patient in each cohort developed severe hypotension and bradycardia. Eight (32%) other patients developed minor side-effects in the LVRS cohort compared with 11 (44%) in the control group. All side-effects responded promptly to intravenous aminophylline. In summary, there was a statistically non-significant increase in the incidence of dyspnoea in patients with end-stage COPD and all side-effects responded to aminophylline. Thus, dipyridamole can be used safely in these patients. (orig.)

  17. Visual grading of emphysema severity in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Bergstrand, L.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Aspelin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate which of three types of CT imaging yielded the best results in estimating the degree of emphysema in patients undergoing evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there was any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema had an impact on the estimation. Material and Methods: Four radiologists visually classified different degrees of emphysema on three different types of CT images into four groups. The degree of emphysema was calculated by a computer. The three types of images were as follows: HRCT images (2-mm slice thickness); spiral CT images (10-mm slice thickness); and density-masked images (spiral CT images printed with pixels below 960 HU, depicted in white). Results: The conventionally presented images from HRCT and spiral CT yielded the same results (60% respective 62% correct classifications) in assessing the degree of emphysema irrespective of localisation. Significantly improved results were obtained when the spiral CT images were presented as density-masked images (74%). Conclusion: There was no difference between HRCT and spiral CT in assessing the degree of emphysema in candidates for LVRS. Improvement can be achieved by the use of density-masked images

  18. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ahmed E.; Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  19. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  20. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  1. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  2. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by endobronchial valve in advanced emphysema: the first Asian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park TS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tai Sun Park,1 Yoonki Hong,2 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang Young Oh,3 Sang Min Lee,3 Namkug Kim,3 Joon Beom Seo,3 Yeon-Mok Oh,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Sei Won Lee1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea; 3Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: Endobronchial valve (EBV therapy is increasingly being seen as a therapeutic option for advanced emphysema, but its clinical utility in Asian populations, who may have different phenotypes to other ethnic populations, has not been assessed.Patients and methods: This prospective open-label single-arm clinical trial examined the clinical efficacy and the safety of EBV in 43 consecutive patients (mean age 68.4±7.5, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] 24.5%±10.7% predicted, residual volume 208.7%±47.9% predicted with severe emphysema with complete fissure and no collateral ventilation in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea.Results: Compared to baseline, the patients exhibited significant improvements 6 months after EBV therapy in terms of FEV1 (from 0.68±0.26 L to 0.92±0.40 L; P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (from 233.5±114.8 m to 299.6±87.5 m; P=0.012, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (from 3.7±0.6 to 2.4±1.2; P<0.001, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (from 65.59±13.07 to 53.76±11.40; P=0.028. Nine patients (20.9% had a tuberculosis scar, but these scars did not affect target lobe volume reduction or pneumothorax frequency. Thirteen patients had adverse events, ten (23.3% developed pneumothorax, which included one death due to tension pneumothorax.Conclusion: EBV therapy was as effective and safe in Korean

  3. Clinical and radiological outcome following pneumothorax after endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompelmann D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available D Gompelmann,1,2 N Benjamin,1 K Kontogianni,1 FJF Herth,1,2 CP Heussel,2–4 H Hoffmann,2,5 R Eberhardt1,2 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, 2German Center for Lung Research, 3Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, 4Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 5Thoracic Surgery, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Introduction: Valve implantation has evolved as a therapy for patients with advanced emphysema. Although it is a minimally invasive treatment, it is associated with complications, the most common being pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurs due to the rapid target lobe volume reduction and may be a predictor of clinical benefit despite this complication. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory data analysis of patients who developed a pneumothorax following endoscopic valve therapy for emphysema. Materials and methods: This study performed a retrospective evaluation of pneumothorax management and the impact of pneumothorax on clinical outcomes in 70 patients following valve therapy in 381 consecutive patients. Results: Pneumothorax rate following valve therapy was 18%. Pneumothorax management consisted of chest tube insertion, valve removal, and surgical intervention in 87% (61/70, 44% (31/70, and 19% (13/70 of the patients, respectively. Despite pneumothorax, patients experienced modest but significant improvements in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 55±148 mL, residual volume: -390±964 mL, total lung capacity: -348±876; all P<0.05. Persistent lobar atelectasis 3 months after recovering from pneumothorax, which was associated with relevant clinical improvement, was observed in only 21% (15/70 of the patients. Conclusion: Pneumothorax is a frequent severe complication following valve therapy that requires further intervention

  4. Clinical significance of computed tomography in the measurement of thyroid volume after operation for Basedow's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Yoshio; Miyakawa, Makoto; Sugenoya, Akira

    1986-01-01

    The postoperative volume of the thyroid glands was measured using computed tomography (CT) in 16 patients with Basedow's disease. In the group which had normal postoperative thyroid function and did not need to receive T 4 , CT showed increase of thyroid volume. In three of the four patients who needed to receive it, CT showed decreased thyroid volume, as compared with that immediately after operation. CT has proved to serve as a tool for measuring postoperative thyroid volume for Basedow's disease in relation to postoperative prognosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  6. Incidental lung volume reduction following fulminant pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with severe emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Juergen; Spengler, Werner; Horger, Marius; Boeckeler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction is an emerging technique meant to improve lung function parameters, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe lung emphysema. This is the first report of lung volume reduction by autologous blood in a patient with non-bullous lung emphysema. A 74-year-old woman with heterogeneous lung emphysema developed accidentally diffuse lobar bleeding immediately after valve placement. Due to persistent hemorrhage, the valves had to be removed shortly thereafter. Despite extraction of the valves, respiratory function of the patient improved rapidly indicated also by a drop in the COPD assessment test questionnaire, 3 months later. This was consistent with both improvement of lung function tests and six-minute walking test.

  7. Incineration as a radioactive waste volume reduction process for CEA nuclear centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabek, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1994-01-01

    Incineration processes represent a promising solution for waste volume reduction, and will be increasingly used in the future. The features and performance specifications of low-level waste incinerators with capacities ranging from 10 to 20 kg - h -1 at the Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Cadarache nuclear centers in France are briefly reviewed. More extensive knowledge of low-level wastes produced in facilities operated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has allowed us to assess the volume reduction obtained by processing combustible waste in existing incinerators. Research and development work is in progress to improve management procedures for higher-level waste and to build facilities capable of incinerating α - contaminated waste. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Volume reduction of radioactive concrete waste generated from KRR-2 and UCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Choi, W. K.; Park, J. W.; Lee, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a technical development for the volume reduction and stabilization of contaminated concrete wastes generated by dismantling a research reactor and uranium conversion plant, we have developed the volume reduction technology and immobilization of fine powder applicable to an activated heavy weight concrete generated by dismantling KRR-2 and a uranium contaminated light weight concrete produced from a UCP decommissioning. During a decommissioning of nuclear plants and facilities, large quantities of contaminated concrete wastes are generated. The decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and a uranium conversion plant has been under way. In Korea, two decommissioning projects such as the decommissioning of the retired research reactors (KRR-1 and 2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been carried out. By dismantling KRR-2, more than 260 tons of radioactive concrete wastes are generated among the total 2,000 tons of concrete wastes and more than 60 tons of concrete wastes contaminated with uranium compounds are generated in UCP decommissioning up to now. The volume reduction and recycling of the wastes is essential to reduce the waste management cost with expecting that an approximate disposal cost for low level radioactive waste will be more than 5,000 US dollars per 200 liter waste drum in Korea. It is well known that most of the radioactivity exist in cement mortar and paste composed of concrete. In this context, the volume reduction of concrete waste is based on the separation of radioactive concrete into a clean recyclable aggregates and a radioactive fine cement powder, which can be readily performed by heating to weaken the adherence force between the cement matrix and the aggregates followed by mechanical crushing and milling processes. In this study, we have investigated the characteristics of separation of aggregates and the distribution of radioactivity into

  9. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  10. Considerations in reviewing the waste volume reduction program in a large utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohout, R.; Calzolari, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A program is underway at Ontario Hydro to establish a desirable future scheme for central processing/volume reduction of solid radioactive Low-Level Wastes (LLW) prior to their placement into the centralized storage, and in the future into a disposal facility. The approach being investigated is to furnish the current Waste Volume Reduction Facility (WVRF) with state-of-art processes, reclassify the waste categories and segregate the wastes such that each volume reduction (VR) process is then applied where it would be most effective. The ''optimized'' approach is then compared with other, specific schemes, which basically differ in that each scheme omits one of the major VR processes, thus allowing the next most effective process to take over its role. Each scheme is assessed quantitatively from the viewpoint of cost and VR effectiveness, and qualitatively from the viewpoint of resultant waste form. The economic assessments take into consideration the long term (20 year) impact of selected VR schemes on the overall waste management cost, including construction and operation of the storage facility. This paper highlights the overall study, includes the major results, and identifies aspects that need to be addressed in the selection of a desirable combination of VR processes in absence of knowledge of future waste disposal costs

  11. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  12. Shredder and incinerator technology for volume reduction of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.

    1986-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating alternatives and developing technology for treatment of radioactive wastes generated during commercial nuclear activities. Transuranic wastes that require volume reduction include spent HEPA filters, sample and analytical cell waste, and general process trash. A review of current technologies for volume reduction of these wastes led to the selection and testing of several low-speed shredder systems and three candidate incineration processes. The incinerators tested were the electrically heated control-led-air, gas-heated controlled-air, and rotary kiln. Equipment tests were conducted using simulated commercial transuranic wastes to provide a data base for the comparison of the various technologies. The electrically driven, low-speed shredder process was selected as the preferred method for size reduction of the wastes prior to incineration. All three incinerators effectively reduced the waste volume. Based on a technical and economic evaluation on the incineration processes, the recommended system for the commercial waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment

  13. 77 FR 21065 - Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth Group of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... 2070-AJ66 Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth... an opportunity to comment on a proposed test rule for 23 high production volume (HPV) chemical... necessary, to prohibit or limit that activity before it occurs. The opportunity to present oral comment was...

  14. Developmentally Stable Whole-Brain Volume Reductions and Developmentally Sensitive Caudate and Putamen Volume Alterations in Those With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Mennes, Maarten; O'Dwyer, Laurence; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Rommelse, Nanda; Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the

  15. Estimation of clinically significant prostate volumes by digital rectal examination: a comparative prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2011-12-01

    Reliable quantification of prostate volume is important to correctly select patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) most likely to benefit from medical therapy [e.g. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)] and in selecting appropriate surgical approach. We aim to determine the reliability of digital rectal examination (DRE) in estimation of prostate volume which may be helpful in patient selection for 5-ARIs therapy.

  16. A carbon emissions reduction index: Integrating the volume and allocation of regional emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiandong; Cheng, Shulei; Song, Malin; Wu, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We build a carbon emissions reduction index (CERI). • The aim is to quantify the pressure on policymakers to reduce emissions. • Scale-related effects and carbon emissions allocations are included in the CERI. • Different standards of carbon emissions allocations are also considered. • We decompose the Gini coefficient to evaluate the effects of three factors. - Abstract: Given the acceleration of global warming and rising greenhouse gas emissions, all countries are facing the harsh reality of the need to reduce carbon emissions. In this study, we propose an index to quantify the pressure faced by policymakers to reduce such emissions, termed the carbon emissions reduction index. This index allows us to observe the effect of carbon emissions volume on the pressure faced by policymakers and study the impact of optimizing interregional carbon emissions on reducing this pressure. In addition, we account for several carbon emissions standards in constructing the index. We conclude that the variation in the index is likely to be attributable to carbon emissions volume, regional ranking, and population (population can also be replaced by GDP, resource endowment, or other factors). In addition, based on empirical data on the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide (China), this study analyzes the evolution of pressure to reduce emissions on a country’s policymakers. The results show that the growing volume and unsuitable allocation of carbon emissions from 1997 to 2012 imposed increasing pressure on the Chinese government in this regard. In addition, reductions in carbon emissions volume and regional ranking are primary factors that impact pressure on policymakers.

  17. Volume reduction of filter media at Susquehanna steam and electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.F.; Hettinger, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the joint efforts between Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light (PPQL) and Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) to reduce the volume of waste shipped to the burial site by the Susquehanna Steam and Electric Station (SSES) and the resulting savings realized as a result. The filter media used at SSES for its radwaste filters is composed of a mix of anion and cation powered resins, powered carbon, diatomaceous earth and a fibrous overlay. Due to the nature of this waste stream, dewatering was difficult using systems previously available in the industry. Thus, processing was accomplished by decanting (to concentrate the waste) and solidification. In the continuing effort to dewater wastes of this nature, SEG developed a new fabric filter dewatering system (RDU). To investigate its potential use in large containers, this dewatering system was installed in drum-size high integrity containers and used to test its dewatering capabilities on actual SSES waste. Promising results from these tests warranted a full-scale test. This proved successful and implementation of this processing scheme was immediate. Cost savings were substantial in transportation, burial and processing costs as well as personnel exposure. Also, additional waste volume reduction was found due to the volume reduction capability of the dewatering system (equivalent volume of new filter media approximately 1.2 times that of dewatered product volume). Additional savings resulted from SSES's continuing effort to minimize radwaste generation. Combined, these have reduced the number of shipments of filter media in 1989 to sixty percent of the number made in 1988 and have reduced costs by approximately fifty percent. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  19. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2--N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  20. Significance of iron reduction for the therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožić Darko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been established that many patients with chronic hepatitis C have elevated serum iron, feritin levels and iron deposits in the liver. Therefore, the liver damage due to hepatitis C virus may be aggravated with iron overload. In many studies higher levels of iron in the blood and the liver were connected with the decreased response to interferon-alfa therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C. Recent introduction of pegylated interferons plus ribavirin has improved the therapeutic response, so it is now possible to cure more than 50% of the patients. Case report. Three patients with chronic hepatitis C and iron overload were presented. Iron reduction therapy using phlebotomy or eritrocytapheresis with plasmapheresis was done at different times in regard to specific antiviral therapy or as a sole therapy. Conclusion. It has been shown that iron reduction, sole or combined with antiviral therapy, led to the deacreased aminotransferase serum activity and might have slow down the evolution of chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

  1. Development of volume reduction treatment techniques for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Yasuzi

    1984-01-01

    The solid wastes packed in drums are preserved in the stores of nuclear establishments in Japan, and the quantity of preservation has already reached about 60 % of the capacity. It has become an important subject to reduce the quantity of generation of radioactive wastes and how to reduce the volume of generated wastes. As the result of the research aiming at the development of the solidified bodies which are excellent in the effect of volume reduction and physical properties, it was confirmed that the plastic solidified bodies using thermosetting resin were superior to conventional cement or asphalt solidification. The plastic solidifying system can treat various radioactive wastes. After radioactive wastes are dried and powdered, they are solidified with plastics, therefore, the effect of volume reduction is excellent. The specific gravity, strength and the resistance to water, fire and radiation were confirmed to be satisfacotory. The plastic solidifying system comprises three subsystems, that is, drying system, powder storing and supplying system and plastic solidifying system. Also the granulation technique after drying and powdering, acid decomposition technique, the microwave melting and solidifying technique for incineration ash, plasma melting process and electrolytic polishing decontamination are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    1998-01-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  3. Morphological image processing operators. Reduction of partial volume effects to improve 3D visualization based on CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, J.; Bittner, R.C.; Hosten, N.; Troeger, J.; Felix, R.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: The quality of segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction of anatomical structures in tomographic slices is often impaired by disturbances due to partial volume effects (PVE). The potential for artefact reduction by use of the morphological image processing operators (MO) erosion and dilation is investigated. Results: For all patients under review, the artefacts caused by PVE were significantly reduced by erosion (lung: Mean SBR pre =1.67, SBR post =4.83; brain: SBR pre =1.06, SBR post =1.29) even with only a small number of iterations. Region dilation was applied to integrate further structures (e.g. at tumor borders) into a configurable neighbourhood for segmentation and quantitative analysis. Conclusions: The MO represent an efficient approach for the reduction of PVE artefacts in 3D-CT reconstructions and allow optimised visualization of individual objects. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et al., 1992; Bergman et al., 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was $55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), $50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be $29.5 million using the same parameters that previously suggested the $55 million figure. Within that cost estimate, $300 each was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the $4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable), direct replacement of the traditional filter train. This paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'Metallic HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al., 1997 work suggested that 1000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) (1690 m 3 /hr) stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for $5000 each after development (although the $70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors own company have estimated development units able to be retrofitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps $30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced industrially in significant numbers may be closer to $15,000 each. That being the case, the

  5. Planimetric determination of lung volume and its significance in the radiological diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.J.; Bieber, M.

    1983-01-01

    The volume of the lungs of 102 patients with emphysema and of 33 normal individuals, aged between 30 and 79 years, was determined with the use of a digital planimeter from routine chest X-rays in two planes. Contrary to the values obtained by a helium dilution method, the volumes, as determined by planimetry, did not show a linear relationship with age, but showed an increase after the age of 60. This agrees with the results of total body plethysmography, carried out by Amrein et al. The planimetric method of Harris, Pratt and Kilburn is a simple and rapid method for demonstrating, even in the presence of regional ventilatory abnormalities, total volume with sufficient accuracy, which complements and quantifies the radiological diagnosis of emphysema. (orig.) [de

  6. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.

    2017-05-01

    Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.

  7. Significant reduction of thermal conductivity in Si/Ge core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Giapis, Konstantinos P; Goicochea, Javier V; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-02-09

    We report on the effect of germanium (Ge) coatings on the thermal transport properties of silicon (Si) nanowires using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that a simple deposition of a Ge shell of only 1 to 2 unit cells in thickness on a single crystalline Si nanowire can lead to a dramatic 75% decrease in thermal conductivity at room temperature compared to an uncoated Si nanowire. By analyzing the vibrational density states of phonons and the participation ratio of each specific mode, we demonstrate that the reduction in the thermal conductivity of Si/Ge core-shell nanowire stems from the depression and localization of long-wavelength phonon modes at the Si/Ge interface and of high frequency nonpropagating diffusive modes.

  8. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  9. Gray Matter Volume Reduction Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Neuromyelitis Optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zhang, N; Qin, W; Li, Y; Fu, Y; Li, T; Shao, J; Yang, L; Shi, F-D; Yu, C

    2015-10-01

    Whether gray matter impairment occurs in neuromyelitis optica is a matter of ongoing debate, and the association of gray matter impairment with cognitive deficits remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volume reductions and their association with cognitive decline in patients with neuromyelitis optica. This study included 50 patients with neuromyelitis optica and 50 sex-, age-, handedness-, and education-matched healthy subjects who underwent high-resolution structural MR imaging examinations and a battery of cognitive assessments. Gray matter volume and cognitive differences were compared between the 2 groups. The correlations of the regional gray matter volume with cognitive scores and clinical variables were explored in the patients with neuromyelitis optica. Compared with healthy controls (635.9 ± 51.18 mL), patients with neuromyelitis optica (602.8 ± 51.03 mL) had a 5.21% decrease in the mean gray matter volume of the whole brain (P optica affected the frontal and temporal cortices and the right thalamus (false discovery rate correction, P optica (Alphasim correction, P optica had impairments in memory, information processing speed, and verbal fluency (P optica and is associated with cognitive impairment and disease severity in this group. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Nonperturbative volume reduction of large-N QCD with adjoint fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    We use nonperturbative lattice techniques to study the volume-reduced 'Eguchi-Kawai' version of four-dimensional large-N QCD with a single adjoint Dirac fermion. We explore the phase diagram of this single-site theory in the space of quark mass and gauge coupling using Wilson fermions for a number of colors in the range 8≤N≤15. Our evidence suggests that these values of N are large enough to determine the nature of the phase diagram for N→∞. We identify the region in the parameter space where the (Z N ) 4 center symmetry is intact. According to previous theoretical work using the orbifolding paradigm, and assuming that translation invariance is not spontaneously broken in the infinite-volume theory, in this region volume reduction holds: the single-site and infinite-volume theories become equivalent when N→∞. We find strong evidence that this region includes both light and heavy quarks (with masses that are at the cutoff scale), and our results are consistent with this region extending toward the continuum limit. We also compare the action density and the eigenvalue density of the overlap Dirac operator in the fundamental representation with those obtained in large-N pure-gauge theory.

  11. New volume reduction conditioning options for solid alpha-bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Kertesz, C.; Frotscher, H.; Ganser, B.; Klein, M.

    1990-01-01

    The current and future development of nuclear energy requires increasing allowance for nuclear waste treatment: α-bearing wastes destined for geological storage are already conditioned, generally in a cement matrix. Other containment processes producing higher quality matrices and allowing volume reduction have been investigated over the last five years by the General Directorate for Science Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. This paper discusses the work on conditioning α-bearing ashes produced by incineration of contaminated combustible materials, and on fuel cladding hulls resulting from spent fuel reprocessing

  12. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  13. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    This is the third volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose-reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory's ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 80 new projects, covering a wide area of activities. Projects on steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Collective dose data from the United States and other countries are also presented. In the conclusion, we suggest that although new advanced reactor design technology will eventually reduce radiation exposures at nuclear power plants to levels below serious concern, in the interim an aggressive approach to dose reduction remains necessary. 20 refs.

  14. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris; Kaufman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was USD 55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), USD 50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal - although the life cycle costs are themselves based on estimates dating from 1987-1990. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be USD 29.5 million using the same parameters that suggested the previously stated USD 55 million for the larger quantity. Within that cost estimate, USD 300 was the value given to the filter and USD 4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the USD 4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable) direct replacement of the traditional filter train, but this paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al work suggested that 1000 ft 3 /min stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for USD 5000 each after development (although the USD 70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors have estimated that development units able to be retro-fitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps USD 30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced

  15. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males...... from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole...

  16. Reduction of heart volume during neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resectable esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Kamphuis, Martijn; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Lutkenhaus, Lotte J.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Bergman, Jacques J.G.H.M.; Bruin-Bon, H.A.C.M. Rianne de; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Bel, Arjan; Boekholdt, S. Mathijs; Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by surgery is considered curative intent treatment for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The aim was to establish hemodynamic aspects of changes in heart volume and to explore whether changes in heart volume resulted in clinically relevant changes in the dose distribution of radiotherapy. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in patients who were treated with nCRT consisting of carboplatin and paclitaxel concomitant with radiotherapy (41.4 Gy/1.8 Gy per fraction). Physical parameters, cardiac volume on CT and Cone beam CT, cardiac blood markers and cardiac ultrasound were obtained. Results: In 23 patients a significant decrease of 55.3 ml in heart volume was detected (95% CI 36.7–73.8 ml, p < 0.001). There was a decrease in both systolic (mean decrease 18 mmHg, 95% CI 11–26 mmHg, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (mean decrease 8 mmHg, 95% CI 2–14 mmHg, p = 0.008) and an increase in heart rate with 6 beats/min (95% CI 1–11 beats/min, p = 0.021). Except for Troponin T, no change in other cardiac markers and echocardiography parameters were observed. The change in heart volume did not result in a clinically relevant change in radiation dose distribution. Conclusion: Heart volume was significantly reduced, but was not accompanied by overt cardiac dysfunction. All observed changes in hemodynamic parameters are consistent with volume depletion. Adaptation of the treatment plan during the course of radiotherapy is not advocated

  17. Significant Reduction in the Incidence of Phlebitis with Buffered Versus Unbuffered Cephalothin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Michel G.; Brusch, John L.; Barza, Michael; Weinstein, Louis

    1976-01-01

    Cephalothin (1 g every 2 h), buffered cephalothin, and diluent alone (5% dextrose in water) were each administered for 4 days intravenously to 12 volunteers in a double-blind crossover study. The incidence of phlebitis with buffered cephalothin was significantly lower than that with unbuffered drug (P < 0.01) and almost identical to the incidence with diluent alone. PMID:1267438

  18. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  19. Predicting Structure-Function Relations and Survival following Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Treatment of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoñedo, Jarred R; Suki, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR. We find that (1) LVRS efficacy can be predicted based on pre-surgical network structure; (2) macroscopic functional improvements following bLVR are related to microscopic changes in mechanical force heterogeneity; and (3) both techniques improve aspects of survival and quality of life influenced by lung compliance, albeit while accelerating disease progression. Our model predictions yield unique insights into the microscopic origins underlying emphysema progression before and after lung volume reduction.

  20. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  1. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  2. [Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for e-cigarette users?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Luca; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Among Italian smokers--about 10 millions in 2013--about 600,000 began using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27% reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute myocardial infarction - AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or, if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

  3. Methods for volume reduction and recycling of LLW arising from decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, G.; Bergstroem, L.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive contaminated waste is a great cost factor for nuclear power plants and other nuclear industry. On the deregulated electricity market the price of produced kWh is an important competition tool. Therefore many power producers in the process to achieve savings and hence low production costs have given waste minimization and volume reduction highest priority. Studsvik RadWaste AB in Nykoeping, Sweden, is successfully providing incineration and scrap metal treatment services for customers from Europe, Japan and the USA. Since 1987 thousands of tonnes of metal have been released for unrestricted re-use and recycling in commercial steel industry. The incineration service, provided since 1976, results in 97% volume reduction and generates biologically inert ash suitable for disposal in a final radioactive waste repository. Both processes, which are quality and environmentally certified, reduce the cost of interim storage and disposal. In addition, the companies within the Studsvik Group offer a wide range of services such as transportation, measurement and safeguard, site assistance, industrial cleaning and decontamination in connection with demolition on site. (authors)

  4. Volume reduction technology development for solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Young Min

    1998-07-01

    A great deal of solid wastes, which have various physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, are generated from the nuclear fuel cycle facility as well as radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes. The treatment of the large quantity of solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have great technical, economical and social effects on the domestic policy decision on the nuclear fuel cycle, such as operation and maintenance of the facility, waste disposal, etc. Cement immobilization, super compaction, and electrochemical dissolution were selected as the volume reduction technologies for solid wastes, which will generated from the domestic nuclear fuel cycle facility in the future. And the assessment of annual arisings and the preliminary conceptual design of volume reduction processes were followed. Electrochemical decontamination of α-radionuclides from the spent fuel hulls were experimentally investigated, and showed the successful results. However, β/γ radioactivity did not reduce to the level below which hulls can be classified as the low-level radioactive waste and sent to the disposal site for the shallow land burial. The effects of the various process variables in the electrochemical decontamination were experimentally analysed on the process. (author). 32 refs., 32 tabs., 52 figs

  5. EPRI tailored collaboration 3 Calvert Cliffs cost and volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, M.D.; Watson, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BGE) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a two unit PWR located approximately 60 miles south of Baltimore, Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay. Both units are of Combustion Engineering design, Unit 1 began commercial operation is 1975 and Unit 2 in 1978. BGE contracted with EPRI to participate in the industry initiative to reduce low-level waste volumes with the expectation to: (1) Reduce O ampersand M costs through LLRW reduction by lowering the volume requiring processing, transportation, and storage/disposal. (2) Manage responsibility available resources; i.e., material, equipment, personnel, etc., through segregation. decontamination, recycling and worker awareness. (3) Improve Calvert Cliff's positive image in the community by minimizing the impact on the environment through generating less LLRW. Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric is committed to effective management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. Established Nuclear Program Policies and Procedures support CCNPP's commitment to minimizing generation of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Since the mid 1980's, CCNPP has made progress in reducing the volume of LLRW generated and disposed. EPRI's onsite assessment and subsequent assistance pointed out several areas for improvement

  6. Inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic volumetry for lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Yuki; Chen, Fengshi; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of thoracic surgery, and a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry provides useful data on regional pulmonary function as well as the volume of individual lung lobes. We report herein a case of a 62-year-old man with severe emphysema who had undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) to assess this technique as a tool for the evaluation of regional lung function and volume before and after LVRS. His postoperative pulmonary function was maintained in good condition despite a gradual slight decrease 2 years after LVRS. This trend was also confirmed by a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry. We confirm that a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry might be effective for the preoperative assessment of LVRS in order to determine the amount of lung tissue to be resected as well as for postoperative evaluation. This novel technique could, therefore, be used more widely to assess local lung function.

  7. LASR-Guided Variability Subtraction: The Linear Algorithm for Significance Reduction of Stellar Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Myers, Sam; Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2017-10-01

    Stellar seismic activity produces variations in brightness that introduce oscillations into transit light curves, which can create challenges for traditional fitting models. These oscillations disrupt baseline stellar flux values and potentially mask transits. We develop a model that removes these oscillations from transit light curves by minimizing the significance of each oscillation in frequency space. By removing stellar variability, we prepare each light curve for traditional fitting techniques. We apply our model to $\\delta$-Scuti KOI-976 and demonstrate that our variability subtraction routine successfully allows for measuring bulk system characteristics using traditional light curve fitting. These results open a new window for characterizing bulk system parameters of planets orbiting seismically active stars.

  8. Minimally invasive lung volume reduction treated with bronchi occlusion emphysema model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dayong; Shen Liming; Shen Junkang; Jin Yiqi; Chen Lei; Huang Xianchen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the coil-and-glue method for the reduction of lung volume in rabbit emphysema model. Methods: Sixteen rabbits of emphysema model were divided into the occlusion group(n=10), in which both anterior bronchi were occluded using the coil-and- glue method, and the control group (n=6). The maximal static pressure of airway (P max ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), end-expiratory volume (EEV) and pressure of oxygen (PO 2 ) were measured at ante- emphysema, post-emphysema, 1 week and 4 week after occlusion respectively. The expectoration (or migration) of coil and collapse of lung were also investigated. Results: P max was (20.0±1.3) and (17.1± 1.4) cm H 2 O (1 cm H 2 O=0.098 kPa) in the occlusion group at ante-emphysema and post-emphysema respectively. P max was (19.2±1.4) cm H 2 O in the occlusion group in the 1 week after the occlusion, while (17.1±1.5)cm H 2 O in the control group (F=6.68, P max was (19.2±1.4) cm H 2 O in the occlusion group, while (16.6±1.2) cm H 2 O in the control group (F=12.10, P max , in the 1 week and 4 week after occlusion were higher than those at post-emphysema (P<0.01, respectively); EEV at post-emphysema was higher than that at ante-emphysema (P<0.01). Conclusion: Coil-and-glue occlusion method for lung volume reduction in rabbit emphysema model can improve the pulmonary function, which can be relatively long lasting. (authors)

  9. Biologic lung volume reduction in advanced upper lobe emphysema: phase 2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criner, Gerard J; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Strange, Charlie; Dransfield, Mark; Gotfried, Mark; Leeds, William; McLennan, Geoffrey; Refaely, Yael; Tewari, Sanjiv; Krasna, Mark; Celli, Bartolome

    2009-05-01

    Biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) is a new endobronchial treatment for advanced emphysema that reduces lung volume through tissue remodeling. Assess the safety and therapeutic dose of BioLVR hydrogel in upper lobe predominant emphysema. Open-labeled, multicenter phase 2 dose-ranging studies were performed with BioLVR hydrogel administered to eight subsegmental sites (four in each upper lobe) involving: (1) low-dose treatment (n = 28) with 10 ml per site (LD); and (2) high-dose treatment (n = 22) with 20 ml per site (HD). Safety was assessed by the incidence of serious medical complications. Efficacy was assessed by change from baseline in pulmonary function tests, dyspnea score, 6-minute walk distance, and health-related quality of life. After treatment there were no deaths and four serious treatment-related complications. A reduction in residual volume to TLC ratio at 12 weeks (primary efficacy outcome) was achieved with both LD (-6.4 +/- 9.3%; P = 0.002) and HD (-5.5 +/- 9.4%; P = 0.028) treatments. Improvements in pulmonary function in HD (6 mo: DeltaFEV(1) = +15.6%; P = 0.002; DeltaFVC = +9.1%; P = 0.034) were greater than in LD patients (6 mo: DeltaFEV(1) = +6.7%; P = 0.021; DeltaFVC = +5.1%; P = 0.139). LD- and HD-treated groups both demonstrated improved symptom scores and health-related quality of life. BioLVR improves physiology and functional outcomes up to 6 months with an acceptable safety profile in upper lobe predominant emphysema. Overall improvement was greater and responses more durable with 20 ml per site than 10 ml per site dosing. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00435253 and NCT 00515164).

  10. Volume reduction system by soil classifying. Soil-washing system and problems to be solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshino, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of ground surfaces, buildings and forests in a broad area was caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The national government and municipalities have still been carrying out the decontamination works for livelihood areas after five years from the accident. The government estimated that the amounts of soils and wastes removed by the decontamination works would be about 28,000,000 cubic meters maximum including 20,000,000 cubic meters maximum of soils. The removed soils will be stored in “Interim Storage Facility” then will be finally disposed outside of Fukushima prefecture within 30 years. On the other hand, shortage of the soils as materials needed for the revitalization in Fukushima prefecture is expected. Technical Advisory Council on Remediation and Waste Management, which consists of about 90 companies, started a working group to investigate solutions to these problems. The working group focused on the investigation of the possibility to recycle the soils by washing and classification to use them as the materials for civil engineering works, and to reduce the volume of the interim storage. In the first part of this report, we have evaluated the applicability of various technologies for purification and volume reduction of the removed soils, and have researched usages, required quantities and specifications of the recycled soils. In the second part, we have made trial calculations of the volume reduction effects and costs using the washing and classification system. The calculated results showed the possibilities of reducing the storage capacity of the interim storage facility, as well as the construction and the operation costs by recycling the removed soils with the washing and classification system inside the interim storage facility. At the end of this report, we proposed problems to be solved in order to adopt the washing and classification system. (author)

  11. Significant reduction of repeat teen pregnancy in a comprehensive young parent program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, H A; Fowler, A; McClanahan, K K

    2008-10-01

    To describe a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to teen mothers and their children that significantly reduces repeat pregnancies. Retrospective review of repeat teen pregnancy data. Young Parent Program (YPP) at a university-based health center. 1386 teen mothers between the ages of 11 and 19 who participated in the YPP for at least three years. Comprehensive Care: for both teen mother and her baby, including prenatal and postnatal care, preventive care, reproductive services, mental health, and acute care visits. Family counseling and similar services were also provided to siblings of the teen. CONTINUITY OF CARE: Patients are seen by the same staff and attending physicians on each visit. The treatment team includes physicians, nurses, social worker, nutritionist, and psychologist, all of whom are available to provide care at each visit. Flexible hours: Including evening clinic to allow teens to attend school or work during the day. Financial incentive: Patients with no insurance are given free contraceptives and a "no charge" clinic visit. Extensive contraceptive counseling is provided prior to start of contraceptive use and at every clinic visit. Routine telephone and/or mail reminders of appointments Rate of repeat teen pregnancy. Only 11(.79%) had repeat pregnancies. Older youth appeared more likely to repeat a pregnancy. Comprehensive intervention for teen mothers can be very successful in reducing repeat teen pregnancy in those teens who participate consistently in the program over a period of years.

  12. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  13. Hippocampal Volume Reduction in Humans Predicts Impaired Allocentric Spatial Memory in Virtual-Reality Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Dzieciol, Anna M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Doeller, Christian F; Burgess, Neil; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-21

    The extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is not well documented. We investigated allocentric spatial recall using a virtual environment in a group of patients with severe hippocampal damage (SHD), a group of patients with "moderate" hippocampal damage (MHD), and a normal control group. Through four learning blocks with feedback, participants learned the target locations of four different objects in a circular arena. Distal cues were present throughout the experiment to provide orientation. A circular boundary as well as an intra-arena landmark provided spatial reference frames. During a subsequent test phase, recall of all four objects was tested with only the boundary or the landmark being present. Patients with SHD were impaired in both phases of this task. Across groups, performance on both types of spatial recall was highly correlated with memory quotient (MQ), but not with intelligence quotient (IQ), age, or sex. However, both measures of spatial recall separated experimental groups beyond what would be expected based on MQ, a widely used measure of general memory function. Boundary-based and landmark-based spatial recall were both strongly related to bilateral hippocampal volumes, but not to volumes of the thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, or caudate nucleus. The results show that boundary-based and landmark-based allocentric spatial recall are similarly impaired in patients with SHD, that both types of recall are impaired beyond that predicted by MQ, and that recall deficits are best explained by a reduction in bilateral hippocampal volumes. In humans, bilateral hippocampal atrophy can lead to profound impairments in episodic memory. Across species, perhaps the most well-established contribution of the hippocampus to memory is not to episodic memory generally but to allocentric spatial memory. However, the extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is

  14. Dissociable contributions of MRI volume reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Gurrera, Ronald J; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2007-03-01

    We sought to identify the functional correlates of reduced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. MRI volumes, positive/negative symptoms, and neuropsychological tests of facial memory and executive functioning were examined within the same subjects. The results indicated two distinct, dissociable brain structure-function relationships: (1) reduced left STG volume-positive symptoms-executive deficits; (2) reduced left FG-negative symptoms-facial memory deficits. STG and FG volume reductions may each make distinct contributions to symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia.

  15. Effectiveness and efficacy of minimally invasive lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Daniela; Eisenmann, Alexander; Holzer, Ulrike; Renner, Anna-Theresa; Valipour, A

    2014-01-01

    Lung emphysema is a chronic, progressive and irreversible destruction of the lung tissue. Besides non-medical therapies and the well established medical treatment there are surgical and minimally invasive methods for lung volume reduction (LVR) to treat severe emphysema. This report deals with the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive methods compared to other treatments for LVR in patients with lung emphysema. Furthermore, legal and ethical aspects are discussed. No clear benefit of minimally invasive methods compared to surgical methods can be demonstrated based on the identified and included evidence. In order to assess the different methods for LVR regarding their relative effectiveness and safety in patients with lung emphysema direct comparative studies are necessary.

  16. Effectiveness and efficacy of minimally invasive lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertl, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Lung emphysema is a chronic, progressive and irreversible destruction of the lung tissue. Besides non-medical therapies and the well established medical treatment there are surgical and minimally invasive methods for lung volume reduction (LVR to treat severe emphysema. This report deals with the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive methods compared to other treatments for LVR in patients with lung emphysema. Furthermore, legal and ethical aspects are discussed. No clear benefit of minimally invasive methods compared to surgical methods can be demonstrated based on the identified and included evidence. In order to assess the different methods for LVR regarding their relative effectiveness and safety in patients with lung emphysema direct comparative studies are necessary.

  17. Volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste with a hammermill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A Jacobson Model J-3 Hammermill was recently installed at the University of Rochester to process low-level radioactive wastes from hospital and research laboratories. The hammermill will handle both glass and plastic vials of all types. The waste is poured into a hopper located on the top of the seven foot high assembly. The material is gravity fed into the hammermill which is driven by a 15-horsepower motor at 3600 rpm. The waste is pounded by the rotating hammers into a metal screen perforated with one inch holes. The gound-up product is discharged from the bottom of the unit into a 55-gallon shipping drum. A volume reduction of 4:1 has been acheived on an equal mixture of glass and plastic vials

  18. Vitrification process for the volume reduction and stabilization of organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a series of experimental tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the feasibility of incinerating and vitrifying organic ion-exchange resins in a single-step process. The resins used in this study were identical to those used for decontaminating auxiliary building water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor. The primarily organic resins were loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium for processing in a pilot-scale, joule-heated glass melter modified to support resin combustion. The feasibility tests demonstrated an average process rate of 3.0 kg/h. Based on this rate, if 50 organic resin liners were vitrified in a six-month campaign, a melter 2.5 times the size of the pilot scale unit would be adequate. A maximum achievable volume reduction of 91% was demonstrated in these tests

  19. Treatment of solid radioactive waste: Volume reduction of non-combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, G.

    1982-01-01

    Press compaction is very common as for volume reduction of low level radioactive solid waste. In most cases a sorting step and if necessary a fragmenting step are desirable prior to the compaction process. Besides contamination-free loading and unloading techniques are important. Typical technical solutions for mixed solid waste handling and compacting equipment are shown and discussed by means of the lay-out drawings for a medium size radwaste compaction facility. A special technique can be applied if one has to compact active exhaust air filters in a hot cell. KfK has developed a remotely operated mobile equipment for this purpose. As for the nuclear fuel cycle considerable interest is existing in compacting spent fuel halls after fuel dissolution. In various European countries mechanical compaction and high temperature processes are therefore under development. These processes are described and the related equipment is discussed. (orig./RW)

  20. Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft 3 waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft 3 . The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type

  1. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Vulin, D.S.; Liang, H.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This is the fourth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from a data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 118 new or updated projects, covering a wide range of activities. Projects including steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section of the report. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Included in this volume is a detailed description of how to access the BNL data bases which store this information. All project abstracts from this report, as well as many other useful documents, can be accessed, with permission, through our on-line system, ACE. A computer equipped with a modem, or a fax machine is all that is required to connect to ACE. Many features of ACE, including software, hardware, and communications specifics, are explained in this report.

  2. Optimal noise reduction in 3D reconstructions of single particles using a volume-normalized filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Charles V.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The high noise level found in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) image data presents a special challenge for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the imaged molecules. The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) and related Fourier shell correlation (FSC) functions are commonly used to assess and mitigate the noise-generated error in the reconstruction. Calculation of the SSNR and FSC usually includes the noise in the solvent region surrounding the particle and therefore does not accurately reflect the signal in the particle density itself. Here we show that the SSNR in a reconstructed 3D particle map is linearly proportional to the fractional volume occupied by the particle. Using this relationship, we devise a novel filter (the “single-particle Wiener filter”) to minimize the error in a reconstructed particle map, if the particle volume is known. Moreover, we show how to approximate this filter even when the volume of the particle is not known, by optimizing the signal within a representative interior region of the particle. We show that the new filter improves on previously proposed error-reduction schemes, including the conventional Wiener filter as well as figure-of-merit weighting, and quantify the relationship between all of these methods by theoretical analysis as well as numeric evaluation of both simulated and experimentally collected data. The single-particle Wiener filter is applicable across a broad range of existing 3D reconstruction techniques, but is particularly well suited to the Fourier inversion method, leading to an efficient and accurate implementation. PMID:22613568

  3. 'EPRI tailored collaboration 2, Crystal River cost and volume reduction program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoa, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    During the fall of 1993. Florida Power Corporation joined the EPRI tailored collaboration on the low-level radioactive waste cost and volume reduction. In conjunction with an existing Radwaste Task Force, the EPRI team reviewed past and current waste management practices and developed a prioritized list of opportunities for improvement. In the first quarter of 1994, these opportunities were converted into Action Plans with responsibilities and due dates assigned to support a 60-day refueling outage beginning on April 7, 1994. The Action Plans focussed on: (1) Visible management support in the form of specific plant, department, and worker level radwaste reduction goals. (2) Heightened worker awareness in the form of training (formal and informal), signs, bulletins, and a radwaste awareness video. (3) Material changes from disposable to recyclables, non-incinerables to incinerables, liquid waste processing media replacements and filter use criteria. (4) Work practice changes to reduce valve leaks, reduce contaminated areas, reduce entries to contaminated areas, further segregation of waste streams including 'green is clean' wastes

  4. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  5. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 4, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1985) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory commission to licensees with respects to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses

  6. Determination of the optimal dose reduction level via iterative reconstruction using 640-slice volume chest CT in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Liu

    Full Text Available To determine the optimal dose reduction level of iterative reconstruction technique for paediatric chest CT in pig models.27 infant pigs underwent 640-slice volume chest CT with 80kVp and different mAs. Automatic exposure control technique was used, and the index of noise was set to SD10 (Group A, routine dose, SD12.5, SD15, SD17.5, SD20 (Groups from B to E to reduce dose respectively. Group A was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP, and Groups from B to E were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (IR. Objective and subjective image quality (IQ among groups were compared to determine an optimal radiation reduction level.The noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in Group D had no significant statistical difference from that in Group A (P = 1.0. The scores of subjective IQ in Group A were not significantly different from those in Group D (P>0.05. There were no obvious statistical differences in the objective and subjective index values among the subgroups (small, medium and large subgroups of Group D. The effective dose (ED of Group D was 58.9% lower than that of Group A (0.20±0.05mSv vs 0.48±0.10mSv, p <0.001.In infant pig chest CT, using iterative reconstruction can provide diagnostic image quality; furthermore, it can reduce the dosage by 58.9%.

  7. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT: a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppen Marc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted, and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema, they would offer a novel intervention for this progressive and

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  9. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1986. Volume 5, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1986) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  10. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1986. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1986) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  11. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1985. Volume 4, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1985) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  12. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1984. Volume 3, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1984 and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  13. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1983. Volume 2, No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1983) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions ad licensees' responses. This and future issues will include cases involving Severity Level III violations for which no civil penalty was assessed. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993: Volume 12, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  15. Volume reduction of dry active waste by use of a waste sorting table at the Brunswick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick nuclear power plant has been using a National Nuclear Corporation Model WST-18 Waste Sorting Table to monitor and sort dry active waste for segregating uncontaminated material as a means of low-level waste volume reduction. The WST-18 features 18 large-area, solid scintillation detectors arranged in a 3 x 6 array underneath a sorting/monitoring surface that is shielded from background radiation. An 11-week study at Brunswick showed that the use of the waste sorting table resulted in dramatic improvements in both productivity (man-hours expended per cubic foot of waste processed) and monitoring quality over the previous hand-probe frisking method. Use of the sorting table since the study has confirmed its effectiveness in volume reduction. The waste sorting table paid for its operation in volume reduction savings alone, without accounting for the additional savings from recovering reusable items

  16. Optimalization studies concerning volume reduction and conditioning of radioactive waste in view of storage and disposal (geological disposal into clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Van De Voorde, N.; Bonne, A.

    1984-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level and medium-level wastes, and simultaneous optimization of the quality of the conditioned end-product is a major challenge in the management of radioactive wastes. Comments will be given on recent achievements in treatment of non-high-level liquid and solid wastes from power reactors and low-level plutonium contaminated wastes. The latter results can contribute to an overall optimization of a radioactive waste management scheme, including the final disposal of the conditioned materials. Some detailed results will be given concerning volume reduction, decontamination factors, degree of immobilization of the contained radioelements, and cost considerations

  17. Processing plutonium-contaminated soild for volume reduction using the segmented gate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, K.S.; Moroney, J.D.; Turney, J.M.; Doane, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    TMA/Eberline has developed and demonstrated an effective method for removing mixed plutonium and americium contamination from a coral soil matrix at the Defense Nuclear Agency's Johnston Atoll site. TMA's onsite soil processing for volume reduction is ongoing at a rate of over 2000 metric tons per week. The system uses arrays of sensitive radiation detectors coupled with sophisticated computer software developed by Eberline Instrument Corporation. The proprietary software controls four soil sorting units operating in parallel that utilize TMA's unique Segmented Gate System technology to remove radiologically contaminated soil from a moving supply on conveyor belts. Clean soil is released for use elsewhere on the island. Contaminated soil is diverted to either a metal drum for collecting higher activity open-quotes hotclose quotes particles (>5000 Becquerels), or to a supplementary soil washing process designed to remove finely divided particles of dispersed low level contamination. Site contamination limits specify maximum dispersed radioactivity of no more than 500 Becquerels per kilogram of soil averaged over no more than 0.1 cubic meter. Results of soil processing at this site have been excellent. After processing over 50,000 metric tons, the volume of contaminated material that would have required expensive special handling, packaging, and disposal as radioactive waste has been successfully reduced by over 98 percent. By mid-January 1994, nearly three million kiloBecquerels of plutonium/americium contamination had been physically separated from the contaminated feed by TMA's Segmented Gate System, and quality control sampling showed no radioactivity above release criteria in the open-quotes cleanclose quotes soil pile

  18. On the Potential Role of MRI Biomarkers of COPD to Guide Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Colin J; Capaldi, Dante P I; Di Cesare, Robert; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2018-02-01

    In patients with severe emphysema and poor quality of life, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) may be considered and guided based on lobar emphysema severity. In particular, x-ray computed tomography (CT) emphysema measurements are used to identify the most diseased and the second-most diseased lobes as BLVR targets. Inhaled gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also provides chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) biomarkers of lobar emphysema and ventilation abnormalities. Our objective was to retrospectively evaluate CT and MRI biomarkers of lobar emphysema and ventilation in patients with COPD eligible for BLVR. We hypothesized that MRI would provide complementary biomarkers of emphysema and ventilation that help determine the most appropriate lung lobar targets for BLVR in patients with COPD. We retrospectively evaluated 22 BLVR-eligible patients from the Thoracic Imaging Network of Canada cohort (diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide = 37 ± 12% predicted , forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 34 ± 7% predicted , total lung capacity = 131 ± 17% predicted , and residual volume = 216 ± 36% predicted ). Lobar CT emphysema, measured using a relative area of concept retrospective analysis, quantitative MRI ventilation and CT emphysema measurements provided different BLVR targets in over 30% of the patients. The presence of large MRI ventilation defects in lobes next to CT-targeted lobes might also change the decision to proceed or to guide BLVR to a different lobar target. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiological airway colonization in COPD patients with severe emphysema undergoing endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudzinski FC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Franziska C Trudzinski,1 Frederik Seiler,1 Heinrike Wilkens,1 Carlos Metz,1 Annegret Kamp,1 Robert Bals,1 Barbara Gärtner,2 Philipp M Lepper,1 Sören L Becker2–4 1Department of Internal Medicine V – Pneumology, Allergology and Critical Care Medicine, ECLS Center Saar, University Medical Center Saarland and Saarland University, 2Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany; 3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 4University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (eLVR is a therapeutic option for selected patients with COPD and severe emphysema. Infectious exacerbations are serious events in these vulnerable patients; hence, prophylactic antibiotics are often prescribed postinterventionally. However, data on the microbiological airway colonization at the time of eLVR are scarce, and there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding a rational antibiotic regimen.Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and microbiological analysis of COPD patients with advanced emphysema undergoing eLVR with endobronchial valves at a single German University hospital, 2012–2017.Patients and methods: Bronchial aspirates were obtained prior to eLVR and sent for microbiological analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates was performed, and pathogen colonization was retrospectively compared with clinical parameters.Results: At least one potential pathogen was found in 47% (30/64 of patients. Overall, Gram-negative bacteria constituted the most frequently detected pathogens. The single most prevalent species were Haemophilus influenzae (9%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (6%, and Staphylococcus aureus (6%. No multidrug resistance was observed, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred in <5% of samples. Patients without microbiological airway colonization showed more severe airflow limitation, hyperinflation, and chronic hypercapnia compared

  20. α(1)-adrenoceptor blocker naftopidil improves sleep disturbance with reduction in nocturnal urine volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Tsujimura, Akira; Takao, Tetsuya; Namiki, Mikio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-04-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying improvements in nocturia by α(1)-blockers, we investigated whether the α(1)-blocker naftopidil acts on nocturia with sleep disturbance using a frequency/volume chart (FVC). A total of 56 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were as follows: eight or more points on the I-PSS; three or more points on the I-PSS score for nocturia; and prostate volume larger than 20 ml. Patients received 50 mg of naftopidil once daily for 4 weeks, and non-responders received 75 mg for another 4 weeks. All patients were examined, and their data entered into FVC for 2 days before and after administration of naftopidil. Quality of sleep was also evaluated using modified Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Patients with sleep quality scores of three or four were assigned to sleep disturbance group (n = 33), while those with scores of less than three were assigned to non-disturbance group (n = 23). After administration of naftopidil, total I-PSS decreased and nocturia score decreased from 3.5 to 2.6 (P < 0.01). Total mean score of modified PSQI in sleep disturbance group became significantly lower after administration of naftopidil (from 16.9 to 14.0; P < 0.01). Naftopidil significantly decreased nocturnal urine volume, resulting in a decrease in the nocturnal polyuria index in both sleep disturbance and non-disturbance groups. These results suggest that α(1)-blockers have the ability to normalize sleep disorders. Naftopidil improved nocturnal polyuria regardless of the presence of sleep disturbance, meaning that it might directly reduce nocturnal urine production.

  1. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  2. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Nogami, Munenobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2, Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimogato, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 {<=} r {<=} -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  3. Bone marrow response in treated patients with Gaucher disease: evaluation by T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and correlation with reduction in liver and spleen volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terk, M.R.; Dardashti, S.; Liebman, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images can demonstrate response in the marrow of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and to determine whether a relationship exists between liver and spleen volume reductions and visible marrow changes.Patients. Forty-two patients with type 1 Gaucher disease were evaluated on at least two occasions. Thirty-two patients received ERT. Of these patients, 15 had a baseline examination prior to the initiation of ERT. The remaining 10 patients did not receive ERT.Design. T1-weighted and gradient recalled echo (GRE) coronal images of the femurs and hips were obtained. Concurrently, liver and spleen volumes were determined using contiguous breath-hold axial gradient-echo images. T1-weighted images of the hips and femurs were evaluated to determine change or lack of change in the yellow marrow.Results. Of the 32 patients receiving ERT, 14 (44%) demonstrated increased signal on T1-weighted images suggesting an increase in the amount of yellow marrow. If only the 15 patients with a baseline examination were considered, the response rate to ERT was 67%. Using Student's t-test a highly significant correlation (P<0.005) was found between marrow response and reduction in liver and spleen volume.Conclusions. Marrow changes in patients receiving ERT can be detected by T1-weighted images. This response correlated with reductions in visceral volumes (P<0.0005). (orig.)

  4. Prostate-specific antigen cancer volume: a significant prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients at intermediate risk of failing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, Scott P.; Pollack, Alan; Zagars, Gunar K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen level (PSAL) is the single-most significant predictor of local and biochemical control in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, it is relatively insensitive for patients with a PSAL in the intermediate range (4-20 ng/ml). PSA density (PSAD) has been shown to be slightly more predictive of outcome than PSAL for this intermediate risk group; however, this improvement is small and of little use clinically. PSA cancer volume (PSACV), an estimate of cancer volume based on PSA, has recently been described and has been purported to be more significant t than PSAL in predicting early biochemical failure after radiotherapy. We report a detailed comparison between this new prognostic factor, PSAL, and PSAD. Methods and Materials: The records of 356 patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy for regionally localized (T1-4,Nx,M0) adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed. Each patient had a PSAL, biopsy Gleason score, and pretreatment prostate volume by transrectal ultrasonography. The median PSAL was 9.3 ng/ml and 66% had Gleason scores in the 2-6 range. The median radiation dose was 66.0 Gy and the median follow-up for those living was 27 months. PSACV was calculated using a formula which takes into account PSAL, pretreatment prostate ultrasound volume, and Gleason score. The median PSACV was 1.43 cc. Biochemical failure was defined as increases in two consecutive follow-up PSA levels, one increase by a factor > 1.5, or an absolute increase of > 1 ng/ml. Local failure was defined as a cancer-positive prostate biopsy, obtained for evidence of tumor progression. Results: The distributions of PSACV and PSAL were similar and, when normalized by log transformation, were highly correlated (p < 0.0001, linear regression). There was a statistically significant relationship between PSACV and several potential prognostic factors including PSAL, PSAD, stage, Gleason score, and

  5. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% ± 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p 80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of ≥60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  6. Large-volume reduction mammaplasty: the effect of body mass index on postoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Bobadilla, G Mabel; Killingsworth, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Eighty-six women underwent modified inferior pedicled reduction mammaplasty. All were grouped according to body mass index (BMI): 14 in the overweight group, 51 in the obese group, and 21 in the morbidly obese group. The mean ages were 34, 35, and 36, respectively, for the 3 groups and were not statistically different. The mean resection weight in the overweight group was 929 g, 1316 g for the obese group, and 1760 g for the morbidly obese group. Wound healing complications increased with BMI; the overweight, obese, and morbidly obese groups had 21%, 43%, and 71% of complications, respectively. The results were not statistically different. The rate of repeat operations increased proportionally with the BMI to 7%, 8%, and 19%, respectively. Postoperative BMI was measured in 30 patients. Fifty percent of this group had limited preoperative activity secondary to breast enlargement. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 43 months. Forty-seven percent of this group continued to have limited activity after breast reduction with a mean BMI of 37.8 kg/m2. The mean BMI of all women was 37.41 kg/m2 with a total BMI change of -0.4 kg/m2, suggesting that most women do not lose a significant amount of weight after breast reduction. There was no statistical difference in long-term BMI.

  7. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction; Lungenemphysem. Bildgebung bei endoskopischer Lungenvolumenreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storbeck, B. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schroeder, T.H. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Pulmonology; Weber, C. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  8. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery for Respiratory Failure in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Bongyeon; Park, Samina; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Young Tae; Park, June Dong; Park, Sung-Hye; Kang, Chang Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can be performed in patients with severe emphysematous disease. However, LVRS in pediatric patients has not yet been reported. Here, we report our experience with 2 cases of pediatric LVRS. The first patient was a preterm infant girl with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and hypothyroidism. The emphysematous portion of the right lung was removed via sternotomy and right hemiclamshell incision. The patient was discharged on full-time home ventilator support for 3 months after the surgery. Since then, her respiratory function has improved continuously. She no longer needs oxygen supplementation or ventilator care. Her T-cannula was removed recently. The second patient was also a preterm infant girl with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. She was born with pulmonary hypertension and multiple congenital anomalies, including an atrial septal defect. Despite receiving the best supportive care, she could not be taken off the mechanical ventilator because of severe hypercapnia. We performed LVRS on the right lung via thoracotomy. She was successfully weaned off the mechanical ventilator 1 month after the surgery. She was discharged without severe complications at 3 months after the operation. At present, she is growing well with the help of intermittent home ventilator support. She can now tolerate an oral diet. Our experience shows that LVRS can be considered as a treatment option for pediatric patients with severe emphysematous lung. It is especially helpful for discontinuing prolonged mechanical ventilator care for patients with respiratory failure. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. A catalytic wet oxidation process for mixed waste volume reduction/recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1992-01-01

    Mixed wastes have presented a challenge to treatment and destruction technologies. A recently developed catalytic wet oxidation method has promising characteristics for volume reduction and recycling of mixed wastes. The process utilizes iron (III) as an oxidant in the presence of homogeneous cocatalysts which increase organics' oxidation rates and the rate of oxidation of iron (II) by oxygen. The reaction is conducted in an aqueous mineral acid solution at temperatures of 373 - 573 deg K. The mineral acid should solvate a number of heavy metals, including U and Pu. Studies of reaction rates show that the process can oxidize a wide range of organic compounds including aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Rate constants in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -4 sec -1 , depending on the cocatalyst, acidity, type of anions, type of organic, temperature, and time. Activation energies ranged from 25. to 32. KJ/mole. Preliminary measurements of the extent of oxidation which could be obtained ranged from 80% for trichloroethylene to 99.8% for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; evidence was obtained that absorption by the fluorocarbon liners of the reaction bombs allowed some of the organics to escape exposure to the catalyst solution. The results indicate that complete oxidation of the organics used here, and presumably many others, can be achieved. (author)

  10. Evaluation of patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery: Ancillary information available from computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleverley, Joanne R.; Desai, Sujal R.; Wells, Athol U.; Koyama, Hiroshi; Eastick, Sian; Schmidt, Maria A.; Charrier, Clare L.; Gatehouse, Peter D.; Goldstraw, Peter; Pepper, John R.; Geddes, Duncan M.; Hansell, David M.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: A number of imaging techniques have been used for the pre-operative assessment of patients for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). We evaluated whether data currently acquired from perfusion scintigrams and cine MR of the diaphragm are obtainable from high resolution CT (HRCT) of the thorax. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients taking part in a randomized controlled trial of LVRS against maximal medical therapy were evaluated. HRCT examinations (n= 30) were scored for (i) the extent and distribution of emphysema; (ii) the extent of normal pulmonary vasculature; and (iii) diaphragmatic contour, apparent defects and herniation. On scintigraphy, (n28), perfusion of the lower thirds of both lungs, as a proportion of total lung perfusion (LZ/T PERF ), was expressed as a percentage of predicted values (derived from 10 normal control subjects). On cine MR (n= 25) hemidiaphragmatic excursion and coordination were recorded. RESULTS: Extensive emphysema was present on HRCT (60% ± 13.2%). There was strong correlation between the extent of normal pulmonary vasculature on HRCT and on perfusion scanning (r s = 0.85, P< 0.00005). Hemidiaphragmatic incoordination on MR was weakly associated with hemidiaphragmatic eventration on HRCT (P0.04). CONCLUSION: The strong correlation between lung perfusion assessed by HRCT and lung perfusion on scintigraphy suggests that perfusion scintigraphy is superfluous in the pre-operative evaluation of patients with emphysema for LVRS. Cleverley, J.R. (2000)

  11. Ethical and equity issues in lung transplantation and lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, A R

    2006-01-01

    New medical and scientific disciplines are often developed in haste with rampant enthusiasm and scant regard for the balance between action and thoughtful deliberation. Driven by the desire to prolong life and provide a better quality of life for desperately sick individuals, the twin modalities of lung transplantation and lung volume reduction therapy have only just reached their majority. Both are invested with the capacity to help and to harm so it is right to consider carefully their ethical and equitable distribution. Much has been learned in the last 20 years to assist in these deliberations. First, how can we ensure equity of access to transplant services and equality of outcomes? How do we balance resource allocation of a precious and scarce resource with individual recipient needs? Does the concept of distributive justice prevail in our daily work in this field? How do we honour the donor and their family? How do we as practitioners avoid ethical dilemmas related to personal bias and justifiable reward for services rendered? Finally, how do we learn to incorporate ethical forethought and planning guided by experts in the area into everyday behaviour?

  12. Volume reduction and plutonium recovery in alpha wastes by cryogenic crushing and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Pajot, J.

    1986-06-01

    The industry of plutonium generates solid alpha wastes of medium activity called ''technological wastes''. They are mainly produced during the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels and they are of a wide variety i.e: vinyl bags, gloves, glass, steel materials used in glove box operation, etc... These wastes contain relevant residual quantities of uranium and plutonium in the form of oxides or nitrates, reaching up to several dozen grams per cubic meter. Up to the beginning of the eighties, they were conditionned without any treatment and stored as such on the production site. However, for an economic and safe storage, recovering of the plutonium contained in these waste streams and reduction of their volume is of obvious importance. At the plutonium ''Complexe de Fabrication des Combustibles de Cadarache'' was developed a new technical solution of this problem that combines cryogenic crushing of the solid waste and plutonium recovery from the crushed material by chemical lixiviation. The first results obtained in applying this system on the industrial scale are reported briefly

  13. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Allele DRB1*13:02 on Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. James

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017. Methods: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32–69 years old underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter. Participants were assigned to two groups, depending on whether they lacked the DRB1*13:02 allele (No DRB1*13:02 group, N = 60 or carried the DRB1*13:02 allele (N = 11. We assessed the change of brain gray matter volume with age in each group by performing a linear regression where the brain volume (adjusted for total intracranial volume was the dependent variable and age was the independent variable. Findings: In the No DRB1*13:02 group, the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter were reduced highly significantly. In contrast, none of these volumes showed a statistically significant reduction with age in the DRB1*13:02 group. Interpretation: These findings document the protective effect of DRB1*13:02 on age-dependent reduction of brain gray matter in healthy individuals. Since the role of this allele is to connect to matching epitopes of external antigens for the subsequent production of antibodies and elimination of the offending antigen, we hypothesize that its protective effect may be due to the successful elimination of such antigens to which we are exposed during the lifespan, antigens that otherwise would persist causing gradual brain atrophy. In addition, we consider a possible beneficial role of DRB1*13:02 attributed to its binding to cathepsin S, a known harmful substance in brain

  14. 76 FR 50500 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... issued when disposal space was scarce since two of the three operating low level radioactive waste (LLRW... radioactive waste management program. While the Commission continues to favor the disposal of LLRW over... on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  15. Bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction with Exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE trial) : randomised, sham-controlled, multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, P. L.; Slebos, D-J; Cardoso, P. F. G.; Cetti, E.; Voelker, K.; Levine, B.; Russell, M. E.; Goldin, J.; Brown, M.; Cooper, J. D.; Sybrecht, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Airway bypass is a bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction procedure for emphysema whereby transbronchial passages into the lung are created to release trapped air, supported with paclitaxel-coated stents to ease the mechanics of breathing. The aim of the EASE (Exhale airway stents for

  16. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9(S-HODE, 13(S-HODE, 5(S-HETE, 12(S-HETE, 15(S-HETE, 5(S-oxoETE, 16(R-HETE, 16(S-HETE and 5(S, 6(R-lipoxin A4, 5(S, 6(R, 15(R-lipoxin A4 were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant (p<0.01 increase in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, reaching similar levels as in the control group. The development of inflammatory reaction in both phenotypes of women with PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process.

  17. Autologous fibrin sealant reduces the incidence of prolonged air leak and duration of chest tube drainage after lung volume reduction surgery: a prospective randomized blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, C; Opitz, I; Zhai, W; Rousson, V; Russi, E W; Weder, W; Lardinois, D

    2008-10-01

    Prolonged air leak is reported in up to 50% of patients after lung volume reduction surgery. The effect of an autologous fibrin sealant on the intensity and duration of air leak and on the time to chest drain removal after lung volume reduction surgery was investigated in a randomized prospective clinical trial. Twenty-five patients underwent bilateral thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery. In each patient, an autologous fibrin sealant was applied along the staple lines on one side, whereas no additional measure was taken on the other side. Randomization of treatment was performed at the end of the resection on the first side. Air leak was assessed semiquantitatively by use of a severity score (0 = no leak; 4 = continuous severe leak) by two investigators blinded to the treatment. Mean value of the total severity scores for the first 48 hours postoperative was significantly lower in the treated group (4.7 +/- 7.7) than in the control group (16.0 +/- 10.1) (P drainage were also significantly reduced after application of the sealant (4.5% and 2.8 +/- 1.9 days versus 31.8% and 5.9 +/- 2.9 days) (P = .03 and P drainage.

  18. The Reduction of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volume Correlates with Loss of Economic Rationality in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul

    2017-12-06

    The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 years correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. All participants were functionally normal with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranging between 26 and 30. While our elders showed the previously reported decline in rationality compared with younger subjects, chronological age per se did not correlate with rationality measures within our population of elders. Instead, reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates tightly with irrational behavior. Interestingly, using a large fMRI sample and meta-analytic tool with Neurosynth, we found that this brain area shows strong coactivation patterns with nearly all of the value-associated regions identified in previous studies. These findings point toward a neuroanatomic locus for economic rationality in the aging brain and highlight the importance of understanding both anatomy and function in the study of aging, cognition, and decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Age is a crucial factor in decision-making, with older individuals making more errors in choices. Using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis, we found that reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates with economic irrationality: reduced gray matter volume in this area correlates with the frequency and severity of violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. Furthermore, this brain area strongly coactivates with other reward-associated regions identified with Neurosynth

  19. Prostate specific cancer volume: a significant prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients at intermediate risk of failing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, S.P.; Pollack, A.; Zagars, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Although the pretreatment serum prostate specific antigen level (PSAL) is the single most significant predictor of local and biochemical control in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, it is relatively insensitive for patients with a PSAL in the intermediate range (4-20 ng/ml). PSA density (PSAD) has been shown to be slightly more predictive of outcome than PSAL for this intermediate risk group; however, this improvement is small and of little use clinically. PSA cancer volume (PSACV) is an estimate of cancer volume based on PSA that was recently described by D'Amico and Propert (IJROBP 32:232, 1995) as providing significant and independent prognostic information in addition to PSAL. We report here a detailed comparison between this new prognostic factor, PSAL, and PSAD. Methods and Materials: The records of 356 patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy for regionally localized (T1-4, Nx, M0) adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed. Each patient had a PSAL, biopsy Gleason score, and pretreatment prostate volume by transrectal ultrasonography. The median PSAL was 9.3 ng/ml and 66% had Gleason scores in the 2-6 range. The median radiation dose was 66.0 Gy and the median follow-up for those living was 27 months. PSACV is a calculated parameter that takes into account PSAL (total PSA), ultrasonographic prostate volume (estimate of PSA from benign epithelium), and Gleason grade (estimate of PSA per tumor volume). The median PSACV was 1.43 cc. Biochemical failure was defined as increases in two consecutive follow-up PSA levels, one increase by a factor > 1.5, or an absolute increase of > 1 ng/ml. Local failure was defined as a cancer-positive prostate biopsy, usually undertaken because of evidence of biochemical failure. Results: The distributions of PSACV and PSAL were similar and, when normalized by log-transformation, were highly correlated (p 4 cc, as compared to those with a PSACV ≤ 0.5 cc, was over 30%. Conclusion

  20. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  1. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  2. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  3. Editor's choice--Use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes results in significant dose reduction during EVAR procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeze, C; Klompenhouwer, E G; Brands, P J M; van Sambeek, M R H M; Cuypers, P W M; Teijink, J A W

    2014-03-01

    Because of the increasing number of interventional endovascular procedures with fluoroscopy and the corresponding high annual dose for interventionalists, additional dose-protecting measures are desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes in reducing scatter radiation exposure for interventionalists and supporting staff during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedure. This was a randomized control trial in which 36 EVAR procedures were randomized between execution with and without disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes (Radpad: Worldwide Innovations & Technologies, Inc., Kansas City, US, type 5511A). Dosimetric measurements were performed on the interventionalist (hand and chest) and theatre nurse (chest) with and without the use of the drapes to obtain the dose reduction and effect on the annual dose caused by the drapes. Use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes resulted in dose reductions of 49%, 55%, and 48%, respectively, measured on the hand and chest of the interventionalist and the chest of the theatre nurse. The use of disposable radiation-absorbing surgical drapes significantly reduces scatter radiation exposure for both the interventionalist and the supporting staff during EVAR procedures. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volume reduction of low-level, combustible, transuranic waste at Mound Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.H.; Doty, J.W.; Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Luthy, D.F.

    Low-level combustible waste (<100 nCi per g of waste) generated during plutonium-238 processing is collected and stored in 55-gallon (200-liter) drums. The composition of this waste is approximately 32 wt % paper, 46% plastic, 16% rubber and cloth, and 6% metal. Treatment of this waste is initiated by burning in the Mound Cyclone Incinerator, which consists of a burning chamber, deluge tank, venturi scrubber and blower. During the two years of operating the Cyclone Incinerator, experiments have been performed on particle distribution throughout the system using various mixtures of feed material. Measurements were taken at the incinerator outlet, after the spray tank, and after the venturi scrubber. An average emission of 0.23 g of particles per kg of feed at the venturi outlet was determined. The distribution of chlorine from the combustion of polyvinyl chloride was studied. Analyses of the off-gas and scrubber solution show that approximately 75 wt % of the chlorine was captured by the scrubber solution and approximately 17 wt % remained in the off-gas after the venturi scrubber. Measurements of the amount of NO/sub chi/ present in the off-gas were also made during the chloride studies. An average of approximately 200 ppM NO/sub chi/ was produced during each incineration run. Immobilization of the incinerator ash is being studied with regard to long-term behavior of the product. The immobilization matrix which looks most promising is ash mixed with Portland 1A cement in a 65/35 wt % ash-to-cement ratio. This matrix exhibits good mechanical properties while maintaining a maximum volume reduction

  5. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP. Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p 3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

  6. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin Jürgen; Ondreka, Nele; Sauerbrey, Maren; Volk, Holger Andreas; Rummel, Christoph; Kramer, Martin

    2012-09-06

    Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7-10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

  7. Interfractional variation in bladder volume and its impact on cervical cancer radiotherapy: Clinical significance of portable bladder scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huanli; Jin, Fu; Yang, Dingyi; Wang, Ying; Li, Chao; Guo, Mingfang; Ran, Xueqi; Liu, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Yongzhong, E-mail: jfazj@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chongqing Cancer Institute, No. 181, Han Yu Road, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: A constant bladder volume (BV) is essential to direct the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors with precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in BV and their impact on cervical cancer RT and to assess the clinical significance of a portable bladder scanner (BS) in achieving a constant BV. Methods: A standard bladder phantom (133 ml) and measurements of actual urine volume were both used as benchmarks to evaluate the accuracy of the BS. Comparisons of BS with computed tomography (CT), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and an ultrasound diagnostic device (iU22) were made. Twenty-two consecutive patients with cervical cancer treated with external beam radical RT were divided into an experimental group (13 patients) and a control group (9 patients). In the experimental group, the BV was measured multiple times by BS pre-RT until it was consistent with that found by planning CT. Then a CBCT was performed. The BV was measured again immediately post-RT, after which the patient’s urine was collected and recorded. In the control group, CBCT only was performed pre-RT. Interfractional changes in BV and their impact on cervical cancer RT were investigated in both groups. The time of bladder filling was also recorded and analyzed. Results: In measuring the volume of the standard bladder phantom, the BS deviated by 1.4% in accuracy. The difference between the measurements of the BS and the iU22 had no statistical significance (linear correlation coefficient 0.96, P < 0.05). The BV measured by the BS was strongly correlated with the actual urine volume (R = 0.95, P < 0.05), planning CT (R = 0.95, P < 0.05), or CBCT (R = 0.91, P < 0.05). Compared with the BV at the time of CT, its value changed by −36.1% [1 SD (standard deviation) 42.3%; range, −79.1%–29.4%] in the control group, and 5.2% (1 SD 21.5%; range, −13.3%–22.1%) in the experimental group during treatment. The change in BV affected the target position in the superior–inferior (SI) direction

  8. Calculation of normal tissue complication probability and dose-volume histogram reduction schemes for tissues with a critical element architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemierko, Andrzej; Goitein, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate a model of normal tissue complication probability for tissues that may be represented by a critical element architecture. They derive formulas for complication probability that apply to both a partial volume irradiation and to an arbitrary inhomogeneous dose distribution. The dose-volume isoeffect relationship which is a consequence of a critical element architecture is discussed and compared to the empirical power law relationship. A dose-volume histogram reduction scheme for a 'pure' critical element model is derived. In addition, a point-based algorithm which does not require precomputation of a dose-volume histogram is derived. The existing published dose-volume histogram reduction algorithms are analyzed. The authors show that the existing algorithms, developed empirically without an explicit biophysical model, have a close relationship to the critical element model at low levels of complication probability. However, it is also showed that they have aspects which are not compatible with a critical element model and the authors propose a modification to one of them to circumvent its restriction to low complication probabilities. (author). 26 refs.; 7 figs

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa (Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran)); Radmard, Amir Reza (Dept. of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)); Khademi, Hooman (Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)), e-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  10. Postimplantation Analysis Enables Improvement of Dose-Volume Histograms and Reduction of Toxicity for Permanent Seed Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, Peter; Postrach, Johanna; Kahmann, Frank; Henkel, Thomas; Graf, Reinhold; Cho, Chie Hee; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate how postimplantation analysis is useful for improving permanent seed implantation and reducing toxicity. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 197 questionnaires completed by patients after permanent seed implantation (monotherapy between 1999 and 2003). For 70% of these patients, a computed tomography was available to perform postimplantation analysis. The index doses and volumes of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were determined and categorized with respect to the date of implantation. Differences in symptom scores relative to pretherapeutic status were analyzed with regard to follow-up times and DVH descriptors. Acute and subacute toxicities in a control group of 117 patients from an earlier study (June 1999 to September 2001) by Wust et al. (2004) were compared with a matched subgroup from this study equaling 110 patients treated between October 2001 and August 2003. Results: Improved performance, identifying a characteristic time dependency of DVH parameters (after implantation) and toxicity scores, was demonstrated. Although coverage (volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose of the prostate) increased slightly, high-dose regions decreased with the growing experience of the users. Improvement in the DVH and a reduction of toxicities were found in the patient group implanted in the later period. A decline in symptoms with follow-up time counteracts this gain of experience and must be considered. Urinary and sexual discomfort was enhanced by dose heterogeneities (e.g., dose covering 10% of the prostate volume, volume covered by 200% of prescription dose). In contrast, rectal toxicities correlated with exposed rectal volumes, especially the rectal volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: The typical side effects occurring after permanent seed implantation can be reduced by improving the dose distributions. An improvement in dose distributions and a reduction of toxicities were identified with elapsed time between

  11. Resonant Mode Reduction in Radiofrequency Volume Coils for Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a multimodal volume coil, only one mode can generate homogeneous Radiofrequency (RF field for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The existence of other modes may increase the volume coil design difficulties and potentially decreases coil performance. In this study, we introduce common-mode resonator technique to high and ultrahigh field volume coil designs to reduce the resonant mode while maintain the homogeneity of the RF field. To investigate the design method, the common-mode resonator was realized by using a microstrip line which was split along the central to become a pair of parallel transmission lines within which common-mode currents exist. Eight common-mode resonators were placed equidistantly along the circumference of a low loss dielectric cylinder to form a volume coil. Theoretical analysis and comparison between the 16-strut common-mode volume coil and a conventional 16-strut volume coil in terms of RF field homogeneity and efficiency was performed using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method at 298.2 MHz. MR imaging experiments were performed by using a prototype of the common-mode volume coil on a whole body 7 Tesla scanner. FDTD simulation results showed the reduced number of resonant modes of the common-mode volume coil over the conventional volume coil, while the RF field homogeneity of the two type volume coils was kept at the same level. MR imaging of a water phantom and a kiwi fruit showing the feasibility of the proposed method for simplifying the volume coil design is also presented.

  12. Classification of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Significance Analysis of Microarray-Gene Set Reduction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are two major histology subtypes, accounting for roughly 40% and 30% of all lung cancer cases, respectively. Since AC and SCC differ in their cell of origin, location within the lung, and growth pattern, they are considered as distinct diseases. Gene expression signatures have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for distinguishing AC and SCC. Gene set analysis is regarded as irrelevant to the identification of gene expression signatures. Nevertheless, we found that one specific gene set analysis method, significance analysis of microarray-gene set reduction (SAMGSR, can be adopted directly to select relevant features and to construct gene expression signatures. In this study, we applied SAMGSR to a NSCLC gene expression dataset. When compared with several novel feature selection algorithms, for example, LASSO, SAMGSR has equivalent or better performance in terms of predictive ability and model parsimony. Therefore, SAMGSR is a feature selection algorithm, indeed. Additionally, we applied SAMGSR to AC and SCC subtypes separately to discriminate their respective stages, that is, stage II versus stage I. Few overlaps between these two resulting gene signatures illustrate that AC and SCC are technically distinct diseases. Therefore, stratified analyses on subtypes are recommended when diagnostic or prognostic signatures of these two NSCLC subtypes are constructed.

  13. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  14. VALVE BRONCHIAL BLOCK IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL PLEURAL FISTULAS AFTER SURGICAL REDUCTION OF PULMONARY VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tseymakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bronchopleural fistulas after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume is one of the most frequent complications of surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. In order to control bronchopleural fistulas in the patients after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume the technique of valve bronchial block has been o}ered. This technique has been applied in 7 patients, and the favorable outcomes have been achieved in 6 (85.7% patients. The use of endobronchial valve for occlusion of fistulous bronchi allowed stopping air leaking through drainages, reducing time for pleural cavity drain and decreasing duration of patients' hospital stay.

  15. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2004-01-01

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  16. Computer simulation of preflight blood volume reduction as a countermeasure to fluid shifts in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid shifts in weightlessness may cause a central volume expansion, activating reflexes to reduce the blood volume. Computer simulation was used to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume prior to exposure to weightlessness could counteract the central volume expansion due to fluid shifts and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses resulting in large losses of fluid from body water compartments. The Guyton Model of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Circulatory Regulation was modified to simulate the six degree head down tilt that is frequently use as an experimental analog of weightlessness in bedrest studies. Simulation results show that preadaptation of the blood volume by a procedure resembling a blood donation immediately before head down bedrest is beneficial in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After ten hours of head down tilt, blood volume after preadaptation is higher than control for 20 to 30 days of bedrest. Preadaptation also produces potentially beneficial higher extracellular volume and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest.

  17. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  18. Significant reduction of antibiotic use in the community after a nationwide campaign in France, 2002-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifsu Sabuncu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics is the main force driving the emergence and dissemination of bacterial resistance in the community. France consumes more antibiotics and has the highest rate of beta-lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae than any other European country. In 2001, the government initiated "Keep Antibiotics Working"; the program's main component was a campaign entitled "Les antibiotiques c'est pas automatique" ("Antibiotics are not automatic" launched in 2002. We report the evaluation of this campaign by analyzing the evolution of outpatient antibiotic use in France 2000-2007, according to therapeutic class and geographic and age-group patterns. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This evaluation is based on 2000-2007 data, including 453,407,458 individual reimbursement data records and incidence of flu-like syndromes (FLSs. Data were obtained from the computerized French National Health Insurance database and provided by the French Sentinel Network. As compared to the preintervention period (2000-2002, the total number of antibiotic prescriptions per 100 inhabitants, adjusted for FLS frequency during the winter season, changed by -26.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -33.5% to -19.6% over 5 years. The decline occurred in all 22 regions of France and affected all antibiotic therapeutic classes except quinolones. The greatest decrease, -35.8% (95% CI -48.3% to -23.2%, was observed among young children aged 6-15 years. A significant change of -45% in the relationship between the incidence of flu-like syndromes and antibiotic prescriptions was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The French national campaign was associated with a marked reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, particularly in children. This study provides a useful method for assessing public-health strategies designed to reduce antibiotic use.

  19. TH-EF-BRB-03: Significant Cord and Esophagus Dose Reduction by 4π Non-Coplanar Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, V; Tran, A; Nguyen, D; Woods, K; Cao, M; Kaprealian, T; Chin, R; Low, D; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate significant organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing achievable with 4π non-coplanar radiotherapy on spine SBRT and SRS patients. Methods: Twenty-five stereotactic spine cases previously treated with VMAT (n = 23) or IMRT (n = 2) were included in this study. A computer-aided-design model of a Linac with a 3D-scanned human surface was utilized to determine the feasible beam space throughout the 4π steradian and beam specific source-to-target-distances (STD) required for collision avoidance. 4π radiotherapy plans integrating beam orientation and fluence map optimization were then created using a column-generation algorithm. Twenty optimal beams were selected for each case. To evaluate the tradeoff between dosimetric benefit and treatment complexity, 4π plans including only isocentrically deliverable beams were also created. Beam angles of all standard and isocentric 4π plans were imported into Eclipse to recalculate the dose using the same calculation engine as the clinical plans for unbiased comparison. OAR and PTV dose statistics for the clinical, standard-4π, and isocentric-4π plans were compared. Results: Comparing standard-4π to clinical plans, particularly significant average percent reduction in the [mean, maximum] dose of the cord and esophagus of [41%, 21.7%], and [38.7%, 36.4%] was observed, along with global decrease in all other OAR dose statistics. The average cord volume receiving more than 50% prescription dose was substantially decreased by 76%. In addition, improved PTV coverage was demonstrated with a maximum dose reduction of 0.93% and 1.66% increase in homogeneity index (D95/D5). All isocentric-4π plans achieved dosimetric performance equivalent to that of the standard-4π plans with higher delivery complexity. Conclusion: 4π radiotherapy significantly improves stereotactic spine treatment dosimetry. With the substantial OAR dose sparing, PTV dose escalation is considerably safer. Isocentric-4π is sufficient to achieve the

  20. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  1. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts

  2. Estimation of tumor volume and its prognostic significance to study the biological behavior of carcinoma of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathi Dawson

    2016-01-01

    Results: The median age of the patients in this group was 47.5 years, with a range of 30–80 years. The major histological type of carcinoma among 40 cases is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (in 90% of cases, and 10% had adenocarcinoma. Pathological staging of the carcinoma cervix showed stage Ib, IIa, IIb, and IVa (35%, 20%, 40%, and 5%. Tumor volume estimated on pathological specimens of 40 cases ranged from 230 cumm to 49,760 cumm with a mean of 14,844 cumm. 12 (30% cases had tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm, 12 (30% cases had tumor volume <5000 cumm and 16 (40% cases had tumor volume between 5000 and 15,000 cumm. 17% of the tumors with tumor volume <5000 cumm showed lymph node metastases, whereas 67% (out of 12cases of cases with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed lymph node metastases. 67% of the tumors with tumor volume <5000 cumm showed 0/4 organs involvement, whereas all cases with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed more than one organ involvement among vagina, uterus, parametrium or bladder/rectum. Fibronectin positivity was seen in 22 out of 44 cases (55%. Macrophages were seen surrounding the group of tumor cells by LN5 immunostaining. Conclusion: Tumor volume can be considered as an independent prognostic factor to assess the spread of the tumor. Cases with tumor volume <5000 cumm show low risk in terms of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis and those with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed more organ spread. Fibronectin positivity carries some importance in low-risk cases. For macrophages, further detailed study needs to be carried out.

  3. Analysis of postoperative morbidity and mortality following surgery for gastric cancer. Surgeon volume as the most significant prognostic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Ciesielski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Surgical resection is the only potentially curative modality for gastric cancer and it is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Aim: To determine risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality following major surgery for gastric cancer. Material and methods : Between 1.08.2006 and 30.11.2014 in the Department of Oncological Surgery of Gdynia Oncology Centre 162 patients underwent gastric resection for adenocarcinoma. All procedures were performed by 13 surgeons. Five of them performed at least two gastrectomies per year (n = 106. The remaining 56 resections were done by eight surgeons with annual volume lower than two. Perioperative mortality was defined as every in-hospital death and death within 30 days after surgery. Causes of perioperative deaths were the matter of in-depth analysis. Results: Overall morbidity was 23.5%, including 4.3% rate of proximal anastomosis leak. Mortality rate was 4.3%. Morbidity and mortality were not dependent on: age, gender, body mass index, tumour location, extent of surgery, splenectomy performance, or pTNM stage. The rates of morbidity (50% vs. 21.3% and mortality (16.7% vs. 3.3% were significantly higher in cases of tumour infiltration to adjacent organs (pT4b. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were 37.5% and 8.9% for surgeons performing less than two gastrectomies per year and 16% and 0.9% for surgeons performing more than two resections annually. The differences were statistically significant (p = 0.002, p = 0.003. Conclusions : Annual surgeon case load and adjacent organ infiltration (pT4b were significant risk factors for morbidity and mortality following major surgery for gastric cancer. The most common complications leading to perioperative death were cardiac failure and proximal anastomosis leak.

  4. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    of a false discovery rate correction (p brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We found......BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular...... healthy controls by use of a 3-T scanner. We warped the brain images to each other by use of a high-dimensional intersubject registration algorithm. We performed voxel-wise group comparisons with permutation tests. We performed small volume correction for the hippocampus, caudate and ventricles by use...

  5. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  6. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  7. Significant correlation of P-wave parameters with left atrial volume index and left ventricular diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lee, Kun-Tai; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2013-07-01

    The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is a commonly used tool to access left atrial enlargement, which is a marker of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). The aim of this study was to evaluate any association of the P-wave measurements in ECG with left atrial volume (LAV) index and LVDD. This study enrolled 270 patients. In this study, 4 ECG P-wave parameters corrected by heart rate, that is, corrected P-wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC), corrected P-wave dispersion (PWdisperC), corrected P-wave area (PWareaC) and corrected mean P-wave duration (meanPWdurC), were measured. LAV and left ventricular diastolic parameters were measured from echocardiography. LVDD was defined as a pseudonormal or restrictive mitral inflow pattern. The 4 P-wave parameters were significantly correlated with the LAV index after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, body mass index and diastolic blood pressure in multivariate analysis. The standardized β coefficients of PWdurMaxC, PWdisperC, meanPWdurC and PWareaC were 0.338, 0.298, 0.215 and 0.296, respectively. The 4 P-wave parameters were also significantly correlated with LVDD after multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PWdurMaxC, PWdisperC, meanPWdurC and PWareaC were 1.03 (1.01-1.04), 1.02 (1.04-1.04), 1.04 (1.02-1.07) and 1.01 (1.00-1.02), respectively. This study demonstrated that PWdurMaxC, PWdisperC, meanPWdurC and PWareaC were important determinants of the LAV index and LVDD. Therefore, screening patients by means of the 12-lead ECG may be helpful in identifying a high-risk group of increased LAV index and LVDD.

  8. Prostate cancer volume adds significantly to prostate-specific antigen in the prediction of early biochemical failure after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Propert, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A new clinical pretreatment quantity that closely approximates the true prostate cancer volume is defined. Methods and Materials: The cancer-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, prostate cancer volume (V Ca ), and the volume fraction of the gland involved with carcinoma (V Ca fx) were calculated for 227 prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy. 1. PSA density PSA/ultrasound prostate gland volume 2. Cancer-specific PSA = PSA - [PSA from benign epithelial tissue] 3. V Ca = Cancer-specific PSA/[PSA in serum per cm 3 of cancer] 4. V Ca fx = V Ca /ultrasound prostate gland volume A Cox multiple regression analysis was used to test whether any of these-clinical pretreatment parameters added significantly to PSA in predicting early postradiation PSA failure. Results: The prostate cancer volume (p = 0.039) and the volume fraction of the gland involved by carcinoma (p = 0.035) significantly added to the PSA in predicting postradiation PSA failure. Conversely, the PSA density and the cancer-specific PSA did not add significantly (p > 0.05) to PSA in predicting postradiation PSA failure. The 20-month actuarial PSA failure-free rates for patients with calculated tumor volumes of ≤0.5 cm 3 , 0.5-4.0 cm 3 , and >4.0 cm 3 were 92, 80, and 47%, respectively (p = 0.00004). Conclusion: The volume of prostate cancer (V Ca ) and the resulting volume fraction of cancer both added significantly to PSA in their ability to predict for early postradiation PSA failure. These new parameters may be used to select patients in prospective randomized trials that examine the efficacy of combining radiation and androgen ablative therapy in patients with clinically localized disease, who are at high risk for early postradiation PSA failure

  9. Pizzas and galettes - or how supercompaction has succeeded in Europe [volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Dry active waste represents the largest portion of the waste volume shipped for burial. The Westinghouse Supercompactor has proved itself an economical means of reducing the disposal costs associated with radioactive wastes. The key element in the Supercompactor is a 1000t hydraulically operated press enclosed in a trailer with its associated equipment. Several safety features are built into this mobile compactor, including the air filtration system. (U.K.)

  10. Radar Derived Spatial Statistics of Summer Rain. Volume 2; Data Reduction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, T. G.; Kropfli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Data reduction and analysis procedures are discussed along with the physical and statistical descriptors used. The statistical modeling techniques are outlined and examples of the derived statistical characterization of rain cells in terms of the several physical descriptors are presented. Recommendations concerning analyses which can be pursued using the data base collected during the experiment are included.

  11. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-01-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  12. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, G. Neil [Health Physicist, HazMat CATS, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  13. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the fourth in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on dose reduction at nuclear power plants. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports and searches of the DOE's Energy Data Base. The abstracts included in this report to operational health physics as well as other subjects which have a bearing on dose reduction at nuclear power plants, such as stress corrosion, cracking, plant chemistry, use of robotics and remote devices, etc. Material on improved design, materials selection, planning and other topics which are related to dose reduction efforts are also included. The report contains 327 abstracts as well as subject and author indices. All information in the current volume is also available from the ALARA Center's bulletin board service which is accessible by personal computers with the help of a modem. The last section of the report explains the features of the bulletin board. The bulletin board will be kept up-to-date with new information and should be of help in keeping people current in the area of dose reduction

  14. Poor man medical pneumoplasty: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with hot saline versus dissolved doxycycline as a neoteric remedy of pulmonary emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abumossalam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by hot saline and dissolved doxycycline comes into sight to be a safe and feasible profile with an acceptable outcome that presents an attractive substitute to COPD patients who are physiologically friable.

  15. Method for volume reduction and encapsulation of water-bearing, low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to the processing of water-bearing wastes, especially those containing radioactive materials from nuclear power plants like light-water moderated and cooled reactors. The invention provides a method to reduce the volume of wastes like contaminated coolants and to dispose them safely. According to the invention, azeotropic drying is applied to remove the water. Distilation temperatures are chosen to be lower than the lowest boiling point of the mixture components. In the preferred version, a polymerizing monomer is used to obtain the azeotropic mixture. In doing so, encapsulation is possible by combination with a co-reactive polymer that envelopes the waste material. (G.J.P.)

  16. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  17. Mass anomalous dimension of adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-XI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Core of Research for the Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In this work we consider the SU(N) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large N. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of N up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  18. RPV in-situ segmentation combined with off-site treatment for volume reduction and recycling - Proven In-Situ Segmentation Combined with Off-Site Treatment for Volume Reduction and Recycling. RPV case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Segerud, Per; Hedin, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the large components and the dismantling waste are key success factors in a decommissioning project. A large component of major interest is, due to its size and its span in radioactivity content, the RVP, which can be disposed as is or be segmented, treated, partially free released for recycling and conditioned for disposal in licensed packages. To a certain extent the decommissioning program have to be led by the waste management process. The costs for the plant decommissioning can be reduced by the usage of off-site waste treatment facilities as the time needed for performing the decommissioning project will be reduced as well as the waste volumes for disposal. Long execution times and delays due to problems with on-site waste management processes are major cost drivers for decommissioning projects. This involves also the RPV. In Sweden, the extension of the geological repository SFR plans for a potential disposal of whole RPVs. Disposal of whole RPVs is currently the main alternative but other options are considered. The target is to avoid extensive on-site waste management of RPVs to reduce the risk for delays. This paper describes in-situ RPV segmentation followed by off-site treatment aiming for free release for recycling of a substantial amount of the material, and volume efficient conditioning of the remaining parts. Real data from existing LWR RPVs was used for this study. Proven segmentation methods are intended to be used for the in situ segmentation followed by proven methods for packaging, transportation, treatment, recycling and conditioning for disposal. The expected volume reduction for disposal can be about 90% compared to whole RPV disposal. In this respect the in-situ segmentation of the RVPs to large pieces followed by off-site treatment is an interesting alternative that fits very well with the objective

  19. The volume reduction of low-activity solid wastes. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.; Parsons, P.J.; Malasek, E.

    1970-01-01

    The accumulation of large volumes of low-level solid radioactive wastes is a matter of concern to waste management authorities, particularly when the wastes are produced close to urban areas. Some of the older and larger nuclear establishments are situated in relatively sparsely populated regions where the problem of dealing with such wastes can even be solved on-site, usually by burial, with little or no pre-treatment. This is the most economical solution. Now, however, increasing amounts of wastes are being produced in more populated areas, and local storage can constitute a hindrance to urban development. It is therefore often necessary to transport the wastes elsewhere; to effect this economically the volume and, if possible, the weight must be reduced, so that the wastes can be transported in regulation packages. The present report is concerned with the methods by which this can be achieved for a large variety of solid materials that accrue as radioactive wastes. It has been compiled largely from information and experience gained at major establishments dealing with large quantities of waste, but articular attention has been paid to the interests of the waste management specialists working at smaller nuclear centres. The manual supplements the guides which have already appeared in IAEA publications series and have dealt with some specific aspect of waste management and, like them, it is oriented in the operational rather than the research direction

  20. WasteChem Corporation's Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system for low-level radwaste treatment: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Since 1965, low and medium level radwastes from nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants and nuclear research centers have been stabilized using the Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system. The VRS system uses an extruder/evaporator to evaporate the liquids from waste influents, while simultaneously incorporating the remaining radioactive solids in an asphalt binder. In the period 1965 to 1986 a minimum of 700,000 cubic feet of wastes have been processed with the VRS system. This report provides current operating data from various systems including the volume reduction factors achieved, and the progress of start-ups in the US. The report also provides previously unpublished experience with mixed wastes including uranium raffinate and nitrate-bearing sludges from surface impoundments. VRS systems in the US are currently operating at the Palisades and Hope Creek nuclear stations. These systems produce a variety of waste types including boric acid, bead resin, sodium sulfate and powdered resins. There are three start-ups of VRS systems scheduled in the US in 1987. These systems are at Fermi 2, Seabrook, and Nine Mile Point 2. Overseas, the startup of new systems continues with three VRS process lines coming on-line at the LaHague Reprocessing Center in France in 1986 and a start-up scheduled for 1987 at the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The US systems are operating continuously and with little required maintenance. Data on maintenance and the operator exposure are provided in this report. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Significant advantages of sulfur-doped graphene in neutral media as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction comparing with Pt/C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinxin; Zhang, Jiaona; Huang, Tinglin

    2018-02-01

    Sulfur-doped graphene (SDG) has been found to be an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. However, previous studies on the catalytic activity of SDG have been mainly confined to O2-saturated alkaline media which is a typical alkaline fuel cell environment. Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (ACMFCs), as a novel energy conversion and wastewater treatment technology, use the oxygen from air as cathodic reactant in neutral media with low concentration of O2. Thus, it is meaningful to explore the catalytic performance of SDG in such ACMFC environment. The result showed that in ACMFC environment, the peak current density of SDG in CV test was surprisingly 4.5 times higher than that of Pt/C, indicating a much stronger catalytic activity of SDG. Moreover, SDG exhibited a stronger tolerance against the crossover of glucose (a typical anodic fuel in ACMFC) and better stability than Pt/C in neutral media.

  2. Reduction of Powerplex(®) Y23 reaction volume for genotyping buccal cell samples on FTA(TM) cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziel, Aliza; Dell'Ariccia-Carmon, Aviva; Zamir, Ashira

    2015-01-01

    PowerPlex(®) Y23 is a novel kit for Y-STR typing that includes new highly discriminating loci. The Israel DNA Database laboratory has recently adopted it for routine Y-STR analysis. This study examined PCR amplification from 1.2-mm FTA punch in reduced volumes of 5 and 10 μL. Direct amplification and washing of the FTA punches were examined in different PCR cycle numbers. One short robotically performed wash was found to improve the quality and the percent of profiles obtained. The optimal PCR cycle number was determined for 5 and 10 μL reaction volumes. The percent of obtained profiles, color balance, and reproducibility were examined. High-quality profiles were achieved in 90% and 88% of the samples amplified in 5 and 10 μL, respectively, in the first attempt. Volume reduction to 5 μL has a vast economic impact especially for DNA database laboratories. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Reduction of the radioactive waste volume from Belgian NPP: Reality, costs and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, P.; Lemmens, A.; Mannaerts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The growing awareness of the existence of waste generated by human activities and its environmental impact is one of the critical events of the late twentieth century. All industrial activities produce waste and nuclear industry is no exception. But nuclear power plants produce smaller amount of waste that makes it possible to treat it with particular care. This paper describes the reduction in the amount of waste, the consequences this has had on the associated costs and the action taken to control the development of both objectives. (author)

  4. Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD AND#8211; An Updated Review of Surgical and Endoscopic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional medical management of emphysema using bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents has a limited benefit in patients having advanced hyperinflation of lungs due to destruction of elastic tissue. The natural course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has been shown to be altered by only smoking cessation and oxygen therapy so far. The lung volume reduction surgery is viewed as another modality to change the natural history of emphysema in recent years. For patients with more generalized emphysema, resection of lung parenchyma improves elastic recoil and chest wall mechanics. An extensive literature search has demonstrated that carefully selected patients of emphysema (i.e. upper lobe predominant disease, low exercise capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1 and DLco and #8804; 20% of predicted receive benefits in terms of symptomatic improvement and physiologic response following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS. The resurgent interest in LVRS and National Emphysema Treatment Trial findings for emphysema have stimulated a range of innovative methods, to improve the outcome and reduce complications associated with current LVRS techniques. These novel approaches include surgical resection with compression/banding devices, endobronchial blockers, sealants, obstructing devices and valves and endobronchial bronchial bypass approaches. Experimental data and preliminary results are becoming available for some of these approaches. Most of the published studies so far have been uncontrolled and unblinded. Overall, extensive research in the near future will help to determine the potential clinical applicability of these new approaches to the treatment of emphysema symptoms. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 249-257

  5. Pre-compression volume on flow ripple reduction of a piston pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Song, Yuechao; Yang, Huayong

    2013-11-01

    Axial piston pump with pre-compression volume(PCV) has lower flow ripple in large scale of operating condition than the traditional one. However, there is lack of precise simulation model of the axial piston pump with PCV, so the parameters of PCV are difficult to be determined. A finite element simulation model for piston pump with PCV is built by considering the piston movement, the fluid characteristic(including fluid compressibility and viscosity) and the leakage flow rate. Then a test of the pump flow ripple called the secondary source method is implemented to validate the simulation model. Thirdly, by comparing results among the simulation results, test results and results from other publications at the same operating condition, the simulation model is validated and used in optimizing the axial piston pump with PCV. According to the pump flow ripples obtained by the simulation model with different PCV parameters, the flow ripple is the smallest when the PCV angle is 13°, the PCV volume is 1.3×10-4 m3 at such operating condition that the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure 15 MPa, the pump speed 1 000 r/min, the swash plate angle 13°. At the same time, the flow ripple can be reduced when the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure is 5 MPa,15 MPa, 22 MPa, pump speed is 400 r/min, 1 000 r/min, 1 500 r/min, the swash plate angle is 11°, 13°, 15° and 17°, respectively. The finite element simulation model proposed provides a method for optimizing the PCV structure and guiding for designing a quieter axial piston pump.

  6. Functional evaluation of lung by Xe-133 lung ventilation scintigraphy before and after lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in patients with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Taichi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuhei

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the respiratory functions of patients with pulmonary emphysema who underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) by the mean transit time (MTT) with Xe-133 lung ventilation scintigraphy, forced expiration volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), residual volume (RV), distance walked in 6 min (6-min walk), and the Hugh-Jones classification (H-J classification) before and after LVRS. In 69 patients with pulmonary emphysema (62 men, 7 women; age range, 47-75 years; mean age, 65.4 years±6.1, preoperative H-J classification, III (two were II)-V) who underwent LVRS, all preoperative and postoperative parameters (MTT 3 weeks after LVRS and the others 3 months after LVRS) were judged statistically by the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and Odds ratio. Every postoperative parameter was improved with a significant difference (P<0.05) compared to preoperative parameters. MTT at 3 weeks after LVRS was not associated with %FEV1.0 and the H-J classification at 3 months after LVRS, but was associated with RV and a 6-min walk at 3 months after LVRS. MTT was useful for the clinical evaluation of aerobic capability after LVRS. (author)

  7. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  8. Volume reduction outweighs biogeochemical processes in controlling phosphorus treatment in aged detention systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Asmita; Shukla, Sanjay; Annable, Michael D.; Hodges, Alan W.

    2017-08-01

    Stormwater detention areas (SDAs) play an important role in treating end-of-the-farm runoff in phosphorous (P) limited agroecosystems. Phosphorus transport from the SDAs, including those through subsurface pathways, are not well understood. The prevailing understanding of these systems assumes that biogeochemical processes play the primary treatment role and that subsurface losses can be neglected. Water and P fluxes from a SDA located in a row-crop farm were measured for two years (2009-2011) to assess the SDA's role in reducing downstream P loads. The SDA treated 55% (497 kg) and 95% (205 kg) of the incoming load during Year 1 (Y1, 09-10) and Year 2 (Y2, 10-11), respectively. These treatment efficiencies were similar to surface water volumetric retention (49% in Y1 and 84% in Y2) and varied primarily with rainfall. Similar water volume and P retentions indicate that volume retention is the main process controlling P loads. A limited role of biogeochemical processes was supported by low to no remaining soil P adsorption capacity due to long-term drainage P input. The fact that outflow P concentrations (Y1 = 368.3 μg L- 1, Y2 = 230.4 μg L- 1) could be approximated by using a simple mixing of rainfall and drainage P input further confirmed the near inert biogeochemical processes. Subsurface P losses through groundwater were 304 kg (27% of inflow P) indicating that they are an important source for downstream P. Including subsurface P losses reduces the treatment efficiency to 35% (from 61%). The aboveground biomass in the SDA contained 42% (240 kg) of the average incoming P load suggesting that biomass harvesting could be a cost-effective alternative for reviving the role of biogeochemical processes to enhance P treatment in aged, P-saturated SDAs. The 20-year present economic value of P removal through harvesting was estimated to be 341,000, which if covered through a cost share or a payment for P treatment services program could be a positive outcome for both

  9. Expectation and task for constructing the volume reduction system of removed soils. In search of the technical integrity from the intermediate storage to final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate storage volume of the removed soils and incineration ash in Fukushima is supposed about 22 million cubic meters. Within 30 years after starting the intermediate storage, the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture to these removed soils and incineration ash is determined by the law. Because these removed soils are the very-very low radio activity, the volume reduction method is most effective to reduce the burden of the final disposal. As the volume reduction technology is the stage of research and development, the possibility of the introduction of the volume reduction technology that has the consistency of the final disposal technology is evaluated from the point of view of cost. Since this business is accompanied by economic and technical risk to implement private companies, this project is considered appropriate to be implemented as a national project. (author)

  10. Volume reduction of waste contaminated by fission product elements and plutonium using molten salt combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.E.; Grantham, L.F.; Paulson, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    In the Molten Salt Combustion Process, transuranic or β-γ organic waste and air are continuously introduced beneath the surface of a sodium carbonate-containing melt at a temperature of about 800 0 C. Complete combustion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and steam occurs without the conversion of nitrogen to nitrogen oxides. The noxious gases formed by combustion of the chloride, sulfur or phosphorus content of the waste instantly react with the melt to form the corresponding sodium compounds. These compounds as well as the ash and radionuclides are retained in the molten salt. The spent salt is either fused cast into an engineered disposal container or processed to recover salt and plutonium. Molten salt combustion reduces the waste to about 2% of its original volume. Many reactor or reprocessing wastes which cannot be incinerated without difficulty are readily combusted in the molten salt. A 50 kg/hr molten salt combustion system is being designed for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Construction of the combustor started during 1977, and combustor startup was scheduled for the spring of 1978

  11. Conceptual design of volume reduction system for ITER low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Je Keun, E-mail: jekeun.chon@iter.org; Beaudoin, Virginie; Pitcher, Charles S.

    2016-11-01

    For ITER Type A (low-level radwaste) radioactive waste process system, the super-compaction of solid wastes is introduced to reduce the waste volume in order to increase the quantity of waste to be enclosed in a final package. A study has been conducted to develop the conceptual design of super-compaction system by exploring the optimum design features of available equipment. The principal finding of the study is that a compactor with a vertical extrusion die that can apply a compressive force of up to 7000 kN will be fit for purpose of ITER Type A waste treatment. The confinement box has been proposed to limit the spread of aerial effluents that might escape from the compacted pellets. In order to increase the packing efficiency of the disposal containers, the height of each pellet will be recorded, enabling the disposal containers to be filled as close as possible to their limit if pellets of an appropriate size are available. The proposed conceptual design of super-compaction system is capable of meeting the objectives and constraints of target waste streams from ITER operation.

  12. SORL1 rs1699102 polymorphism modulates age-related cognitive decline and gray matter volume reduction in non-demented individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Yang, Caishui; Wei, Dongfeng; Chen, Kewei; Li, Shaowu; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-01-01

    SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. High-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 89 of these subjects were also collected using a Siemens Trio 3.0 Tesla scanner. The T allele carriers displayed an accelerated age-related change in episodic memory and processing speed tests relative to the CC genotype. A similar pattern was observed in the age-related gray matter volume (GMV) reduction of the right middle temporal pole. The GMV in this region was significantly positively correlated with the episodic memory scores. The SORL1 gene rs1699102 polymorphism has been found to be associated with age-related cognitive decline and GMV reduction of the right middle temporal pole in older adults. These findings elucidate how the SORL1 variants shape the neural system to modulate age-related cognitive decline and support the hypothesis that SORL1 may represent a candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 EAN.

  13. Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry's costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE's liquid waste streams

  14. Volume reduction/solidification of liquid radioactive waste using bitumen at Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.E.; Baker, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario Hydro at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' has undertaken a program to render the station's liquid radioactive waste suitable for discharge to Lake Huron by removing sufficient radiological and chemical contaminants to satisfy regulatory requirements for emissions. The system will remove radionuclide and chemical contaminants from five different plant waste streams. The contaminants will be immobilized and stored at on-site radioactive waste storage facilities and the purified streams will be discharged. The discharge targets established by Ontario Hydro are set well below the limits established by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) and are based on the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Approach (B.A.T.E.A.). ADTECHS Corporation has been selected by Ontario Hydro to provide volume reduction/solidification technology for one of the five waste streams. The system will dry and immobilize the contaminants from a liquid waste stream in emulsified asphalt using thin film evaporation technology

  15. Significant rising antibody titres to influenza A are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Timothy R; Brown, Ian H; Essen, Steve C; Young, Stuart C L

    2008-10-01

    Sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a Holstein Friesian dairy herd in Devon. The investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. Paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and human influenza A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. Rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3) were not associated with an acute fall in milk production. Cases with rises in antibody to influenza A had significantly higher respiratory scores and rectal temperatures than their controls. The mean loss of milk production for the cases with rises in antibody to influenza A compared to their controls was 159.9L. This study provides further evidence that influenza A persists in cattle and causes clinical disease.

  16. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...... in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of four cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O-3] temperature and combinations hereof (similar to RCP8.5,(1)). Populations of the cultivars were grown under ambient and climate change...... conditions in a climate-phytotron. The treatments were ambient (360 ppm CO2, 19/12 degrees C (day/night), 20/20 ppb O-3 (day/night)), all factors elevated (650 ppm CO2, 24/17 degrees C, 60/20 ppb O-3), as well as two- and single-factor treatments with the elevated factors.The overall trend was that oil...

  17. Significant reduction of saturation magnetization and microwave-reflection loss in barium-natural ferrite via Nd3+ substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarto, W.; Ardenti, E.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Kurniawan, C.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2018-06-01

    To minimize the signal degradation, many electronic devices require efficient microwave absorbers with very low reflection-losses within the X-band. We prepared a series of trivalent neodymium-ion (Nd3+) substituted barium-natural ferrite using a modified solid-state reaction method. The effect of the Nd3+-ion content on the structure, surface morphology, magnetic properties, and microwave reflection loss was studied. The composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, a vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy, and a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns of the sample without Nd3+ reveal the presence of BaFe12O19 (hexagonal) and BaFe2O4 (rhombohedral) phases. Furthermore, a new hexagonal crystal phase of Ba6Nd2Fe4O15 appeared after substituting Nd3+. The average size of the prepared barium-natural ferrite particles was estimated to be between 0.4 and 0.8 μm. Both saturation magnetization and microwave reflection losses of these barium-ferrites were significantly reduced by increasing the Nd3+ content.

  18. Significant Reduction in Helicobacter pylori Load in Humans with Non-viable Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17648: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Caterina; Busjahn, Andreas; Mehling, Heidrun; Arya, Stefanie; Boettner, Mewes; Habibi, Hajar; Lang, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Reducing the amount of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach by selective bacterial-bacterial cell interaction was sought as an effective and novel method for combating the stomach pathogen. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17648 was identified as a highly specific binding antagonist to H. pylori among more than 700 wild-type strains of Lactobacillus species. Applying a stringent screening procedure, the strain DSM17648 was identified as selective binder to H. pylori cells under in vivo gastric conditions. The strain DSM17648 co-aggregates the pathogen in vivo and in vitro. The specific co-aggregation occurs between Lact. reuteri DSM17648 and different H. pylori strains and serotypes, as well as H. heilmannii, but not with Campylobacter jejuni or other commensal oral and intestinal bacteria. Lact. reuteri DSM17648 was shown in a proof-of-concept single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study to significantly reduce the load of H. pylori in healthy yet infected adults. Reducing the amount of H. pylori in the stomach by selective bacterial-bacterial cell interaction might be an effective and novel method for combating the stomach pathogen. Lact. reuteri DSM17648 might prove useful as an adhesion blocker in antibiotic-free H. pylori therapies.

  19. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  20. Automated detection of masses on whole breast volume ultrasound scanner: false positive reduction using deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yuya; Muramatsu, Chisako; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer screening with mammography and ultrasonography is expected to improve sensitivity compared with mammography alone, especially for women with dense breast. An automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) provides the operator-independent whole breast data which facilitate double reading and comparison with past exams, contralateral breast, and multimodality images. However, large volumetric data in screening practice increase radiologists' workload. Therefore, our goal is to develop a computer-aided detection scheme of breast masses in ABVS data for assisting radiologists' diagnosis and comparison with mammographic findings. In this study, false positive (FP) reduction scheme using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was investigated. For training DCNN, true positive and FP samples were obtained from the result of our initial mass detection scheme using the vector convergence filter. Regions of interest including the detected regions were extracted from the multiplanar reconstraction slices. We investigated methods to select effective FP samples for training the DCNN. Based on the free response receiver operating characteristic analysis, simple random sampling from the entire candidates was most effective in this study. Using DCNN, the number of FPs could be reduced by 60%, while retaining 90% of true masses. The result indicates the potential usefulness of DCNN for FP reduction in automated mass detection on ABVS images.

  1. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theilig D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Theilig,1 Felix Doellinger,1 Alexander Poellinger,1 Vera Schreiter,1 Konrad Neumann,2 Ralf-Harto Hubner31Department of Radiology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Biometrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Pneumology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyBackground: The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition.Purpose: The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change.Results: The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P=0.008. The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P=0.009. Subgroup

  2. Moderately high frequency ventilation with a conventional ventilator allows reduction of tidal volume without increasing mean airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Gomes, Susimeire; Brochard, Laurent; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore if positive-pressure ventilation delivered by a conventional ICU ventilator at a moderately high frequency (HFPPV) allows a safe reduction of tidal volume (V T) below 6 mL/kg in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and at a lower mean airway pressure than high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). This is a prospective study. In eight pigs (median weight 34 [29,36] kg), ARDS was induced by pulmonary lavage and injurious ventilation. The animals were ventilated with a randomized sequence of respiratory rates: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, followed by HFOV at 5 Hz. At each step, V T was adjusted to allow partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) to stabilize between 57 and 63 mmHg. Data are shown as median [P25th,P75th]. After lung injury, the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio was 92 [63,118] mmHg, pulmonary shunt 26 [17,31]%, and static compliance 11 [8,14] mL/cmH2O. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 [10,17] cmH2O. At 30 breaths/min, V T was higher than 6 (7.5 [6.8,10.2]) mL/kg, but at all higher frequencies, V T could be reduced and PaCO2 maintained, leading to reductions in plateau pressures and driving pressures. For frequencies of 60 to 150/min, V T progressively fell from 5.2 [5.1,5.9] to 3.8 [3.7,4.2] mL/kg (p mechanics, auto-PEEP generation, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Mean airway pressure was maintained constant and was increased only during HFOV. During protective mechanical ventilation, HFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe ARDS swine model safely allows further tidal volume reductions. This strategy also allowed decreasing airway pressures while maintaining stable PaCO2 levels.

  3. Reduction on high level radioactive waste volume and geological repository footprint with high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Yuji, E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate the number of canisters and its footprint for HTGR. • We proposed new waste loading method for direct disposal of HTGR. • HTGR can significantly reduce HLW volume compared with LWR. - Abstract: Reduction on volume of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) and footprint in a geological repository due to high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been investigated. A helium-cooled and graphite-moderated commercial HTGR was designed as a Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300), and that has particular features such as significantly high burn-up of approximately 120 GWd/t, high thermal efficiency around 50%, and pin-in-block type fuel. The pin-in-block type fuel was employed to reduce processed graphite volume in reprocessing. By applying the feature, effective waste loading method for direct disposal is proposed in this study. By taking into account these feature, the number of HLW canister generations and its repository footprint are evaluated by burn-up fuel composition, thermal calculation and criticality calculation in repository. As a result, it is found that the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 60% compared with Light Water Reactor (LWR) representative case for direct disposal because of the higher burn-up, higher thermal efficiency, less TRU generation, and effective waste loading proposed in this study for HTGR. But, the reduced ratios change to 20% and 50% if the long term durability of LWR canister is guaranteed. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 30% compared with LWR because of the 30% higher thermal efficiency of HTGR.

  4. Autologous inferior dermal sling (autoderm) with concomitant skin-envelope reduction mastectomy: an excellent surgical choice for women with macromastia and clinically significant ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Jill; Lundgren, P; Veeramani, A; O'Rourke, C; Bernard, S; Djohan, R; Larson, J; Isakov, R; Yetman, R

    2012-10-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy and prosthetic reconstruction can be complicated by poor surgical outcomes in large-breasted, obese women. This article describes a single surgeon's experience comparing conventional skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and skin-reduction mastectomy using an autologous vascularized inferior dermal/cutaneous sling (autoderm). From July 2007 to May 2012, patients undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy were evaluated for surgical outcomes. After July 2009, the surgeon performed skin-reduction mastectomies with autoderm (SRM-AD) on all patients with macromastia or grade 3-4 ptosis. Remaining patients in this time period (SSM-cont) underwent conventional skin-sparing mastectomies while all previous patients (historical) also underwent skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM-hist). A predictive model was used to compare the large historical patients (who would have had reduction mastectomy if available) with the smaller historical patients to evaluate the effect of the procedure. Body mass index (BMI) and specimen weight were higher in both the SRM group and large historical group. The hazard ratio for having skin-reduction mastectomy was 0.53 (P = 0.51) compared with the historical group. There was a total of 16 complications for the whole study. Smoking was the only significant risk factor. This study shows that mastectomy with prosthetic reconstruction using a skin-reduction technique with autoderm can be done safely with a low complication rate and improved cosmetic outcomes in the traditionally "at-risk" group of women with high BMI and large ptotic breasts.

  5. Analysis of the reduction in waste volumes received for disposal at the low-level radioactive waste site in the State of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal site at Richland, Washington has been receiving waste from generators nationwide since 1965 and is one of the three sites in the nation currently receiving commercial LLRW for disposal. In the past, volumes of LLRW have been increasing steadily, however, this trend has reversed since 1986. This paper addresses waste volume and activity of the waste disposed, factors which have caused this dramatic reduction in LLRW volume, and regulatory concerns regarding environmental protection, and public and occupational health and safety. Future volumes of LLRW that are disposed at the Richland site depend on economic, technological, political and regulatory variables. Provided there is a continual increase in industrial growth, and a demand for medical research and diagnosis, the volume of LLRW increases. However, this volume also offsets by an increase in demand for volume reduction due to economic and institutional pressures. Yet, if all generators continue to volume reduce their LLRW, some time in future, a limit will be reached when the facility site operator needs to increase the unit disposal cost to cover the fixed cost and maintain a profit margin in order to operate the site

  6. Recovery Act: SeaMicro Volume Server Power Reduction Research Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Lauterbach

    2012-03-22

    Cloud data centers are projected to be the fastest growing segment of the server market through 2015, according to IDC. Increasingly people and businesses rely on the Cloud to deliver digital content quickly and efficiently. Recovery Act funding from the Department of Energy has helped SeaMicro's technologies enhance the total cost of operation, performance and energy efficiency in large data center and Cloud environments. SeaMicro's innovative supercomputer fabric connects thousands of processor cores, memory, storage and input/output traffic. The company's fabric supports multiple processor instruction sets. Current systems featuring SeaMicro technology typically use one quarter the power and take one sixth the space of traditional servers with the same compute performance, yet deliver up to 12 times the bandwidth per core. Mozilla and eHarmony are two customers successfully using SeaMicro's technology. Numerous non-public customers have been successfully using the SeaMicro product in test and production facilities. As a result of the Recovery Act funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, more than 50 direct jobs were created at SeaMicro. To date, they primarily have been high-value, engineering jobs. Hardware, software and manufacturing engineering positions have been created, as well as sales and sales engineering. The positions have allowed SeaMicro to significantly accelerate engineering development and accelerate commercialization. As a result, commercialization and delivery to market are months ahead of initial schedule. Additional jobs were indirectly created through the development of the SeaMicro product. Through many years of research and hard work prior to receipt of public funding, SeaMicro was awarded 2 patents for its work. SeaMicro's product led the way for industry leaders to reconsider the market for low power servers and create new product lines. With valuable support of the U.S. Department of Energy and through Sea

  7. Effect of preload reduction by hemodialysis on left atrial volume and echocardiographic Doppler parameters in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberato, Silvio H; Mantilla, Diego E V; Misocami, M Arcio; Gonçalves, Simone M; Bignelli, Alexandre T; Riella, Miguel C; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Left atrial (LA) volume has been proposed as a less preload-dependent parameter of diastolic function than Doppler mitral inflow. We hypothesize that in the absence of mitral regurgitation and atrial fibrilation, LA enlargement could be a more practical (and relatively preload-independent) method for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of preload reduction by hemodialysis on LA volume.

  8. Pulmonary Perfusion Changes as Assessed by Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy Computed Tomography after Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction by Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lador, Frédéric; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Hohn, Olivia; Plojoux, Jérôme; Ronot, Maxime; Montet, Xavier; Soccal, Paola M

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction by coils (LVRC) is a recent treatment approach for severe emphysema. Furthermore, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) now offers a combined assessment of lung morphology and pulmonary perfusion. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of LVRC on pulmonary perfusion with DECT. Seventeen patients (64.8 ± 6.7 years) underwent LVRC. DECT was performed prior to and after LVRC. For each patient, lung volumes and emphysema quantification were automatically calculated. Then, 6 regions of interest (ROIs) on the iodine perfusion map were drawn in the anterior, mid, and posterior right and left lungs at 4 defined levels. The ROI values were averaged to obtain lung perfusion as assessed by the lung's iodine concentration (CLung, μg·cm-3). The CLung values were normalized using the left atrial iodine concentration (CLA) to take into account differences between successive DECT scans. The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) improved significantly after the procedure (p = 0.0002). No lung volume changes were observed between successive DECT scans for any of the patients (p = 0.32), attesting the same suspended inspiration. After LVRC, the emphysema index was significantly reduced in the treated lung (p = 0.0014). Lung perfusion increased significantly adjacent to the treated areas (CLung/CLA from 3.4 ± 1.7 to 5.6 ± 2.2, p < 0.001) and in the ipsilateral untreated areas (from 4.1 ± 1.4 to 6.6 ± 1.7, p < 0.001), corresponding to a mean 65 and 61% increase in perfusion, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the contralateral upper and lower areas (from 4.4 ± 1.9 to 4.8 ± 2.1, p = 0.273, and from 4.9 ± 2.0 to 5.2 ± 1.7, p = 0.412, respectively). A significant correlation between increased 6MWD and increased perfusion was found (p = 0.0027, R2 = 0.3850). Quantitative analysis based on DECT acquisition revealed that LVRC results in a significant increase in perfusion in the coil-free areas adjacent to the treated ones, as

  9. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  10. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilig, Dorothea; Doellinger, Felix; Poellinger, Alexander; Schreiter, Vera; Neumann, Konrad; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2017-01-01

    The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition. The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI) when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change. The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL) minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P =0.008). The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P =0.009). Subgroup analysis suggests that the impact of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is of greater importance in patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema than in patients with lower lobe predominant emphysema. This study reveals the most appropriate ways of calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.

  11. Methods for Reducing Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Dose Reduction or Planning Target Volume Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Vineberg, Karen; Lee, Jae; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Brock, Kristy K., E-mail: kbrock@med.umich.edu

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Strategies to reduce the toxicities of head and neck radiation (ie, dysphagia [difficulty swallowing] and xerostomia [dry mouth]) are currently underway. However, the predicted benefit of dose and planning target volume (PTV) reduction strategies is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for swallowing and salivary structures in standard plans (70 Gy [P70]), dose-reduced plans (60 Gy [P60]), and plans eliminating the PTV margin. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) plans were analyzed. Standard organ-sparing volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (P70) were created and then modified by eliminating the PTVs and treating the clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) only (C70) or maintaining the PTV but reducing the dose to 60 Gy (P60). NTCP dose models for the pharyngeal constrictors, glottis/supraglottic larynx, parotid glands (PGs), and submandibular glands (SMGs) were analyzed. The minimal clinically important benefit was defined as a mean change in NTCP of >5%. The P70 NTCP thresholds and overlap percentages of the organs at risk with the PTVs (56-59 Gy, vPTV{sub 56}) were evaluated to identify the predictors for NTCP improvement. Results: With the P60 plans, only the ipsilateral PG (iPG) benefited (23.9% vs 16.2%; P<.01). With the C70 plans, only the iPG (23.9% vs 17.5%; P<.01) and contralateral SMG (cSMG) (NTCP 32.1% vs 22.9%; P<.01) benefited. An iPG NTCP threshold of 20% and 30% predicted NTCP benefits for the P60 and C70 plans, respectively (P<.001). A cSMG NTCP threshold of 30% predicted for an NTCP benefit with the C70 plans (P<.001). Furthermore, for the iPG, a vPTV{sub 56} >13% predicted benefit with P60 (P<.001) and C70 (P=.002). For the cSMG, a vPTV{sub 56} >22% predicted benefit with C70 (P<.01). Conclusions: PTV elimination and dose-reduction lowered the NTCP of the iPG, and PTV elimination lowered the NTCP of the cSMG. NTCP thresholds and the

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994; Volume 13, Number 3, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Reactor licensees: Volume 14, No. 1, Part 1, Quarterly progress report January--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994: Volume 13, Number 3, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 13, No. 1, Part 1: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to these described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, January--June 1997; Volume 16, Number 1, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January--June 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. CT image quality improvement using adaptive iterative dose reduction with wide-volume acquisition on 320-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervaise, Alban; Osemont, Benoit; Lecocq, Sophie; Blum, Alain; Noel, Alain; Micard, Emilien; Felblinger, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) on image quality and radiation dose in phantom and patient studies. A phantom was examined in volumetric mode on a 320-detector CT at different tube currents from 25 to 550 mAs. CT images were reconstructed with AIDR and with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Image noise, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution were compared between FBP and AIDR images. AIDR was then tested on 15 CT examinations of the lumbar spine in a prospective study. Again, FBP and AIDR images were compared. Image noise and SNR were analysed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In the phantom, spatial resolution assessment showed no significant difference between FBP and AIDR reconstructions. Image noise was lower with AIDR than with FBP images with a mean reduction of 40%. CNR and SNR were also improved with AIDR. In patients, quantitative and subjective evaluation showed that image noise was significantly lower with AIDR than with FBP. SNR was also greater with AIDR than with FBP. Compared to traditional FBP reconstruction techniques, AIDR significantly improves image quality and has the potential to decrease radiation dose. (orig.)

  12. Clinical evaluation of 99mTc-Technegas SPECT in thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery in patients with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Teruhiko; Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Shinkai, Takayuki

    2000-01-01

    99m Tc-Technegas (Tcgas) SPECT is useful for evaluating the patency of the airway and highly sensitive in detecting regional pulmonary function in pulmonary emphysema. The aim of this study is to evaluate regional ventilation impairment by this method pre and post thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in patients with pulmonary emphysema. There were 11 patients with pulmonary emphysema. The mean age of patients was 64.1 years. All patients were males. LVRS was performed bilaterally in 8 patients and unilaterally in 3 patients. Post inhalation of Tcgas in the sitting position, the subjects were placed in the supine position and SPECT was performed. Distribution of Tcgas on axial images was classified into 4 types, homogeneous, inhomogeneous, hot spot, and defect. Three slices of axial SPECT images, the upper, middle and lower fields were selected, and changes in deposition patterns post LVRS were scored (Tcgas score). Post LVRS, dyspnea on exertion and pulmonary function tests were improved. Pre LVRS, inhomogeneous distribution, hot spots and defects were observed in all patients. Post LVRS, improvement in distribution was obtained not only in the surgical field and other fields, but also in the contralateral lung of unilaterally operated patients. In 5 patients some fields showed deterioration. The Tcgas score correlated with improvements in FEV 1.0 , FEV 1.0 % and %FEV 1.0 . Tcgas SPECT is useful for evaluating changes in regional pulmonary function post LVRS. (author)

  13. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Bergstrand, L.; Tylen, U.; Aspelin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  14. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B. [Department of Thoracic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstrand, L. [Department of Radiology, Danderyds Hospital, Danderyd (Sweden); Tylen, U. [Deparment of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenberg (Sweden); Aspelin, P. [Department of Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  15. Significant reduction in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization and bacteraemia after introduction of a bleach-based cleaning-disinfection programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, E A; Mahony, A A; Cameron, D R M; Martin, R D; Heland, M; Davey, P; Petty, M; Xie, S; Grayson, M L

    2012-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonization and infection have increased at our hospital, despite adherence to standard VRE control guidelines. We implemented a multi-modal, hospital-wide improvement programme including a bleach-based cleaning-disinfection programme ('Bleach-Clean'). VRE colonization, infection and environmental contamination were compared pre and post implementation. The programme included a new product (sodium hypochlorite 1000 ppm + detergent), standardized cleaning-disinfection practices, employment of cleaning supervisors, and modified protocols to rely on alcohol-based hand hygiene and sleeveless aprons instead of long-sleeved gowns and gloves. VRE was isolated using chromogenic agar and/or routine laboratory methods. Outcomes were assessed during the 6 months pre and 12 months post implementation, including proportions (per 100 patients screened) of VRE colonization in high-risk wards (HRWs: intensive care, liver transplant, renal, haematology/oncology); proportions of environmental contamination; and episodes of VRE bacteraemia throughout the entire hospital. Significant reductions in newly recognized VRE colonizations (208/1948 patients screened vs 324/4035, a 24.8% reduction, P = 0.001) and environmental contamination (66.4% reduction, P = 0.012) were observed, but the proportion of patients colonized on admission was stable. The total burden of inpatients with VRE in the HRWs also declined (median percentage of colonized inpatients per week, 19.4% vs 17.3%, P = 0.016). Hospital-wide VRE bacteraemia declined from 14/2935 patients investigated to 5/6194 (83.1% reduction; P Clean programme was associated with marked reductions in new VRE colonizations in high-risk patients, and VRE bacteraemia across the entire hospital. These findings have important implications for VRE control in endemic healthcare settings. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of Volume Reduction and Self-Disposal for Large Metal Wastes including the Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on technologies of volume reduction and self-disposal for large metal wastes including the steam generator of nuclear power plants. This report consists of the cases of treatments and foreign and domestic technologies for steam generator replacement

  17. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0...

  18. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades - A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stynke Castelein

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S. A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973-1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years; 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis.

  19. The significance for epidemiological studies anti-measles antibody detection examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennicka, Joanna; Częścik, Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of anti-measles antibodies for protection and significance for epidemiological studies determination of antibodies by different serological methods. The comparison of anti-measles virus antibodies levels measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) was described. It was found that the 200 mIU/ml of anti-measles activity measured by PRNT (level protection against symp- tomatic disease) is equivalent of 636 mIU/ml measured by EIA (Enzygnost®Anti-Measles Virus/IgG, Simens).

  20. Is a reduction in radiation lung volume and dose necessary with paclitaxel chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghian, Alphonse G; Assaad, Sherif I; Niemierko, Andrzej; Floyd, Scott R; Powell, Simon N

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate and quantify the effect of irradiated lung volume, radiation dose, and paclitaxel chemotherapy on the development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes. We previously reported the incidence of RP among 41 patients with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy. We recorded the central lung distance, a measure of the extent of lung included in the RT volume, in these patients. We used this measure and the historical and observed rates of RP in our series to model the lung tolerance to RT in patients receiving chemotherapy (CHT) both with and without paclitaxel. To evaluate the risk factors for the development of RP, we performed a case-control study comparing paclitaxel-treated patients who developed RP with those who did not, and a second case-control study comparing patients receiving paclitaxel in addition to standard CHT/RT (n = 41) and controls receiving standard CHT/RT alone (n = 192). The actuarial rate of RP in the paclitaxel-treated group was 15.4% compared with 0.9% among breast cancer patients treated with RT and non-paclitaxel-containing CHT. Our mathematical model found that the effective lung tolerance for patients treated with paclitaxel was reduced by approximately 24%. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to the dose delivered to specific radiation fields, dose per fraction, central lung distance, or percentage of lung irradiated in the case-control study of paclitaxel-treated patients who developed RP compared with those who did not. In the comparison of 41 patients receiving RT and CHT with paclitaxel and 192 matched controls receiving RT and CHT without paclitaxel, the only significant differences identified were the more frequent use of a supraclavicular radiation field and a decrease in the RT lung dose among the paclitaxel-treated patients. This finding indicates that the major factor associated with development

  1. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Giant liver hemangioma resected by trisectorectomy after efficient volume reduction by transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akamatsu Nobuhisa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, usually small in size and requiring no treatment. Giant hemangiomas complicated with consumptive coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome or causing severe incapacitating symptoms, however, are generally considered an absolute indication for surgical resection. Here, we present the case of a giant hemangioma, which was, to the best of our knowledge, one of the largest ever reported. Case presentation A 38-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with complaints of severe abdominal distension and pancytopenia. Examinations at the first visit revealed a right liver hemangioma occupying the abdominal cavity, protruding into the right diaphragm up to the right thoracic cavity and extending down to the pelvic cavity, with a maximum diameter of 43 cm, complicated with "asymptomatic" Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Based on the tumor size and the anatomic relationship between the tumor and hepatic vena cava, primary resection seemed difficult and dangerous, leading us to first perform transcatheter arterial embolization to reduce the tumor volume and to ensure the safety of future resection. The tumor volume was significantly decreased by two successive transcatheter arterial embolizations, and a conventional right trisectorectomy was then performed without difficulty to resect the tumor. Conclusions To date, there have been several reports of aggressive surgical treatments, including extra-corporeal hepatic resection and liver transplantation, for huge hemangiomas like the present case, but because of its benign nature, every effort should be made to avoid life-threatening surgical stress for patients. Our experience demonstrates that a pre-operative arterial embolization may effectively enable the resection of large hemangiomas.

  3. Dissociable contributions of MRI volume reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Paul G.; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Gurrera, Ronald J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to identify the functional correlates of reduced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. MRI volumes, positive/negative symptoms, and neuropsychological tests of facial memory and executive functioning were examined within the same subjects. The results indicated two distinct, dissociable brain structure-function relationships: (1) reduced left STG volume-positive symptoms-execu...

  4. A New Bioinspired Perchlorate Reduction Catalyst with Significantly Enhanced Stability via Rational Tuning of Rhenium Coordination Chemistry and Heterogeneous Reaction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyong; Han, Mengwei; Wu, Dimao; Chen, Xi; Choe, Jong Kwon; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2016-06-07

    Rapid reduction of aqueous ClO4(-) to Cl(-) by H2 has been realized by a heterogeneous Re(hoz)2-Pd/C catalyst integrating Re(O)(hoz)2Cl complex (hoz = oxazolinyl-phenolato bidentate ligand) and Pd nanoparticles on carbon support, but ClOx(-) intermediates formed during reactions with concentrated ClO4(-) promote irreversible Re complex decomposition and catalyst deactivation. The original catalyst design mimics the microbial ClO4(-) reductase, which integrates Mo(MGD)2 complex (MGD = molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide) for oxygen atom transfer (OAT). Perchlorate-reducing microorganisms employ a separate enzyme, chlorite dismutase, to prevent accumulation of the destructive ClO2(-) intermediate. The structural intricacy of MGD ligand and the two-enzyme mechanism for microbial ClO4(-) reduction inspired us to improve catalyst stability by rationally tuning Re ligand structure and adding a ClOx(-) scavenger. Two new Re complexes, Re(O)(htz)2Cl and Re(O)(hoz)(htz)Cl (htz = thiazolinyl-phenolato bidentate ligand), significantly mitigate Re complex decomposition by slightly lowering the OAT activity when immobilized in Pd/C. Further stability enhancement is then obtained by switching the nanoparticles from Pd to Rh, which exhibits high reactivity with ClOx(-) intermediates and thus prevents their deactivating reaction with the Re complex. Compared to Re(hoz)2-Pd/C, the new Re(hoz)(htz)-Rh/C catalyst exhibits similar ClO4(-) reduction activity but superior stability, evidenced by a decrease of Re leaching from 37% to 0.25% and stability of surface Re speciation following the treatment of a concentrated "challenge" solution containing 1000 ppm of ClO4(-). This work demonstrates the pivotal roles of coordination chemistry control and tuning of individual catalyst components for achieving both high activity and stability in environmental catalyst applications.

  5. Esomeprazole use is independently associated with significant reduction of BMD: 1-year prospective comparative safety study of four proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Hoti, Kreshnik; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Karakulak, Çağla

    2016-09-01

    Because of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), their the use is increasing dramatically. The risk of adverse effects of short-term PPI therapy is low, but there are important safety concerns for potential adverse effects of prolonged PPI therapy. Findings from studies assessing the association between PPI use and bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk are contradictory. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess potential association of PPI treatment with the 12-month change in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. The study was performed in 200 PPI users and 50 PPI nonusers. Lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck, and total hip BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and at 12 months. A total of 209 subjects completed the entire 12 months of the study and were included in the final analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at 12 months PPI use was associated with statistically significant reductions in femur neck and total hip T scores (Z = -2.764, p = 0.005 and Z = -3.281, p = 0.001, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only esomeprazole added significantly to the prediction of total lumbar spine and femur neck T scores (p = 0.048 and p = 0.037, respectively). Compared with the baseline, 12 months of PPI treatment resulted in lower femur neck and total hip BMD T scores. Among the four PPIs studied, esomeprazole was independently associated with significant reduction of BMD, whereas omeprazole had no effects on BMD. Considering the widespread use of PPIs, BMD screening should be considered in the case of prolonged PPI use.

  6. The impact of preload reduction with head-up tilt testing on longitudinal and transverse left ventricular mechanics: a study utilizing deformation volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caroline; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on load, intrinsic contractility and relaxation with a variable impact on specific mechanics. Strain (ε) imaging allows the assessment of cardiac function; however, the direct relationship between volume and strain is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of preload reduction through head-up tilt (HUT) testing on simultaneous left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and transverse function and their respective contribution to volume change. A focused transthoracic echocardiogram was performed on 10 healthy male participants (23 ± 3 years) in the supine position and following 1 min and 5 min of HUT testing. Raw temporal longitudinal ε (Ls) and transverse ε (Ts) values were exported and divided into 5% increments across the cardiac cycle and corresponding LV volumes were traced at each 5% increment. This provided simultaneous LV longitudinal and transverse ε and volume loops (deformation volume analysis - DVA). There was a leftward shift of the ε-volume loop from supine to 1 min and 5 min of HUT ( P  transverse thickening from supine to 1 min, which was further augmented at 5 min ( P  = 0.018). Preload reduction occurs within 1 min of HUT but does not further reduce at 5 min. This decline is associated with a decrease in longitudinal ε and concomitant increase in transverse ε. Consequently, augmented transverse relaxation appears to be an important factor in the maintenance of LV filling in the setting of reduced preload. DVA provides information on the relative contribution of mechanics to a change in LV volume and may have a role in the assessment of clinical populations. © 2018 The authors.

  7. Mid-Treatment Sleep Duration Predicts Clinically Significant Knee Osteoarthritis Pain reduction at 6 months: Effects From a Behavioral Sleep Medicine Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Smith, Michael T; Finan, Patrick H

    2017-02-01

    To determine the relative influence of sleep continuity (sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, total sleep time [TST], and wake after sleep onset) on clinical pain outcomes within a trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for patients with comorbid knee osteoarthritis and insomnia. Secondary analyses were performed on data from 74 patients with comorbid insomnia and knee osteoarthritis who completed a randomized clinical trial of 8-session multicomponent CBT-I versus an active behavioral desensitization control condition (BD), including a 6-month follow-up assessment. Data used herein include daily diaries of sleep parameters, actigraphy data, and self-report questionnaires administered at specific time points. Patients who reported at least 30% improvement in self-reported pain from baseline to 6-month follow-up were considered responders (N = 31). Pain responders and nonresponders did not differ significantly at baseline across any sleep continuity measures. At mid-treatment, only TST predicted pain response via t tests and logistic regression, whereas other measures of sleep continuity were nonsignificant. Recursive partitioning analyses identified a minimum cut-point of 382 min of TST achieved at mid-treatment in order to best predict pain improvements 6-month posttreatment. Actigraphy results followed the same pattern as daily diary-based results. Clinically significant pain reductions in response to both CBT-I and BD were optimally predicted by achieving approximately 6.5 hr sleep duration by mid-treatment. Thus, tailoring interventions to increase TST early in treatment may be an effective strategy to promote long-term pain reductions. More comprehensive research on components of behavioral sleep medicine treatments that contribute to pain response is warranted. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realised in ENEA centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUTREX plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1995-09-01

    The volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realized between 1989 and 1993 in the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUREX plant), by the mean of supercompactation, and cement immobilization inside over packs, are hereby described. The operational techniques and the equipments used, the whole volume reduction factors obtained and some final considerations over this solid rad wastes treatment procedure are shown. This method, where correctly operated and coupled to an accurate radiological characterization, permits to save space for the waste storage in the short period and to obtain final manufacts, certified suitable for shallow burial disposal, according to italian technical guide n. 26

  9. Current state of the technology measures of accident from contamination by the radioactive substance. 4. volume reduction of removing soil treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The removed materials that were generated via decontamination work and contaminated with radioactive cesium are mainly soil, the total amount of which is estimated at about 16 million to 22 million m3 in Fukushima Prefecture. Since cesium 137 has a short half-life of 30 years, the amount that needs final disposal after 30 years is expected to be 6 million m3 plus. In order to rationally and safely promote the transport, storage, and disposal of removed contaminants, volume reduction as much as possible is important, which requires relevant techniques. The biggest challenge of the volume reduction is an appropriate use of a low concentration of or purified/reproduced soil that occurs in the process. Since the recycled soil is not completely consumed only by intermediate processing facilities, there is a possibility to be used at outside facilities. There are needs for the tests and securement of qualities and standards according to the application, as well as the empirical data of practicality and long-term safety. It includes not only technical problem-solving, technology dissemination, and standardization, but also the construction of social acceptability. To do this, it is important that researchers and engineers in many fields in addition to those of soil jointly own common agenda and perform cross-cutting initiatives. After this, the social acceptance of volume reduction technology and the treatment of decontaminated waste would make a progress. (A.O.)

  10. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M; Morren, Grietje

    2014-09-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirty-five patients received one treatment per week over 6 weeks to their abdomen/flank, buttock, or thigh areas and were followed up to 3 months post completion of the treatment protocol. This new device has an increased power in the bipolar RF, as this parameter appears to be the most important energy modality for volume reduction. Patient circumferences were measured and comparisons of baseline and post treatment outcomes were made. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) measurements were performed in 12 patients to evaluate the reduction in adipose tissue volume, and a cutometer device was used to assess improvements in skin tightening. We observed a gradual decline in patient circumferences from baseline to post six treatments. The overall body shaping effect was accompanied with improvement in skin tightening and was clearly noticeable in the comparison of the before and after treatment clinical photographs. These findings correlated with measurements of adipose tissue volume and skin firmness/elasticity using diagnostic US and cutometer, respectively. The thickness of the fat layer showed on average a 29% reduction between baseline and the 1-month follow up. The average reduction in the circumference of the abdomen/flanks, buttocks, and thighs from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was 1.4, 0.5, and 1.2 cm, respectively, and 93% of study participants demonstrated a 1-60% change in fat layer thickness. Patients subjectively described comfort and satisfaction from treatment, and 97% of

  11. Cost effectiveness of a screen-and-treat program for asymptomatic vaginal infections in pregnancy: towards a significant reduction in the costs of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, H; Pichler, Eva; Petricevic, L; Husslein, P

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the cost-saving potential of a simple screen-and-treat program for vaginal infection, which has previously been shown to lead to a reduction of 50% in the rate of preterm births. To determine the potential cost savings, we compared the direct costs of preterm delivery of infants with a birth weight below 1900g with the costs of the screen-and-treat program. We used a cut-off birth weight of 1900g because, in our population, all infants with a birth weight below 1900g were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. The direct costs associated with preterm delivery were defined to include the costs of the initial hospitalization of both mother and infant and the costs of outpatient follow-up throughout the first 6 years of life of the former preterm infant. The costs of the screen-and-treat program were defined to include the costs of the screening examination and the resulting costs of antimicrobial treatment and follow-up. All calculations were based on health-economic data obtained in the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria. The number of preterm infants with a birth weight below 1900g was 12 (0.5%) in the intervention group (N=2058) and 29 (1.3%) in the control group (N=2097). The direct costs per preterm birth were found to amount to EUR (euro) 60262. Overall, the expected total savings in direct costs achieved by the screen-and-treat program and the ensuing 50% reduction in the number preterm births with a birth weight below 1900g amounted to more than euro 11 million. The costs of screening and treatment were found to amount to merely 7% of the direct costs saved as a result of the screen-and-treat program. A simple preterm prevention program, consisting of screening and antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of women with asymptomatic vaginal infection, leads not only to a significant reduction in the rate of preterm births but also to substantial savings in the direct costs associated with prematurity.

  12. Tritordeum: a novel cereal for food processing with good acceptability and significant reduction in gluten immunogenic peptides in comparison with wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Luis; Comino, Isabel; Vivas, Santiago; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Giménez, María J; Pastor, Jorge; Sousa, Carolina; Barro, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Tritordeum is a novel cereal obtained from the hybridization between durum wheat and a wild barley. This study evaluates acceptance, digestibility and immunotoxic properties of tritordeum, a novel cereal for food processing. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in a study with different diets to compare tritordeum bread with wheat and gluten-free breads. Tritordeum breads had a similar acceptance to the wheat bread usually consumed, and the acceptance was significantly higher than the gluten-free bread and standardized wheat bread supplied in the study. There was no evidence for gastrointestinal symptoms among volunteers during the study. The reductions in the numbers of immunogenic epitopes in tritordeum in comparison with wheat were 78% for α-gliadins, 57% for γ-gliadins and 93% for ω-gliadins. The analysis of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stool samples showed a significantly lower excretion in the tritordeum ingestion phase than in the wheat ingestion phase. These results suggest that tritordeum may be an option of interest for general food processing, and especially for those who want to reduce their intake of gluten. However, it is not suitable for celiac disease sufferers as it contains gluten. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Significance of Harm Reduction as a Social and Health Care Intervention for Injecting Drug Users: An Exploratory Study of a Needle Exchange Program in Fresno, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kris; Harris, Debra; Zweifler, John A; Lasher, Marc; Mortimer, Roger B; Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant social and health concern in the United States. Preventing more people from contracting HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis C (HCV), requires a complex understanding of the interconnection between the biomedical and social dimensions of infectious disease. Opiate addiction in the US has skyrocketed in recent years. Preventing more cases of HIV/AIDS and HCV will require dealing with the social determinants of health. Needle exchange programs (NEPs) are based on a harm reduction approach that seeks to minimize the risk of infection and damage to the user and community. This article presents an exploratory small-scale quantitative study of the injection drug using habits of a group of injection drug users (IDUs) at a needle exchange program in Fresno, California. Respondents reported significant decreases in high risk IDU behaviors, including sharing of needles and to a lesser extent re-using of needles. They also reported frequent use of clean paraphernalia. Greater collaboration between social and health outreach professionals at NEPs could provide important frontline assistance to people excluded from mainstream office-based services and enhance efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS or HCV infection.

  14. Significant Artifact Reduction at 1.5T and 3T MRI by the Use of a Cochlear Implant with Removable Magnet: An Experimental Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franca; Wimmer, Wilhelm; Leidolt, Lars; Vischer, Mattheus; Weder, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Caversaccio, Marco D

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children. This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans after CI with a removable magnet. Three criteria (diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts) were assessed at 1.5T and 3T in five cadaver heads with CI. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images. MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1.5T and 3T. Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. The results indicate the possible advantages for 1.5T and 3T MR scanning of the brain in CI carriers with removable magnets. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies.

  15. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Daugherty, Ana M; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness. Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old) enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance ( n = 69), Strength/Stretching/Stability ( n = 70), Walk ( n = 54), and Walk Plus ( n = 54). All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus) before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework. Results: Perceived social support increased ( p = 0.003), while stress ( p loneliness ( p = 0.001) decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (-0.63, p loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44). However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0.02). Further, individuals with larger baseline PFC volumes experienced greater reductions in stress due

  16. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness.Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69, Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70, Walk (n = 54, and Walk Plus (n = 54. All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework.Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003, while stress (p < 0.001, and loneliness (p = 0.001 decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (−0.63, p < 0.01 and indirectly, through decreased stress (−0.10, p = 0.02, predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44. However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  17. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic significance of standardized uptake value and metabolic tumour volume on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Won; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV) measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers. However, their prognostic significance in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been investigated in only a few studies and with small cohorts. In the present study we evaluated the ability of SUV, MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict recurrence and survival outcomes in OPSCC. The study included 221 patients with OPSCC who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging and received definitive treatment at our tertiary referral centre. The PET imaging parameters SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were measured in primary tumours with focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Clinical and imaging variables significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Overall 5-year OS and DFS rates were 72.0 % and 79.5 %, respectively, during a median follow-up of 61 months (range 18 - 122 months). The cut-off values of tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG for prediction of DFS were 7.55, 6.80, 11.06 mL and 78.56 g, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that age >60 years, advanced tumour stage, and high tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were significantly associated with decreased OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each). Age, tumour SUV{sub max} and MTV remained independent variables for OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each) in the multivariate analyses. SUV{sub max} and MTV measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be useful in predicting the clinical outcomes in OPSCC patients. This study investigated the clinical prognostic value of imaging parameters from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in 221 patients who underwent definitive treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. High maximum standardized

  19. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  20. Thyroid volume reduction following radioiodine therapy in patients with autonomous goitre and Graves` disease; Volumenreduktion der Schilddruese nach Radiojodtherapie bei Patienten mit Schilddruesenautonomie und Morbus Basedow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Otte, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Klink, J.E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Aim: It is well known that radioiodine therapy (RITh) leads to a significant thyroid volume reduction (TVR). But until now only little data has been presented due to the course of time and the extent of TVR. Method: Therefore the data of 33 patients with Graves` disease (GD), 36 patients with multifocal (MAG) and 31 with solitary (SAG) autonomous goitre were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the patients showed a highly significant (p<0.001) TVR, which continued up to 1 year after RITh. Receiving equal effective radiation doses, the extent of TVR was significantly greater for GD than for MAG. This difference developed within six weeks up to 3 months after RITh. Conclusion: This observation suggests that the underlying thyroid disease affects the therapeutic effect of RITh and may be partially explained by the total suppression of non-autonomous thyroid tissue in AG at the time of RITh. In patients with SAG with a 1.7 times higher effective radiation dose than in MAG relative TVR was about 1.6 times stronger in SAG than in MAG. This demonstrates a direct relation between the effective radiation dose and the extent of the TVR after RITh. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es ist bekannt, dass die Radiojodtherapie (RJTh) zu einer relvanten Schilddruesenvolumenreduktion (SVR) fuehrt. Bisher wurden jedoch nur vereinzelt systematische Daten zum zeitlichen Verlauf und quantitativen Ausmass der SVR veroeffentlicht. Methode: Daher fuehrten wir eine retrospektive Auswertung der Daten von 33 Patienten mit Morbus Basedow (MB), 36 Patienten mit multifokaler (MFA) und 31 mit unifokaler (UFA) Autonomie der Schilddruese durch. Ergebnisse: Fuer alle Patientengruppen ergab sich eine hochsignifikante (p<0,001) SVR, welche sich bis ein Jahr nach RJTh signifikant fortsetzte. Obwohl die effektive Herddosis nicht signifikant verschieden war, war das Ausmass der SVR fuer Patienten mit MB signifikant groesser als fuer Patienten mit MFA. Dieser Unterschied war bereits innerhalb der ersten 6

  1. Leito de drenagem: sistema natural para redução de volume de lodo de estação de tratamento de água Draining beds: natural system for sludge volume reduction in the water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali Laguna Achon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As Estações de Tratamento de Água (ETAs tem funcionamento semelhante a uma indústria e podem em diversas etapas gerar resíduos que, na maioria das ETAs, são lançados nos corpos d’água sem tratamento. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de Leitos de Drenagem, para o desaguamento de lodo, provenientes de ETAs de ciclo completo que empregam sulfato de alumínio e cloreto de polialumínio (PACl, como coagulantes. Analisou-se as características, a drenagem e secagem dos amostras de lodo e característica do drenado. Os Leitos de Drenagem mostraram-se eficientes para desaguamento e redução de volume de lodo de ETA, de forma natural, sem consumo de energia ou adição de produtos químicos. Obteve-se, aos sete dias, reduções da ordem de 87 % em volume para os lodos de PACl e 83 % para o lodo de Sulfato de Alumínio e teor de sólidos totais 28% e 31% respectivamente.In this work the performance of Draining Beds for sludge dewatering was assessed. The sludge was provided from full cycle Water Treatment Plants (WTPs that employ aluminum sulfate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl as coagulants. The characteristics, drainage and drying of samples of sludge and characteristic of drained were analysed. The Draining Beds were shown to be efficient for dewatering and sludge volume reduction in the WTP, in a natural way, without energy consumption or adding of chemical products. On the seventh day, it was possible to obtain reduction around 87% in volume for PACl sludge and 83% for the aluminum sulfate sludge and total solids content of 28 and 31% respectively.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, and highly warrants further study and development.

  3. Influence of thyroid volume reduction on absorbed dose in "1"3"1I therapy studied by using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Ziaur; Arshed, Waheed; Ahmed, Waheed; Mirza, Sikander M.; Mirza, Nasir M.

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study has been performed to quantify the effect of volume reduction on the thyroid absorbed dose per decay and to investigate the variation of energy deposition per decay due to β- and γ-activity of "1"3"1I with volume/mass of thyroid, for water, ICRP- and ICRU-soft tissue taken as thyroid material. A Monte Carlo model of the thyroid, in the Geant4 radiation transport simulation toolkit was constructed to compute the β- and γ-absorbed dose in the simulated thyroid phantom for various values of its volume. The effect of the size and shape of the thyroid on energy deposition per decay has also been studied by using spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindrical models for the thyroid and varying its volume in 1-25 cm"3 range. The relative differences of Geant4 results for different models with each other and MCNP results lie well below 1.870%. The maximum relative difference among the Geant4 estimated results for water with ICRP and ICRU soft tissues is not more than 0.225%. S-values for ellipsoidal, spherical and cylindrical thyroid models were estimated and the relative difference with published results lies within 3.095%. The absorbed fraction values for beta particles show a good agreement with published values within 2.105% deviation. The Geant4 based simulation results of absorbed fractions for gammas again show a good agreement with the corresponding MCNP and EGS4 results (± 6.667%) but have 29.032% higher values than that of MIRD calculated values. Consistent with previous studies, the reduction of the thyroid volume is found to have a substantial effect on the absorbed dose. Geant4 simulations confirm dose dependence on the volume/mass of thyroid in agreement with MCNP and EGS4 computed values but are substantially different from MIRD8 data. Therefore, inclusion of size/mass dependence is indicated for "1"3"1I radiotherapy of the thyroid. (authors)

  4. Selenate reduction to elemental selenium by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and culture: biogeochemical significance of a novel, sulfate-independent respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Maest, Ann S.; Presser, Theresa S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial water profiles of SeO42−, SeO32−, SO42−, and Cl− in anoxic sediments indicated removal of the seleno-oxyanions by a near-surface process unrelated to sulfate reduction. In sediment slurry experiments, a complete reductive removal of SeO42− occurred under anaerobic conditions, was more rapid with H2 or acetate, and was inhibited by O2, NO3−, MnO2, or autoclaving but not by SO42− or FeOOH. Oxidation of acetate in sediments could be coupled to selenate but not to molybdate. Reduction of selenate to elemental selenium was determined to be the mechanism for loss from solution. Selenate reduction was inhibited by tungstate and chromate but not by molybdate. A small quantity of the elemental selenium precipitated into sediments from solution could be resolublized by oxidation with either nitrate or FeOOH, but not with MnO2. A bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments demonstrated selenate-dependent growth on acetate, forming elemental selenium and carbon dioxide as respiratory end products. These results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenium oxyanions in anoxic sediments. In addition, they suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenium oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters.

  5. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  6. Evidence for significantly enhancing reduction of Azo dyes in Escherichia coli by expressed cytoplasmic Azoreductase (AzoA) of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J; Heinze, T M; Xu, H; Cerniglia, C E; Chen, H

    2010-05-01

    Although cytoplasmic azoreductases have been purified and characterized from various bacteria, little evidence demonstrating that these azoreductases are directly involved in azo dye reduction in vivo is known. In order to evaluate the contribution of the enzyme to azo dye reduction in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a recombinant cytoplasmic azoreductase (AzoA) from Enterococcus faecalis expressed in Escherichia coli on the rate of metabolism of Methyl Red, Ponceau BS and Orange II. The intact cells that contained IPTG induced AzoA had a higher rate of dye reduction with increases of 2 (Methyl Red), 4 (Ponceau BS) and 2.6 (Orange II)-fold compared to noninduced cells, respectively. Metabolites of Methyl Red isolated from induced cultures were identified as N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid through liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) analyses. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that AzoA from Ent. faecalis is capable of increasing the reduction of azo dyes in intact E. coli cells and that cytoplasmic azoreductase is involved in bacterial dye degradation in vivo.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  8. Prediction of boiling points of some organic compounds to be used in volume reduction of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.L.; Ezz el-Din, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Boiling points determination may help in the evaporation process used to solidify high-level liquid wastes and to reduce the volume of wastes that require disposal. The problem that always encountered is how to choose an appropriate method to determine the boiling points of the liquid wastes which will be able to solve. We introduce this work with the aim to use mathematical descriptors and their applications in predicting boiling points essential for the evaporation process. This work was applied for diverse database of two sets of chemicals that may exist in radioactive wastes. The first set was 59 alcohols and amines (group a) and the second was 11 aniline compounds (group b). The results show that the used mathematical descriptors give a reasonable predictive model for the diverse sets of molecules

  9. Development of a monolith-type package for transport and storage of radioactive steel with particular respect to volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflugrad, K.; Sappok, M.; Schlesinger, H.J.; Stang, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of EC-sponsored research programmes the treatment by melting of various metals originating from decommissioning has been extensively investigated during the last 10 years. In particular, the reuse/recycling of low radioactive steel by special melt techniques has been studied. At present, a monolith type cask is being developed. This cask will be produced from low radioactive steel enveloping higher radioactive steel using an 'onion' melt technique. The developments take into consideration the German requirements for transportation and storage, as well as the IAEA transportation requirements. The application of this technique to the KRB-A reactor decommissioning is described. The monolith cask will combine the recycling of radioactive steel with reduced storage volume and therefore will be cost-effective. (author)

  10. 256-MDCT for evaluation of urolithiasis: iterative reconstruction allows for a significant reduction of the applied radiation dose while maintaining high subjective and objective image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Simon; Laqmani, Azien; Derlin, Thorsten; Karul, Murat; Hammerle, Diego; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc; Buhk, Jan-Hendrick; Sehner, Susanne; Nagel, Hans D.; Chun, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is the established imaging modality in diagnostics of urolithiasis. The aim of iterative reconstruction (IR) is to allow for a radiation dose reduction while maintaining high image quality. This study evaluates its performance in MDCT for assessment of urolithiasis. Fifty-two patients underwent non-contrast abdominal MDCT. Twenty-six patients were referred to MDCT under suspicion of urolithiasis, and examined using a dose-reduced scan protocol (RDCT). Twenty-six patients, who had undergone standard-dose MDCT, served as reference for radiation dose comparison. RDCT images were reconstructed using an IR system (iDose4™, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA). Objective image noise (OIN) was recorded and five radiologists rated the subjective image quality independently. Radiation parameters were derived from the scan protocols. The CTDIvol could be reduced by 50% to 5.8 mGy (P < 0.0001). The same reduction was achieved for DLP and effective dose to 253 ± 27 mGy*cm (P < 0.0001) and 3.9 ± 0.4 mSv (P < 0.0001). IR led to a reduction of the OIN of up to 61% compared with classic filtered back projection (FBP) (P < 0.0001). The OIN declined with increasing IR levels. RDCT with FBP showed the lowest scores of subjective image quality (2.32 ± 0.04). Mean scores improved with increasing IR levels. iDose6 was rated with the best mean score (3.66 ± 0.04). The evaluated IR-tool and protocol may be applied to achieve a considerable radiation dose reduction in MDCT for diagnostics of urolithiasis while maintaining a confident image quality. Best image quality, suitable for evaluation of the entire abdomen concerning differential diagnoses, was achieved with iDose6.

  11. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully

  12. Feasibility study of a waste assay system and the possibility of volume reduction at the Puespoekszilagy RWTDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    2001-05-01

    A review of the types and activities of the waste emplaced at the Pupokszilagy Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF) was performed on the basis of the existing operational data. This provided a breakdown of all important parameters of the wastes as well as of the disposal conditions for each disposal unit. Prior to the detailed review, the behaviour of the compacted wastes, simulating those in the repository, was tested with a view to determine the efficiency of a further supercompaction. Based on the evaluation of market data, the cost of purchasing or renting a super-compactor unit and the resulting unit costs were calculated. A detailed review of the free release strategies and the available equipment was prepared. To provide an immediate remedy to the shortage of disposal volume, it is suggested to retrieve the old Institutional wastes and the sealed radioactive sources, and use the existing free space for further waste disposal. As an alternative, the use of residual free space in the vaults for further disposal, without waste recovery, is also reviewed. (author)

  13. Stress-first protocol for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging with semiconductor cameras: high diagnostic performances with significant reduction in patient radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Mathieu; Claudin, Marine; Veran, Nicolas; Morel, Olivier; Besseau, Cyril; Boutley, Henri; Djaballah, Wassila; Poussier, Sylvain; Verger, Antoine; Moulin, Frederic; Imbert, Laetitia; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Effective doses of 14 mSv or higher are currently being attained in patients having stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed on the same day with conventional protocols. This study aimed to assess the actual reduction in effective doses as well as diagnostic performances for MPI routinely planned with: (1) high-sensitivity cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) cameras, (2) very low injected activities and (3) a stress-first protocol where the normality of stress images may lead to avoiding rest imaging. During a 1-year period, 2,845 patients had MPI on a CZT camera, a single-day stress-first protocol and low injected activities (120 MBq of 99m Tc-sestamibi at stress for 75 kg body weight and threefold higher at rest). The ability to detect > 50 % coronary stenosis was assessed in a subgroup of 149 patients who also had coronary angiography, while the normalcy rate was assessed in a subgroup of 128 patients with a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease (<10 %). Overall, 33 % of patients had abnormal MPI of which 34 % were women and 34 % were obese. The mean effective doses and the percentage of exams involving only stress images were: (1) 3.53 ± 2.10 mSv and 37 % in the overall population, (2) 4.83 ± 1.56 mSv and 5 % in the subgroup with angiography and (3) 1.96 ± 1.52 mSv and 71 % in the low-probability subgroup. Sensitivity and global accuracy for identifying the 106 patients with coronary stenosis were 88 and 80 %, respectively, while the normalcy rate was 97 %. When planned with a low-dose stress-first protocol on a CZT camera, MPI provides high diagnostic performances and a dramatic reduction in patient radiation doses. This reduction is even greater in low-risk subgroups with high rates of normal stress images, thus allowing the mean radiation dose to be balanced against cardiac risk in targeted populations. (orig.)

  14. Design of a PWR gaseous effluent treatment system combining delay-storage vessels, volume-reduction and activated-charcoal beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuyt, G.; Glibert, R.; Lahaye, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The usual technique for the treatment of gaseous effluents is to store them in radioactive decay tanks and to carry out a range of operations such as recycling, volume-reduction and discharge. Although presenting undeniable advantages, this technique has a number of weaknesses which have become apparent with experience. This paper describes and analyses a system designed to alleviate these difficulties and to permit greater flexibility in gaseous effluent treatment, especially for power stations in the load-following mode of operation, by means of a combination of storage techniques and retention of short-lived isotopes in activated charcoal beds. The attractiveness of the proposed system is apparent from an analysis of operational, maintenance, safety and cost aspects. (author)

  15. Volume reduction/solidification of liquid radioactive waste using bitumen at Ontario hydro's Bruce nuclear generating station open-quotes Aclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.E.; Baker, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Ontario Hydro at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station open-quotes Aclose quotes has undertaken a program to render the station's liquid radioactive waste suitable for discharge to Lake Huron by removing sufficient radiological and chemical contaminants from five different plant waste streams. The contaminants will be immobilized and stored at on-site radioactive waste storage facilities and the purified streams will be discharged. The discharge targets established by Ontario Hydro are set well below the limits established by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) and are based on the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Approach (B.A.T.E.A.). ADTECHS Corporation has been selected by Ontario Hydro to provide volume reduction/solidification technology for one of the five waste streams. The system will dry and immobilize the contaminants from a liquid waste stream in emulsified asphalt using thin film evaporation technology

  16. Lung volume reduction in pulmonary emphysema from the radiologist's perspective; Lungenvolumenreduktion beim Lungenemphysem aus der Sicht des Radiologen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellinger, F.; Poellinger, A. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Huebner, R.H. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine/Infectious and Respiratory Diseases; Kuhnigk, J.M. [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany). Inst. for Medical Image Computing

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of ''collateral ventilation'' has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  18. Why do humans have such a prominent nose? The final result of phylogenesis: a significant reduction of the splanchocranium on account of the neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladina, Ranko; Skitarelić, Neven; Vuković, Katarina

    2009-09-01

    During the last few decades several authors tried to clarify the anthropological aspects of the shape of the human nose and why it has so emphasized projection. Our hypothesis suggests the essentiality of the role of morphologic changes of the human skull which occurred during the phylogenesis. It seems that erectile posture of the man caused remarkable morphological changes of the skull base shape thus being a part of morphologic evolution. The changes in the shape of the human spine from birth to adulthood show a philogenesis in short: a newborn has an almost flat spine like quadrupeds (except in the sacro-coccigeal region), but the spine gets increasingly bent as the person grows (lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis). It is well known that the sphenoidal angle was less emphasized in prehistoric man than in modern man. In addition, the cervical spine position in the gorilla, Neanderthal man and modern man is quite different in terms of anterior inclination. Accordingly, there is a great degree of maxillary and mandible reduction in humans. The same differences can be seen when comparing the skull shapes of gorilla, gibbons, Neanderthals and modern man. A major reason for the maxillary and mandible reduction in humans is that their way of feeding has changed remarkably with time. In lower primates and other animals, nasal function, particularly olfaction, may be essential for day-to day survival. In humans, however, this is less important although both impaired nasal breathing and olfaction may affect the function in the other body organs and, of course, influence the quality of life. Nasal configuration in recent humans seems to be associated with the internal nasal cavity wideness and nasal bridge elevation which just happened because of newly developed physiological needs. The skull base angulation leads directly to obvious changes in splanchocranium on the account of neurocranium, since previous is getting "squeezed", by angulation of the

  19. Androgen deprivation therapy for volume reduction, lower urinary tract symptom relief and quality of life improvement in patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axcrona, Karol; Aaltomaa, Sirpa; da Silva, Carlos Martins

    2012-01-01

    Study Type--Therapy (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly used as a primary treatment for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who are not eligible for radical treatment options. ADT is also used...... in patients with PCa as neo-adjuvant hormone therapy to reduce prostate volume and down-stage the disease before radiotherapy with curative intent. The present study showed that ADT with the gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GhRH) antagonist degarelix is non-inferior to combined treatment with the LHRH...... agonist goserelin and bicalutamide in terms of reducing prostate volume during the treatment period of 3 months. Degarelix treatment evokes, however, significantly better relief of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients having moderate and severe voiding problems....

  20. Significant sE-Selectin levels reduction after 6 months of anti-TNF-α therapy in non-diabetic patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genre, Fernanda; Armesto, Susana; Corrales, Alfonso; López-Mejías, Raquel; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Pina, Trinitario; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Martín-Varillas, José Luis; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; Portilla, Virginia; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; González-López, Marcos Antonio; González-Vela, María Del Carmen; Blanco, Ricardo; Llorca, Javier; Hernández, José Luis; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis patients have high risk of atherosclerosis, characterized by endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to study the association of the endothelial activation biomarkers monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), soluble (s) E-selectin and P-selectin with disease activity and severity in psoriasis patients treated with anti-TNF-α therapy. Also, to evaluate the relationship of metabolic syndrome features with these biomarkers and the effect of anti-TNF-α therapy on these molecules. Twenty-nine consecutive non-diabetic patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who underwent 6 months of anti-TNF-α-adalimumab therapy were studied. Metabolic and clinical evaluation was performed prior to anti-TNF-α treatment (time 0) and 6 months later. MCP-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin serum levels were determined by ELISA. Dyslipidemic and obese patients showed higher MCP-1 levels at month 6 from the onset of anti-TNF-α therapy (p = .05 and .01, respectively). sE-selectin positively correlated with pro-inflammatory molecules such as asymmetric dimethylarginine, sP-selectin and resistin at baseline and month 6 (p psoriasis. Adalimumab therapy led to a reduction in sE-selectin levels, supporting the beneficial effect of anti-TNF-α therapy on mechanisms associated with the development of atherosclerosis in psoriasis.

  1. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  2. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease; La coregistration de la TEP initiale sur la scanographie de radiotherapie diminue significativement les variabilites de volume cible anatomoclinique dans la maladie de Hodgkin de l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A. [Institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Plat, G.; Vial, J. [CHU-hopital des Enfants, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-10-15

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  3. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  4. Significant reduction of radiation exposure to operator and staff during cardiac interventions by analysis of radiation leakage and improved lead shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuon, Eberhard; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to disclose and to reduce occupational radiation leakage in invasive cardiology. Prospectively, we analyzed various dose parameters for 330 coronary procedures. We used a Rando phantom to measure scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator (S-ESAK-O) during fluoroscopy for all standard tube angulations, and to plot isodose lines for 0 degrees /0 degrees -posterior anterior angulation. The patient's measured dose area product due to diagnostic catheterization and elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 6.2 and 10.4 Gycm(2), which represents 11% and 13% of currently typical values, respectively. With use of 0.5- and 1.0-mm overcouch and undercouch shielding, it was possible to reduce the mean of 4,686 nSv/Gycm(2) to 677 and 277 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. Closure of radiation leakage up to 897 microSv/hour at the operator's gonadal height (80 to 105 cm), not heretofore described, was achieved by an additional 1.0-mm, lead-equivalent undercouch-top and overcouch-flap adjacent to the table, down to a S-ESAK-O/dose area product level of 47.5 nSv/Gycm(2). With use of a 0.5-mm lead apron, collar, glasses, foot-switch shield and 1.0-mm lead cover around the patient's thighs, the operator received a mean S-ESAK-O of 8.5, while his forehead, eyes, thyroid, chest, gonads, and hands were exposed to 68.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 0.8, and 58.2 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. In conclusion, radiation-attenuating intervention techniques and improved lead protection can effectively contribute to a new state of the art in invasive cardiology, with reduction of operator radiation exposure to 0.8% of typical S-ESAK-O levels in advanced catheterization laboratories.

  5. Women with provoked vestibulodynia experience clinically significant reductions in pain regardless of treatment: results from a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Bergeron, Sophie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Lambert, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent genital pain syndrome that has been assumed to be chronic, with little spontaneous remission. Despite this assumption, there is a dearth of empirical evidence regarding the progression of PVD in a natural setting. Although many treatments are available, there is no single treatment that has demonstrated efficacy above others. The aims of this secondary analysis of a prospective study were to (i) assess changes over a 2-year period in pain, depressive symptoms, and sexual outcomes in women with PVD; and (ii) examine changes based on treatment(s) type. Participants completed questionnaire packages at Time 1 and a follow-up package 2 years later. Visual analog scale of genital pain, Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Female Sexual Function Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sexual intercourse attempts over the past month. Two hundred thirty-nine women with PVD completed both time one and two questionnaires. For the sample as a whole, there was significant improvement over 2 years on pain ratings, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and depressive symptoms. The most commonly received treatments were physical therapy, sex/psychotherapy, and medical treatment, although 41.0% did not undergo any treatment. Women receiving no treatment also improved significantly on pain ratings. No single treatment type predicted better outcome for any variable except depressive symptoms, in which women who underwent surgery were more likely to improve. These results suggest that PVD may significantly reduce in severity over time. Participants demonstrated clinically significant pain improvement, even when they did not receive treatment. Furthermore, the only single treatment type predicting better outcomes was surgery, and only for depressive symptoms, accounting for only 2.3% of the variance. These data do not demonstrate the superiority of any one treatment and underscore the need to have control groups in

  6. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Division of Biometrics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Haider, Syed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Wu, Alson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Langenfeld, John [Division of Surgery, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Salma K.; Kim, Sinae; Haider, Syed A.; Xu, Xiaoting; Wu, Alson; Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph; Langenfeld, John; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes

  8. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  9. A significant reduction of ice adhesion on nanostructured surfaces that consist of an array of single-walled carbon nanotubes: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Luyao; Huang, Zhaoyuan; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Chen, Shaoqiang; Luo, Kai; Hu, Haibao

    2018-04-01

    It is well recognized that excessive ice accumulation at low-temperature conditions can cause significant damage to civil infrastructure. The passive anti-icing surfaces provide a promising solution to suppress ice nucleation and enhance ice removal. However, despite extensive efforts, it remains a challenge to design anti-icing surfaces with low ice adhesion. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that surfaces with single-walled carbon nanotube array (CNTA) significantly reduce ice adhesion due to the extremely low solid areal fraction. It was found that the CNTA surface exhibits up to a 45% decrease in the ice adhesion strength in comparison with the atomically smooth graphene surface. The details of the ice detachment from the CNTA surface were examined for different water-carbon interaction energies and temperatures of the ice cube. Remarkably, the results of MD simulations demonstrate that the ice detaching strength depends linearly on the ratio of the ice-surface interaction energy and the ice temperature. These results open the possibility for designing novel robust surfaces with low ice adhesion for passive anti-icing applications.

  10. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high loads of debris.

  11. An investigation of kV CBCT image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest imaging using dynamic collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, David, E-mail: david.parsons@dal.ca, E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Robar, James L., E-mail: david.parsons@dal.ca, E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kilovoltage-cone beam CT (CBCT) using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of 1D translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian On-Board Imager system. CBCT and planar image quality were investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various sizes VOI were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Depending upon VOI location and size, dose was reduced to 16%–90% of the full-field value along the central axis plane and down to 4% along the axis of rotation, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. When maintaining constant dose to the VOI, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.6 in image contrast and a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.2. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio by a factor of approximately 2.0. Conclusions: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.

  12. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P HELLO system is accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. This preliminary report indicated that the HELLO system significantly improves the puncture accuracy of PTED and reduces the fluoroscopic times, preoperative location time, as well as operation time. (ChiCTR-ICR-15006730).

  13. Significant reduction in red blood cell transfusions in a general hospital after successful implementation of a restrictive transfusion policy supported by prospective computerized order auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrabothala, Swaroopa; Desrosiers, Kevin P; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Dunbar, Nancy M

    2014-10-01

    Our hospital transfusion policy was recently revised to recommend single-unit red blood cell transfusion (RBC TXN) for nonbleeding inpatients when the hemoglobin (Hb) level is not more than 7 g/dL. Our computerized provider order entry system was reconfigured to provide real-time decision support using prospective computerized order auditing based on the most recent Hb level and to remove the single-click ordering option for 2-unit RBC TXNs to enhance compliance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of these changes on hospital transfusion practice. This study analyzed the total number of transfusion events, proportion of single and 2-unit transfusions and the Hb transfusion trigger in the preimplementation period (October 2011-March 2012) compared to the postimplementation period (October 2012-March 2013). In the postimplementation period the total number of RBC units transfused/1000 patient-days decreased from 60.8 to 44.2 (p auditing has resulted in significantly decreased RBC utilization at our institution. © 2014 AABB.

  14. Lung volume reduction for emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Pallav L.; Herth, Felix J.; van Geffen, Wouter H.; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited

  15. Diabetes as an independent predictor of left ventricular longitudinal strain reduction at rest and during dobutamine stress test in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Trzos, Ewa; Kurpesa, Malgorzata; Rechcinski, Tomasz; Miskowiec, Dawid; Cieslik-Guerra, Urszula; Uznanska-Loch, Barbara; Sobczak, Maria; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw Damian

    2017-12-09

    Diabetes (DM) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor modifying also the left ventricular (LV) function that may be objectively assessed with echocardiographic strain analysis. Although the impact of isolated DM on myocardial deformation has been already studied, few data concern diabetics with coronary artery disease (CAD), especially in all stages of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). We compared LV systolic function during DSE in CAD with and without DM using state-of-the art speckle-tracking quantification and assessed the impact of DM on LV systolic strain. DSE was performed in 250 patients with angina who afterwards had coronarography with ≥50% stenosis in the left main artery and ≥70% in other arteries considered as significant. In this analysis, we included 127 patients with confirmed CAD: 42 with DM [DM(+); mean age 64 ± 9 years] and 85 patients without DM [DM(-); mean age 63 ± 9 years]. The severity of CAD and LV ejection fraction (EF) were similar in both groups. Global and regional LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (PSLS) revealed in all DSE phases lower values in DM(+) group: 14.5 ± 3.6% vs. 17.4 ± 4.0% at rest; P = 0.0001, 13.8 ± 3.9% vs. 16.7 ± 4.0% at peak stress; P = 0.0002, and 14.2 ± 3.1% vs. 15.5 ± 3.5% at recovery; P = 0.0432 for global parameters, although dobutamine challenge did not enhance further resting differences. LV EF, body surface area, and diabetes were independent predictors for strain in 16-variable model (R2 = 0, 51, P coexisting CAD and DM on myocardial strain. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Thin-section CT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery: a comparison based on radiologists' subjective preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Bergstrand, L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-resolution (HRCT) or spiral CT was preferred in evaluating severe emphysema in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there is any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema has an impact on the radiologists' preference. The study was performed by letting four radiologists compare images obtained with the two techniques (film pairs) and decide which technique they preferred or if the techniques were considered as equal in evaluating emphysema. In evaluation of 188 film pairs, the HRCT images were preferred in 56 %, spiral CT in 19 % and the techniques considered as equal in 25 %. Spiral CT images were preferred more often in the caudal part of the lung and in more advanced emphysema compared with the HRCT images. The study confirms our clinical assumption that use of both CT techniques are valuable in evaluating advanced emphysema and there may be technical as well as histopathological reasons for this. (orig.)

  17. Thin-section CT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery: a comparison based on radiologists' subjective preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B. [Dept. of Thoracic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstrand, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Danderyds Hospital (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-resolution (HRCT) or spiral CT was preferred in evaluating severe emphysema in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there is any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema has an impact on the radiologists' preference. The study was performed by letting four radiologists compare images obtained with the two techniques (film pairs) and decide which technique they preferred or if the techniques were considered as equal in evaluating emphysema. In evaluation of 188 film pairs, the HRCT images were preferred in 56 %, spiral CT in 19 % and the techniques considered as equal in 25 %. Spiral CT images were preferred more often in the caudal part of the lung and in more advanced emphysema compared with the HRCT images. The study confirms our clinical assumption that use of both CT techniques are valuable in evaluating advanced emphysema and there may be technical as well as histopathological reasons for this. (orig.)

  18. Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Fricke, Kathrin; Grote, Ludger; Braun, Andrew T; Kirkness, Jason; Smith, Philip; Schwartz, Alan; Schneider, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min -1 ) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO 2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r 2 =0.36; pspace volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  19. Reduction of diuretics and analysis of water and muscle volumes to prevent falls and fall-related fractures in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kosuke; Okada, Masahiro; Kamada, Nanao; Yamaguchi, Yumiko; Kakehashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Hidemi; Katoh, Shigeko; Morita, Katsuya

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to decrease the incidence of falls and fall-related fractures at a special geriatric nursing home, we endeavored to reduce diuretic doses, and examined the relationship between the effectiveness of this approach with the body compositions and activities of daily living of the study cohort. We enrolled 93 participants living in the community, 60 residents of an intermediate geriatric nursing home and 50 residents of the 100-bed Kandayama Yasuragien special geriatric nursing home. We recorded body composition using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Daily loop diuretic and other diuretic regimens of those in the special geriatric nursing home were reduced or replaced with "NY-mode" diuretic therapy, namely, spironolactone 12.5 mg orally once on alternate days. The incidence of falls fell from 53 in 2011 to 29 in 2012, and there were no fall-related proximal femoral fractures for 3 years after the introduction of NY-mode diuretic therapy. We also found statistically significant differences in muscle and intracellular water volumes in our elderly participants: those with higher care requirements or lower levels of independence had lower muscle or water volumes. We found that reducing or replacing daily diuretics with NY-mode therapy appeared to reduce the incidence of falls and fall-related proximal femoral fracture, likely by preserving intracellular and extracellular body water volumes. Low-dose spironolactone (12.5 mg on alternate days) appears to be an effective means of treating elderly individuals with chronic heart failure or other edematous states, while preventing falls and fall-related fractures. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 262-269. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  1. TH-A-18C-11: An Investigation of KV CBCT Image Quality and Dose Reduction for Volume-Of-Interest Imaging Using Dynamic Collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, D [of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Robar, J [of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kV-CBCT using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of one-dimensional translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian OBI system. CBCT and planar image quality was investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various anatomical sites were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 cm to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Similarly, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.4 and 1.5 in image contrast for CBCT and planar images, respectively, and similarly a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.7 and 1.5. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio of a factor of approximately 2.3 for both CBCT and planar images. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 10%–70% of the full field value along the central axis plane and down to 2% along the axial planes, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. Conclusion: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994: Volume 13, Number 3, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated the managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Intense volume reduction of mixed and low-level waste, solidification in sulphur polymer concrete, and excellent disposal at minimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive changes in regulations governing the disposal of the nation's radioactive and hazardous wastes demand the development of more advanced treatment and disposal systems. The U.S. Department of Energy's Radioactive Waste Technology Support Program (formerly the Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program) was given the task of demonstrating the degree of excellence that could be achieved at reasonable cost using existing technology. The resulting concept is a Waste Treatment and Disposal Complex that will fully treat contact-handled mixed and low-level radioactive waste to a disposable product that is totally liquid-free and approximately 98% inorganic. An excellent volume reduction factor is achieved through sorting, sizing, incineration, vitrification, and final grouting. Inorganic waste items larger than 1/4 in. will be placed in inexpensive, uniform-sized, smooth-sided, thin-walled steel boxes. The smaller particles will be mixed with sulfur polymer concrete and pumped into the boxes, filling most voids. The appendage-free boxes measuring 1 by 1 by 1 m will be stacked tightly in an abovegrade, earth-mounded, concrete disposal vault where a temporary roof will protect them from rain and snow. A concrete roof poured directly on top of the dense, essentially voidless waste stack will be topped by an engineered, water-shedding earthen cover. Total cost for design, construction, testing, 30 years of treatment and disposal, administration, decontamination and decommissioning, site closure, and postclosure monitoring and maintenance will cost less per cubic foot than is currently expended for subsurface disposal. A radiological performance assessment shows this concept will exceed the nation's existing disposal systems and governmental performance objectives for the protection of the general public by a factor of 30,000

  11. Blood volume studies in chronic renal failure using radioactive 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.S.; Mehta, S.R.; Mathur, D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimation of blood volume was carried out in 20 healthy subjects and in 25 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using radioactive 51 Cr. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were also undertaken. On statistical evaluation, the red cell volume was diminished significantly in males and females but rise in blood volume was insignificant. Plasma volume was raised significantly in females but was insignificant in males. The reduction in red cell volume is due to reduced red cell mass because of chronic renal disease. Plasma volume may be elevated in order to compensate for decreased red cell volume. The variability in these two parameters results in variable blood volume. (author)

  12. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  13. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON's evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  14. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize......Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...

  15. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  16. Persistently better treatment planning results of intensity-modulated (IMRT) over conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients with significant variation of clinical target volume and/or organs-at-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenoglietto, Pascal; Laliberte, Benoit; Allaw, Ali; Ailleres, Norbert; Idri, Katia; Hay, Meng Huor; Moscardo, Carmen Llacer; Gourgou, Sophie; Dubois, Jean-Bernard; Azria, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose coverage of planning and clinical target volume (PTV, CTV), and organs-at-risk (OAR) between intensity-modulated (3D-IMRT) and conventional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) before and after internal organ variation in prostate cancer. Methods and materials: We selected 10 patients with clinically significant interfraction volume changes. Patients were treated with 3D-IMRT to 80 Gy (minimum PTV dose of 76 Gy, excluding rectum). Fictitious, equivalent 3D-CRT plans (80 Gy at isocenter, with 95% isodose (76 Gy) coverage of PTV, with rectal blocking above 76 Gy) were generated using the same planning CT data set ('CT planning'). The plans were then also applied to a verification CT scan ('CT verify') obtained at a different moment. PTV, CTV, and OAR dose coverage were compared using non-parametric tests statistics for V95, V90 (% of the volume receiving ≥95 or 90% of the dose) and D50 (dose to 50% of the volume). Results: Mean V95 of the PTV for 'CT planning' was 94.3% (range, 88-99) vs 89.1% (range, 84-94.5) for 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT (p = 0.005), respectively. Mean V95 of the CTV for 'CT verify' was 97% for both 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT. Mean D50 of the rectum for 'CT planning' was 26.8 Gy (range, 22-35) vs 43.5 Gy (range, 33.5-50.5) for 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT (p = 0.0002), respectively. For 'CT verify', this D50 was 31.1 Gy (range, 16.5-44) vs 44.2 Gy (range, 34-55) for 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT (p = 0.006), respectively. V95 of the rectum was 0% for both plans for 'CT planning', and 2.3% (3D-IMRT) vs 2.1% (3D-CRT) for 'CT verify' (p = non-sig.). Conclusion: Dose coverage of the PTV and OAR was better with 3D-IMRT for each patient and remained so after internal volume changes

  17. Individualized determination of lower margin in pelvic radiation field after low anterior resection for rectal cancer resulted in equivalent local control and radiation volume reduction compared with traditional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Won; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae; Chun, Ho Kyung; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Dae Yong; Lim, Do Hoon; Noh, Young Ju; Lee, Jung Eun

    2000-01-01

    . There was no significant difference with respect to local control and disease-free survival rates (p=0.42, p=0.68) between two groups of different lower margin determination policies. The new concept in the individualized determination of the lower margin depending on the anastomotic site has led to the equivalent local control and disease-free survival rates, and is expected to contribute to the reduction of unnecessary radiation-related morbidity by reduction of radiation volume, compared with the traditional method of lower margin determination

  18. High-Frequency Jet Ventilation for Complete Target Immobilization and Reduction of Planning Target Volume in Stereotactic High Single-Dose Irradiation of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lung Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Kraus, Hans-Joerg; Muehlnickel, Werner; Sassmann, Volker; Hering, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of complete target immobilization by means of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV); and to show that the saving of planning target volume (PTV) on the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) under HFJV, compared with SBRT with respiratory motion, can be predicted with reliable accuracy by computed tomography (CT) scans at peak inspiration phase. Methods and Materials: A comparison regarding different methods for defining the PTV was carried out in 22 patients with tumors that clearly moved with respiration. A movement span of the gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined by fusing respiration-correlated CT scans. The PTV enclosed the GTV positions with a safety margin throughout the breathing cycle. To create a PTV from CT scans acquired under HFJV, the same margins were drawn around the immobilized target. In addition, peak inspiration phase CT images (PIP-CTs) were used to approximate a target immobilized by HFJV. Results: The resulting HFJV-PTVs were between 11.6% and 45.4% smaller than the baseline values calculated as respiration-correlated CT-PTVs (median volume reduction, 25.4%). Tentative planning by means of PIP-CT PTVs predicted that in 19 of 22 patients, use of HFJV would lead to a reduction in volume of ≥20%. Using this threshold yielded a positive predictive value of 0.89, as well as a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.5. Conclusions: In all patients, SBRT under HFJV provided a reliable immobilization of the GTVs and achieved a reduction in PTVs, regardless of patient compliance. Tentative planning facilitated the selection of patients who could better undergo radiation in respiratory standstill, both with greater accuracy and lung protection.

  19. Pitavastatin 4 mg Provides Significantly Greater Reduction in Remnant Lipoprotein Cholesterol Compared With Pravastatin 40 mg: Results from the Short-term Phase IV PREVAIL US Trial in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sponseller, Craig A; Toth, Peter P

    2016-03-01

    Remnants are partially hydrolyzed, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are implicated in atherosclerosis. We assessed the adequacy of pitavastatin 4 mg and pravastatin 40 mg in reducing atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, in particular remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C). From the Phase IV, multicenter, randomized, double-blind PREVAIL US (A Study of Pitavastatin 4 mg Vs. Pravastatin 40 mg in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia) trial, we examined lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions using Vertical Auto Profile testing and apolipoproteins B and A-I at baseline and 12 weeks. Participants with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia had LDL-C levels of 130 to 220 mg/dL and triglyceride levels ≤ 400 mg/dL. In this post hoc analysis, changes in lipid parameters were compared by using ANCOVA. Lipoprotein subfraction data were available in 312 patients (pitavastatin, n = 157; pravastatin, n = 155). Pitavastatin promoted a greater reduction in RLP-C than pravastatin (-13.6 [8.7] vs -9.3 [9.5] mg/dL). Furthermore, the pitavastatin group reported greater reductions in both components of RLP-C (both, P < 0.001): intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.5 [6.3] vs -6.4 [6.6] mg/dL) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 (-4.1 [3.5] vs -2.9 [3.8] mg/dL). There were also greater reductions in the major ratios of risk (apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and total cholesterol/HDL-C) (both, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in HDL-C, its subfractions, or natural log lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol. The mean age was 58.8 ± 8.9 years in the pitavastatin group and 57.0 ± 10.2 years in the pravastatin group. Compared with pravastatin 40 mg daily, pitavastatin 4 mg provided superior reductions in atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, including RLP-C. Future studies are needed investigate the clinical implications of lowering directly measured RLP-C as the principal target. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier

  20. Significant reduction of normal tissue dose by proton radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Stage I or Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe Y.; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Xiaochun; Kang Yixiu; Riley, Beverly C.; Bilton, Stephen C.; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume histograms (DVH) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by photon or proton radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-volume histograms were compared between photon, including three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and proton plans at doses of 66 Gy, 87.5 Gy in Stage I (n = 10) and 60-63 Gy, and 74 Gy in Stage III (n 15). Results: For Stage I, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 31.8%, 24.6%, and 15.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 66 Gy, whereas they were 13.4%, 12.3%, and 10.9%, respectively, with proton with dose escalation to 87.5 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) (p = 0.002). For Stage III, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 54.1%, 46.9%, and 34.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 63 Gy, whereas they were 39.7%, 36.6%, and 31.6%, respectively, for proton with dose escalation to 74 CGE (p = 0.002). In all cases, the doses to lung, spinal cord, heart, esophagus, and integral dose were lower with proton therapy even compared with IMRT. Conclusions: Proton treatment appears to reduce dose to normal tissues significantly, even with dose escalation, compared with standard-dose photon therapy, either 3D-CRT or IMRT

  1. Potentiometric titration in a low volume of solution for rapid assay of uranium. Application to quantitative electro-reduction of uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Murali, N.; Mallika, C.; Falix Lawrence; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive PC based potentiometric titration technique for the assay of uranium using low volumes of sample aliquot (25-100 μL) along with all reagents (total volume of solution being less than 2.5 mL) is presented. The technique involves modification of the well known Davies and Gray Method recommended for assay of uranium(VI) in nuclear materials by introducing an innovative potentiometric titration device with a mini cell developed in-house. After appropriate chemical conditioning the titration is completed within a couple of minutes with display of online titration plot showing the progress of titration. The first derivative plot generated immediately after titration provides information of end point. The main advantage of using this technique is to carry out titration with minimum volumes of sample and reagents generating minimum volume of wastes after titration. The validity of the technique was evaluated using standard certified samples. This technique was applied for assay of uranium in a typical sample collected from fuel reprocessing laboratory. Further, the present technique was deployed in investigating the optimum conditions for efficient in situ production of U(IV). The precision in the estimation of uranium is highly satisfactory (RSD less than 1.0%). (author)

  2. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, van den J.V.; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray

  3. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring

    OpenAIRE

    Adatto, Maurice A.; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M.; Morren, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirt...

  4. An Investigation of Technologies for Hazardous Sludge Reduction at AFLC (Air Force Logistics Command) Industrial Waste Treatment Plants. Volume 1. Sodium Borohydride Treatment and Sludge Handling Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Fisher Cupric sulfate-CuSO 4 . 5H20, Certified ACS Fisher Sodium Bicarbonate-NaHCO3, Certified ACS Fisher NaOH-Certified ACS Electrolytic Pellets , Fisher...The dryer (D-1), burner , and air handling system are part of a package unit including a 4-foot diameter by 24 foot long free-standing rotary dryer, a...blower with a rated capacity of 6,200 scfm of air at 500C, a burner capable of heating that volume of air to 125*C and a cyclonic dust separator to

  5. Contrast volume reduction using third generation dual source computed tomography for the evaluation of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Daniel O. [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Arnold, Martin; Klinghammer, Lutz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M.; Muschiol, Gerd; Gauss, Soeren; Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chronic renal failure is common in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). CT angiography is recommended and provides crucial information prior to TAVI. We evaluated the feasibility of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging. Forty consecutive patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition using a novel third-generation dual-source CT system; 38 ml contrast agent was used. Image quality was graded on a visual scale (1-4). Contrast attenuation was measured at the level of the aortic root and at the iliac bifurcation. Mean patient age was 82 ± 6 years (23 males; 58 %). Mean attenuation/average image quality was 285 ± 60 HU/1.5 at the aortic annulus compared to 289 ± 74 HU/1.8 at the iliac bifurcation (p = 0.77/p = 0.29). Mean estimated effective radiation dose was 2.9 ± 0.3 mSv. A repeat acquisition was necessary in one patient due to image quality. Out of the 35 patients who underwent TAVI, 31 (89 %) patients had no or mild aortic regurgitation. Thirty-two (91 %) patients were discharged successfully. Pre-procedural CTA with a total of 38 ml contrast volume is feasible and clinically useful, using third-generation dual-source CT, allowing comprehensive imaging for procedural success. (orig.)

  6. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  7. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S; Neylon, J; Qi, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-house developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing

  8. Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter; Andermann, Martin; Wengenroth, Martina; Goebel, Rainer; Flor, Herta; Rupp, André; Diesch, Eugen

    2009-04-15

    The neural basis of tinnitus is unknown. Recent neuroimaging studies point towards involvement of several cortical and subcortical regions. Here we demonstrate that tinnitus may be associated with structural changes in the auditory cortex. Using individual morphological segmentation, the medial partition of Heschl's gyrus (mHG) was studied in individuals with and without chronic tinnitus using magnetic resonance imaging. Both the tinnitus and the non-tinnitus group included musicians and non-musicians. Patients exhibited significantly smaller mHG gray matter volumes than controls. In unilateral tinnitus, this effect was almost exclusively seen in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the affected ear. In bilateral tinnitus, mHG volume was substantially reduced in both hemispheres. The tinnitus-related volume reduction was found across the full extent of mHG, not only in the high-frequency part usually most affected by hearing loss-induced deafferentation. However, there was also evidence for a relationship between volume reduction and hearing loss. Correlations between volume and hearing level depended on the subject group as well as the asymmetry of the hearing loss. The volume changes observed may represent antecedents or consequences of tinnitus and tinnitus-associated hearing loss and also raise the possibility that small cortical volume constitutes a vulnerability factor.

  9. Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn, Malden, Revere and Saugus, Massachusetts. Flood Damage Reduction. Volume 7. Appendix J. Feasibility Study and EIS/EIR Comments and Responses. Section A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    project nor affect significantly the projects econmic efficiency. These effects are described in the Feasibility Report, EIS/EIR and suportin...modifications beca necesary. To insure the econmic efficiency of the project using the accelerated rise rate in NRc Case III, the Regional Project was...is a str econmic candidate. 23 Table 14 RICtOALL P3ECr ECONaMEC FEABILIY WI H SEA LEVEL RISE (1988 Price Level) Oticon 3 Historical NRC Project

  10. Reduction of the treated volume to involved node radiation therapy as part of combined modality treatment for early stage aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhappen, Marieke H.; Poortmans, Philip M.P.; Raaijmakers, Esther; Raemaekers, John M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This retrospective study investigated whether focused involved node radiation therapy (INRT) can safely replace involved field RT (IFRT) in patients with early stage aggressive NHL. Patients and methods: We included 258 patients with stage I/II aggressive NHL who received combined modality treatment (87%) or primary RT alone (13%). RT consisted of a total dose of 30–40 Gy in 15–20 fractions IFRT or INRT. We compared survival, relapse pattern, radiation-related toxicity and quality of life for both RT techniques. Results: Type of RT was not related to the outcome in either the uni- or multivariate survival analysis. Relapses developed in 59 of 252 patients (23%) of which 47 (80%) were documented as distant recurrence only. Failure of the INRT technique was noted in one patient. There was no significant difference in acute radiation-related toxicity between RT-groups but IFRT showed a significantly higher incidence of higher grade toxicities. Patients treated with INRT had a significantly better physical functioning and global quality of life compared to the IFRT group. Conclusions: Given the retrospective nature of this study, no solid conclusions can be drawn. However, in view of the equivalent efficacy and more favorable toxicity profile, the replacement of IFRT by INRT in combination with chemo-(immuno)-therapy looks very attractive for patients with early stage aggressive NHL

  11. Prognostic significance of preoperative metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, In Sun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers; yet few studies have investigated their clinical and prognostic significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present retrospective study evaluated the utility of pretreatment MTV and TLG measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict survival and occult metastasis (OM) in OSCC. Of 162 patients with OSCC evaluated preoperatively by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, 105 who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy were eligible. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), MTV and TLG were measured. For calculation of MTV, 3-D regions of interest were drawn and a SUV threshold of 2.5 was used for defining regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with OM, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The median (range) SUV{sub max}, MTV and TLG were 7.3 (0.7-41.9), 4.5 ml (0.7-115.1 ml) and 18.3 g (2.4-224.1 g), respectively. Of 53 patients with clinically negative lymph nodes, OM was detected in 19 (36 %). By univariate and multivariate analyses, MTV (P = 0.018) and TLG (P = 0.011) were both independent predictive factors for OM, although they were not independent of each other. The 4-year DFS and OS rates were 53.0 % and 62.0 %, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that MTV (P = 0.001) and TLG (P = 0.006), with different cut-off levels, were both independent predictive factors for DFS, although they were not independent of each other, and MTV (P = 0.001), TLG (P = 0.002) and the involved resection margin (P = 0.007) were independent predictive factors for OS. Pretreatment MTV and TLG may be useful in stratifying the likelihood of survival and predicting OM in OSCC. (orig.)

  12. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  13. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword

  14. Familial and environmental influences on brain volumes in twins with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchioni, Marco M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Chaddock, Christopher; Cole, James H; Ettinger, Ulrich; Oses, Ana; Metcalfe, Hugo; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually. We conducted between-group testing and full genetic modelling. We included 168 twins in our study. Whole brain, grey matter, white matter and right hippocampal volumes were smaller in twins with schizophrenia. Twin correlations were larger for whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes in monozygotic than dizygotic twins and were significantly heritable, whereas hippocampal volume was the most environmentally sensitive. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between schizophrenia and reductions in all the brain volumes except for that of the left hippocampus. For whole brain, grey matter and the right hippocampus the etiological links with schizophrenia were principally associated with the shared familial environment. Lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia were both associated with lower whole brain volume and with lower white matter and grey matter volumes, respectively. Scan data were collected across 2 sites, and some groups were modest in size. Whole brain, grey matter and right hippocampal volume reductions are linked to schizophrenia through correlated familial risk (i.e., the shared familial environment). The degree of influence of etiological factors varies between brain structures, leading to the possibility of a neuroanatomically specific etiological imprint.

  15. Long-term results of preventive embolization of renal angiomyolipomas: evaluation of predictive factors of volume decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocquelet, A.; Cornelis, F.; Le Bras, Y.; Meyer, M.; Tricaud, E.; Lasserre, A.S.; Grenier, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Urology and Vascular Imaging, Bordeaux (France); Ferriere, J.M.; Robert, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Urology Service, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective arterial embolization (SAE) of angiomyolipomas based on the percentage volume reduction after embolization and to identify predictive factors of volume decrease. Patients receiving prophylactic SAE of renal angiomyolipomas were included retrospectively over 3 years. The volume change after SAE and haemorrhagic or surgical events were recorded. Initial tumour volume, percentage tumour fat content, mean tumour density, embolic agent used, number of angiomyolipomas and tuberous sclerosis disease were evaluated as predictive factors of volume decrease. A total of 19 patients with 39 angiomyolipomas were included with median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range 21-37 months). All treatments were technically successful (92 % primary and 8 % secondary). No distal bleeding or any increase in size or surgical nephrectomy after SAE was recorded. Mean volume reduction was 72 % (±24 %). Volumes before SAE (R{sup 2} = 0.276; p = 0.001), percentage fat content (R{sup 2} = 0.612; p < 0.0001) and mean angiomyolipoma density (R{sup 2} = 0.536; p < 0.0001) were identified as predictive factors of volume decrease. In multivariate regression, only percentage fat content influenced volume decreases. SAE is an efficient treatment for angiomyolipoma devascularisation and volume reduction. A significant reduction of volume is modulated by the initial volume and tissue composition of the tumour. (orig.)

  16. Radwaste volume reduction economics: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Today, utilities are faced with mounting charges related to the disposal of radioactive waste from their nuclear power plants. Numerous factors complicate economic analysis of radwaste processing options. This paper details two recent key EPRI studies bearing upon radwaste operations and economics. The first study, RP1557-3, characterizes low level wastes from nuclear power plants during the period 1978 to 1982. This paper presents information on the quantity of waste by type, waste composition, specific activities and major isotopes and radiation fields of final disposal packages. The second study, RP1557-11,12,13, involved the development of a computer code for evaluating radwaste disposal economics. Capital and operating cost estimates were prepared for 11 diferent processing-disposal options. These costs are utilized along with a burial site pricing algorithm in VRTECH, a computer radwaste economic assessment program. This paper discusses the VRTECH code and the results of the generic analyses conducted in the study

  17. An operating philosophy for volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mis, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Access to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is increasingly restricted in the USA and there is little that on-site action can accomplish to improve the political situations, there are actions that can be taken to reduce radioactive waste which require nothing more than worker support, management understanding, and little or no cost. The topics covered in this article include the following: recycle as much as possible; minimize materials in a controlled area; Get the worker involved; get and keep plant management on board; program coordination

  18. Volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid samples from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. Estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitter using the imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    We want to establish a system of volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid wastes from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. We have been performing experiments using an experimental incineration system to examine the distribution of radionuclides during incineration and to collect basic data. To reproduce the realistic conditions of incineration of low-level radioactive wastes in an experimental system, we adopted new incineration methods in this study. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) were set up in a mesh container of stainless steel and incinerated at high temperature (over 800 degC) generated by two sets of high calorie gas burners. Low energy β-emitters 35 S, 45 Ca, 33 P, and a high energy β-emitter 32 P were used for the experiment. Their translocation percentages in exhaust air and dust were estimated using the Imaging Plate. Distribution of radionuclides during the incineration was similar to that estimated by conventional methods by our study or to that reported in incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste. We concluded that the use of the Imaging Plates is a simple and reliable method for estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitters in incineration gas and ash. (author)

  19. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.