WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant unique contributions

  1. Holistic Leadership-Nursing's Unique Contribution to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Bleich, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    This dialogue is focused on holistic leadership from the perspective of a well-known leader in nursing. He frames the changing healthcare environment and nursing's unique contribution on the interprofessional team.

  2. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty. PMID:26755569

  3. Contribution of radiodiagnosis to genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.M.; Ouvrard, R.

    Surveys were carried out in France on 33,000 X-ray medical examinations. The genetically significant dose to the whole population from roentgenography and fluoroscopy, for typical examinations, should be about 65mrads [fr

  4. The unique contribution of the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin to global seismicity catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karl; Kebede, Fekadu

    2010-05-01

    about 94% (85%) of the common events, as obtained from the ISC bulletin comparisons for the years 2000 to 2006. On the other hand, only 0.25% of such events were located more than 5° apart by the IDC and the ISC. The number of events of significant magnitude missed by the IDC is small and related predominantly to lack of sufficient number of observed arrivals to define an event. The unique contribution of the REB to global seismicity catalogues is expressed by the significant number of REB events that are solely reported in the ISC bulletin. Over the most recent years 2004-2006 the REB and ISC bulletin include about 20,000 common events which were reprocessed by the ISC. This compares to a steadily rising number of solely contributed REB events from more than 5,000 events in 2004 to nearly 7,500 events in 2006, i.e. a quarter to a third events more. These unique IDC events are mainly in remote and oceanic areas. A more important aspect, however, is the number of unique IDC events at depth. Below a depth of about 300 km there are nearly any ISC events not detected by the IMS network, while the number of events at larger depths and only detected by the IMS is significant. As conclusion it is found that the IDC REB is a valuable source for studies of deep seismicity occurring within the global subduction zones.

  5. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  6. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  7. Some conditions for significant contribution from photovoltaics to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1994-03-01

    In medium-long term perspective, the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution, due to fossil fuel burning, could be contained by massively using of renewable energy. Significant improvements are expected to arise from diffusion into use of large scale PV power systems. Considering the situation in Italy as a typical study case, a limit can be individuated, which makes that PV contribution to annual electric energy balance can reach a maximum of about 7%. Such a figure corresponds to about 2% in terms of contribution to total energy balance. Thus, the intermittent energy sources are destined, in Italy, to be confined to a role, just significant (7%) in the electric energy sector, but quite marginal (2%) with reference to expected environmental massive benefits. Apart from numerical results, this disappointing concept can be applied in general to all OCSE countries, wich globally produce the largest amount of world pollutant energy. Consequently, if photovoltaics wants to acquire a real environmental consistence, the limit of PV system diffusion has to be overcome. This can be attained by implementing the present grid-tied reference model for PV system diffusion by including an hydrogen production and storage system

  8. Uniquely significant fresh water fishes of Iran are exposure to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeolahy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The native fishes of springs, Ghana ts and Caves of Iran are uniquely significant, since they are rear and, because of pollution, dryness, purposeful or accidental introduction of exotic species and over all, because of industrialization are in danger. The stock of valuable fishes of Iran are declining while they have not been completely identified. The stock of these fishes, particular y those of economic value, such as large Bar bus sp. at western part of Iran are declining. In an attempt fishes among the 140 station and average of three unit of effort for catch of fish in every station (total of 400 unit of effort) about 80 specimen of large Bar bus were caught. Fishes were caught by electroshock and various kind of net with mesh size of 2 cm to 4 cm. The Gamasib River was known to have large Carp, but this result showed that nowadays the stock of large Bar bus substantially damaged. The stock of: B. subquincunciatus and B. grypus severely damaged. The purpose of this paper is to describe those factors, which affect the stock and abundance of Iranian freshwater fishes, and to suggest measures for the conservation of this fauna. These factors include pre-industrial, and such factors related to industrialization and population increases as de vegetation, water abstracting, fishing, pollution and faun al introductions. Introduction of new species to increase fish production and exploit the fishery potential of water bodies, can be great utility; but has many hazardous impacts on native species, Biodiversity and Ecology of the Water bodies. Some aspect of theses impacts are outlined

  9. A Cognitive Dimensional Approach to Understanding Shared and Unique Contributions to Reading, Math, and Attention Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Amanda E; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Willcutt, Erik G; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2018-05-01

    Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing qualitatively different groups, this study employed a dimensional approach. Furthermore, we used both timed and untimed academic variables in addition to attention and activity level variables. The results supported the role of working memory and phonological awareness in the overlap among reading, math, and attention, with a limited role of processing speed. Numerosity was related to the comorbidity between math and attention. The results from timed variables and activity level were similar to those from untimed and attention variables, although activity level was less strongly related to cognitive and academic/attention variables. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive deficits that contribute to comorbid reading disability, math disability, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  10. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION ON CONSUMER PURCHASING DECISIONS IN HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'Ang'A, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality Industry is comprised of individual hotels in which each one of them differs in the way that they position their products and services with the intention of catering for the advancing present day consumer needs. It is hence important for hospitality businesses to possess a unique selling proposition. The objective of this study is to determine the importance of the 4 P’s of marketing mix in consumer purchasing decision. The 4 P’s concept is a tool used in modern marketing ...

  11. The unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined the unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement. A sample of 124 fourth graders was tested on their arithmetic operation understanding (as reflected by their understanding of arithmetic principles and the knowledge about the application of arithmetic operations) and their precision of rational number magnitude representation. They were also tested on their mathematics achievement and arithmetic computation performance as well as the potential confounding factors. The findings suggested that both arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation uniquely predicted children's mathematics achievement. The findings highlight the significance of arithmetic operation understanding in mathematics learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Men's adjustment to spinal cord injury: the unique contributions of conformity to masculine gender norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shaun Michael; Hough, Sigmund; Boyd, Briana L; Hill, Justin

    2010-06-01

    Men constitute 82% of the approximately 250,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. Unfortunately, however, little is known about the impact of men's adherence to gender norms on their adjustment to such injuries. The present investigation examined the utility of masculine norms in explaining variance in depression beyond that accounted for by commonly identified predictors of men's adjustment following spinal cord injury. As hypothesized, results suggested that men's adherence to masculine norms accounted for unique variance in their depression scores beyond that contributed by social support, environmental barriers/access, and erectile functioning. Respondents who adhered to norms stressing the primacy of men's work demonstrated lower rates of depression, whereas those who conformed to norms for self-reliance demonstrated higher depression scores. The authors discuss future research directions and potential psychotherapeutic strategies for working with men with spinal cord injuries.

  13. The unique contributions of perceiver and target characteristics in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Eric; Sutherland, Clare A M; Flake, Jessica K; Slepian, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces. With this approach, we demonstrate that (a) different trait impressions have unique causal processes, meaning that some impressions are largely informed by perceiver-level characteristics whereas others are driven more by physical target-level characteristics; (b) modeling of perceiver- and target-variance in impressions informs fundamental models of social perception; (c) Perceiver × Target interactions explain a substantial portion of variance in impressions; (d) greater emotional intensity in stimuli decreases the influence of the perceiver; and (e) more variable, naturalistic stimuli increases variation across perceivers. Important overarching patterns emerged. Broadly, traits and dimensions representing inferences of character (e.g., dominance) are driven more by perceiver characteristics than those representing appearance-based appraisals (e.g., youthful-attractiveness). Moreover, inferences made of more ambiguous traits (e.g., creative) or displays (e.g., faces with less extreme emotions, less-controlled stimuli) are similarly driven more by perceiver than target characteristics. Together, results highlight the large role that perceiver and target variability play in trait impressions, and develop a new topography of trait impressions that considers the source of the impression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Unique aspects of impulsive traits in substance use and overeating: specific contributions of common assessments of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Filbey, Francesca M

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Impulsivity is a complex trait often studied in substance abuse and overeating disorders, but the exact nature of impulsivity traits and their contribution to these disorders are still debated. Thus, understanding how to measure impulsivity is essential for comprehending addictive behaviors. Identify unique impulsivity traits specific to substance use and overeating. Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) and Barratt's Impulsivity scales (BIS) Scales were analyzed with a non-parametric factor analytic technique (discriminant correspondence analysis) to identify group-specific traits on 297 individuals from five groups: Marijuana (n = 88), Nicotine (n = 82), Overeaters (n = 27), Marijuauna + Nicotine (n = 63), and CONTROLs (n = 37). A significant overall factor structure revealed three components of impulsivity that explained respectively 50.19% (pperm Overeating: lacks focus, but plans (short and long term). Our results reveal impulsivity traits specific to each group. This may provide better criteria to define spectrums and trajectories - instead of categories - of symptoms for substance use and eating disorders. Defining symptomatic spectrums could be an important step forward in diagnostic strategies.

  15. Unique contributions of dynamic versus global measures of parent-child interaction quality in predicting school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Herbers, Janette E; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the unique contribution of microsocial and global measures of parent-child positive coregulation (PCR) in predicting children's behavioral and social adjustment in school. Using a community sample of 102 children, ages 4-6, and their parents, we conducted nested path analytic models to identify the unique effects of 2 measures of PCR on school outcomes. Microsocial PCR independently predicted fewer externalizing and inattention/impulsive behaviors in school. Global PCR did not uniquely relate to children's behavioral and social adjustment outcomes. Household socioeconomic status was related to both microsocial and global measures of PCR, but not directly associated with school outcomes. Findings illustrate the importance of using dynamic measures of PCR based on microsocial coding to further understand how the quality of parent-child interaction is related to children's self-regulatory and social development during school transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Topical Review: Unique Contributions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Pediatric Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Carbine, Kaylie M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to provide a brief introduction of the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in pediatric psychology research, describe several exemplar studies that highlight the unique benefits of MRI techniques for pediatric psychology research, and detail methods for addressing several challenges inherent to pediatric MRI research. Literature review. Numerous useful applications of MRI research in pediatric psychology have been illustrated in published research. MRI methods yield information that cannot be obtained using neuropsychological or behavioral measures. Using MRI in pediatric psychology research may facilitate examination of neural structures and processes that underlie health behaviors. Challenges inherent to conducting MRI research with pediatric research participants (e.g., head movement) may be addressed using evidence-based strategies. We encourage pediatric psychology researchers to consider adopting MRI techniques to answer research questions relevant to pediatric health and illness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The unique contribution of the nursing intervention pain management on length of stay in older patients undergoing hip procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peg; Shever, Leah; Titler, Marita G; Qin, Rui; Kim, Taikyoung; Picone, Debra M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contribution of the nursing intervention pain management on length of stay (LOS) for 568 older patients hospitalized for hip procedures. Propensity-score-adjusted analysis was used to determine the effect of pain management on LOS. The LOS for hospitalizations that received pain management was 0.78 day longer than that for hospitalizations that did not receive pain management. Other variables that were predictors of LOS included several context-of-care variables (e.g., time spent in the intensive care unit, registered nurse skill mix, etc.), number of medical procedures and unique medications, and several other nursing interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic and caregiving-based contributions to infant attachment: unique associations with distress reactivity and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Cutuli, J J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2012-09-01

    In the longitudinal study reported here, we examined genetic and caregiving-based contributions to individual differences in infant attachment classifications. For 154 mother-infant pairs, we rated mothers' responsiveness to their 6-month-old infants during naturalistic interactions and classified infants' attachment organization at 12 and 18 months using the Strange Situation procedure. These infants were later genotyped with respect to the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Maternal responsiveness uniquely predicted infants' attachment security. Infants' 5-HTTLPR variation uniquely predicted their subtype of attachment security at 12 months and their subtype of attachment insecurity at 12 and 18 months. The short allele for 5-HTTLPR was associated with attachment classifications characterized by higher emotional distress. These findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR variation contributes to infants' emotional reactivity and that the degree to which caregivers are responsive influences how effectively infants use their caregivers for emotion regulation. Theoretical implications for the study of genetic and caregiving influences are discussed.

  20. [THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LEGAL PERSPECTIVE - THE LEGAL WORLD'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE MEDICAL WORLD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler-Harcavi, Alona; Cohen Ashkenazi, Limor

    2018-04-01

    Working with medical and paramedical teams has taught us that the medical staff does not fully utilize the potential of judicial decisions and precedents as a source for learning, drawing conclusions and motivating progress. Judicial ruling is an essential part of the toolbox used by medical administrators in general, and healthcare risk managers in particular. Knowing the relevant legal rulings, before you embark on any given path, is the equivalent of looking before you leap. This is not necessarily an issue of "holy scripture", but should mainly be considered as a source for expanding your perspective. Knowledge of the relevant rulings has many advantages that stem from the unique characteristics of the legal system. While the medical world has a clear and unequivocal advantage regarding knowledge and experience with respect to medicine, the legal world has various other advantages: a different and wider perspective with respect to economic and/or political considerations; universal fundamental principles, such as autonomy, equality, distributive justice, human dignity, the state's obligations to its citizens; complex systems of checks and balances, such as: desirable vs. available, the benefit of few vs. the good of the many, etc. These tools, typical of the legal world, are especially relevant to medicolegal issues, usually associated with medical administration, such as: the obligation of consultation, obligation of follow-up, treatment continuity, priorities, resource distribution, patient rights, etc. The contribution of the legal world to these issues is both unique and essential. Those who question the ability of judges to understand the medical world and to materially contribute to medical thinking and practice, claiming that they lack medical training and experience, should recognize the diverse contribution of the legal world to the medical world.

  1. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  2. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  3. Contributions of a unique β-clamp to substrate recognition illuminates the molecular basis of exolysis in ferulic acid esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; Cote, Chris; McAllister, Tim A; Abbott, D Wade

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable resource; however, deconstruction of this material is still the rate-limiting step. Major obstacles in the biocatalytic turnover of lignocellulose are ester-linked decorations that prevent access to primary structural polysaccharides. Enzymes targeting these esters represent promising biotools for increasing bioconversion efficiency. Ruminant livestock are unique in their ability to degrade lignocellulose through the action of their gut microbiome. The anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are key members of this ecosystem that express a large repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) with little sequence identity with characterized CAZymes [Lombard, Golaconda, Drula, Coutinho and Henrissat (2014) Nucleic Acids Res. 42: , D490-D495]. We have identified a carbohydrate esterase family 1 (CE1) ferulic acid esterase (FAE) belonging to Anaeromyces mucronatus(AmCE1/Fae1a), and determined its X-ray structure in both the presence [1.55 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm)] and absence (1.60 Å) of ferulic acid. AmCE1 adopts an α/β-hydrolase fold that is structurally conserved with bacterial FAEs, and possesses a unique loop, termed the β-clamp, that encloses the ligand. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that substrate binding is driven by enthalpic contributions, which overcomes a large entropic penalty. A comparative analysis of AmCE1 with related enzymes has uncovered the apparent structural basis for differential FAE activities targeting cross-linking ferulic acid conjugates compared with terminal decorations. Based on comparisons to structurally characterized FAEs, we propose that the β-clamp may define the structural basis of exolytic activities in FAEs. This provides a structure-based tool for predicting exolysis and endolysis in CE1. These insights hold promise for rationally identifying enzymes tailored for bioconversion of biomass with variations in cell wall composition. © 2016 Authors; published by

  4. Statistical Significance of the Contribution of Variables to the PCA Solution: An Alternative Permutation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…

  5. Unique contributions of emotion regulation and executive functions in predicting the quality of parent-child interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks. In our analyses, we accounted for parent education, financial stress, and social support as socioeconomic factors that likely relate to parent executive function and emotion regulation skills. In a diverse sample of primary caregivers (N = 102), we found that direct assessment of parent inhibitory control was positively associated with sensitive/responsive behaviors, whereas parent self-reported difficulties in using emotion regulation strategies were associated with lower levels of positive and collaborative dyadic behaviors. Parent education and financial stress predicted inhibitory control, and social support predicted emotion regulation difficulties; parent education was also a significant predictor of sensitive/responsive behaviors. Greater inhibitory control skills and fewer difficulties identifying effective emotion regulation strategies were not significantly related in our final path model. We discuss our findings in the context of current and emerging parenting interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Reliability, validity, and significance of assessment of sense of contribution in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2014-01-29

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Sense of Contribution Scale (SCS), a newly developed, 7-item questionnaire used to measure sense of contribution in the workplace. Workers at 272 organizations answered questionnaires that included the SCS. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analyses for internal consistency and validity varied from 1,675 to 2,462 (response rates 54.6%-80.2%). Fifty-four workers were included in the analysis of test-retest reliability (response rate, 77.1%). The SCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficients in men and women were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91). Significant (p workplace bullying, and procedural and interactional justice. The SCS is a psychometrically satisfactory measure of sense of contribution in the workplace. The SCS provides a new and useful instrument to measure sense of contribution, which is independently associated with mental health in workers, for studies in organizational science, occupational health psychology and occupational medicine.

  7. The unique contribution of manual chest compression-vibrations to airflow during physiotherapy in sedated, fully ventilated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Rachael K; Shannon, Harriet; Stocks, Janet; Cole, Tim J; Peters, Mark J; Main, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to quantify the specific effects of manual lung inflations with chest compression-vibrations, commonly used to assist airway clearance in ventilated patients. The hypothesis was that force applied during the compressions made a significant additional contribution to increases in peak expiratory flow and expiratory to inspiratory flow ratio over and above that resulting from accompanying increases in inflation volume. Prospective observational study. Cardiac and general pediatric intensive care. Sedated, fully ventilated children. Customized force-sensing mats and a commercial respiratory monitor recorded force and respiration during physiotherapy. Percentage changes in peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory to inspiratory flow ratios, inflation volume, and peak inflation pressure between baseline and manual inflations with and without compression-vibrations were calculated. Analysis of covariance determined the relative contribution of changes in pressure, volume, and force to influence changes in peak expiratory flow and peak expiratory to inspiratory flow ratio. Data from 105 children were analyzed (median age, 1.3 yrs; range, 1 wk to 15.9 yrs). Force during compressions ranged from 15 to 179 N (median, 46 N). Peak expiratory flow increased on average by 76% during compressions compared with baseline ventilation. Increases in peak expiratory flow were significantly related to increases in inflation volume, peak inflation pressure, and force with peak expiratory flow increasing by, on average, 4% for every 10% increase in inflation volume (p children.

  8. Reliability, Validity, and Significance of Assessment of Sense of Contribution in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Sense of Contribution Scale (SCS, a newly developed, 7-item questionnaire used to measure sense of contribution in the workplace. Workers at 272 organizations answered questionnaires that included the SCS. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analyses for internal consistency and validity varied from 1,675 to 2,462 (response rates 54.6%–80.2%. Fifty-four workers were included in the analysis of test–retest reliability (response rate, 77.1%. The SCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α coefficients in men and women were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91. Significant (p < 0.001, positive, moderate correlations were found between the SCS score and scores for organization-based self-esteem and work engagement in both genders, which support the SCS’s convergent and discriminant validity. The criterion validity of the SCS was supported by the finding that in both genders, the SCS scores were significantly (p < 0.05 and inversely associated with psychological distress and sleep disturbance in crude and in multivariable analyses that adjusted for demographics, organization-based self-esteem, work engagement, effort–reward ratio, workplace bullying, and procedural and interactional justice. The SCS is a psychometrically satisfactory measure of sense of contribution in the workplace. The SCS provides a new and useful instrument to measure sense of contribution, which is independently associated with mental health in workers, for studies in organizational science, occupational health psychology and occupational medicine.

  9. Unique in vivo properties of olfactory ensheathing cells that may contribute to neural repair and protection following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Lankford, Karen L.; Sasaki, Masanori; Radtke, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are specialized glial cells that guide olfactory receptor axons from the nasal mucosa into the brain where they make synaptic contacts in the olfactory bulb. While a number of studies have demonstrated that in vivo transplantation of OECs into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome, precise cellular mechanisms underlying this improvement are not fully understood. Current thinking is that OECs can encourage axonal regeneration, provide trophic support for injured neurons and for angiogenesis, and remyelinate axons. However, Schwann cell (SC) transplantation also results in significant functional improvement in animal models of spinal cord injury. In culture SCs and OECs share a number of phenotypic properties such as expression of the low affinity NGF receptor (p75). An important area of research has been to distinguish potential differences in the in vivo behavior of OECs and SCs to determine if one cell type may offer greater advantage as a cellular therapeutic candidate. In this review we focus on several unique features of OECs when they are transplanted into the spinal cord. PMID:19429149

  10. Pharmaceuticals occurrence in a WWTP with significant industrial contribution and its input into the river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, N.; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S.; Gros, M.; Rubirola, A.; Barceló, D.; Comas, J.; Rodriguez-Roda, I.; Buttiglieri, G.

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence and removal of 81 representative Pharmaceutical Active Compounds (PhACs) were assessed in a municipal WWTP located in a highly industrialized area, with partial water reuse after UV tertiary treatment and discharge to a Mediterranean river. Water monitoring was performed in an integrated way at different points in the WWTP and river along three seasons. Consistent differences between therapeutic classes were observed in terms of influent concentration, removal efficiencies and seasonal variation. Conventional (primary and secondary) treatment was unable to completely remove numerous compounds and UV-based tertiary treatment played a complementary role for some of them. Industrial activity influence was highlighted in terms of PhACs presence and seasonal distribution. Even if global WWTP effluent impact on the studied river appeared to be minor, PhACs resulted widespread pollutants in river waters. Contamination can be particularly critical in summer in water scarcity areas, when water flow decreases considerably. -- Highlights: • Seasonal variation revealed a higher spring-summer removal compared to winter time. • Biological process was unable to provide a complete removal for most compounds. • UV-based tertiary treatment did play a complementary removal role for specific PhACs. • Diffuse river contamination and local WWTP contribution to it were observed. • River attenuation capacity is an important factor for removing most of the compounds. -- PhACs integrated WWTP-river data evaluation of coupled biological process and UV tertiary treatment in a WWTP with significant industrial contribution and in the receiving river waters

  11. The Little Engines That Could? Globular Clusters Contribute Significantly to Reionization-era Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) are both numerous and ancient, which indicates that they may be important contributors to ionizing radiation in the reionization era. Starting from the observed number density and stellar mass function of old GCs at z = 0, I compute the contribution of GCs to ultraviolet luminosity functions (UVLFs) in the high-redshift Universe (10 ≳ z ≳ 4). Even under absolutely minimal assumptions - no disruption of GCs and no reduction in GC stellar mass from early times to the present - GC star formation contributes non-negligibly to the UVLF at luminosities that are accessible to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; M1500 ≈ -17). If the stellar masses of GCs were significantly higher in the past, as is predicted by most models explaining GC chemical anomalies, then GCs dominate the UV emission from many galaxies in existing deep-field observations. On the other hand, it is difficult to reconcile observed UVLFs with models requiring stellar masses at birth that exceed present-day stellar masses by more than a factor of 5. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to directly detect individual GCs at z ˜ 6 in essentially all bright galaxies, and many galaxies below the knee of the UVLF, for most of the scenarios considered here. The properties of a subset of high-redshift sources with -19 ≲ M_{1500} ≲ -14 in HST lensing fields indicate that they may actually be GCs in formation.

  12. Probing the Unique Contributions of Self-Concept, Task Values, and Their Interactions Using Multiple Value Facets and Multiple Academic Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jiesi; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kelava, Augustin; Gaspard, Hanna; Brandt, Holger; Cambria, Jenna; Flunger, B.; Dicke, Anna Lena; Häfner, Isabelle; Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept

  13. Unique contributions of an arginine side chain to ligand recognition in a glutamate-gated chloride channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Komnatnyy, Vitaly V; Pless, Stephan A

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate recognition by neurotransmitter receptors often relies on arginine (Arg) residues in the binding site, leading to the assumption that charge-charge interactions underlie ligand recognition. However, assessing the precise chemical contribution of Arg side chains to protein function......-gated chloride channel from the nematode Haemonchus contortus. Our data unveil a surprisingly small contribution of charge at a conserved arginine side chain previously suggested to form a salt bridge with the ligand, glutamate. Instead, our data show that Arg contributes crucially to ligand sensitivity via...

  14. Human Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1a Contributes Significantly to Hepatic Lipogenic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP 1, the master regulator of lipogenesis, was shown to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is attributed to its major isoform SREBP1c. Based on studies in mice, the minor isoform SREBP1a is regarded as negligible for hepatic lipogenesis. This study aims to elucidate the expression and functional role of SREBP1a in human liver. Methods: mRNA expression of both isoforms was quantified in cohorts of human livers and primary human hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with PF-429242 to inhibit the proteolytic activation of SREBP precursor protein. SREBP1a-specifc and pan-SREBP1 knock-down were performed by transfection of respective siRNAs. Lipogenic SREBP-target gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Results: In human liver, SREBP1a accounts for up to half of the total SREBP1 pool. Treatment with PF-429242 indicated SREBP-dependent auto-regulation of SREBP1a, which however was much weaker than of SREBP1c. SREBP1a-specifc knock-down also reduced significantly the expression of SREBP1c and of SREBP-target genes. Regarding most SREBP-target genes, simultaneous knock-down of both isoforms resulted in effects of only similar extent as SREBP1a-specific knock-down. Conclusion: We here showed that SREBP1a is significantly contributing to the human hepatic SREBP1 pool and has a share in human hepatic lipogenic gene expression.

  15. Interallelic class switch recombination contributes significantly to class switching in mouse B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Stéphane; Delpy, Laurent; Fleury, Laurence; Dougier, Hei-Lanne; Sirac, Christophe; Cogné, Michel

    2005-05-15

    Except for the expression of IgM and IgD, DNA recombination is constantly needed for the expression of other Ig classes and subclasses. The predominant path of class switch recombination (CSR) is intrachromosomal, and the looping-out and deletion model has been abundantly documented. However, switch regions also occasionally constitute convenient substrates for interchromosomal recombination, since it is noticeably the case in a number of chromosomal translocations causing oncogene deregulation in the course of lymphoma and myeloma. Although asymmetric accessibility of Ig alleles should theoretically limit its occurrence, interallelic CSR was shown to occur at low levels during IgA switching in rabbit, where the definition of allotypes within both V and C regions helped identify interchromosomally derived Ig. Thus, we wished to evaluate precisely interallelic CSR frequency in mouse B cells, by using a system in which only one allele (of b allotype) could express a functional VDJ region, whereas only interallelic CSR could restore expression of an excluded (a allotype) allele. In our study, we show that interchromosomal recombination of V(H) and Cgamma or Calpha occurs in vivo in B cells at a frequency that makes a significant contribution to physiological class switching: trans-association of V(H) and C(H) genes accounted for 7% of all alpha mRNA, and this frequency was about twice higher for the gamma3 transcripts, despite the much shorter distance between the J(H) region and the Cgamma3 gene, thus confirming that this phenomenon corresponded to site-specific switching and not to random recombination between long homologous loci.

  16. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it.

  17. Fragrance mix II in the baseline series contributes significantly to detection of fragrance allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria S Vølund; Andersen, Klaus E.; Avnstorp, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens. Aim......: To investigate the diagnostic contribution of including FM II in the baseline series by comparing it with other screening markers of fragrance allergy: fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC). Method: Retrospective study of 12 302 patients consecutively...

  18. Geological subsurface will contribute significantly to the implementation of the energy policy towards renewables in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sonja; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The demands to exploit the geological subsurface are increasing. In addition to the traditional production of raw materials such as natural gas and petroleum, or potable groundwater extraction the underground will most likely also be used to implement the climate and energy policy objectives in the context of the energy transition to renewables. These include the storage of energy from renewable sources (e.g. hydrogen and methane), the use of geothermal energy and possibly the long-term storage of carbon dioxide to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The presentation addresses the question which realistic contribution can be expected from the geo-resource subsurface for the energy revolution, the detachment of fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions. The study of Henning and Palzer [1] that models the energy balance of the electricity and heat sector including all renewable energy converters, storage components and loads for a future German energy system shows that provision with 100% renewables is economically feasible by 2050. Based on their work, our estimates underline that already in 2015 more than 100% of the required methane storage capacities therein are available and more than 100% of the heat pump demands might be covered by shallow and deep geothermal energy production in the future. In addition we show that a newly developed energy storage system [2-3] could be applied to store 20-60% of the surplus energy from renewables expected for 2050 with integrated gas storage of methane and CO2. [1] Henning H-M, Palzer A (2014) A comprehensive model for the German electricity and heat sector in a future energy system with a dominant contribution from renewable energy technologies -- Part I: Methodology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 30, 1003-1018. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.09.012 [2] Kühn M, Nakaten N, Streibel M, Kempka T (2014) CO2 geological storage and utilization for a carbon neutral "power

  19. Significant Contributions of the Albrecht's A Term to Nonresonant Raman Scattering Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zu-Yong; Tian, Guangjun; Duan, Sai; Luo, Yi

    2015-11-10

    The Raman intensity can be well described by the famous Albrecht's Raman theory that consists of A and B terms. It is well-known that the contribution from Albrecht's A term can be neglected without any loss of accuracy for far-off resonant Raman scattering processes. However, as demonstrated in this study, we have found that this widely accepted long-standing assumption fails drastically for totally symmetric vibration modes of molecules in general off-resonant Raman scattering. Perturbed first-principles calculations for water molecule show that strong constructive interference between the A and B terms occurs for the Raman intensity of the symmetric O-H stretching mode, which can account for ∼40% of the total intensity. Meanwhile, a minor destructive interference is found for the angle bending mode. The state-to-state mapping between Albrecht's theory and perturbation theory allows us to verify the accuracy of the widely employed perturbation method for the dynamic/resonant Raman intensities. The model calculations rationalized from water molecule with the bending mode show that the perturbation method is a good approximation only when the absolute energy difference between the first excited state and the incident light is more than five times greater than the vibrational energy in the ground state.

  20. Genetic variation in VEGF does not contribute significantly to the risk of congenital cardiovascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R Griffin

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have investigated the role of common promoter variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene in causing congenital cardiovascular malformation (CVM. However, results have been discrepant between studies and no study to date has comprehensively characterised variation throughout the gene. We genotyped 771 CVM cases, of whom 595 had the outflow tract malformation Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, and carried out TDT and case-control analyses using haplotype-tagging SNPs in VEGF. We carried out a meta-analysis of previous case-control or family-based studies that had typed VEGF promoter SNPs, which included an additional 570 CVM cases. To identify rare variants potentially causative of CVM, we carried out mutation screening in all VEGF exons and splice sites in 93 TOF cases. There was no significant effect of any VEGF haplotype-tagging SNP on the risk of CVM in our analyses of 771 probands. When the results of this and all previous studies were combined, there was no significant effect of the VEGF promoter SNPs rs699947 (OR 1.05 [95% CI 0.95-1.17]; rs1570360 (OR 1.17 [95% CI 0.99-1.26]; and rs2010963 (OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.93-1.16] on the risk of CVM in 1341 cases. Mutation screening of 93 TOF cases revealed no VEGF coding sequence variants and no changes at splice consensus sequences. Genetic variation in VEGF appears to play a small role, if any, in outflow tract CVM susceptibility.

  1. The Strengths of Wisdom Provide Unique Contributions to Improved Leadership, Sustainability, Inequality, Gross National Happiness, and Civic Discourse in the Face of Contemporary World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Grossmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for the strengths of the intellectual virtues that philosophers and behavioral scientists characterize as key cognitive elements of wisdom. Wisdom has been of centuries-long interest for philosophical scholarship, but relative to intelligence largely neglected in public discourse on educational science, public policy, and societal well-being. Wise reasoning characteristics include intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty, consideration of diverse viewpoints, and an attempt to integrate these viewpoints. Emerging scholarship on these features of wisdom suggest that they uniquely contribute to societal well-being, improve leadership, shed light on societal inequality, promote cooperation in Public Goods Games and reduce political polarization and intergroup-hostility. We review empirical evidence about macro-cultural, ecological, situational, and person-level processes facilitating and inhibiting wisdom in daily life. Based on this evidence, we speculate about ways to foster wisdom in education, organizations, and institutions.

  2. The perfectionism model of binge eating: testing unique contributions, mediating mechanisms, and cross-cultural similarities using a daily diary methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Simon B; Sabourin, Brigitte C; Hall, Peter A; Hewitt, Paul L; Flett, Gordon L; Gralnick, Tara M

    2014-12-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining the link between perfectionism and binge eating. This model proposes socially prescribed perfectionism confers risk for binge eating by generating exposure to 4 putative binge triggers: interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. The present study addresses important gaps in knowledge by testing if these 4 binge triggers uniquely predict changes in binge eating on a daily basis and if daily variations in each binge trigger mediate the link between socially prescribed perfectionism and daily binge eating. Analyses also tested if proposed mediational models generalized across Asian and European Canadians. The PMOBE was tested in 566 undergraduate women using a 7-day daily diary methodology. Depressive affect predicted binge eating, whereas anxious affect did not. Each binge trigger uniquely contributed to binge eating on a daily basis. All binge triggers except for dietary restraint mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and change in daily binge eating. Results suggested cross-cultural similarities, with the PMOBE applying to both Asian and European Canadian women. The present study advances understanding of the personality traits and the contextual conditions accompanying binge eating and provides an important step toward improving treatments for people suffering from eating binges and associated negative consequences.

  3. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  4. Probing the Unique Contributions of Self-Concept, Task Values, and Their Interactions Using Multiple Value Facets and Multiple Academic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiesi Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept and task values on educational outcomes using the latent moderated structural equation approach. Participants were 1,868 German ninth-grade students. The data analyses relied on a higher-order structure of value beliefs, which is suited to parsing the differential patterns of predictive relations for different value beliefs. The findings revealed that (a self-concept was more predictive of achievement, whereas value beliefs were more predictive of self-rated effort; (b self-concept and value beliefs emerged as equally important predictors of teacher-reported engagement; (c among the four value beliefs, achievement was more associated with low cost, whereas effort was more associated with attainment value; and (d latent interactions between self-concept and value beliefs predicted the three outcomes synergistically.

  5. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  6. Inherent X-Linked Genetic Variability and Cellular Mosaicism Unique to Females Contribute to Sex-Related Differences in the Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Spolarics

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Females have a longer lifespan and better general health than males. Considerable number of studies also demonstrated that, after trauma and sepsis, females present better outcomes as compared to males indicating sex-related differences in the innate immune response. The current notion is that differences in the immuno-modulatory effects of sex hormones are the underlying causative mechanism. However, the field remains controversial and the exclusive role of sex hormones has been challenged. Here, we propose that polymorphic X-linked immune competent genes, which are abundant in the population are important players in sex-based immuno-modulation and play a key role in causing sex-related outcome differences following trauma or sepsis. We describe the differences in X chromosome (ChrX regulation between males and females and its consequences in the context of common X-linked polymorphisms at the individual as well as population level. We also discuss the potential pathophysiological and immune-modulatory aspects of ChrX cellular mosaicism, which is unique to females and how this may contribute to sex-biased immune-modulation. The potential confounding effects of ChrX skewing of cell progenitors at the bone marrow is also presented together with aspects of acute trauma-induced de novo ChrX skewing at the periphery. In support of the hypothesis, novel observations indicating ChrX skewing in a female trauma cohort as well as case studies depicting the temporal relationship between trauma-induced cellular skewing and the clinical course are also described. Finally, we list and discuss a selected set of polymorphic X-linked genes, which are frequent in the population and have key regulatory or metabolic functions in the innate immune response and, therefore, are primary candidates for mediating sex-biased immune responses. We conclude that sex-related differences in a variety of disease processes including the innate inflammatory response to injury

  7. Selective excretion of IgA in rat bronchial secretions: lack of significant contribution from plasma IgA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre-Coelho, I.; Yamakido, M.; Montgomery, P.C.; Langendries, A.E.; Vaerman, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrated rat bronchial washings (BW) were analyzed by gel-filtration and immunochemical methods. BW contained mainly albumin, transferrin and IgG. Free secretory component and secretory IgA were identified in BW; the BW-IgA had the same three sedimentation coefficients, i.e. +/- 11 S, 13 S, 15 S by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, as rat milk and rat bile IgA; the three peaks were secretory IgA. Compared to serum, and relatively to albumin, BW were significantly enriched in IgA, although much less than rat bile. Purified polyclonal rat polymeric 125 I-IgA was injected intravenously into normal rats, and into rats with bile duct ligation or partial hepatectomy, which decrease the liver plasma-to-bile transfer of IgA. BW were then collected, one or four hours later, to assess the recovery of the 125 I-IgA in BW and to estimate the contribution of serum IgA to BW-IgA. Very little 125 I-IgA (less than 0.2%) was recovered in all BW. The specific activity, measured only in the rat with the highest recovery in BW, was 20 times lower in BW than in serum. The data demonstrate that rat serum IgA does not contribute significantly to IgA in BW

  8. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y Z; Zhao, L J; Chen, S; Shibata, A; Zhang, Z F; Tsuji, N

    2015-11-19

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  9. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M A; Campana, M G; Whitten, M; Edwards, C J; Jones, H; Barrett, E; Cassidy, R; Nisbet, R E R; Hill, E W; Howe, C J; Binns, M

    2011-04-23

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to 'A Royal Mare'). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized.

  10. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M. A.; Campana, M. G.; Whitten, M.; Edwards, C. J.; Jones, H.; Barrett, E.; Cassidy, R.; Nisbet, R. E. R.; Hill, E. W.; Howe, C. J.; Binns, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to ‘A Royal Mare’). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized. PMID:20926431

  11. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  12. HMGB1 and Extracellular Histones Significantly Contribute to Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Failure in Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runkuan; Zou, Xiaoping; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tønnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT). BT triggers/induces systemic inflammatory responses syndrome (SIRS), which can lead to MOF in ALF. Blockade of HMGB1 significantly decreases BT and improves hepatocyte regeneration in experimental acute fatal liver injury. Therefore, HMGB1 seems to be an important factor that links BT and systemic inflammation in ALF. ALF patients/animals also have high levels of circulating histones, which might be the major mediators of systemic inflammation in patients with ALF. Extracellular histones kill endothelial cells and elicit immunostimulatory effect to induce multiple organ injuries. Neutralization of histones can attenuate acute liver, lung, and brain injuries. In conclusion, HMGB1 and histones play a significant role in inducing systemic inflammation and MOF in ALF.

  13. HMGB1 and Extracellular Histones Significantly Contribute to Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Failure in Acute Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT. BT triggers/induces systemic inflammatory responses syndrome (SIRS, which can lead to MOF in ALF. Blockade of HMGB1 significantly decreases BT and improves hepatocyte regeneration in experimental acute fatal liver injury. Therefore, HMGB1 seems to be an important factor that links BT and systemic inflammation in ALF. ALF patients/animals also have high levels of circulating histones, which might be the major mediators of systemic inflammation in patients with ALF. Extracellular histones kill endothelial cells and elicit immunostimulatory effect to induce multiple organ injuries. Neutralization of histones can attenuate acute liver, lung, and brain injuries. In conclusion, HMGB1 and histones play a significant role in inducing systemic inflammation and MOF in ALF.

  14. Do health care workforce, population, and service provision significantly contribute to the total health expenditure? An econometric analysis of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, M; Vasic, V; Terzic-Supic, Z

    2016-08-15

    In times of austerity, the availability of econometric health knowledge assists policy-makers in understanding and balancing health expenditure with health care plans within fiscal constraints. The objective of this study is to explore whether the health workforce supply of the public health care sector, population number, and utilization of inpatient care significantly contribute to total health expenditure. The dependent variable is the total health expenditure (THE) in Serbia from the years 2003 to 2011. The independent variables are the number of health workers employed in the public health care sector, population number, and inpatient care discharges per 100 population. The statistical analyses include the quadratic interpolation method, natural logarithm and differentiation, and multiple linear regression analyses. The level of significance is set at P Total health expenditure increased by 1.21 standard deviations, with an increase in health workforce growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Furthermore, this rate decreased by 1.12 standard deviations, with an increase in (negative) population growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Finally, the growth rate increased by 0.38 standard deviation, with an increase of the growth rate of inpatient care discharges per 100 population by 1 standard deviation (P < 0.001). Study results demonstrate that the government has been making an effort to control strongly health budget growth. Exploring causality relationships between health expenditure and health workforce is important for countries that are trying to consolidate their public health finances and achieve universal health coverage at the same time.

  15. The varied contribution of significant others to Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) uptake by men with cancer: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, Nadja; Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-06-01

    To explore how men's Significant Others (SOs), including family members and close friends, contribute to the uptake and maintenance of specific CAM therapies. This study was the second, qualitative phase of a mixed-methods project investigating the use of CAM in an Australian male cancer population. Male participants were purposefully selected from a pool of 403 patients who answered a survey in the first quantitative phase (94% response rate and 86% consent rate for follow-up interview). Then semi-structured interviews among 26 men with a variety of cancers and 24 SOs were conducted. All 43 interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Men used CAM/Natural products to cope with physical concerns, and this was actively supported by men's SOs who contributed to the uptake and maintenance of these CAMs. The shared CAM preparation and consumption functioned to strengthen the bond between men and their SOs, and also helped men's SOs to cope with uncertainty and regain control. In contrast, men practiced CAM/Mind-body medicine to receive emotional benefits, and only rarely shared this practice with their SOs, indicating a need for coping with emotions in a private way. Men's CAM use is a multifaceted process that can be better understood by considering CAM categories separately. CAM/Natural products help men to cope with physical concerns, while CAM/Mind-body medicine assist men to cope with their emotions in a private way. Oncology professionals can use this information to better promote and implement integrative cancer care services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climatic fluctuations as a significant contributing factor for volcanic collapses. Evidence from Mexico during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Bernal-Uruchurtu, J. P.; Carrasco, G.

    2013-05-01

    Climate oscillations have significantly contributed to the planet's evolution, including volcanic activity. Major glaciations have been considered not only as a triggering mechanism for large magmatic eruptions but also inducing volcano instability. Generally, volcano instability can be inferred from detailed volcanological and structural studies of a volcano and its associated depositional sequence, but the triggering mechanism has been always difficult to infer. In this paper, we present evidence of how climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene could have forced sector collapses of the main Mexican stratovolcanoes and enhanced the mobility of associated massive flows inducing the transformation of debris avalanche into debris flows. In particular, the climatic record based on atmospheric moisture content from robustly dated lake record from Guatemala and a U/Th dated speleothem from New Mexico are used here as indicators of summer and winter precipitation. Depositional sequences associated with Late Pleistocene sector collapses of Volcan de Colima, Nevado de Toluca, Citlaltepetl (Pico de Orizaba) and Cofre de Perote volcanoes are here analyzed. Comparing the timing of the event with the climatic record, a combination of summer and/or winter pluvial conditions could have forced and triggered the failure of already unstable volcanoes, even during glacier advances (as for the Citlaltepetl event). Independently of the main cause of the volcano instability (magmatic or tectonic) it is important to highlight that the climatic factor played an important role in enhancing the volcano instability and promoted the lateral transformation of debris avalanches, which under dry conditions would have affected more limited areas.

  17. Metagenome-based diversity analyses suggest a significant contribution of non-cyanobacterial lineages to carbonate precipitation in modern microbialites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificacion eLopez-Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are thought to play a key role in carbonate formation due to their metabolic activity, but other organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthetic eukaryotes or other metabolisms (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, sulfate reduction, may also contribute to carbonate formation. To obtain more quantitative information than that provided by more classical PCR-dependent methods, we studied the microbial diversity of microbialites from the Alchichica crater lake (Mexico by mining for 16S/18S rRNA genes in metagenomes obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA. We studied samples collected at the Western (AL-W and Northern (AL-N shores of the lake and, at the latter site, along a depth gradient (1, 5, 10 and 15 m depth. The associated microbial communities were mainly composed of bacteria, most of which seemed heterotrophic, whereas archaea were negligible. Eukaryotes composed a relatively minor fraction dominated by photosynthetic lineages, diatoms in AL-W, influenced by Si-rich seepage waters, and green algae in AL-N samples. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial taxa, followed by Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. Community composition varied among sites and with depth. Although cyanobacteria were the most important bacterial group contributing to the carbonate precipitation potential, photosynthetic eukaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthesizers and sulfate reducers were also very abundant. Cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales largely increased with depth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations showed considerable areas of aragonite-encrusted Pleurocapsa-like cyanobacteria at microscale. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a strong positive correlation of Pleurocapsales and Chroococcales with aragonite formation at

  18. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis contributes significantly to establishment of a bioenergetically favorable environment for vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Greseth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and β-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis. Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial β-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia

  19. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis contributes significantly to establishment of a bioenergetically favorable environment for vaccinia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greseth, Matthew D; Traktman, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and β-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis). Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial β-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis) that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia infection, and in

  20. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity offaster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.

  1. Dermal exposure to jet fuel JP-8 significantly contributes to the production of urinary naphthols in fuel-cell maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chun E; Kupper, Lawrence L; Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P; Rappaport, Stephen M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-02-01

    Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major jet fuel used worldwide and has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure, both inhalation and dermal, for fuel-cell maintenance workers. We investigated the contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8 to the total body dose of U.S. Air Force fuel-cell maintenance workers using naphthalene as a surrogate for JP-8 exposure. Dermal, breathing zone, and exhaled breath measurements of naphthalene were obtained using tape-strip sampling, passive monitoring, and glass bulbs, respectively. Levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols were determined in urine samples and used as biomarkers of JP-8 exposure. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relative contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8, and demographic and work-related covariates, to the levels of urinary naphthols. Our results show that both inhalation exposure and smoking significantly contributed to urinary 1-naphthol levels. The contribution of dermal exposure was significantly associated with levels of urinary 2-naphthol but not with urinary 1-naphthol among fuel-cell maintenance workers who wore supplied-air respirators. We conclude that dermal exposure to JP-8 significantly contributes to the systemic dose and affects the levels of urinary naphthalene metabolites. Future work on dermal xenobiotic metabolism and toxicokinetic studies are warranted in order to gain additional knowledge on naphthalene metabolism in the skin and the contribution to systemic exposure.

  2. Identifying significant factors which can contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Breilid; Eva Dyrnes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study deals with young people receiving special needs education in schools and their transition to lasting employment in private or public sector. Through a qualitative approach, the article aims at “identifying significant factors which can, contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs”Theoretical approach: The theoretical approach of this article is descriptions and interpretation of the Norw...

  3. Identifying significant factors which can contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Breilid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study deals with young people receiving special needs education in schools and their transition to lasting employment in private or public sector. Through a qualitative approach, the article aims at “identifying significant factors which can, contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs”Theoretical approach: The theoretical approach of this article is descriptions and interpretation of the Norwegian educational legislation and the theory of «empowerment». These theoretical perspectives will be included in the empirical discussion. Method: The methodological approach is qualitative. Through four semi-structured interviews of young informants who have completed upper secondary school in a vocational education program, and have had a minimum of one-year training in an enterprise. Thematic analysis of the data is conducted with the application of NVivo 11, a computer program that is suitable for qualitative data-analysis and mixed research methods.Results and discussion: Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three significant factors contributing to successful transitions from school to lasting employment:      a Application and development of the pupil’s competence - mastery and meaning      b The significance of relations, communication and well-functioning socio-ecological          networks      c The importance of pupil participation and involvement in decision making

  4. The (InSignificance of Socio-Demographic Factors as Possible Determinants of Vietnamese Social Scientists’ Contribution-Adjusted Productivity: Preliminary Results from 2008–2017 Scopus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu-Trang Vuong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As collaboration has become widespread in academia, and the number of authors per article has increased, the publication count is no longer an accurate indicator of scientific output in many cases. To overcome this limitation, this study defined and computed a relative count of publications called ‘CP’ (credit-based contribution points, based on the sequence-determines-credit (SDC method, which takes into account the level of contribution of each author. Analyses were done on a sample of 410 Vietnamese social scientists whose publications were indexed in the Scopus database during 2008–2017. The results showed that the average CP of Vietnamese researchers in the field of social sciences and humanities is very low: more than 88% of authors have a CP less than five over a span 10 years. Researchers with a higher CP were mostly 40–50 years old; however, even for this sub-group, the mean CP was only 3.07. Multiple attributes of first-authorship—including knowledge, research skills, and critical thinking—could boost the CP by a ratio of 1:1.06. There is no evidence of gender differences in productivity, however, there is a regional difference. These findings offer significant insights into the education system in regard to science and technology, namely policy implications for science funding and management strategies for research funds.

  5. Economic and safe operation of isolated systems with significant contribution from renewable energy sources; Operacao economica e segura de sistemas isolados com grande penetracao de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, M.A. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Vlachos, A; Androutsos, A. [NTUA, Atenas (Greece); Bakirtzis, T. [AUTH, Salonica (Greece); Gigantidou, A. [DEI, Heraklio (Greece). E-mail: mmatos@inescn.pt; avlachos@power.ece.ntua.gr; bakiana@eng.auth.gr; deh_kkf@iraklio.netor.gr

    1999-07-01

    Medium and large size isolated systems with a significant contribution from renewable energy sources, specifically eolic energy, are not conveniently operated at the present, neither by the conventional ways of unit commitment/load dispatcher nor by the simplified procedures used in the small isolated power networks. This paper presents a new approaching, in the CARE framework which is financially supported by the European Union through the EEN-JOULE assistance program. The principal idea is to perform unit commitment on-line in the same dispatching cycle, by using the load forecasting and the more recent wind power. The process includes dynamic safety fast evaluation and a module for helping the decision making.

  6. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Crown

    Full Text Available The branched chain amino acids (BCAA valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0 and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA.

  7. Neuraminidase-1 contributes significantly to the degradation of neuronal B-series gangliosides but not to the bypass of the catabolic block in Tay–Sachs mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.K. Timur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tay–Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the HEXA gene coding for α subunit of lysosomal β-Hexosaminidase A enzyme, which converts GM2 to GM3 ganglioside. HexA−/− mice, depleted of the β-Hexosaminidase A iso-enzyme, remain asymptomatic up to 1 year of age because of a metabolic bypass by neuraminidase(s. These enzymes remove a sialic acid residue converting GM2 to GA2, which is further degraded by the still intact β-Hexosaminidase B iso-enzyme into lactosylceramide. A previously identified ganglioside metabolizing neuraminidase, Neu4, is abundantly expressed in the mouse brain and has activity against gangliosides like GM2 in vitro. Neu4−/− mice showed increased GD1a and decreased GM1 ganglioside in the brain suggesting the importance of the Neu4 in ganglioside catabolism. Mice with targeted disruption of both HexA and Neu4 genes showed accumulating GM2 ganglioside and epileptic seizures with 40% penetrance, indicating that the neuraminidase Neu4 is a modulatory gene, but may not be the only neuraminidase contributing to the metabolic bypass in HexA−/− mice. Therefore, we elucidated the biological role of neuraminidase-1 in ganglioside degradation in mouse. Analysis of HexA−/−Neu1−/− and HexA−/−Neu4−/−Neu1−/− mice models showed significant contribution of neuraminidase-1 on B-series ganglioside degradation in the brain. Therefore, we speculate that other neuraminidase/neuraminidases such as Neu2 and/or Neu3 might be also involved in the ganglioside degradation pathway in HexA−/− mice.

  8. Contribution and significance of Heidelberg retinal tomography II in diagnostics of ocular hypertension and its conversion into primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vujica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A term 'ocular hypertension' is used when IOP is found to be > 21 mmHg on two consecutive occasions, in the absence of detectable glaucomatous damage. The aim of this study was to determine the significance and contribution of Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II (HRT II results that show very early, subtle changes in retinal neurofibre layers (RNFL in the optic nerve head that are specific for glaucoma itself (the loss of neuroretinal rim area and an increase of Cup/Disc ratio, but are not possible to register by an ophthalmoscope. Also, when the results of the functional tests remain unchanged, that confirms the conversion of ocular hypertension into glaucoma. Methods. During a 5-year study period (2002-2007, 29 patients with ocular hypertension were examined. The frequency of control examinations, based on the presence of risk factors for glaucoma development, was 3-6 months. The examination also included IOP measurements with Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT, central corneal thickness (CCT determination by pachymetry, the examination of chamber angle using indirect gonioscopy, visual field tests by computerized perimetry and also papillae nervi optici (PNO examination by using HRT II. The application of HRT II enables a great number of stereometric parameters of optic disc, the most important being the rim area and Cup/Disc (C/D ratio, which was followed during the control examination by each segment, as well as PNO in global. Results. In the examination period, three cases of conversion of ocular hypertension into a primary open-angle glaucoma were found. In the group of patients with ocular hypertension, HRT II results after six months did not show a significant increase in C/D ratio. No significant loss of rim area or rim volume was found either. In three cases of conversion, HRT II results after 3 months showed an increase of C/D ratio and also a significant loss in rim volume at first examination (0.413 comparing to the

  9. Sediment contribution from coastal-cliff erosion into the Nile's littoral cell and its significance to cliff-retreat mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Mushkin, Amit; Crouvi, Onn; Alter, Samuel; Shemesh, Ran

    2017-04-01

    In 2013 the government of Israel initiated a national mitigation program aimed to prevent further collapse and retreat of the country's coastal cliffs, which occur along the northern termination of the Niles's littoral cell (NLC) in the eastern Mediterranean. The goals of this large-scale program are to protect infrastructure and property proximal to the cliff and to conduct long-term maintenance and monitoring of this highly dynamic and sensitive land-sea interface that spans 40 km of Israel's coast line. Here, we examine the possible impact of proposed cliff retreat mitigation efforts on long-shore sediment transport (LST) and coastal dynamics in the region. We used airborne LiDAR spanning a 9-year period between 2006 and 2015 to quantify the annual contribution of sediment eroded from a 20-km-long segment of Israel's coastal cliffs into the NLC. Our measurements reveal 282±85*103 m3 of sediment eroded from the cliff and delivered into the NLC during the studied period. Considering our study area comprises 50% of Israel's sea cliffs we infer an average contribution rate of 30,000-60,000 m^3/yr of cliff-derived sediment into the NLC prior to the planned broad-scale implementation of cliff-retreat mitigation measures. Previous studies report an average net LST flux of 80,000 - 90,000 m3 that reaches the northern termination of the NLC at Haifa Bay annually. Thus, our results suggest that Israel's actively eroding coastal cliffs are primary contributors (40-80%) to the LST budget along the northern termination of the NLC. It therefore appears that successful implementation of the coastal-cliff protection program along Israel's coastline will result in a significant sand deficit, which may drive LST in this part of the NLC out of its 'background' state. In the likely case that the energy/currents driving LST do not change, a possible outcome of this sediment deficit could be increased beach erosion along Israel's coast line to make up for the lost volumes of cliff

  10. Manual blood exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals with imported severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter, Annemarie R.; Melo, Mariana de Mendonça; de Vries, Peter J.; Koelewijn, Rob; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange transfusion (ET) has remained a controversial adjunct therapy for the treatment of severe malaria. In order to assess the relative contribution of ET to parasite clearance in severe malaria, all patients receiving ET as an adjunct treatment to parenteral quinine or to artesunate were

  11. Manual blood exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals with imported severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Kreeftmeijer-Vegter (Annemarie); M.M. de Melo (Mariana ); P.J. de Vries (Peter); R. Koelewijn (Rob); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Exchange transfusion (ET) has remained a controversial adjunct therapy for the treatment of severe malaria. In order to assess the relative contribution of ET to parasite clearance in severe malaria, all patients receiving ET as an adjunct treatment to parenteral quinine or

  12. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  13. Dermal Exposure to Jet Fuel JP-8 Significantly Contributes to the Production of Urinary Naphthols in Fuel-Cell Maintenance Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Yi-Chun E.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2005-01-01

    Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major jet fuel used worldwide and has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure, both inhalation and dermal, for fuel-cell maintenance workers. We investigated the contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8 to the total body dose of U.S. Air Force fuel-cell maintenance workers using naphthalene as a surrogate for JP-8 exposure. Dermal, breathing zone, and exhaled breath measurements of naphthalene were obtained using tape-strip sam...

  14. Significance of out-of-plane electronic contributions in Bi-cuprates studied by resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Cu2p edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Christoph; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2018-04-01

    In high-temperature superconductors with a layered crystal structure, the copper-oxygen planes are commonly considered to dominate the electronic properties around the Fermi energy. As a consequence, out-of-plane contributions are often neglected in the description of these materials. Here we report on a resonant photoemission study of Pb0,4Bi1,6Sr2,0CaCu2O8 ((Pb, Bi)-2212) and Pb0,6Bi1,4Sr1.5La0.5CuO6 ((Pb, Bi)-2201)) single crystals to unravel the resonant decay mechanisms at the Cu2p absorption edge. We find evidence for a pronounced polarization dependence caused by two different Auger processes for in-plane and out-of-plane orientations. We deduce that the lowest energy valence state—which is involved in the two Auger processes—consists of three-dimensional contributions by admixed out-of-plane Sr, Bi, and O2p states. It also suggests that the doping-induced charge density is dynamic, fluctuating within the Cu-O plane, and spills out perpendicular to it. This suggests that out-of-plane electronic degrees of freedom should be included in future consistent theoretical models of these materials.

  15. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  16. Significant contribution of the 3′→5′ exonuclease activity to the high fidelity of nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by human DNA polymerase ϵ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahurancik, Walter J.; Klein, Seth J.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    Most eukaryotic DNA replication is performed by A- and B-family DNA polymerases which possess a faithful polymerase activity that preferentially incorporates correct over incorrect nucleotides. Additionally, many replicative polymerases have an efficient 3′→5′ exonuclease activity that excises misincorporated nucleotides. Together, these activities contribute to overall low polymerase error frequency (one error per 106–108 incorporations) and support faithful eukaryotic genome replication. Eukaryotic DNA polymerase ϵ (Polϵ) is one of three main replicative DNA polymerases for nuclear genomic replication and is responsible for leading strand synthesis. Here, we employed pre-steady-state kinetic methods and determined the overall fidelity of human Polϵ (hPolϵ) by measuring the individual contributions of its polymerase and 3′→5′ exonuclease activities. The polymerase activity of hPolϵ has a high base substitution fidelity (10−4–10−7) resulting from large decreases in both nucleotide incorporation rate constants and ground-state binding affinities for incorrect relative to correct nucleotides. The 3′→5′ exonuclease activity of hPolϵ further enhances polymerization fidelity by an unprecedented 3.5 × 102 to 1.2 × 104-fold. The resulting overall fidelity of hPolϵ (10−6–10−11) justifies hPolϵ to be a primary enzyme to replicate human nuclear genome (0.1–1.0 error per round). Consistently, somatic mutations in hPolϵ, which decrease its exonuclease activity, are connected with mutator phenotypes and cancer formation. PMID:25414327

  17. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  18. U.S. contribution of section A.3. The significance of long-term supply and energy sufficiency prospects offered by fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Costs involved in breeder deployment are identified and analyzed, i.e., high breeder capital costs, fuel cycle costs, research and development costs and discount rates. It is pointed out that while there are potential benefits to be derived from future application of fast breeders, there are also significant costs and other factors requiring consideration. Careful country-specific analyses are needed. Such analyses may conclude for example that although breeders could become economical in less highly industrialized nations, such nations may find it more economical and practical to purchase reprocessing services from existing large commercial size plants rather than deploy their own small scale reprocessing plants

  19. Contribution of the ELFG test in algorithms of non-invasive markers towards the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Zarski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine the best algorithms for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients using all available parameters and tests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the database from our study of 507 patients with histologically proven CHC in which fibrosis was evaluated by liver biopsy (Metavir and tests: Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore®, Apri, ELFG, MP3, Forn's, hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1, MMP1, collagen IV and when possible Fibroscan™. For the first test we used 90% negative predictive value to exclude patients with F≤1, next an induction algorithm was applied giving the best tests with at least 80% positive predictive value for the diagnosis of F≥2. The algorithms were computed using the R Software C4.5 program to select the best tests and cut-offs. The algorithm was automatically induced without premises on the part of the investigators. We also examined the inter-observer variations after independent review of liver biopsies by two pathologists. A medico-economic analysis compared the screening strategies with liver biopsy. RESULTS: In "intention to diagnose" the best algorithms for F≥2 were Fibrometer ®, Fibrotest®, or Hepascore® in first intention with the ELFG score in second intention for indeterminate cases. The percentage of avoided biopsies varied between 50% (Fibrotest® or Fibrometer®+ELFG and 51% (Hepascore®+ELFG. In "per-analysis" Fibroscan™+ELFG avoided liver biopsy in 55% of cases. The diagnostic performance of these screening strategies was statistically superior to the usual combinations (Fibrometer® or Fibrotest®+Fibroscan™ and was cost effective. We note that the consensual review of liver biopsies between the two pathologists was mainly in favor of F1 (64-69%. CONCLUSION: The ELFG test could replace Fibroscan in most currently used algorithms for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis including for those patients

  20. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  1. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  2. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  3. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  5. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  6. Significant contributing causes of cancer deaths among Hispanics in Colorado, USA, 1983-1992 Causas que contribuem para óbitos por câncer em latinos no Colorado, EUA, 1983-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Sweitzer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer deaths in the state of Colorado, U.S.A., totaled 53,921 between 1983 and 1992. Death certificates for this period were used to evaluate Hispanic cancer deaths by contributing causes of death and primary occupation of the decedent. The relative risks for diabetes and liver disease as contributing causes of death were significantly higher among Hispanics when compared to non-Hispanics who had also died of cancer (RR for diabetes = 1.90; 95% C.I. (1.64,2.19 and RR for liver disease = 1.44; 95% C.I. (1.23,1.68. Hispanics who had died of cancer were significantly less likely to have drug abuse as a contributing cause of death when compared to non-Hispanics (RR for drug abuse = 0.69; 95% C.I. (0.52,0.91. Laborers, service workers, and clerical workers who were Hispanic, were significantly more likely to die of cancer with either diabetes or liver disease as a contributing cause of death than were non-Hispanics in the same occupational category (pEntre 1983 e 1997, ocorreram 53.921 óbitos por câncer no Estado do Colorado, EUA. Os atestados de óbito para este período foram utilizados para avaliar as causas que contribuíram para a morte e a ocupação principal dos óbitos por câncer ocorridos em latinos neste período. Os riscos relativos para diabetes e doença hepática como causas associadas ao óbito foram significativamente maiores em latinos, comparativamente com não latinos que também faleceram com câncer (diabetes RR = 1,90; I.C. 95% 1,64-2,19; doença hepática RR = 1,44; I.C. 95% 1,23-1,68. O consumo de drogas como causa associada à morte entre latinos que faleceram por câncer aparentou ser significativamente menor que em não latinos (RR = 0,69; I.C. 95% 0,52-0,91. Operários, servidores públicos e trabalhadores de escritório de origem latina tenderam a apresentar diabetes e doença hepática como causas associadas à morte por câncer em maior freqüência, estatisticamente significativa, que não latinos nos mesmos ramos

  7. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  8. Customization: Ideal Varieties, Product Uniqueness and Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang

    2009-01-01

    We study customization in the Hotelling model with two firms. In addition to providing ideal varieties, the perceived uniqueness of a customized product contributes independently to consumer utility. We show that only when consumer preferences for uniqueness are high customization occurs in equilibrium.

  9. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  10. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  11. Unique prediction of cannabis use severity and behaviors by delay discounting and behavioral economic demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n=64) and controls (n=72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol and cannabis delay discounting and demand. Cannabis users and controls did not differ on monetary delay discounting or alcohol delay discounting and demand. Among cannabis users, regression analyses indicated that cannabis delay discounting uniquely predicted use severity, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency and quantity. These effects remained significant after controlling for other delay discounting and demand measures. This research replicates previous outcomes relating delay discounting and demand with cannabis use and extends them by accounting for the contribution of multiple commodities. This research also demonstrates the ability of online crowdsourcing methods to complement traditional human laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  13. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  14. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  15. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  16. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  17. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  18. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  19. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although karst aquifers constitute some of the most important water resources worldwide, generally accepted methods for reliably characterising their hydraulic properties are still elusive. This paper aims at contributing to the discussion by a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data derived from ...

  20. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  2. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  3. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  4. Uniquely positioned for future success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, D.

    2001-01-01

    The author began this presentation by giving a corporate profile of PanCanadian, discussing its evolution over time to it being spun-off of PanCanadian Petroleum Limited from Canadian Pacific to form PanCanadian Energy Corporation in 2001. The worldwide activities were mentioned. PanCanadian Petroleum Limited is one of the country's largest producers, experiencing emerging international exploration success, and marketing energy throughout North America. It is also a company that is financially strong. PanCanadian is involved in natural gas, crude, natural gas liquids, and power. An outline of PanCanadian Energy Services was provided, along with its strategic positioning. The next section of the presentation focused on Nova Scotia natural gas, beginning with a map displaying the Eastern Canada development. The focus shifted to the Deep Panuke field, where exploration began in early 1999. PanCanadian holds 20 per cent of the Scotian Shelf. The industry activity offshore Nova Scotia began with the first well in 1967, and to date 178 wells have been drilled, of which 106 were exploration wells. There have been 21 significant discoveries. Production in the Deep Panuke is expected to begin during the first quarter of 2005. The various approval agencies were listed. With large interests held in the offshore Nova Scotia and extensive exploration plans, PanCanadian opportunity in Eastern Canada, New England and the Mid-Atlantic markets has greatly increased. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Enamel apatite crystallinity significantly contributes to mammalian dental adaptations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kallistová, Anna; Skála, Roman; Šlouf, Miroslav; Čejchan, Petr; Matulková, I.; Horáček, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, APR 3 2018 (2018), č. článku 5544. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : tooth enamel * mechanical -properties * electron-microscopy * diffraction * teeth * size * morphology * behavior * minipig * pattern Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Other biological topics; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Requirements to nuclear power to significantly contribute to decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipper, Reinhard [Forschungs- und Technologieberatung Zipper (FTBZ), Haan (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    By the end of the UN Climate Conference 2015 in Paris all members agreed to take action with the goal to limit climate warming to less than 2 C compared to pre-industrial status. CO{sub 2} emissions are supposed to be the main driver of climate change. This implies that all kinds of energy supply must be reengineered to avoid deployment of fossil fuels as far as practicable. Nuclear energy has a minimal CO{sub 2} footprint and with the ability to flexibly adjust to the individual demands of supply regions it may be favored to play a major role in decarbonization. However, on this path some principal obstacles must be removed to gain general public, policy and industry acceptance.

  7. Editorial Prof Lundgren's significant contribution to SAJAA and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low- to middle-income countries,8 and as such, is considered a core component of health.6. Unfortunately, Africa and the ... 40% of global surgery occurs in poor- to middle-income countries.2 As anaesthetists in Africa, we need to focus ... sciences and related medical fields. ASSAf [homepage on the Internet]. 2014. c2015.

  8. What Makes Your Writing Style Unique? Significant Differences Between Two Famous Romanian Orators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Gifu, Daniela; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel, in-depth approach of analyzing the differences in writing style between two famous Romanian orators, based on automated textual complexity indices for Romanian language. The considered authors are: (a) Mihai Eminescu, Romania’s national poet and a

  9. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  10. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  13. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  14. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  15. Peatlands as a unique climatic hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blazejczyk, K.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are unique environments, often acting as microrefugia of various taxa. High groundwater table, organic soils, specific vegetation and topography are important determinants of their local climatic conditions. However, relations between those determinants are not stable. For example, seasonal changes in weather patterns, hydrological dynamics, and local vegetation may alter microclimate. Additionally, long-term changes are important factor, as for example overgrowing due to significant change of microclimate conditions, what in turn changes geochemical and biological processes in the peat layer. We have been investigating interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of a small Sphagnum mire (ca. 6.0 ha) for over ten years now. The mire is located in Poland in transitional temperate climate and is the only place in polish lowlands where glacial relict Betula nana occurs. Identification of local climate of the mire, its microclimatic differentiation and its influence on surroundings were objectives of the study. We recorded water level fluctuations, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and humidity, and peat temperature at five monitoring plots at the mire and observed significant differences between them. We also investigated Sphagnum mosses growth and testate amoeba diversity and community structure to understand biological response of those differences. We observed that local climate of the mire was significantly different from open area reference place, it was much colder especially during nights. The average minimal temperature at the height 30 cm for growing seasons 2010-2012 was 3.7oC lower there and ground frosts occurred even in the summer. The climate of the mire affected the forest directly adjacent to it, and depending on weather conditions the strength and the distance of this interaction was different. Our results show that micro-environmental changes affects on biological processes and should be taken into consideration

  16. TDRSS S-shuttle unique receiver equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A.; Schwartz, J. J.; Spearing, R.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with STS-9, the Tracking and Date Relay Satellite system (TDRSS) will start providing S- and Ku-band communications and tracking support to the Space Shuttle and its payloads. The most significant element of this support takes place at the TDRSS White Sands Ground Terminal, which processes the Shuttle return link S- and Ku-band signals. While Ku-band hardware available to other TDRSS users is also applied to Ku-Shuttle, stringent S-Shuttle link margins have precluded the application of the standard TDRSS S-band processing equipment to S-Shuttle. It was therfore found necessary to develop a unique S-Shuttle Receiver that embodies state-of-the-art digital technology and processing techniques. This receiver, developed by Motorola, Inc., enhances link margins by 1.5 dB relative to the standard S-band equipment and its bit error rate performance is within a few tenths of a dB of theory. An overview description of the Space Shuttle Receiver Equipment (SSRE) is presented which includes the presentation of block diagrams and salient design features. Selected, measured performance results are also presented.

  17. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  18. Various Contributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Various Contributions. Developed an Off –Diagonal MIMO Canceller to mitigate Upstream Crosstalk in VDSL. Developed a low complexity, Expectation Maximization based iterative Crosstalk cancellation. Developed an optimal way of computational complexity ...

  19. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  20. The significance of relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Kate

    2017-12-01

    Understanding individual energy use can inform interventions for energy conservation. A longitudinal qualitative interview study shows that energy use behaviour is not simply a matter of individual choice, but rather is influenced by unique personal circumstances and familial and social relationships, which change over time.

  1. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  2. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  3. Kerala: a unique model of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K P; Thankappan, K R; Ramankutty, V; Aravindan, K P

    1991-12-01

    This article capsules health in terms of morbidity, mortality, and maternal and child health; sex ratios, and population density in Kerala state in India from a more expanded report. Kerala state is known for its highly literate and female literate, and poor income population, but its well advanced state of demographic transition. There is a declining population growth rate, a high average marriage age, a low fertility rate, and a high degree of population mobility. One of the unique features of Kerala is the high female literacy, and the favorable position of women in decision making and a matrilineal inheritance mode. The rights of the poor and underprivileged have been upheld. The largest part of government revenue is spent on education followed by health. Traditional healing systems such the ayurveda are strong in Kerala, and Christian missionaries have contributed to a caring tradition. Morbidity is high and mortality is low because medical interventions have affected morality only. The reduction of poverty and environmentally related diseases has not been accomplished inspite of land reform, mass schooling, and general egalitarian policies. Mortality declines and a decline in birth rates have lead to a more adult and aged population, which increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically, the death rate in Kerala was always lower (25/1000 in 1930 and 6.4 in 1986). The gains in mortality were made in reducing infant mortality (27/1000), which is 4 times less than India as a whole and comparable to Korea, Panama, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Lower female mortality occurs in the 0-4 years. Life expectancy which was the same as India's in 1930 is currently 12 years higher than India's. Females have a higher expectation of life. The sex ratio in 1981 was 1032 compared to India's of 935. Kerala had almost replacement level in 1985. The crude birth rate is 21 versus 32 for India. In addition to the decline in death rates of those 5

  4. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  5. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  6. Increasing Need for Uniqueness in Contemporary China: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Cai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research has documented various cultural and psychological changes in contemporary China. In two studies, we examine how Chinese people’s need for uniqueness (NFU also has changed. In Study 1, we found a significant cross-generational increase in Chinese participants’ self-reported NFU. In Study 2, we sampled the names of Chinese newborn babies over the last five decades and found that parents have been increasingly likely to use unique characters to name their children. These findings suggest that the NFU has been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings were discussed.

  7. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  8. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004 http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jca/jca11/jca0386.pdf

  9. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  10. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  11. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  12. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  13. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation

  14. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  15. The Significance of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    and Weber. It does so by situating Durkheim and Weber in the context of Neo-Kantian philosophy, which prevailed among their contemporaries, and the chapter thereby reveals a series of under-thematised similarities not only with regard to their methodological positions, but also in their conception of social...... of social theory. In pursuing this overall research agenda, the dissertation contributes to a number of specific research literatures. Following two introductory and methodological chapters, Chapter 3 thus critically examines the analysis of normativity suggested in the recent attempts at transforming...... the methods of neo-classical economics into a broader form of social theory. The chapter thereby contributes to the critical discourses, particularly in philosophy of science, that challenge the validity of neo-classical economics and its underlying conception of practical rationality. In examining...

  16. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  17. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  18. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  19. The unique relationship between fear of cognitive dyscontrol and self-reports of problematic drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2005-03-01

    Research has established positive associations between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic drinking in clinical samples. The present study confirmed this relationship in a nonclinical sample (N=162) and investigated which AS dimension best predicts self-reports of problematic drinking. Only one AS facet, fear of cognitive dyscontrol (FCC), was associated with symptoms of alcohol dependence, severity of drinking problems, and alcohol-related expectations of global, positive changes, sexual enhancement, and tension reduction. The possible role of depression in these relationships was also evaluated. A series of hierarchical regressions revealed that, when trait anxiety, anxious arousal, and anxious apprehension were statistically removed, depression did not contribute significant variance beyond the effects of FMC and other anxiety measures. Results suggest that FCC is uniquely associated with self-reports of problematic drinking behaviors and attitudes. Implications for tension-reduction models of alcohol are discussed.

  20. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts the salience of a visual score.

  1. Processing Speed and Intelligence as Predictors of School Achievement: Mediation or Unique Contribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonova, Yulia A.; Dodonov, Yury S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between processing speed, intelligence, and school achievement were analyzed on a sample of 184 Russian 16-year-old students. Two speeded tasks required the discrimination of simple geometrical shapes and the recognition of the presented meaningless figures. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and the verbal subtests of…

  2. Unique Contributions of Maternal Reading Proficiency to Predicting Children's Preschool Receptive Vocabulary and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…

  3. Overlap and Uniqueness: Linguistic Componential Traits Contributing to Expressive Skills in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Hye K.; O'Brien, Beth

    2018-01-01

    This study identified robust predictors of expressive skills in academic English as a foreign language. The participants were 92 Korean-speaking learners of English. The field test of the Pearson Test of English Academic was used as a secondary data analysis. Four communicative skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and six enabling…

  4. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  5. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  6. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  7. Identifying the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers in Scotland by utilising Porter’s generic competitive strategy model and the marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola O’HARE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El mismo texto del Independent retailers in the fashion sector make a substantial contribution to the UK economy at the time of significant change on the high street due to financial pressures and the growth of online trade. They provide an element of creativity and innovation to a homogenous retail landscape. The independent fashion retailer creates a destination and individual identity by presenting a unique offering and differentiated experience. Whilst independent retailers are important to the future of our high street, research is limited, particularly in the area of fashion independents. Therefore this research examines and identifies the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers within Scotland. The research adopts a case study approach, qualitative methods of data collection in order to fulfil the aim and objectives of the study. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies and the marketing mix were utilised as a means of drawing out the individual aspects and unique characteristics of the independent fashion retailer.

  8. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  9. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  10. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  11. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  12. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  13. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  14. Target Choice and Unique Synergies in Global Mobile Telephony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Köhler, Rebecca; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    their foresight to select specific targets: First, they lower integration costs by selecting geographically close targets. This effect is stronger when buyer and target are in the same country, but only if the market is not so concentrated that it provokes regulatory interventions. Second, they select targets......The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use...... that can be acquired at a modest bid premium because they have asymmetric bargaining power. Finally, they select targets which can generate significant synergies due to technological synergies. Our work expands the existing target selection literature by studying dyad-specific factors within a single...

  15. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  16. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  17. Young children's preference for unique owned objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S

    2016-10-01

    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Probably Relevant to the Uniqueness of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis and Its Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a popular beverage all over the world and a number of studies have focused on the genetic uniqueness of tea and its cultivars. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely undefined. In this report, based on expression data available from public databases, we performed a series of analyses to identify genes probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and two of its cultivars (LJ43 and ZH2. Evolutionary analyses showed that the evolutionary rates of genes involved in the pathways were not significantly different among C. sinensis, C. oleifera, and C. azalea. Interestingly, a number of gene families, including genes involved in the pathways synthesizing iconic secondary metabolites of tea plant, were significantly upregulated, expressed in C. sinensis (LJ43 when compared to C. azalea, and this may partially explain its higher content of flavonoid, theanine, and caffeine. Further investigation showed that nonsynonymous mutations may partially contribute to the differences between the two cultivars of C. sinensis, such as the chlorina and higher contents of amino acids in ZH2. Genes identified as candidates are probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and its cultivars should be good candidates for subsequent functional analyses and marker-assisted breeding.

  20. Steponas Kolupaila's contribution to hydrological science development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiuškevičius, Gintaras

    2017-08-01

    Steponas Kolupaila (1892-1964) was an important figure in 20th century hydrology and one of the pioneers of scientific water gauging in Europe. His research on the reliability of hydrological data and measurement methods was particularly important and contributed to the development of empirical hydrological calculation methods. Kolupaila was one of the first who standardised water-gauging methods internationally. He created several original hydrological and hydraulic calculation methods (his discharge assessment method for winter period was particularly significant). His innate abilities and frequent travel made Kolupaila a universal specialist in various fields and an active public figure. He revealed his multilayered scientific and cultural experiences in his most famous book, Bibliography of Hydrometry. This book introduced the unique European hydrological-measurement and computation methods to the community of world hydrologists at that time and allowed the development and adaptation of these methods across the world.

  1. The ILRS contribution to ITRF2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Luceri, V.; Sciarretta, C.; Kelm, R.

    2009-04-01

    Since over two decades, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data contribute to the definition of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Until the development of ITRF2000, the contributions were submitted in the form of a set of normal equations or a covariance matrix of station coordinates and their linear rates at a standard epoch. The development of ITRF2005 ushered a new era with the use of weekly or session contributions, allowing greater flexibility in the relative weighting and the combination of information from various techniques. Moreover, the need of a unique, official, representative solution for each Technique Service, based on the rigorous combination of the various Analysis Centers' contributions, gave the opportunity to all techniques to verify, as a first step, the intra-technique solution consistency and, immediately after, to engage in discussions and comparison of the internal procedures, leading to a harmonization and validation of these procedures and the adopted models in the inter-technique context. In many occasions, the time series approach joint with the intra- and inter-technique comparison steps also highlighted differences that previously went unnoticed, and corrected incompatibilities. During the past year we have been preparing the ILRS contribution to a second TRF developed in the same way, the ITRF2008. The ILRS approach is based strictly on the current IERS Conventions 2003 and our internal standards. The Unified Analysis Workshop in 2007 stressed a number of areas where each technique needed to focus more attention in future analyses. In the case of SLR, the primary areas of concern were tracking station biases, extending the data span used in the analysis, and target characteristics. The present re-analysis extends from 1983 to 2008, covering a 25-year period, the longest for any of the contributing techniques; although the network and data quality for the 1983-1993 period are significantly poorer than for the latter years, the overall

  2. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  3. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  4. Is physical space unique or optional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstein, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1975-02-01

    There are two concepts of the physical space-time. One, S(F), is that of a fixed arena in which events take place. The other S(D), is that of a space-time shaped by events. The second depends on the state (initial conditions) or on the external field, the first does not. The main assertions of the present paper are: 1) the fixed space-time S(F) is neither incompatibles with nor made superfluous, by Einstein's theory. S(F) is experimentally explorable, unique, and probably identical with Minkowski space M. 2) The dynamical space S(D) is largely optional. It can be chosen to be M, but the natural choice is Einstein's pseudo-Riemanian manifold [fr

  5. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  6. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  7. Unique computer system for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures

  8. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  9. The unique ethics of sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob

    2004-04-01

    The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices.

  10. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.

  11. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  12. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  13. A unique tripartite collision tumor of the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Moris, Demetrios; Baliou, Evangelia; Tsilimigras, Diamantis; Throupis, Theodore; Liakakos, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We report a unique case of a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of three separate histologic types. Patients concerns: Therapeutic dilemmas on the proper treatment of those rare neoplasms remain unanswered considering both proper surgical therapy and adjuvant therapy. Diagnose: In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of a small cell carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma of medium differentiation and a signet ring cell carcinoma. Diagnosis is difficult as clinical presentation of the patient was undistinguishable from other, commoner tumor types. Interventions: The patient's diagnostic and therapeutic course along with available data on the collisions tumor's biological behavior and treatment are briefly discussed. Outcomes: Esophagectomy is the best treatment options for these patients. Unique nature of this tumor demands aggresive oncologic treatment. Lessons: Collision tumors are rare neoplasms consisting of distinct cell populations developing in juxtaposition to one another without any areas of intermingling. Various cell types can be found. However, collision neoplasms of the esophagus combining adenomatous and neuroendocrine components are exceedingly rare, with only 5 cases described to date in the literature. Given their rarity, limited information is available on their tumorigenesis, biological behavior and clinical course. In general, these tumors are aggressive neoplasms and significantly affect patient treatment and prognosis. PMID:29245236

  14. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  15. Protostylid: As never reported before! A unique case with variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human jaw and teeth display a high degree of morphological individuality as they represent personal, familial, and population characteristics and one among them are cuspal variations. A protostylid is a supernumerary or accessory cusp located on the mesiobuccal surface of the mandibular molars that seldom pose problems. A forensic odontologist may find significant interest in its classification and identification among victims of mass causalties and bite marks on living and nonliving objects. The authors here are reporting a case of protostylid with a unique presentation which, to best of our knowledge is not reported so far.

  16. Environmental knowledge. Empirical contributions according to the significance of scientific knowledge in the scope of envionmental education exemplified at BIODIESEL as a fuel; Umweltwissen und oekologisches Handeln. Empirische Beitraege zur Bedeutung naturwissenschaftlicher Bildung im Rahmen der Umwelterziehung am Beispiel der Verwendung von BIODIESEL als Treibstoff fuer moderne Dieselkraftfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantke, Guenter

    2006-09-15

    The world-wide heating up of the atmosphere as well as the increasing violence and frequency of extreme weather events mainly are due to the emission of carbon dioxide. The emission of carbon dioxide is based on the power production by combustion of fossil sources of energy. The motor traffic causes a substantial portion of these emissions. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration examines, to what extent young people are sensitized to the relation between power generation by burning fossil sources of energy and the global climatic change and to ecological acting. In the context of the environment project 'Biodiesel as a pollution-free alternative to mineral diesel oil', 55 young people were informed about these relations and interviewed afterwards. After this project, a fifth of the young people transferred to economical diesel engined vehicles. A third of the young person wants to drive with biodiesel based on economic considerations. Young peoples only have a small amount of knowledge on these relations. Only those young people, who drive with biodiesel, are informed better significantly.

  17. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  18. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  19. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  20. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  3. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  4. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module's different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line

  5. Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  6. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  7. Hausdorff dimension of unique beta expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Derong; Li, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Given an integer N ⩾ 2 and a real number β > 1, let Γ β, N be the set of all x=∑ i=1 ∞ d i /β i with d i  ∈ {0, 1, ···, N − 1} for all i ⩾ 1. The infinite sequence (d i ) is called a β-expansion of x. Let U β,N be the set of all x's in Γ β,N which have unique β-expansions. We give explicit formula of the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for β in any admissible interval [β L , β U ], where β L is a purely Parry number while β U is a transcendental number whose quasi-greedy expansion of 1 is related to the classical Thue–Morse sequence. This allows us to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for almost every β > 1. In particular, this improves the main results of Gábor Kallós (1999, 2001). Moreover, we find that the dimension function f(β) = dim H U β,N fluctuates frequently for β ∈ (1, N). (paper)

  8. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  9. A Unique Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanabhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The North Dakota State University, USA, capstone course was developed as a unique model in response to the effort of the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology, USA, to streamline and improve design instruction in the curriculum and has steadily evolved to keep pace with the ever-changing technology and the expectations of the profession and the society we serve. A capstone design course by definition should be a design experience for students in the final year before graduation integrating all major design concepts they have learned up until then in the program. Carefully chosen real world projects with design content in all sub-disciplines of civil engineering are assigned in this team-taught course. Faculty and practicing professionals make presentations on design process; project management; leadership in an engineering environment; and public policy; global perspectives in engineering; and professional career and licensure. Practicing professionals also critique the final student presentations. Students work in teams with number of faculty serving as technical consultants, and a faculty mentor for each team to provide non-technical guidance and direction. The course requires students to demonstrate mastery of the curriculum and to work with others in a team environment. Course assessment includes evaluation of the final design, presentations, written technical reports, project design schedule, a project design journal, and reaction papers.

  10. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  14. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  15. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-02-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Médicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process.

  16. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  17. Uniqueness and nonuniqueness of the GNSS carrier-phase compass readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we analyse the possible nonuniqueness in the least-squares solution of the GNSS carrier-phase compass model. It is shown that this lack of uniqueness may manifest itself in the fixed baseline estimator and therefore in the GNSS compass readings. We present the conditions under

  18. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  19. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  20. A unique arsenic speciation profile in Elaphomyces spp. ('deer truffles')-trimethylarsine oxide and methylarsonous acid as significant arsenic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Borovička, Jan; Gössler, W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 410, č. 9 (2018), s. 2283-2290 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GF16-34839L Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : elaphomyces * fungi * deer truffles * arsenic speciation * trimethylarsine oxide * methylarsonous acid Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2016

  1. Two Galaxies for a Unique Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    To celebrate the 100 Hours of Astronomy, ESO is sharing two stunning images of unusual galaxies, both belonging to the Sculptor group of galaxies. The images, obtained at two of ESO's observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile, illustrate the beauty of astronomy. ESO PR Photo 14a/09 Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 ESO PR Photo 14b/09 Spiral Galaxy NGC 7793 As part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 Cornerstone project, 100 Hours of Astronomy, the ambitious "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" event is a unique live webcast over 24 hours, following night and day around the globe to some of the most advanced observatories on and off the planet. To provide a long-lasting memory of this amazing world tour, observatories worldwide are revealing wonderful, and previously unseen, astronomical images. For its part, ESO is releasing outstanding pictures of two galaxies, observed with telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. The first of these depicts the irregular galaxy NGC 55, a member of the prominent Sculptor group of galaxies in the southern constellation of Sculptor. The galaxy is about 70 000 light-years across, that is, a little bit smaller than our own Milky Way. NGC 55 actually resembles more our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), although the LMC is seen face-on, whilst NGC 55 is edge-on. By studying about 20 planetary nebulae in this image, a team of astronomers found that NGC 55 is located about 7.5 million light-years away. They also found that the galaxy might be forming a bound pair with the gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 300 . Planetary nebulae are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. This striking image of NGC 55, obtained with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, is dusted with a flurry of reddish nebulae, created by young, hot massive stars. Some of the more extended ones are not unlike those seen in the LMC, such as the Tarantula Nebula. The quality

  2. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  3. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  4. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  5. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  6. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early wr...

  7. Novel criteria of uniqueness for signal reconstruction from phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach for ascertaining whether a signal is uniquely determined by its Fourier transform phase is proposed. It is shown that uniqueness corresponds to the nonsingularity of a matrix which can be formed from the finite-length real sequence. The criterion of uniqueness for reconstructing a

  8. Analysis of a unique global public-private partnership to promote oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Dugdill, Lindsey

    2011-08-01

    Partnerships for health promotion are between two or more partners to work co-operatively towards a set of shared health outcomes; few public-private partnerships in oral health promotion have been established. To undertake a detailed analysis of a unique global public-private partnership to promote oral health between a global company, Unilever and the Féderation Dentaire International (FDI), a membership organisation representing more than one million dentists worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative, including: collating and analysing a wide range of partnership documents (n =164); reviewing film and pictorial records; undertaking structured interviews (n=34) with people who had a critical role in establishing and delivering the aims of the partnership, and external experts; and site visits to selected global projects active at the time of the evaluation. Over 1 million people have been reached directly through their engagement with 39 projects in 36 countries; an oral health message about the benefits of twice daily tooth brushing has appeared with the authority of the FDI logo on billions of packs of Unilever Oral Care's toothpastes worldwide; many individual members of National Dental Associations have participated in health promotion activities within their communities for the first time; some organisational challenges during the development and delivery of the partnership were recognised by both partners. The first phase of this unique global partnership has been successful in making major progress towards achieving its goals; lessons learned have ensured that the next phase of the partnership has significant potential to contribute to improving oral health globally. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  10. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  11. A unique metal-semiconductor interface and resultant electron transfer phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    An unusual electron transfer phenomenon has been identified from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles, the result of a unique metal semiconductor interface that results when the metal particles are grown from the semiconductor substrate. The unique interface acts as a one-way (rectifying) open gateway and was first identified in reduced rutile polycrystalline titanium dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII (noble) metal particles. The interface significantly affects th...

  12. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  13. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  14. Michael Tomasello: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Michael Tomasello, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to understanding what makes the human mind unique. Michael Tomasello's pioneering research on the origins of social cognition has led to revolutionary insights in both developmental psychology and primate cognition." Tomasello's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The cost of uniqueness in groundwater model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Doherty, John

    2006-04-01

    Calibration of a groundwater model requires that hydraulic properties be estimated throughout a model domain. This generally constitutes an underdetermined inverse problem, for which a solution can only be found when some kind of regularization device is included in the inversion process. Inclusion of regularization in the calibration process can be implicit, for example through the use of zones of constant parameter value, or explicit, for example through solution of a constrained minimization problem in which parameters are made to respect preferred values, or preferred relationships, to the degree necessary for a unique solution to be obtained. The "cost of uniqueness" is this: no matter which regularization methodology is employed, the inevitable consequence of its use is a loss of detail in the calibrated field. This, in turn, can lead to erroneous predictions made by a model that is ostensibly "well calibrated". Information made available as a by-product of the regularized inversion process allows the reasons for this loss of detail to be better understood. In particular, it is easily demonstrated that the estimated value for an hydraulic property at any point within a model domain is, in fact, a weighted average of the true hydraulic property over a much larger area. This averaging process causes loss of resolution in the estimated field. Where hydraulic conductivity is the hydraulic property being estimated, high averaging weights exist in areas that are strategically disposed with respect to measurement wells, while other areas may contribute very little to the estimated hydraulic conductivity at any point within the model domain, this possibly making the detection of hydraulic conductivity anomalies in these latter areas almost impossible. A study of the post-calibration parameter field covariance matrix allows further insights into the loss of system detail incurred through the calibration process to be gained. A comparison of pre- and post

  16. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  17. Slurry growth: the characterization of a unique phenomenon at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Slurry growth, unique to the Hanford Site, is a significant increase in the volume of waste contained in a waste storage tank without the addition of new waste. Slurry growth is caused by gas entrapment within waste slurries which causes the slurry to swell, like bread dough. The surface of the slurry rises until either gas pressure is great enough or the weight of the slurry over the gases is great enough to cause the surface of the slurry to collapse. The gases causing slurry growth are generated from decomposition of organics present in high-level nuclear waste (HEDTA, EDTA, GLY). Predominant gases are H 2 , N 2 , N 2 O, NO/sub x/, and CO 2 . More gas is generated, and at a faster rate, as the temperature increases. Slurry growth, although not completely eliminated, is being safely and effectively controlled. The parameters affecting slurry growth have been defined, and predictive equations have been established. The knowledge gained through laboratory experiments contributes to continued safe and efficient high-level waste management practices at the Hanford Site

  18. Nature inspired capacitive sensor with unique and unclonable characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuthedath, C. B.; Schwesinger, N.

    2018-02-01

    Background of this paper is the development of sensors showing a nature like characteristic. The sensor is able to detect excitations on inertia bases and operates capacitive. It consists of a miniaturized interdigitated electrode structure on a printed circuit board, a flexible and conductive membrane of PDMS located in a certain distance above and a certain number of steel balls fixed on top of the membrane. The steel ball distribution is random and the conductivity of the membrane is not homogeneous across the membrane. Due to this double random distribution, no sensor equals the other, although the external geometry is equal. The overall size of the sensor is 4.7mm x 4.7mm x 1.7mm. Tilt, acceleration or magnetic fields are capable of causing forces on the steel balls and therefore relative movements between the membrane and the electrode structures. Due to this movement, capacity changes of the arrangement are measurable. This paper describes besides the fabrication of conductive membranes the preparation of regarding sensors. Process technology makes cloning of the sensors impossible. Although all process steps are suited for mass production, no sensor equals the other. Measurements with these sensors prove that each sensor reacts differently to the same excitation. Calculations of the Intra-Concordance-Coefficient show the similarity of the sensors for equal excitations. On the other hand, the maximum Inter-Concordance-Coefficient reveals the differences of such sensors very clearly. Such a characteristic, i.e. equal reaction to equal excitation and an output of significantly different signals allows considering each sensor as a unique device. The sensors obviously behave like receptors in natural organisms. These unusual properties of uniqueness and impossibility to clone make the sensors very interesting for highly secure identification demands. In combination with a very simple measurement procedure, the sensors are an attractive hardware base for

  19. Coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiangdong.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs

  20. Joint Contribution of Left Dorsal Premotor Cortex and Supramarginal Gyrus to Rapid Action Reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-01-01

    human subjects performed a spatially-precued reaction time task. RESULTS: Relative to sham rTMS, effective online perturbation of left PMd significantly impaired both the response speed and accuracy in trials that were invalidly pre-cued and required the subject to reprogram the prepared action......BACKGROUND: The rapid adaptation of actions to changes in the environment is crucial for survival. We previously demonstrated a joint contribution of left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) to action reprogramming. However, we did not probe the contribution of PMd...... to the speed and accuracy of action reprogramming and how the functional relevance of PMd changes in the presence of a dysfunctional SMG. OBJECTIVE: This study further dissociated the unique contribution of left PMd and SMG to action reprogramming. Specifically, we tested whether the critical contribution...

  1. A unique view on male infertility around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Mulgund, Aditi; Hamada, Alaa; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2015-04-26

    Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 48.5 million couples. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall. However, this number does not accurately represent all regions of the world. Indeed, on a global level, there is a lack of accurate statistics on rates of male infertility. Our report examines major regions of the world and reports rates of male infertility based on data on female infertility. Our search consisted of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and population-based studies by searching the terms "epidemiology, male infertility, and prevalence." We identified 16 articles for detailed study. We typically used the assumption that 50% of all cases of infertility are due to female factors alone, 20-30% are due to male factors alone, and the remaining 20-30% are due to a combination of male and female factors. Therefore, in regions of the world where male factor or rates of male infertility were not reported, we used this assumption to calculate general rates of male factor infertility. Our calculated data showed that the distribution of infertility due to male factor ranged from 20% to 70% and that the percentage of infertile men ranged from 2·5% to 12%. Infertility rates were highest in Africa and Central/Eastern Europe. Additionally, according to a variety of sources, rates of male infertility in North America, Australia, and Central and Eastern Europe varied from 4 5-6%, 9%, and 8-12%, respectively. This study demonstrates a novel and unique way to calculate the distribution of male infertility around the world. According to our results, at least 30 million men worldwide are infertile with the highest rates in Africa and Eastern Europe. Results indicate further research is needed regarding etiology and treatment, reduce stigma & cultural barriers, and establish a more precise calculation.

  2. Body appreciation, interest in cosmetic enhancements, and need for uniqueness among U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Dunaev, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine associations between body appreciation and putative correlates that focus on self-enhancement and self-expression. Students (N=261; mean age=20.16years, SD=3.68; 60.9% female) from a non-residential college in the northeastern United States completed a questionnaire measuring body appreciation, interest in cosmetic enhancements, and need for uniqueness. Individuals with higher body appreciation and African Americans/Blacks reported significantly higher self-attributed need for uniqueness and significantly higher investment in a distinctive appearance. The association between body appreciation and interest in cosmetic enhancements (e.g., hair coloring) was not significant. Results suggest that body appreciation may be linked to a desire to express one's own unique qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  5. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  6. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  7. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, G.A. Nagana; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact biospecimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory. PMID:26476597

  8. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory.

  9. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  10. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    The Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE) is a program designed to obtain data necessary to evaluate atmospheric transport and diffusion models used to calculate regional population doses caused by nuclear facility emissions to the atmosphere. This experiment will significantly improve the basis for evaluating the cost effectiveness of different methods of managing airborne nuclear wastes. During the period from March 1982 through September 1982, twice daily air samples have been collected at each of five sampling stations located on a radial from the SRP to Murray Hill, NJ (1000 km). Kr-85 emitted from the F and H area chemical separations facilities is being used as a tracer to determine the transport and diffusion of atmospheric releases from the SRP. The Kr-85 concentrations in the air samples will be compared with the calculated concentrations as predicted by the transport and diffusion models. The Kr-85 data and the meteorological data are being archived and will be made available to the modeling community

  11. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  12. Structure determination of human Lck unique and SH3 domains by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willbold Dieter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine kinases are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, activation and transformation. Human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck is a 56 kDa protein involved in T-cell- and IL2-receptor signaling. Three-dimensional structures are known for SH3, SH2 and kinase domains of Lck as well as for other tyrosine kinases. No structure is known for the unique domain of any Src-type tyrosine kinase. Results Lck(1–120 comprising unique and SH3 domains was structurally investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found the unique domain, in contrast to the SH3 part, to have basically no defined structural elements. The solution structure of the SH3 part could be determined with very high precision. It does not show significant differences to Lck SH3 in the absence of the unique domain. Minor differences were observed to the X-ray structure of Lck SH3. Conclusion The unique domain of Lck does not contain any defined structure elements in the absence of ligands and membranes. Presence of the unique domain is not relevant to the three-dimensional structure of the Lck SH3 domain.

  13. Expository text comprehension: for which readers does knowledge of connectives contribute the most?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welie, C; Schoonen, R; Kuiken, F; van den Bergh, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different

  14. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  15. Non-unique Product Groups on Two Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William Paul

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to better understand groups that do not have the unique product property. In particular, the goal is to better understand Promislow's example, G, of such a group. In doing so, we will develop methods for generating examples of other sets that do not have the unique product property. With these methods we can show that there exists other distinct 14 element, square, non-unique product sets in G that are not inversions or translations. Also, this paper answers ...

  16. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  17. PET-CT in the typification of unique pulmonary injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, P.; San Roman, Jose L.; Dalurzo, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this document is to evaluate the usefulness of the PET-CT for the characterization of the unique pulmonary injuries. Retrospective analysis was made to patients with unique pulmonary injuries who carried out a PET-CT in the Italian Hospital between May of 2003 - March of 2005. Those patients with pulmonary outlying nodule, or unique pulmonary mass that had pathological anatomy of injury or follow-up through a computed tomography of thorax made with an interval of time not minor at 2 years of the PET-CT were included [es

  18. The gaming of concussions: a unique intervention in postconcussion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James M; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

    2015-03-01

    To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened symptoms in both patients.

  19. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  20. Protein nanoparticle: A unique system as drug delivery vehicles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Iran. ... as potential carriers with unique advantages including ..... for intracellular uptake in BT/20 human breast cancer.

  1. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  2. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, ... a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data ..... Even though the aquifer shows characteristics of all major ...... Earth Sci.

  3. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  4. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  5. Uniqueness of the electrostatic solution in Schwarzschild space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Pal G.; Elsaesser, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this Brief Report we give the proof that the solution of any static test charge distribution in Schwarzschild space is unique. In order to give the proof we derive the first Green's identity written with p-forms on (pseudo) Riemannian manifolds. Moreover, the proof of uniqueness can be shown for either any purely electric or purely magnetic field configuration. The spacetime geometry is not crucial for the proof

  6. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. Copyright © 2013

  7. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar; Anoop Jain

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  8. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Jain, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  9. Factors Affecting Quality of Life at Different Intervals After Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer: Unique Influence of Treatment Decision Making Satisfaction, Personality and Sexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David E; Schuette, Stephanie; Schalet, Benjamin D; Kundu, Shilajit D; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian; Sufrin, Nathaniel; McGuire, Michael; Brendler, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Using patient reported outcomes measures we identified the most informative set of factors associated with quality of life in a large sample of men treated for localized prostate cancer. We examined relationships with quality of life using FACIT (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy). We also hypothesized variables in a sample of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who represented different time points since treatment, including less than 12 months in 70, 1 to 3 years in 344, greater than 3 to 5 years in 291 and greater than 5 years in 97. Correlative measures included subscales of MAX-PC (Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer), short forms of PROMIS® and SOMS (Surgical Outcomes Measurement System), TDM-SATS (Treatment Decision-Making Satisfaction Scale) and subscales of the BFI (Big Five Inventory) of personality. Quality of life was significantly associated with hypothesized variables across different time cohorts. In regression models several factors accounted for most of the variability in quality of life scores depending on time since treatment, including 47%, 22%, 29% and 27% at less than 12 months, 1 to 3 years, greater than 3 to 5 years and greater than 5 years, respectively. Upon examining the unique contribution of these variables, treatment decision making satisfaction was the only variable to have a significant and unique contribution to quality of life across all 4 time cohorts (standardized coefficients 0.33, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.49, respectively, p personality style also had unique associations with quality of life (standardized coefficients 0.25 and -0.20, respectively). When considering the short-term and the longer term quality of life of a man after treatment for localized prostate cancer, our findings highlight the importance of treatment decision making satisfaction, erectile function and personality. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Unique temporal and spatial biomolecular emission profile on individual zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Song, Sheng; Hahm, Jong-In

    2013-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) have emerged in recent years as extremely useful, optical signal-enhancing platforms in DNA and protein detection. Although the use of ZnO NRs in biodetection has been demonstrated so far in systems involving many ZnO NRs per detection element, their future applications will likely take place in a miniaturized setting while exploiting single ZnO NRs in a low-volume, high-throughput bioanalysis. In this paper, we investigate temporal and spatial characteristics of the biomolecular fluorescence on individual ZnO NR systems. Quantitative and qualitative examinations of the biomolecular intensity and photostability are carried out as a function of two important criteria, the time and position along the long axis (length) of NRs. Photostability profiles are also measured with respect to the position on NRs and compared to those characteristics of biomolecules on polymeric control platforms. Unlike the uniformly distributed signal observed on the control platforms, both the fluorescence intensity and photostability are position-dependent on individual ZnO NRs. We have identified a unique phenomenon of highly localized, fluorescence intensification on the nanorod ends (FINE) of well-characterized, individual ZnO nanostructures. When compared to the polymeric controls, the biomolecular fluorescence intensity and photostability are determined to be higher on individual ZnO NRs regardless of the position on NRs. We have also carried out finite-difference time-domain simulations the results of which are in good agreement with the observed FINE. The outcomes of our investigation will offer a much needed basis for signal interpretation for biodetection devices and platforms consisting of single ZnO NRs and, at the same time, contribute significantly to provide insight in understanding the biomolecular fluorescence observed from ZnO NR ensemble-based systems.Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) have emerged in recent years as extremely useful, optical

  11. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  12. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Van Damme

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs. This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby

  13. OGT (O-GlcNAc Transferase) Selectively Modifies Multiple Residues Unique to Lamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dan N; Wriston, Amanda; Fan, Qiong; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Florwick, Alyssa; Dharmaraj, Tejas; Peterson, Sherket B; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Carlson, Cathrine R; Grønning-Wang, Line M; Hunt, Donald F; Wilson, Katherine L

    2018-05-17

    The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases ('laminopathies'). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate filaments in vivo, with apparently distinct roles. We report that lamin A is β- O -linked N -acetylglucosamine- (O -GlcNAc)-modified in human hepatoma (Huh7) cells and in mouse liver. In vitro assays with purified O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) enzyme showed robust O -GlcNAcylation of recombinant mature lamin A tails (residues 385⁻646), with no detectable modification of lamin B1, lamin C, or 'progerin' (Δ50) tails. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 11 O -GlcNAc sites in a 'sweet spot' unique to lamin A, with up to seven sugars per peptide. Most sites were unpredicted by current algorithms. Double-mutant (S612A/T643A) lamin A tails were still robustly O -GlcNAc-modified at seven sites. By contrast, O -GlcNAcylation was undetectable on tails bearing deletion Δ50, which causes Hutchinson⁻Gilford progeria syndrome, and greatly reduced by deletion Δ35. We conclude that residues deleted in progeria are required for substrate recognition and/or modification by OGT in vitro. Interestingly, deletion Δ35, which does not remove the majority of identified O -GlcNAc sites, does remove potential OGT-association motifs (lamin A residues 622⁻625 and 639⁻645) homologous to that in mouse Tet1. These biochemical results are significant because they identify a novel molecular pathway that may profoundly influence lamin A function. The hypothesis that lamin A is selectively regulated by OGT warrants future testing in vivo, along with two predictions: genetic variants may contribute to disease by perturbing OGT-dependent regulation, and nutrient or other stresses might cause OGT to misregulate wildtype lamin A.

  14. Major contributions to science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-03-15

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.

  15. Major contributions to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-01-01

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental

  16. Development of a Unique Small Molecule Modulator of CXCR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Younghyoun; Lin, Songbai; Sasaki, Maiko; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A.; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Xu, Jianguo; Rojas, Mauricio; Voll, Ronald J.; Goodman, Mark M.; Arrendale, Richard F.; Liu, Jin; Yun, C. Chris; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2012-01-01

    Background Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the actions of N,N′-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))dipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122), a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using 18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles. Conclusions/Significance We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for

  17. The ILRS Reanalysis 1983 - 2009 Contributed To ITRF2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Luceri, V.; Sciarretta, C.; Kelm, R.

    2009-12-01

    For over two decades, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data contribute to the definition of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Until the development of ITRF2000, the contributions were submitted in the form of a set of normal equations or a covariance matrix of station coordinates and their linear rates at a standard epoch. The development of ITRF2005 ushered a new era with the use of weekly or session contributions, allowing greater flexibility in the relative weighting and the combination of information from various techniques. Moreover, the need of a unique, official, representative solution for each Technique Service, based on the rigorous combination of the various Analysis Centers’ contributions, gave the opportunity to all techniques to verify, as a first step, the intra-technique solution consistency and, immediately after, to engage in discussions and comparison of the internal procedures, leading to a harmonization and validation of these procedures and the adopted models in the inter-technique context. In many occasions, the time series approach joint with the intra- and inter-technique comparison steps also highlighted differences that previously went unnoticed, and corrected incompatibilities. During the past year we have been preparing the ILRS contribution to a second TRF developed in the same way, the ITRF2008. The ILRS approach is based strictly on the current IERS Conventions 2003 and our internal standards. The Unified Analysis Workshop in 2007 stressed a number of areas where each technique needed to focus more attention in future analyses. In the case of SLR, the primary areas of concern were tracking station biases, extending the data span used in the analysis, and target characteristics. The present re-analysis extends from 1983 to 2009, covering a 25-year period, the longest for any of the contributing techniques; although the network and data quality for the 1983-1993 period are significantly poorer than for the latter years, the overall

  18. Unique roles of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits in distress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Daughters, Stacey B; Curtin, John J; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C W

    2011-11-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis.

  19. Uniqueness of family therapists as family business systems consultants: a cross-disciplinary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Danes, Sharon M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to address how the consulting approaches of family therapists working with family businesses differ from those of business consultants. The logic of analytic induction was used to analyze qualitative data from family business consultants with and without training in family therapy. Consultants were asked to respond to two vignettes: one emphasized primarily family system problems, whereas the other emphasized business problems with influencing issues at the family/business intersection. Both similarities and differences were found in reference to problem assessment, consulting goal orientation, intervention strategy focus, consultant role and function, and consulting setting preference between consultants with and without family therapy training. Results indicate that consultants of each discipline provide a unique perspective and expertise that allow them to successfully address the spectrum of issues that family firms face. Further, findings highlight the unique contribution of family therapists to an interdisciplinary consulting team. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. The One or the Many: Quantified Subjectivity and Aggregated Uniqueness in Qualitative Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Soberg, Helene L; Røe, Cecilie; Saebu, Martin; Engen, Grace; Bliksvaer, Trond; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify and critically assess qualitative intervention studies of rehabilitation processes that target young adults. By applying a meta-epistemological approach inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva, we examine how the included studies present qualitative knowledge and whether they adhere to their own stated principles of qualitative knowledge. Through their stated aims and theoretical framing, the articles draw attention to individual processes of meaning making. Nonetheless, we find that the articles to a great extent emphasize frequencies of the qualitative data they present. Individual processes and experiences are subject to subdivisions and categorization and transformed into manageable objects of knowledge. In conclusion, these studies, with one important exception, contribute to self-marginalization of the knowledge they themselves promote: They undermine the uniqueness of the qualitative knowledge they proclaim by focusing on frequency and the general patterns and categories encompassing the unique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The UNIQUe Label: Supporting a Culture of Innovation and Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annemie; Bijnens, Helena

    European higher education institutions will need significant reforms, in order to guarantee their leading role in a globalized knowledge economy. These reforms can be enhanced by improving the way in which traditional universities integrate new technologies both in their educational activities and throughout their strategic and operational processes. The UNIQUe institutional accreditation scheme, analyzed and described in this chapter, intends to support this process of integrating the use of new technologies in higher education. With its specific open approach to quality in e-Learning, UNIQUe emphasizes innovation and creativity in a process that includes self-assessment and constructive dialog with peers and stakeholders involved. UNIQUe intends to use the institutional quality label as a catalyst for continuous improvement and change while setting up collaborative bench learning processes among universities for the adoption and integration of e-Learning.

  2. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  3. Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.

  4. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  5. Saving a Unique Data Set for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian/US International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program included the four satellites Alouette 1 and 2, ISIS 1 and 2 launched in 1962, 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively and in operation for 10, 10, 21, and 19 years, respectively. The core experiment on these satellites was a topside sounder that could determine the ionospheric electron density from the orbit altitude down to about 250-500 km near where the ionosphere reaches its point of highest density, the F-peak. The mission was long lasting and highly successful, producing a wealth of information about the topside ionosphere in the form of analog ionosphere soundings on 7-track tapes. The analysis process required a tedious manual scaling of ionogram traces that could then, with appropriate software, be converted into electron density profiles. Even with the combined effort involving ionospheric groups from many countries only a relatively small percentage of the huge volume of recorded ionograms could be converted to electron density profiles. Even with this limited number significant new insights were achieved documented by the many Alouette/ISIS-related papers published in the 1960s and 1970s. Recognizing the importance of this unique data set for space weather research a new effort was undertaken in the late Nineties to analyze more of the Alouette/ISIS ionograms. The immediate cause for action was the threat to the more than 100,000 analog telemetry tapes in storage in Canada because of space limitations and storage costs. We were able to have nearly 20,000 tapes shipped to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analog-to-digital conversion and succeeded in developing software that automatically scales and converts the ionograms to electron density profiles. This rescue effort is still ongoing and has already produced a significant increase in the information available for the topside ionosphere and has resulted in numerous publications. The data have led to improvements of the

  6. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  8. Understanding Desisting and Persisting Forms of Delinquency: The Unique Contributions of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Interpersonal Callousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While associations between conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and interpersonal callousness (IC) symptoms and delinquency onset are well established, less is known about whether these characteristics differentiate desisting and persisting delinquency. The current…

  9. Unique natural exopolysaccharides for biomimetic protective effect against urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Magali; Lamarque, Elisabeth; Loing, Estelle

    Through natural selection, living organisms have evolved well-adapted survival strategies over time. The shallow salt waters of Moorea lagoon are the site of accumulation of microbial mats called "Kopara," in the native Polynesian language. This unique ecosystem is rich in film-forming exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by microorganisms within the biofilm, as a mean to protect themselves from environmental stress (strong ultraviolet [UV], pH, salinity … ). Using blue biotechnology, a manufacturing process was developed to obtain an EPS with skin benefits. The active ingredient (EPS-229) protects against urban pollution, including free radicals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and PM 2.5 (particulate matter with a size lower than 2.5 μm). The anti-lipid peroxidation action of EPS-229 was studied in an in vitro UVB-irradiated keratinocyte culture model, using lipophilic fluorescent probe. The chelating properties of EPS-229 were evaluated in tubo in the presence of cadmium and lead. The protective effect of EPS-229 on pollution-exposed skin explants was investigated through quantification of released malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological observation of skin morphology using optical microscopy. Clinical evaluation of the protective and cleansing efficacy of a water solution containing EPS-229 (0.02% and 0.01% w/v, respectively) was performed, against placebo, on a panel of 18 volunteers. For these studies, the forearms of volunteers were treated with EPS-229 before (anti-adhesion affect) or after (cleansing effect) application of PM 2.5 (iron particles of 1 μm). The presence of skin-adherent particles was observed and quantified by image analysis, using specific digital masks. In vitro , EPS-229 significantly protected keratinocyte cell membranes from lipid peroxidation. A decrease of 28% was achieved when a concentration of 0.001% w/v EPS-229 was applied to the cell culture. In tubo , EPS-229 also presented strong chelating properties. Maximal adsorption was

  10. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  11. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  12. RUCS: Rapid identification of PCR primers for unique core sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Hasman, Henrik; Westh, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Designing PCR primers to target a specific selection of whole genome sequenced strains can be a long, arduous, and sometimes impractical task. Such tasks would benefit greatly from an automated tool to both identify unique targets, and to validate the vast number of potential primer pairs...... for the targets in silico . Here we present RUCS, a program that will find PCR primer pairs and probes for the unique core sequences of a positive genome dataset complement to a negative genome dataset. The resulting primer pairs and probes are in addition to simple selection also validated through a complex...... in silico PCR simulation. We compared our method, which identifies the unique core sequences, against an existing tool called ssGeneFinder, and found that our method was 6.5-20 times more sensitive. We used RUCS to design primer pairs that would target a set of genomes known to contain the mcr-1 colistin...

  13. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  14. Human uniqueness-self-interest and social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Daijiro; Bingham, Paul M

    2008-07-21

    Humans are unique among all species of terrestrial history in both ecological dominance and individual properties. Many, or perhaps all, of the unique elements of this nonpareil status can be plausibly interpreted as evolutionary and strategic elements and consequences of the unprecedented intensity and scale of our social cooperation. Convincing explanation of this unique human social adaptation remains a central, unmet challenge to the scientific enterprise. We develop a hypothesis for the ancestral origin of expanded cooperative social behavior. Specifically, we present a game theoretic analysis demonstrating that a specific pattern of expanded social cooperation between conspecific individuals with conflicts of interest (including non-kin) can be strategically viable, but only in animals that possess a highly unusual capacity for conspecific violence (credible threat) having very specific properties that dramatically reduce the costs of coercive violence. The resulting reduced costs allow preemptive or compensated coercion to be an instantaneously self-interested behavior under diverse circumstances rather than in rare, idiosyncratic circumstances as in actors (animals) who do not have access to inexpensive coercive threat. Humans are apparently unique among terrestrial organisms in having evolved conspecific coercive capabilities that fulfill these stringent requirements. Thus, our results support the proposal that access to a novel capacity for projection of coercive threat might represent the essential initiating event for the evolution of a human-like pattern of social cooperation and the subsequent evolution of the diverse features of human uniqueness. Empirical evidence indicates that these constraints were, in fact, met only in our evolutionary lineage. The logic for the emergence of uniquely human cooperation suggested by our analysis apparently accounts simply for the human fossil record.

  15. Summaries of poster contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The 10. meeting covered subjects on the application of electron microscopy in numerous fields such as biology and medicine, solid state physics, semiconductor research and production, crystallography, materials science, and chemistry of polymers. 174 summaries of poster contributions are included

  16. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  17. A note on unique solvability of the absolute value equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lotfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that applying sufficient regularity conditions to the interval matrix $[A-|B|,A+|B|]$‎, ‎we can create a new unique solvability condition for the absolute value equation $Ax+B|x|=b$‎, ‎since regularity of interval matrices implies unique solvability of their corresponding absolute value equation‎. ‎This condition is formulated in terms of positive definiteness of a certain point matrix‎. ‎Special case $B=-I$ is verified too as an application.

  18. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  19. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  20. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  1. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  3. Building Sustainable Futures: Emerging Understandings of the Significant Contribution of the Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dorothy; Lewis, Marian

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on the experiences of a range of Australian schools engaging with a teacher-centred process of whole-school renewal known as IDEAS (Innovative Designs for Enhancing Achievement in Schools). IDEAS enhances the professional capacity of teachers to improve school outcomes such as student learning, relationships with the community,…

  4. Complementary contribution on the practical significance in the results of Young Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino-Soto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor En los hallazgos de Alarcón y Bárrig (2015 recientemente aparecidos, se encuentran resultados que esencialmente parecen replicar lo reportado en estudios anteriores sobre el tema. Esto añade evidencia acumulativa sobre las tendencias conductuales de las diferencias entre varones y mujeres respecto de los problemas de conducta, luego de más de una década en que se presentaron hallazgos similares en la población peruana (Majluf, 1999. No obstante, la presentación de sus resultados oscurece un tipo de información más útil, pues las autoras han priorizado únicamente el marco de la significancia estadística en la interpretación de sus análisis y en la sustentación de sus conclusiones. No se ha añadido algún comentario sobre la magnitud de las diferencias o lo que también se denomina significancia práctica. Actualmente, el reporte de la significancia práctica tiene un lugar obligado, y no solo recomendado, por el Manual de publicaciones de la American Psychological Association (APA, 2010, lo que ha impulsado que sea un componente sine qua non de los manuscritos sometidos a revistas científicas para su eventual publicación, sea para estudios cualitativos (p. ej., Duran et al., 2006 como cuantitativos (Coe y Merino, 2003; Merino, 2011.

  5. Fragrance mix II in the baseline series contributes significantly to detection of fragrance allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Andersen, Klaus E; Avnstorp, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens.......Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens....

  6. Minute Impurities Contribute Significantly to Olfactory Receptor Ligand Studies: Tales from Testing the Vibration Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, M.; M?nch, D.; Haase, A.; Skoulakis, E.; Turin, L.; Galizia, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to test the vibrational hypothesis of odorant receptor activation in behavioral and physiological studies using deuterated compounds as odorants. The results have been mixed. Here, we attempted to test how deuterated compounds activate odorant receptors using calcium imaging of the fruit fly antennal lobe. We found specific activation of one area of the antennal lobe corresponding to inputs from a specific receptor. However, upon more detailed analysis, we disco...

  7. Minute Impurities Contribute Significantly to Olfactory Receptor Ligand Studies: Tales from Testing the Vibration Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, M; Münch, D; Haase, A; Skoulakis, E; Turin, L; Galizia, C G

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to test the vibrational hypothesis of odorant receptor activation in behavioral and physiological studies using deuterated compounds as odorants. The results have been mixed. Here, we attempted to test how deuterated compounds activate odorant receptors using calcium imaging of the fruit fly antennal lobe. We found specific activation of one area of the antennal lobe corresponding to inputs from a specific receptor. However, upon more detailed analysis, we discovered that an impurity of 0.0006% ethyl acetate in a chemical sample of benzaldehyde-d 5 was entirely responsible for a sizable odorant-evoked response in Drosophila melanogaster olfactory receptor cells expressing dOr42b. Without gas chromatographic purification within the experimental setup, this impurity would have created a difference in the responses of deuterated and nondeuterated benzaldehyde, suggesting that dOr42b be a vibration sensitive receptor, which we show here not to be the case. Our results point to a broad problem in the literature on use of non-GC-pure compounds to test receptor selectivity, and we suggest how the limitations can be overcome in future studies.

  8. Clathrin-independent pathways do not contribute significantly to endocytic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsikas, Vassilis; Corrêa, Ivan R; Nichols, Benjamin J

    2014-09-17

    Several different endocytic pathways have been proposed to function in mammalian cells. Clathrin-coated pits are well defined, but the identity, mechanism and function of alternative pathways have been controversial. Here we apply universal chemical labelling of plasma membrane proteins to define all primary endocytic vesicles, and labelling of specific proteins with a reducible SNAP-tag substrate. These approaches provide high temporal resolution and stringent discrimination between surface-connected and intracellular membranes. We find that at least 95% of the earliest detectable endocytic vesicles arise from clathrin-coated pits. GPI-anchored proteins, candidate cargoes for alternate pathways, are also found to enter the cell predominantly via coated pits. Experiments employing a mutated clathrin adaptor reveal distinct mechanisms for sorting into coated pits, and thereby explain differential effects on the uptake of transferrin and GPI-anchored proteins. These data call for a revision of models for the activity and diversity of endocytic pathways in mammalian cells.

  9. Researchers' Perceptions of Statistical Significance Contribute to Bias in Health and Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taylor L.; Lohse, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed researchers in the health and exercise sciences to explore different areas and magnitudes of bias in researchers' decision making. Participants were presented with scenarios (testing a central hypothesis with p = 0.06 or p = 0.04) in a random order and surveyed about what they would do in each scenario. Participants showed significant…

  10. Phenolic acids significantly contribute to antioxidant potency of Gynostemma pentaphyllum aqueous and methanol extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, D.; Valek-Zulj, L.; Martinez, S.; Grúz, Jiří; Piljac, A.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, JUN (2016), s. 104-107 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Gynostemma pentaphyllum * Phenolic acids * Mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  11. Regional cluster policy between best practices and cultural uniqueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Boneschansker, E.; van Dijk, J.; Jansma, L.G.J.; Verhaar, K.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter deals with an intriguing paradox in current regional economic policy: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, more and more governments simultaneously try to copy policy experiences that have proved successful in a particular

  12. Teen camp: a unique approach to recruit future nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Donna A; Riech, Sandy; Prater, Marsha A

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative and unique approach to interest high school students in nursing. To inform educators and nursing departments about an innovative approach to recruit future nurses. Professional literature and authors' experience. All students related positive experiences. The initial camp evaluation produced innovative input from the students, and each camp met its goal of creating career interest in the nursing profession.

  13. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  14. Sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the weak value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, J; Jordan, A N

    2012-01-01

    We review and clarify the sufficient conditions for uniquely defining the generalized weak value as the weak limit of a conditioned average using the contextual values formalism introduced in Dressel, Agarwal and Jordan (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401). We also respond to criticism of our work by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v1) concerning a proposed counter-example to the uniqueness of the definition of the generalized weak value. The counter-example does not satisfy our prescription in the case of an underspecified measurement context. We show that when the contextual values formalism is properly applied to this example, a natural interpretation of the measurement emerges and the unique definition in the weak limit holds. We also prove a theorem regarding the uniqueness of the definition under our sufficient conditions for the general case. Finally, a second proposed counter-example by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v6) is shown not to satisfy the sufficiency conditions for the provided theorem. (paper)

  15. On the Existence of Unique Equilibria in Location Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study a two-stage location-then-price game where consumers are distributed piecewise uniformly, each piece being referred to as an interval.Although the firms face a coordination problem, it is obvious that, for any given locations and prices, there is a unique indifferent

  16. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  17. Secondary metabolites from the unique bamboo, Melocanna baccifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Viswanathan, Gayathri; Ramaswamy, Venkataraman; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2018-02-15

    Phytochemistry of fruits and leaves of the unique bamboo Melocanna baccifera resulted in the isolation of 27 secondary metabolites, including 4-Oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7),5,8-triene and Verbacine. Biological activity studies of Verbacine revealed it as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and as cytotoxic against C6 cancer cells.

  18. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elschner, Johannes; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  19. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijl, Mark; Saltzherr, Teun P.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents. Case Presentation: We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma

  20. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  1. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  2. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The result...

  3. Zeros and uniqueness of Q-difference polynomials of meromorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meromorphic functions; Nevanlinna theory; logarithmic order; uniqueness problem; difference-differential polynomial. Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the value distribution of -difference polynomials of meromorphic function of finite logarithmic order, and study the zero distribution of difference-differential polynomials ...

  4. Why Is Family Firms' Internationalization Unique? : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arregle, Jean-Luc; Duran, Patricio; Hitt, Michael A.; van Essen, M.

    Despite its importance, there is no clear understanding of the uniqueness of family firms' internationalization. This article sheds new light on this issue with a meta-analysis of 76 studies covering 41 countries. We show that the considerable study and cross-country differences in the relationship

  5. Meeting Each Student's Unique Potential: One Approach to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    By championing extrinsic motivation, the achievement-reward system short-circuits individuals' innate inner power. Achievement-oriented adults rely on their knowledge, skills, and abilities, not their deeper potential. Hyde School, in Bath, Maine, solves this problem by committing the entire school community to development of unique potential via…

  6. Uniqueness and zeros of q-shift difference polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift ...

  7. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  8. review article how unique is south african military integration?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roy Licklider

    Rutgers University. The study of civil war ... South Africa has a strong case to be the poster child of military integration after civil violence.6 In a .... One aspect of the South African response to this problem was unique: a. Defence White Paper ...

  9. Uniqueness of inverse scattering problem in local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2001-06-01

    It is shown that the a Bisognano-Wichmann-Unruh inspired formulation of local quantum physics which starts from wedge-localized algebras, leads to a uniqueness proof for the scattering problem. The important mathematical tool is the thermal KMS aspect of localization and its strengthening by the requirement of crossing symmetry for generalized formfactors. (author)

  10. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  11. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  12. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  13. Shared and unique mechanisms underlying binge eating disorder and addictive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2018-01-01

    Scientific interest in “food addiction” is growing, but the topic remains controversial. One critique of “food addiction” is its high degree of phenotypic overlap with binge eating disorder (BED). In order to examine associations between problematic eating behaviors, such as binge eating and “food addiction,” we propose the need to move past examining similarities and differences in symptomology. Instead, focusing on relevant mechanisms may more effectively determine whether “food addiction” contributes to disordered eating behavior for some individuals. This paper reviews the evidence for mechanisms that are shared (i.e., reward dysfunction, impulsivity) and unique for addiction (i.e., withdrawal, tolerance) and eating disorder (i.e., dietary restraint, shape/weight concern) frameworks. This review will provide a guiding framework to outline future areas of research needed to evaluate the validity of the “food addiction” model and to understand its potential contribution to disordered eating. PMID:26879210

  14. A century of radiochemistry. Its growth and development as a unique scientific discipline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recognition of the 1997 anniversary of the first century of radiochemistry, a review is made of its unique contribution to the emergence of nuclear science, its development from the use of very basic chemical techniques initially to a battery of more sophisticated procedures, and its changing role as it has become widely applied in many fields of science. Synergistically, these fields have been able to develop with the aid of radiochemistry while at the same time, radiochemical methods developed to meet the demands of such applications, Among these, during the second half of the century, has been radiochemistry applied to quantitative chemical analysis: RAA or, nuclear analytical chemistry, and typical examples of its use in the authors' laboratory are described, including some recent INAA results on development of novel 'activable' tracer coding for forensic use with specialized and high security materials. The specific contributions, during the century, of Japanese pioneers in radiochemistry are also cited. (author)

  15. Is subjective social status a unique correlate of physical health? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-12-01

    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Unique Action of Interleukin-18 on T Cells and Other Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakanishi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-18 was originally discovered as a factor that enhances interferon (IFN-γ production by anti-CD3-stimulated Th1 cells, particularly in association with IL-12. IL-12 is a cytokine that induces development of Th1 cells. IL-18 cannot induce Th1 cell development, but has the capacity to activate established Th1 cells to produce IFN-γ in the presence of IL-12. Thus, IL-18 is regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine that facilitates type 1 responses. However, in the absence of IL-12 but presence of IL-2, IL-18 stimulates natural killer cells, NKT cells, and even established Th1 cells to produce IL-3, IL-9, and IL-13. Thus, IL-18 also facilitates type 2 responses. This unique function of IL-18 contributes to infection-associated allergic diseases. Together with IL-3, IL-18 stimulates mast cells and basophils to produce IL-4, IL-13, and chemical mediators such as histamine. Thus, IL-18 also induces innate-type allergic inflammation. IL-18 belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines, which share similar molecular structures, receptors structures, and signal transduction pathways. Nevertheless, IL-18 shows a unique function by binding to a specific receptor expressed on distinct types of cells. In this review article, I will focus on the unique features of IL-18 in lymphocytes, basophils, and mast cells, particularly in comparison with IL-33.

  17. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  18. Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.elizaga@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2017-01-15

    We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.

  19. Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.

    2017-01-01

    We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.

  20. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  6. Lip prints- A study of its uniqueness among students of MediCiti Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzapur, Archana; Nagothu, Rajani S; Nalluri, Hima B

    2017-01-01

    "Cheiloscopy" is a technique that deals with lip prints. The pattern of fine creases on the lips are unique to the individual. They are similar to finger prints and useful in crime investigation. To study the uniqueness, prevalence, and gender significance of lip print patterns in human subjects. The study was conducted on 100 randomly selected male and female undergraduate medical students. The lip print of each subject was obtained and its pattern was analyzed according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. The study showed that Type I lip pattern was the commonest. Our study has added to confirmation of the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy, which can be used as an additional tool for identification. Studies on lip prints being very scanty, our findings add significantly to the meager literature on this subject. Further in-depth studies to establish prevalence of patterns in lip prints will certainly help as useful evidence in forensic investigations.

  7. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Fisher's Contributions to Statistics. T Krishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 32-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/09/0032-0037. Author Affiliations.

  8. Newton's Contributions to Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.

  9. The contribution of epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P. van den; Voorrips, L.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Shuker, D.; Boeing, H.; Speijers, G.; Guittard, C.; Kleiner, J.; Knowles, M.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, A.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies directly contribute data on risk (or benefit) in humans as the investigated species, and in the full food intake range normally encountered by humans. This paper starts with introducing the epidemiologic approach, followed by a discussion of perceived differences between

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Ownership and care in culturally significant architecture: Three case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire resistance, as well as thermal and acoustic insulation properties that contribute to the interior comfort of dwellings. The shortcomings are mainly low ..... The building is at most only significant to students in architecture and South African ...

  9. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  10. What is IgG4? A review of the biology of a unique immunoglobulin subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ajay; Glaser, Scott M; Kalled, Susan L; Taylor, Frederick R; Taylora, Frederick R

    2011-01-01

    Recent descriptions of the group of clinical disorders collectively defined as IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) have prompted this review of the unique biology of the IgG4 antibody. This article will discuss IgG4 structure and function, the unique phenomenon of half-antibody exchange, and the implications of IgG4 biology for its proposed role in immunologic diseases. IgG4 antibodies have unique structural and functional properties and undergo 'half-antibody exchange' in vivo, resulting in recombined antibodies composed of two different binding specificities. The production of IgG4 antibodies appears to be driven in part by T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines that mediate allergic responses and IgE production. Although serum IgG4 levels in healthy individuals vary significantly, data from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suggest tight regulation of individual IgG4 levels over time. IgG4-RSD represents a diverse group of clinical disorders unified by elevated IgG4 levels and specific histopathologic findings. A key unanswered question is whether IgG4, a relatively weak activator of effector cells, is pathogenic in these disorders. IgG4 is a unique antibody biologically and structurally. Increased understanding of its precise role in the clinical syndromes that comprise IgG4-RSD may ultimately elucidate the underlying pathogenesis.

  11. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  12. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  13. A unique Fock quantization for fields in non-stationary spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2010-01-01

    In curved spacetimes, the lack of criteria for the construction of a unique quantization is a fundamental problem undermining the significance of the predictions of quantum field theory. Inequivalent quantizations lead to different physics. Recently, however, some uniqueness results have been obtained for fields in non-stationary settings. In particular, for vacua that are invariant under the background symmetries, a unitary implementation of the classical evolution suffices to pick up a unique Fock quantization in the case of Klein-Gordon fields with time-dependent mass, propagating in a static spacetime whose spatial sections are three-spheres. In fact, the field equation can be reinterpreted as describing the propagation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime after a suitable scaling of the field by a function of time. For this class of fields, we prove here an even stronger result about the Fock quantization: the uniqueness persists when one allows for linear time-dependent transformations of the field in order to account for a scaling by background functions. In total, paying attention to the dynamics, there exists a preferred choice of quantum field, and only one SO(4)-invariant Fock representation for it that respects the standard probabilistic interpretation along the evolution. The result has relevant implications e.g. in cosmology

  14. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  15. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renahan, Navanith; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun M

    2017-01-01

    The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised. Renahan N, Varma RB, Kumaran P, Xavier AM. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):107-110.

  16. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  17. Being and feeling unique: statistical deviance and psychological marginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, D E

    1993-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that people with culturally stigmatized and concealable conditions (e.g., gays, epileptics, juvenile delinquents, and incest victims) would be more likely to feel unique than people with culturally valued or conspicuous conditions (e.g., the physically attractive, the intellectually gifted, the obese, and the facially scarred). In Study 1, culturally stigmatized individuals with concealable conditions were least likely to perceive consensus between their personal preferences and those of others. In Study 2, they were most likely to describe themselves as unique and to make these self-relevant decisions quickly. Marginality is a psychological reality, not just a statistical one, for those with stigmatized and concealable "master status" conditions.

  18. Non-unique factorizations algebraic, combinatorial and analytic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geroldinger, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    From its origins in algebraic number theory, the theory of non-unique factorizations has emerged as an independent branch of algebra and number theory. Focused efforts over the past few decades have wrought a great number and variety of results. However, these remain dispersed throughout the vast literature. For the first time, Non-Unique Factorizations: Algebraic, Combinatorial, and Analytic Theory offers a look at the present state of the theory in a single, unified resource.Taking a broad look at the algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic fundamentals, this book derives factorization results and applies them in concrete arithmetical situations using appropriate transfer principles. It begins with a basic introduction that can be understood with knowledge of standard basic algebra. The authors then move to the algebraic theory of monoids, arithmetic theory of monoids, the structure of sets of lengths, additive group theory, arithmetical invariants, and the arithmetic of Krull monoids. They also provide a s...

  19. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  20. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  1. Uniqueness of rarefaction waves in multidimensional compressible Euler system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 489-499 ISSN 0219-8916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Euler system * uniqueness * rarefaction wave * Riemann problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2015 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219891615500149

  2. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs

    2014-01-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  3. Social Capital and Institutions in Rural Kenya: Is Machakos Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangena, Wilfred; Sterner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Eastern Africa, the experience of Machakos has been heavily debated between Malthusians and the more optimistic Boserupians. Machakos was the epitome of overpopulation and resource degradation in the 1950s, but has since thrived. The Boserupians view Machakos as an illustration of how population growth can solve rather than exacerbate the vicious cycle of poverty and resource degradation. The question arises whether Machakos is unique. This study investigates the role of social capital in ...

  4. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  5. CHID: a unique health information and education database.

    OpenAIRE

    Lunin, L F; Stein, R S

    1987-01-01

    The public's growing interest in health information and the health professions' increasing need to locate health education materials can be answered in part by the new Combined Health Information Database (CHID). This unique database focuses on materials and programs in professional and patient education, general health education, and community risk reduction. Accessible through BRS, CHID suggests sources for procuring brochures, pamphlets, articles, and films on community services, programs ...

  6. Uniqueness of Steiner minimal trees on boundaries in general position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2006-01-01

    The following result is proved: there exists an open dense subset U of R 2n such that each P element of U (regarded as an enumerated subset of the standard Euclidean plane R 2 ) is spanned by a unique Steiner minimal tree, that is, a shortest non-degenerate network. Several interesting consequences are also obtained: in particular, it is proved that each planar Steiner tree is planar equivalent to a Steiner minimal tree.

  7. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  8. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  9. Diophantine and minimal but not uniquely ergodic (almost)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapisz, Jaroslaw; Mathison, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that minimal non-uniquely ergodic behaviour can be generated by slowing down a simple harmonic oscillator with diophantine frequency, in contrast with the known examples where the frequency is well approximable by the rationals. The slowing is effected by a singular time change that brings one phase point to rest. The time one-map of the flow has uncountably many invariant measures yet every orbit is dense, with the minor exception of the rest point

  10. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Huy Khoai; Nguyen Van Khue

    2003-03-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C n ) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS. (author)

  11. On the Non-Uniqueness of Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Fatichi, S.

    2014-12-01

    There has been ample experimental evidence that soil erosion does not necessarily occur at the same rate, given the same amount of rainfall or runoff. Such a non-unique phenomenon has been often referred to in literature as due to 'natural variability'. Our recent study hypothesized that uncertainties in the distribution and properties of a sediment layer can be a potential clue to one of the reasons of the non-unique sediment yield. Specifically, numerical experimentation with a sophisticated two-dimensional model showed that a deposited layer plays two conflicting roles: it can both increase and decrease soil erosion, given the same magnitude of runoff. The difference in erodibilities of the "original, intact soil layer" and the "deposited, loose soil layer" and the composition of soil particles in the underlying layers give rise to the non-uniqueness of the amount of eroded materials. In continuing efforts, we attempt to investigate this phenomenon using a comprehensive the Universal Soil Loss Erosion (USLE) database, that contains data on paired hillslopes that show a high degree of non-uniqueness in the response, even though the hillslopes exhibit the same topography, soil type, rainfall and meteorological forcings, and landuse. An underlying hypothesis of this study is that uncertainties in the distribution of soil substrate prior to a rainfall event lead to low predictability skill, i.e., a stochastically-varying outcome. A large number of simulation cases demonstrating the proposed hypothesis are conducted using a coupled numerical model, tRIBS-VEGGIE-FEaST (Triangulated irregular network - based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator- VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution -Flow Erosion and Sediment Transport).

  12. Methanophosphagen: Unique cyclic pyrophosphate isolated from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanodia, Sushila; Roberts, Mary Fedarko

    1983-01-01

    A unique cyclic pyrophosphate compound has been detected at 10-12 mM intracellular concentration in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum by in vivo31P NMR. This compound has been extracted from cells and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Studies with 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry have identified it as 2,3-cyclopyrophosphoglycerate, an intramolecularly cyclized pyrophosphate of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Chemical degradation to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate an...

  13. Uniqueness of Nash equilibria in a quantum Cournot duopoly game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yohei; Sakahara, Kiri; Sato, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A quantum Cournot game whose classical form game has multiple Nash equilibria is examined. Although the classical equilibria fail to be Pareto optimal, the quantum equilibrium exhibits the following two properties: (i) if the measurement of entanglement between strategic variables chosen by the competing firms is sufficiently large, the multiplicity of equilibria vanishes, and (ii) the more strongly the strategic variables are entangled, the more closely the unique equilibrium approaches to the optimal one.

  14. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  15. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  16. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  17. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Climate change - the contribution from air travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Colin

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (published in 1999). It was considered necessary to treat air transport on its own since aircraft are unique in delivering emissions into the upper atmosphere rather than at ground level. The study was commissioned at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the Montreal Protocol. More than 300 experts contributed and the report has quantified the effect of aviation on the atmosphere on a world wide basis and highlighted areas where improved data are required. (UK)

  19. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  20. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  1. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  2. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  3. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality. Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  4. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  5. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  6. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Methods: Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Results: Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more

  7. Bribery or just desserts? Evidence on the influence of Congressional reproductive policy voting patterns on PAC contributions from exogenous variation in the sex mix of legislator offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; McCabe, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between political contributions and legislators' voting behavior is marred by concerns about endogeneity in the estimation process. Using a legislator's offspring sex mix as a truly exogenous variable, we employ an instrumental variable estimation procedure to predict the effect of voting behavior on political contributions. Following previous research, we find that a legislator's proportion daughters has a significant effect on voting behavior for women's issues, as measured by score in the "Congressional Record on Choice" issued by NARAL Pro-Choice America. In the second stage, we make a unique contribution by demonstrating a significant impact of exogenous voting behavior on PAC contributions, lending further credibility to the hypothesis that Political Action Committees respond to legislators' voting patterns by "rewarding" political candidates that vote in line with the positions of the PAC, rather than affecting those same votes - at least in this high-profile policy domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  9. Genes contributing to prion pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V

    2008-01-01

    incubation times, indicating that the conversion reaction may be influenced by other gene products. To identify genes that contribute to prion pathogenesis, we analysed incubation times of prions in mice in which the gene product was inactivated, knocked out or overexpressed. We tested 20 candidate genes...... show that many genes previously implicated in prion replication have no discernible effect on the pathogenesis of prion disease. While most genes tested did not significantly affect survival times, ablation of the amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (App) or interleukin-1 receptor, type I (Il1r1...

  10. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  11. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  12. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  13. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  14. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  17. ROMANIA'S MACROECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS FOR JOINING THE UNIQUE EUROPEAN CURENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government has announced plans to join the eurozone by 2015. Currently, the leu is not yet part of ERM II but plans to join in 2010-2012. The economic advantages of the monetary union grow with expansion of the Euro zone. There is also a high level of skepticism; the main fear about the Euro is the inflation –that is considerable promoted by the Euro currency’s exchange rate in comparison with 2002; another restraint is due to member states inability to establish their own interest rates. The IMF arose the option of joining the Euro zone criteria relaxing. A one-sided Euro’s joining was suggested by International Monetary Fund on March-April 2009, in a confidential report mentioned by The Financial Times as the emergent states in Central and Eastern Europe to be able to pass to the unique currency, but not being represented in the Central European Bank Board. By its side, CEB considers that emergent states of the European Union must not pass to the unique currency unilaterally, because such a fact could under-mine the trust in Euro currency worldwide. This option would hardly deepen the macroeconomic controversies inside the Euro zone and would contradict the previous conditions already imposed. An acceptable solution could be the fastening of emergent countries joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2, after they are aware of risks arisen by such a step. The European Commission endorses in the Convergence Report on 2010 that Romania doesn’t meet any criteria needed by passing to the unique European currency, respectively: prices stability; budget position of the government; stability of exchange rate; interest convergence on long run and there are also law impediments. Our paper discusses arguments for a faster passing to the Euro currency versus arguments for a late joining the Euro currency in Romania.

  18. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  19. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...

  20. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  1. Review of the book: MUPO Program. Unique Minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rodríguez-Arias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Unique Minds (Mentes Únicas and its version for teachers and counsellors, MUPO, are programs full of good ideas and tools for teachers and families. Both programs help to address learning disabilities in the natural context in which they take place and help children, families and teachers in their search for solutions based on their own resources. The programs are grounded on General Systems Theory and Multiple Intelligences Theory. They accessibly explain how our brain works and use techniques from Systemic Brief Family Therapy, such as Externalization, especially appropriate for the target ages - 8 to 12 years old, the ages when children learn to learn-.

  2. Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhykharsky, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref

  3. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leshen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  4. Unique molecular properties of superoxide dismutase from teleost fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T; Sato, M; Takeuchi, M

    1995-02-27

    A unique Cu,Zn-SOD was found and isolated from plaice Paralichthys olivaceus skin. Surprisingly, the properties of purified fish skin SOD were very different from those of SOD from other sources reported so far. The purified SOD was composed of four same subunits of 16 kDa and the molecular weight of the native SOD was found to be around 65 kDa. The dominant amino acids of the SOD were Ser, Thr, Pro and Glu. Above 70 degrees C, thermostability of the SOD was much lower than that of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD.

  5. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  6. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  7. Granulomatous slack skin syndrome: Report of a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A

    2018-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin syndrome is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). It is characterized clinically by redundant skin folds, which show a predilection towards flexural areas such as the axilla and the groin. Histologically, it shows a granulomatous T-cell infiltrate and loss of elastic tissue. It has an indolent but progressive course; and is usually refractory to treatment. We report a unique case of slack skin syndrome, sparing the classical sites with rapid and unusual involvement of non-intertriginous areas.

  8. Unique cerebrovascular anomalies in Noonan syndrome with RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Lichty, Angie W; Champion, Kristen J; Clarkson, L Kate; Holden, Kenton R; Matheus, M Gisele

    2014-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by gain-of-function germline mutations affecting components of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The authors present the case of a 6-year-old male with Noonan syndrome, Chiari malformation type I, shunted benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, and unique cerebrovascular changes. A de novo heterozygous change in the RAF1 gene was identified. The patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography to further clarify the nature of his abnormal brain vasculature. The authors compared his findings to the few cases of Noonan syndrome reported with cerebrovascular pathology. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  10. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  11. Uniqueness of KMS states for continuous fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 Prof H. Narnhofer and Prof. W. Thirring established a (nonlocal) model of fermions with pair interactions. The existence of equilibrium states and the appearance of mixing properties was proofed. If this model reflects the basic facts of nature, one has to expect and to require that at high temperatures there is a unique equilibrium state and at low temperatures there are many different equilibrium states. Uniqueness of the equilibrium state at high temperatures is the topic of this dissertation. One may be astonished, that the proof of the uniqueness requires such a huge machinery, while the existence of KMS-states followes from fairly general conditions. Two states differ, if they can be distinguished by experiment. If one considers now that we have to show that two KMS-states at high temperatures result into the same value in all experiments one can think of, one might get an idea how unhandy this problem is. Even a conscious numeration of all experiments was a problem. Surprisingly only a few principal ideas of the treatment of spin-models survive. The temperature is the leading parameter and therefore it is a good idea to make a high temperature perturbation expansion for the KMS-condition, which fixes an equilibrium state in mathematical terms. But when we choose a generating vector for the perturbation expansion the similarities end. We better use physical considerations: at high temperatures we expect that chemical bounds will be broken up and the interacting equilibrium state will differ only slightly from the equilibrium state for the free time evolution. Roughly spoken, one can expect that high-energetic particles neglect interactions and fly in a straight line. In chapter 2.4 the whole machinery is presented in an easy-to-survey manner on a simple interaction. But in the case of pair interactions every particle interacts with each other and so the author was not able to find an easily accessible form of the developed method for this case

  12. Space - A unique environment for process modeling R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Process modeling, the application of advanced computational techniques to simulate real processes as they occur in regular use, e.g., welding, casting and semiconductor crystal growth, is discussed. Using the low-gravity environment of space will accelerate the technical validation of the procedures and enable extremely accurate determinations of the many necessary thermophysical properties. Attention is given to NASA's centers for the commercial development of space; joint ventures of universities, industries, and goverment agencies to study the unique attributes of space that offer potential for applied R&D and eventual commercial exploitation.

  13. Lafora disease offers a unique window into neuronal glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Matthew S; Guinovart, Joan J; Minassian, Berge A; Roach, Peter J; Serratosa, Jose M

    2018-05-11

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, autosomal recessive, glycogen-storage disorder that manifests as severe epilepsy. LD results from mutations in the gene encoding either the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the E3 ubiquitin ligase malin. Individuals with LD develop cytoplasmic, aberrant glycogen inclusions in nearly all tissues that more closely resemble plant starch than human glycogen. This Minireview discusses the unique window into glycogen metabolism that LD research offers. It also highlights recent discoveries, including that glycogen contains covalently bound phosphate and that neurons synthesize glycogen and express both glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field…

  15. Selenoproteins-What unique properties can arise with selenocysteine in place of cysteine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnér, Elias S J

    2010-05-01

    The defining entity of a selenoprotein is the inclusion of at least one selenocysteine (Sec) residue in its sequence. Sec, the 21st naturally occurring genetically encoded amino acid, differs from its significantly more common structural analog cysteine (Cys) by the identity of a single atom: Sec contains selenium instead of the sulfur found in Cys. Selenium clearly has unique chemical properties that differ from sulfur, but more striking are perhaps the similarities between the two elements. Selenium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, a renowned Swedish scientist instrumental in establishing the institution that would become Karolinska Institutet. Written at the occasion of the bicentennial anniversary of Karolinska Institutet, this mini review focuses on the unique selenium-derived properties that may potentially arise in a protein upon the inclusion of Sec in place of Cys. With 25 human genes encoding selenoproteins and in total several thousand selenoproteins yet described in nature, it seems likely that the presence of that single selenium atom of Sec should convey some specific feature, thereby explaining the existence of selenoproteins in spite of demanding and energetically costly Sec-specific synthesis machineries. Nonetheless, most, if not all, of the currently known selenoproteins are also found as Cys-containing non-selenoprotein orthologues in other organisms, wherefore any potentially unique properties of selenoproteins are yet a matter of debate. The pK(a) of free Sec (approximately 5.2) being significantly lower than that of free Cys (approximately 8.5) has often been proposed as one of the unique features of Sec. However, as discussed herein, this pK(a) difference between Sec and Cys can hardly provide an evolutionary pressure for maintenance of selenoproteins. Moreover, the typically 10- to 100-fold lower enzymatic efficiencies of Sec-to-Cys mutants of selenoprotein oxidoreductases, are also weak arguments for the overall existence of

  16. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  17. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  18. The Contribution of Soil Moisture Information to Forecast Skill: Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal

    2010-01-01

    This talk briefly describes two recent studies on the impact of soil moisture information on hydrological and meteorological prediction. While the studies utilize soil moisture derived from the integration of large-scale land surface models with observations-based meteorological data, the results directly illustrate the potential usefulness of satellite-derived soil moisture information (e.g., from SMOS and SMAP) for applications in prediction. The first study, the GEWEX- and ClIVAR-sponsored GLACE-2 project, quantifies the contribution of realistic soil moisture initialization to skill in subseasonal forecasts of precipitation and air temperature (out to two months). The multi-model study shows that soil moisture information does indeed contribute skill to the forecasts, particularly for air temperature, and particularly when the initial local soil moisture anomaly is large. Furthermore, the skill contributions tend to be larger where the soil moisture initialization is more accurate, as measured by the density of the observational network contributing to the initialization. The second study focuses on streamflow prediction. The relative contributions of snow and soil moisture initialization to skill in streamflow prediction at seasonal lead, in the absence of knowledge of meteorological anomalies during the forecast period, were quantified with several land surface models using uniquely designed numerical experiments and naturalized streamflow data covering mUltiple decades over the western United States. In several basins, accurate soil moisture initialization is found to contribute significant levels of predictive skill. Depending on the date of forecast issue, the contributions can be significant out to leads of six months. Both studies suggest that improvements in soil moisture initialization would lead to increases in predictive skill. The relevance of SMOS and SMAP satellite-based soil moisture information to prediction are discussed in the context of these

  19. Differential Contributions of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Manifestations to Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Judy G; Bailey, Beth A; Williams, Stacey L; Anand, Sheeba; Reame, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of previously identified Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) manifestations (infertility, hirsutism, obesity, menstrual problems) to multiple psychological symptoms. Participants were 126 female endocrinology patient volunteers diagnosed with PCOS who completed a cross-sectional study of PCOS manifestations and psychological symptoms. Participants had significantly elevated scores on nine subscales of psychological symptoms. Menstrual problems were significantly associated with all symptom subscales as well as the global indicator, while hirsutism and obesity were significantly related to five or more subscales. After controlling for demographic factors, menstrual problems were the strongest predictor of psychological symptoms. Findings suggest features of excess body hair, obesity, and menstrual abnormalities carry unique risks for adverse psychologic symptoms, but menstrual problems may be the most salient of these features and deserve particular attention as a marker for psychological risk among women with PCOS.

  20. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  1. On the non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate three CMFD schemes for computing the nodal mathematical adjoint. • The nodal mathematical adjoint is not unique and can be non-positive (nonphysical). • Adjoint and forward eigenmodes are compatible if produced by the same CMFD method. • In nodal applications the excited eigenmodes are purely mathematical entities. - Abstract: Computation of the neutron adjoint flux within the framework of modern nodal diffusion methods is often facilitated by reducing the nodal equation system for the forward flux into a simpler coarse-mesh finite-difference form and then transposing the resultant matrix equations. The solution to the transposed problem is known as the nodal mathematical adjoint. Since the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction of a given nodal formulation can be obtained in a number of ways, different nodal mathematical adjoint solutions can be computed. This non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint challenges the credibility of the reduction strategy and demands a verdict as to its suitability in practical applications. This is the matter under consideration in this paper. A selected number of coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction schemes are described and compared. Numerical calculations are utilised to illustrate the differences in the adjoint solutions as well as to appraise the impact on such common applications as the computation of core point kinetics parameters. Recommendations are made for the proper application of the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction approach to the nodal mathematical adjoint problem

  2. Unique Results and Lessons Learned From the TSS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2016-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development in the U.S. Altogether, the investment made by NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the thirteen-year period of the TSS Program totaled approximately $400M-exclusive of the two Space Shuttle flights provided by NASA. Since those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated in earth orbit and shown to perform better than the preflight dynamic or electrodynamic theoretical predictions. While it is true that the TSS-1 and TSS-1R missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to have been engineering design flaws, material selection, and procedural issues that (1) are unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) can be readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology.

  3. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  4. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  5. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS USING A UNIQUE MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Klepac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available REFII1 model is an authorial mathematical model for time series data mining. The main purpose of that model is to automate time series analysis, through a unique transformation model of time series. An advantage of this approach of time series analysis is the linkage of different methods for time series analysis, linking traditional data mining tools in time series, and constructing new algorithms for analyzing time series. It is worth mentioning that REFII model is not a closed system, which means that we have a finite set of methods. At first, this is a model for transformation of values of time series, which prepares data used by different sets of methods based on the same model of transformation in a domain of problem space. REFII model gives a new approach in time series analysis based on a unique model of transformation, which is a base for all kind of time series analysis. The advantage of REFII model is its possible application in many different areas such as finance, medicine, voice recognition, face recognition and text mining.

  8. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  10. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  11. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  12. Unique phytochrome responses of the holoparasitic plant Orobanche minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazuteru; Okazawa, Atsushi; Wada, Yu; Mongkolchaiyaphruek, Anchaya; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Yoneyama, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Kobayashi, Akio

    2009-06-01

    Holoparasitic plants such as Orobanche spp. have lost their photosynthetic ability, so photoresponses to optimize photosynthesis are not necessary in these plants. Photoresponses are also involved in the regulation of plant development but the photoresponses of holoparasites have not been characterized in detail. In this study, the phytochrome (phy)-related photoresponse of Orobanche minor was investigated. Its photoreceptor, phytochrome A (OmphyA), was also characterized. Light effects on germination, shoot elongation, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and OmphyA expression and subcellular localization were analyzed. Red light (R):far-red light (FR) reversible inhibition of O. minor seed germination demonstrated that phy-mediated responses are retained in this holoparasite. Shoot elongation was inhibited by FR but not by R. This pattern is unique among known patterns of plant photoresponses. Additionally, molecular analysis showed that OmphyA is able to respond to the light signals. Interestingly, the unique pattern of photoresponses in O. minor seems to have been modified for adaptation to its parasitic life cycle. We hypothesize that this alteration has resulted from the loss or alteration of some phy-signaling components. Elucidation of altered components in phy signaling in this parasite will provide useful information not only about its physiological characteristics but also about general plant photoreception systems.

  13. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

    2014-05-15

    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures.

  14. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  15. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  16. Questions of uniqueness and resolution in reconstruction from projections

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Myron Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Reconstruction from projections has revolutionized radiology and as now become one of the most important tools of medical diagnosi- he E. M. I. Scanner is one example. In this text, some fundamental heoretical and practical questions are resolved. Despite recent research activity in the area, the crucial subject ·f the uniqueness of the reconstruction and the effect of noise in the ata posed some unsettled fundamental questions. In particular, Kennan mith proved that if we describe an object by a C~ function, i. e. , nfinitely differentiable with compact support, then there are other bjects with the same shape, i. e. , support, which can differ almost rhitrarily and still have the same projections in finitely many direc­ ions. On the other hand, he proved that objects in finite dimensional unction spaces are uniquely determined by a single projection for almost 11 angles, i. e. , except on a set of measure zero. Along these lines, erman and Rowland in [41) showed that reconstructions obtained from he common...

  17. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  18. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  19. The paradigm of Weideman: Appreciating the uniqueness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution commences with a substantiation of the claim made by. Weideman regarding the inevitable “philosophical base” of linguistics by showing that the question what a special science is, is not itself specific scientific in nature. Moreover, modal abstraction, as the distinctive feature of scientific thinking, also ...

  20. Contributing to Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the design of computer supported joint action spaces. It is argued against a view of functionality as residing in computer applications. In such a view the creation of functionality is equivalent to the creation of computer applications. Functionality, in the view...... advocated in this paper, emerges in the specific dynamic interplay of actors, objectives, structures, practices and means. In this view, functionality is the result of creating, harnessing and inhabiting computer supported joint action spaces. The successful creation and further development of a computer...... supported joint action space comprises a whole range of appropriate design contributions. The approach is illustrated by the example of the creation of the computer supported joint action space "exchange network of voluntary union educators". As part of the effort a group of participants created...

  1. Contributing from the margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    empirical study, I focused on kindergarten children’s first-person perspectives on the electronic media technologies they deemed subjectively relevant for conducting everyday life in the practice of their kindergarten. The concept of the children’s perspectives opens possibilities for transcending...... of the practice researcher when engaging with her/his potential co-researchers and the investigated, socio-materially mediated practice. The paper will argue that making sense of first-person perspectives – here on conducting a life with media technologies – presupposes that the researcher conceptualizes him....../herself as a contributor to an investigated practice, as inextricably entangled with the conducts of life of the others in relation to the conditions in practice. Doing research in the kindergarten thus becomes a mutual and collective endeavor, to which pedagogues, parents, children, and the researcher contribute. Even...

  2. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  3. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Le Treut, H.; Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO 2 . The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO 2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO 2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH 4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH 4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the

  4. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  5. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  6. The contribution of technology to added value

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, António S C

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide consensus that introduction of technology to the production process contributes to an overall economic value, however, confusion between technology, knowledge and capital often makes value calculations ambiguous and non-objective. The Contribution of Technology to Added Value addresses not only this issue of definition but also provides a production model to assess the value contribution of technology within the production process. A clarification  of fundamental semantics  provides a significant taxonomy for technology dependence, and allows understanding and modeling of how knowledge, technology and capital individually contribute to production and to value adding. A new technology dependence taxonomy is proposed and assessed following chapters explaining growth models, the KTC model and technology index values. Balancing theoretical knowledge with real-world data and applications The Contribution of Technology to Added Value clarifies the issue of value adding for a range of different vie...

  7. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of the Gowdy T3 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jeronimo; Marugan, Guillermo A. Mena; Velhinho, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    After its reduction by a gauge-fixing procedure, the family of linearly polarized Gowdy T 3 cosmologies admits a scalar field description whose evolution is governed by a Klein-Gordon type equation in a flat background in 1+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of S 1 , though in the presence of a time-dependent potential. The model is still subject to a homogeneous constraint, which generates S 1 -translations. Recently, a Fock quantization of this scalar field was introduced and shown to be unique under the requirements of unitarity of the dynamics and invariance under the gauge group of S 1 -translations. In this work, we extend and complete this uniqueness result by considering other possible scalar field descriptions, resulting from reasonable field reparametrizations of the induced metric of the reduced model. In the reduced phase space, these alternate descriptions can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the field, the inverse scaling of its canonical momentum, and the possible addition of a time-dependent, linear contribution of the field to this momentum. Demanding again unitarity of the field dynamics and invariance under the gauge group, we prove that the alternate canonical pairs of fieldlike variables admit a Fock representation if and only if the scaling of the field is constant in time. In this case, there exists essentially a unique Fock representation, provided by the quantization constructed by Corichi, Cortez, and Mena Marugan. In particular, our analysis shows that the scalar field description proposed by Pierri does not admit a Fock quantization with the above unitarity and invariance properties

  8. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Examine How Individual SLPs Differentially Contribute to Children's Language and Literacy Gains in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the unique contributions in children's language and literacy gains, over 1 academic year, that are attributable to the individual speech-language pathologist (SLP) and (b) to explore possible child- and SLP-level factors that may further explain SLPs' contributions to children's language and literacy gains. Participants were 288 kindergarten and 1st-grade children with language impairment who were currently receiving school-based language intervention from SLPs. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we partitioned the variance in children's gains in language (i.e., grammar, vocabulary) and literacy (i.e., word decoding) that could be attributed to their individual SLP. Results revealed a significant contribution of individual SLPs to children's gains in grammar, vocabulary, and word decoding. Children's fall language scores and grade were significant predictors of SLPs' contributions, although no SLP-level predictors were significant. The present study makes a first step toward incorporating implementation science and suggests that, for children receiving school-based language intervention, variance in child language and literacy gains in an academic year is at least partially attributable to SLPs. Continued work in this area should examine the possible SLP-level characteristics that may further explicate the relative contributions of SLPs.

  9. Eastern Posavina as unique geologic and hydrogeologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grba, Nenad; Krcmar, Dejan; Neubauer, Franz; Roncevic, Srdjan; Kragulj Isakovski, Marijana; Molnar Jazic, Jelena; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    The geochemical survey on soils has huge significance for determining the anthropogenic source of metals in total metal content from sediments, that could origin from both sources. In order to obtain a complete picture, geological mapping and impact on specific area should be done. The investigated area included the eastern part of the Posavina Basin from the furthest north-western part of Jadar block terrane (sampling sites Zasavica Special Nature Reserve of the first category in the Ramsar List, Batrovci, Bosut and Jamena locality). In period between 2010 and 2014 all investigations were performed on samples from depth to 0.50 m. Sediment were analyzed for Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb by flame atomic absorption spectrometry-FAAS (Perkin Elmer, AAnalyst 700). The heavy metal content of this alluvial plain and loess terraces area are variable like Ni (14 - 47 mg/kg), Zn (70 - 265 mg/kg), Cd (2,7-4,0 mg/kg), Cr (4 - 32 mg/kg), Cu (28 - 68 mg/kg) and Pb (5 - 101 mg/kg). Except Cr, the most of the obtained range values were higher than Upper Continental Crust (UCC) from sedimentary and loess data (Rudnick and Gao, 2004)). Several studies collaborate to this hypothesis related to Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA, 60-95) from Jadar unit and neighbor representative catchment areas (Grba et al., 2014, Buggle et al., 2011and Šajnović, 2008). The direction of hillslope transport are as follow: from north it is Fruska Gora Mountain with serpentinite soils from ultramafic rocks, Cer Mountains mostly with a plutonic composition and from south and from east Bosnian Mountains mainly Majevica as part of Internal Dinarides Ophiolites mélange. Contributions of geochemical process have direct and dominant influence on concentrations of heavy metals in this region. Taking into account the background values for this region (Grba et al., 2014) anthropogenic impacts are small in extent, dominantly by zinc moderately to strongly polluted which have dual origin (geological and

  10. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Dianne; Georges, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways. PMID:29751579

  12. Measles Outbreak with Unique Virus Genotyping, Ontario, Canada, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shari; Hiebert, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Gournis, Effie; Sharron, Jennifer; Severini, Alberto; Jiaravuthisan, Manisa; Shane, Amanda; Jaeger, Valerie; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Fediurek, Jill; Sander, Beate; Mazzulli, Tony; Schulz, Helene; Deeks, Shelley L

    2017-07-01

    The province of Ontario continues to experience measles virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in Canada. We describe an unusual outbreak of measles in Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a unique strain of virus and no known association among primary case-patients. A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak period (January 25-March 23, 2015); none of these cases occurred in persons who had recently traveled. Despite enhancements to case-patient interview methods and epidemiologic analyses, a source patient was not identified. However, the molecular epidemiologic analysis, which included extended sequencing, strongly suggested that all cases derived from a single importation of measles virus genotype D4. The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigorous epidemiologic investigation, and a better understanding of the gaps in surveillance are needed to maintain Ontario's measles elimination status.

  13. A unique $Z_4^R$ symmetry for the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possible anomaly free Abelian discrete symmetries of the MSSM that forbid the mu-term at perturbative order. Allowing for anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism we identify discrete R-symmetries as the only possibility and prove that there is a unique Z_4^R symmetry that commutes with SO(10). We argue that non-perturbative effects will generate a mu-term of electroweak order thus solving the mu-problem. The non-perturbative effects break the Z_4^R symmetry leaving an exact Z_2 matter parity. As a result dimension four baryon- and lepton-number violating operators are absent while, at the non-perturbative level, dimension five baryon- and lepton-number violating operators get induced but are highly suppressed so that the nucleon decay rate is well within present bounds.

  14. The unique predisposition to criminal violations in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.

  15. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators

  16. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  17. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  18. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  19. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  20. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  1. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways.

  2. A Unique Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pelvic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Traisak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is diverse and vasculitis can be a potential manifestation. Cutaneous lesions involving small vessels are the most frequent presentation. However, medium and large vessel vasculitis may present with life-threatening visceral manifestations. We present a unique case of pelvic vasculitis mimicking a pelvic mass as an initial presentation of SLE. There are case reports of systemic vasculitis involving the female genital tract with giant cell arteritis (GCA, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN, and granulomatous with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis (GPA/MPA, among others, but only a few cases attributed to SLE. Awareness of this condition and a prompt diagnosis are warranted as this is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.

  3. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  4. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  5. Digital identifiers as permanent unique registers for researchers in the university context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F. Acosta-Ortega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of Internet and the web allows a wide access to a greater warehouse of information sources in thousand of journals and publications, nets of almost unlimited number of people, computers and opportunities for learning and research without precedents. That makes the correct identification and recovery of scientific production of researchers very difficult. For that reason, during the last years different attemps of different organizations have been made to create a permanent unique register for authors, which permits to identify their articles wherever they are placed and without taking into account the specificity in the author’s name, publishing and  processing practices In data base,  and different bibliographic description styles as well. ORCID (Openn Researcher and Contribution ID is an identifier with the greatest posibilities of becoming universal to achieve visibility and positioning of Latin-American universities in the present international context.

  6. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Adelman, Zach N; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C; Szuter, Elise M; Hagan, Richard W; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M; Nelson, David R; Rosendale, Andrew J; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E; Peterson, Brittany F; Raje, Kapil R; Hottel, Benjamin A; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S T; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T; Anderson, Michelle A E; Jones, Jeffery W; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Hugh M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gibbs, Richard A; Werren, John H; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-02-02

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.

  7. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  8. Separating Common from Unique Variance Within Emotional Distress: An Examination of Reliability and Relations to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew J; Evanovich, Emma K; David, Sarah Jo; Mumma, Gregory H

    2018-01-17

    High comorbidity rates among emotional disorders have led researchers to examine transdiagnostic factors that may contribute to shared psychopathology. Bifactor models provide a unique method for examining transdiagnostic variables by modelling the common and unique factors within measures. Previous findings suggest that the bifactor model of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) may provide a method for examining transdiagnostic factors within emotional disorders. This study aimed to replicate the bifactor model of the DASS, a multidimensional measure of psychological distress, within a US adult sample and provide initial estimates of the reliability of the general and domain-specific factors. Furthermore, this study hypothesized that Worry, a theorized transdiagnostic variable, would show stronger relations to general emotional distress than domain-specific subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the bifactor model structure of the DASS in 456 US adult participants (279 females and 177 males, mean age 35.9 years) recruited online. The DASS bifactor model fitted well (CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.05). The General Emotional Distress factor accounted for most of the reliable variance in item scores. Domain-specific subscales accounted for modest portions of reliable variance in items after accounting for the general scale. Finally, structural equation modelling indicated that Worry was strongly predicted by the General Emotional Distress factor. The DASS bifactor model is generalizable to a US community sample and General Emotional Distress, but not domain-specific factors, strongly predict the transdiagnostic variable Worry.

  9. Unique Trichomonas vaginalis gene sequences identified in multinational regions of Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Feng, Meng; Wang, Xiaolan; Fu, Yongfeng; Ma, Cailing; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-07-24

    Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects humans worldwide. This study determined the sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of T. vaginalis infecting both females and males in Xinjiang, China. Samples from 73 females and 28 males were collected and confirmed for infection with T. vaginalis, a total of 110 sequences were identified when the T. vaginalis 18S ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. These sequences were used to prepare a phylogenetic network. The rooted network comprised three large clades and several independent branches. Most of the Xinjiang sequences were in one group. Preliminary results suggest that Xinjiang T. vaginalis isolates might be genetically unique, as indicated by the sequence of their 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Low migration rate of local people in this province may contribute to a genetic conservativeness of T. vaginalis. The unique genetic feature of our isolates may suggest a different clinical presentation of trichomoniasis, including metronidazole susceptibility, T. vaginalis virus or Mycoplasma co-infection characteristics. The transmission and evolution of Xinjiang T. vaginalis is of interest and should be studied further. More attention should be given to T. vaginalis infection in both females and males in Xinjiang.

  10. Unique competitive effects of lianas and trees in a tropical forest understory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexandra; Tobin, Mike; Mangan, Scott; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-02-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, contributing up to 25% of the woody stems and 35% of woody species diversity. Lianas invest less in structural support but more in leaves compared to trees of similar biomass. These physiological and morphological differences suggest that lianas may interact with neighboring plants in ways that are different from similarly sized trees. However, the vast majority of past liana competition studies have failed to identify the unique competitive effects of lianas by controlling for the amount of biomass removed. We assessed liana competition in the forest understory over the course of 3 years by removing liana biomass and an equal amount of tree biomass in 40 plots at 10 sites in a secondary tropical moist forest in central Panama. We found that growth of understory trees and lianas, as well as planted seedlings, was limited due to competitive effects from both lianas and trees, though the competitive impacts varied by species, season, and size of neighbors. The removal of trees resulted in greater survival of planted seedlings compared to the removal of lianas, apparently related to a greater release from competition for light. In contrast, lianas had a species-specific negative effect on drought-tolerant Dipteryx oleifera seedlings during the dry season, potentially due to competition for water. We conclude that, at local scales, lianas and trees have unique and differential effects on understory dynamics, with lianas potentially competing more strongly during the dry season, and trees competing more strongly for light.

  11. Seafloor massive sulfide deposits support unique megafaunal assemblages: Implications for seabed mining and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Rachel E; Rowden, Ashley A; Clark, Malcolm R; Pallentin, Arne; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-04-01

    Mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) is imminent, but the ecology of assemblages at SMS deposits is poorly known. Proposed conservation strategies include protected areas to preserve biodiversity at risk from mining impacts. Determining site suitability requires biological characterisation of the mine site and protected area(s). Video survey of a proposed mine site and protected area off New Zealand revealed unique megafaunal assemblages at the mine site. Significant relationships were identified between assemblage structure and environmental conditions, including hydrothermal features. Unique assemblages occurred at both active and inactive chimneys and are particularly at risk from mining-related impacts. The occurrence of unique assemblages at the mine site suggests that the proposed protected area is insufficient alone and should instead form part of a network. These results provide support for including hydrothermally active and inactive features within networks of protected areas and emphasise the need for quantitative survey data of proposed sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Unique Turbinal Morphology in Horseshoe Bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Simmons, Nancy B

    2017-02-01

    The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in 37 species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae. Rhinolophids exhibit numerous structural modifications along the nasopharyngeal tract associated with emission of high duty cycle echolocation calls via the nostrils. In rhinolophids, we found that the maxilloturbinals and a portion of ethmoturbinal I form a pair of strand-like bony structures on each side of the nasal chamber. These structures project anteriorly from the transverse lamina and complete a hairpin turn to project posteriorly down the nasopharyngeal duct, and vary in length among species. The strand-like maxilloturbinals in Rhinolophidae were not observed in our outgroups and represent a synapomorphy for this family, and are unique in form among mammals. Within Rhinolophidae, maxilloturbinal size and cross-sectional shape were correlated with phylogeny. We hypothesize that strand-shaped maxilloturbinals may function to reduce respiratory heat and water loss without greatly impacting echolocation call transmission since they provide increased mucosal surface area for heat and moisture exchange but occupy minimal space. Alternatively, they may play a role in transmission of echolocation calls since they are located directly along the path sound travels between the larynx and nostrils during call emission. Anat Rec, 300:309-325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kripke, Donald L; McHugh, Paul R; Treisman, Glenn J; Squire, Larry R

    2010-08-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film "50 First Dates". On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL's memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-h intervals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Skipper genome sheds light on unique phenotypic traits and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-08-27

    Butterflies and moths are emerging as model organisms in genetics and evolutionary studies. The family Hesperiidae (skippers) was traditionally viewed as a sister to other butterflies based on its moth-like morphology and darting flight habits with fast wing beats. However, DNA studies suggest that the family Papilionidae (swallowtails) may be the sister to other butterflies including skippers. The moth-like features and the controversial position of skippers in Lepidoptera phylogeny make them valuable targets for comparative genomics. We obtained the 310 Mb draft genome of the Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius) from a wild-caught specimen using a cost-effective strategy that overcomes the high (1.6 %) heterozygosity problem. Comparative analysis of Lerema accius and the highly heterozygous genome of Papilio glaucus revealed differences in patterns of SNP distribution, but similarities in functions of genes that are enriched in non-synonymous SNPs. Comparison of Lepidoptera genomes revealed possible molecular bases for unique traits of skippers: a duplication of electron transport chain components could result in efficient energy supply for their rapid flight; a diversified family of predicted cellulases might allow them to feed on cellulose-enriched grasses; an expansion of pheromone-binding proteins and enzymes for pheromone synthesis implies a more efficient mate-recognition system, which compensates for the lack of clear visual cues due to the similarities in wing colors and patterns of many species of skippers. Phylogenetic analysis of several Lepidoptera genomes suggested that the position of Hesperiidae remains uncertain as the tree topology varied depending on the evolutionary model. Completion of the first genome from the family Hesperiidae allowed comparative analyses with other Lepidoptera that revealed potential genetic bases for the unique phenotypic traits of skippers. This work lays the foundation for future experimental studies of skippers and

  15. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Olden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Results Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies, study track (for studies with diversified study programs, or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits. Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Conclusion Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  16. Contribution of the ''safeguarded'' to the development of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an efficient system of international safeguards requires close and detailed interaction between the safeguarding authority and those being safeguarded, i.e. the plant operator and the State System to which he belongs. Such interaction is found in other control systems but the degree of international collaboration involved in Safeguards is perhaps unique and it is valuable to review and analyse the contributions which have arisen from prudent management considerations. Management has many reasons to exercise stringent control of nuclear materials stemming from the value and hazardous nature of the materials being used, and the requirements of relevant national legislation. Because systems at a plant and within a State are generally designed to control quantities of nuclear materials within limits smaller than those specified in the I.A.E.A.'s Safeguards objectives, experience at the plant level has contributed significantly to the development of International Safeguards procedures. In making such contributions, plant management and the national authorities have a common objective with that of the I.A.E.A. in developing a Safeguards system which is both technically-effective and cost-effective. The pursuit of this objective requires that implementation of the Safeguards system can be modified in the light of relevant practical experience of plant operators and of the I.A.E.A. The familiar Blue Book (INFCIRC 153) recognises clearly the need for an effective State's System of accounting for and control of nuclear materials as a necessary pre-requisite for the development and implementation of an effective I.A.E.A. system of Safeguards. It is therefore helpful to review the relevant contributions from the 'Safeguarded' in terms of the components of the State's System specified in paragraph 32 of the Blue Book. This paper reviews the continuing contributions stemming from plant and national experience, with particular emphasis on the development of

  17. The Unique Hoyle State of the Carbon Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2014-01-01

    Paper from the proceedings of The 1st Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology. Cosmology, Life & Anthropology,at the Ovidius University of Constanta, Romania held from 6 to 11 November, 2014 The famous astronomer Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) started his research career as an atheist. Hoyle's most important contribution to astrophysics is the theory of nucleosynthesis, i.e. the idea that chemical elements such as carbon can form in stars on t...

  18. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  19. Unique Association of Rare Cardiovascular Disease in an Athlete With Ventricular Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, V; Contursi, M; Dellegrottaglie, S; Borsellino, G

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias are a leading cause of non-elegibility to competitive sport. The failure to detect a significant organic substrate in the initial stage of screening does not preclude the identification of structural pathologies in the follow-up by using advanced imaging techniques. Here we report the case of a senior athlete judged not elegible because an arrhythmia with the morphology consistent with the origin of the left ventricle, in which subsequent execution of a cardiac MR and a thoracic CT scan has allowed the identification of an unique association between an area of myocardial damage, probable site of origine of the arrhythma, and a rare aortic malformation.

  20. Unique strategies for technical information management at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the current NASA manned programs, the maturation of Space Station and the introduction of the Space Exploration programs are anticipated to add substantially to the number and variety of data and documentation at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). This growth in the next decade has been estimated at five to ten fold compared to the current numbers. There will be an increased requirement for the tracking and currency of space program data and documents with National pressures to realize economic benefits from the research and technological developments of space programs. From a global perspective the demand for NASA's technical data and documentation is anticipated to increase at local, national, and international levels. The primary users will be government, industry, and academia. In our present national strategy, NASA's research and technology will assume a great role in the revitalization of the economy and gaining international competitiveness. Thus, greater demand will be placed on NASA's data and documentation resources. In this paper the strategies and procedures developed by DDMS, Inc., to accommodate the present and future information utilization needs are presented. The DDMS, Inc., strategies and procedures rely on understanding user requirements, library management issues, and technological applications for acquiring, searching, storing, and retrieving specific information accurately and quickly. The proposed approach responds to changing customer requirements and product deliveries. The unique features of the proposed strategy include: (1) To establish customer driven data and documentation management through an innovative and unique methods to identify needs and requirements. (2) To implement a structured process which responds to user needs, aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing services, resulting in increased productivity. (3) To provide a process of standardization of services and procedures. This standardization is the central

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  2. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  3. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  4. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    to support the forthcoming Cluster II mission. As a result, VILSPA now has two fully upgraded 15 metre S-band antennae, which should enable the facility to enter the new millennium confident in its ability to support future space programmes. Modernisation of VIL-1 included the replacement of the 60 dish panels, the subreflector, the antenna equipment room and other parts of the main structure. One of the most significant modifications has been the replacement of the Servo and tracking systems, since the Cluster II satellites will move in a highly elliptical orbit and require high speed tracking. Into Orbit The Cluster II mission will be launched by two Soyuz rockets provided by the French-Russian Starsem consortium. After two engine burns by the Fregat upper stage, the spacecraft will separate and use their own propulsion systems to reach their final orbits. Travelling in close formation, the four Cluster spacecraft will swoop to within 19,000 km of the Earth's surface and then retreat to 119,000 km - almost one third of the way to the Moon. The four satellites will be visible for an average of about 10 hours per day from the VILSPA ground station. However, only one satellite at a time can be in communication with the ground, which reduces the available time each day to around two and a half hours per satellite. Further challenges arise from the need to send new instructions to the 11 scientific instruments on each spacecraft, and from the vast amount of data to be returned each day from the 44 experiments. Over two years of operations, this adds up to 580 Gigabytes (580,000,000,000 bytes!) of data - equivalent to 290 million pages of printed text. VILSPA will be just one link in the overall Cluster II communications network. The day-to-day operation of the four spacecraft will be handled by the Operations Control Centre at ESOC (Darmstadt, Germany). All of the Cluster II data exchange between VILSPA and ESOC will be handled by dedicated communication lines. European

  5. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of electronic health records (EHRs has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. Method: We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5 and secure hashing algorithm (SHA as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. Results: The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. Conclusion: The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  6. Uniqueness and numerical methods in inverse obstacle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem we consider in this tutorial is to determine the shape of an obstacle from the knowledge of the far field pattern for scattering of time-harmonic plane waves. In the first part we will concentrate on the issue of uniqueness, i.e., we will investigate under what conditions an obstacle and its boundary condition can be identified from a knowledge of its far field pattern for incident plane waves. We will review some classical and some recent results and draw attention to open problems. In the second part we will survey on numerical methods for solving inverse obstacle scattering problems. Roughly speaking, these methods can be classified into three groups. Iterative methods interpret the inverse obstacle scattering problem as a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation and apply iterative schemes such as regularized Newton methods, Landweber iterations or conjugate gradient methods for its solution. Decomposition methods, in principle, separate the inverse scattering problem into an ill-posed linear problem to reconstruct the scattered wave from its far field and the subsequent determination of the boundary of the scatterer from the boundary condition. Finally, the third group consists of the more recently developed sampling methods. These are based on the numerical evaluation of criteria in terms of indicator functions that decide whether a point lies inside or outside the scatterer. The tutorial will give a survey by describing one or two representatives of each group including a discussion on the various advantages and disadvantages

  7. The odontoid synchondrotic slip: an injury unique to young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, B.; Emery, D.; Armstrong, D.

    1995-01-01

    We report seven children (three female, four male) diagnosed with traumatic synchrondrotic slip of the odontoid. The clinical records, plain films, and CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. The patients ranged in age between 3 and 5 years. Their injuries resulted from a motor vehicle accident in four cases and from a fall from a height in three. The injury was isolated in five; it was associated with a closed head injury in one and with facial and brachial plexus trauma in another. Radiographs showed anterior angulation with or without displacement in all seven cases. Axial CT with sagittal reformation and 3D reconstructions were performed in six cases. This confirmed the synchrondrotic slip and, in addition, identified a rotary component to the injury in three cases, with compromise of the canal in two. Other additional injuries were also noted. All cases were treated conservatively and the injuries healed. Only one child had a neurological deficit attributable to her head injury rather than to her cervical injury (MR of the cervical cord was normal). The presence of the synchondrosis between the dens and the body of C-2 makes this injury unique to children under 7 years of age; by the age of 7 the synchrondrosis has fused. (orig.)

  8. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  9. What is Unique About Extension Personnel in the City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extension’s pursuit to better attract, develop, retain, and structure competent personnel in the city requires new strategies to build on the knowledge base established through previous research and practice. With the support of numerous national organizations, this study utilized a Competency Framework Development (CFD process to systematically tap into the knowledge of County Extension Directors serving in large urban communities. Findings indicated these local leaders need specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs that are both similar and unique when compared with results from other Extension competency studies. Competencies identified included building social and financial capital, strategic planning and organizing, resource attraction and management, advocacy and impact accountability with multiple stakeholders, and others. A primary difference was that diversity, complexity, and scale in urban communities influenced the extent to which competencies are demonstrated. Research results can be applied to a competency model that incorporates intentional recruiting and hiring practices that reflect the diversity and priorities of the community, competency-based professional development, competitive compensation and retention tactics, and staffing structure and strategies. Further research can include CFD with various types of Extension personnel and perspectives. Extension leaders can continue learning alongside others who can help inform administrators about human capital policies and practices.

  10. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant's ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest's physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented.

  11. Frames of References – Art Museums as Unique Visual Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Hristova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The age old activity of collecting arts is not intrinsically dependent on the art museum as separate architectural type. How was the art museum as an independent structure conceptualized and why? What was the idea behind that concept? Was it created as a medium consciously and what kind of messages was it supposed to deliver? What kind of unique “textual” overlaps the various disciplines of archaeology, art history, politics, literature, science and architecture created in order to produce what we today recognize as art museum space? This study focuses on the crucial historical moments of the late 17th century when such questions were posed for the first time within the classical discourse of the French architectural theory which followed the consolidation of French absolutism and the foundation of the Royal academies of arts and sciences, until the mid 19th century when the answers to those questions were finally exemplified in built architecture. The study gives a comprehensive overview of the cultural context art museums as public institutions emerged from and became new spatial models for collective cultivation.

  12. The unique cysteine knot regulates the pleotropic hormone leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was used to probe the role of the knotted topology introduced by the disulphide-bridge on leptin folding and function. Our results surprisingly show that the free energy landscape is conserved between knotted and unknotted protein, however the additional complexity added by the knot formation is structurally important. Native state analyses led to the discovery that the disulphide-bond plays an important role in receptor binding and thus mediate biological activity by local motions on distal receptor-binding sites, far removed from the disulphide-bridge. Thus, the disulphide-bridge appears to function as a point of tension that allows dissipation of stress at a distance in leptin.

  13. Hawadith Street Initiative: A unique Sudanese childhood charity experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad Mohamed; A-Rahman, Nada Hassan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Due to escalating conflicts and resultant economic constraints, different social services in low income and low-middle income countries have witnessed a decline in its standards, and increase in the costs. This situation has led to emergence of large numbers of patients and their families who cannot afford the costs of health services provided by public hospitals. On this background, and the old heritage of the Sudanese to help the needy, the Hawadith Street Initiative (HSI) was established. Named after the street on which it was founded - which translates indirectly to "Accidents Lane", HSI was established in 2012 by a group of youths, most of them in their twenties of age, and recently graduated. The main activity of the initiative is helping the needy hospital patients, especially with regards to their treatment costs, in Khartoum and other cities in Sudan. Starting with recreational programs for cancer patients, and public campaigns for donation of blood, the initiative's youths changed their activities. Using the social media, Facebook, they adopted the strategy of communication with potential donors, after sending posts containing brief anonymous presentations and call of help for needy cases. Currently HSI includes more than 2000 volunteers in Khartoum and 17 other cities. The most important achievement of HSI is the establishment of an intensive care unit at a children hospital in Omdurman city costing 435,880 US dollars. HSI demonstrates the possibility of delivering great services with minimum resources, and constitutes a unique organization, worldwide, in a new wave of Internet-based initiatives.

  14. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  15. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  16. Preference for oddity: uniqueness heuristic or hierarchical choice process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Traditional economic theories assume decision makers in multialternative choice tasks "assign" a value to each option and then express rational preferences. Here, I report an apparent violation of such rationality in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis). I tested the jays' preference in a quaternary choice task where three options were the same color and the fourth option was a different color. All options offered an identical food reward and so the strictly rational expectation was that subjects would choose the odd-colored option in 25% of choices. In clear disagreement, every subject chose the odd option more frequently than expected. I speculate as to how this surprising preference for oddity might have been ecologically rational: by using a unique-choice heuristic, the jays might have been able to bypass a deliberative phase of the decision process and devote more attention to scanning for predators. Alternatively, it is conceivable that the jays did not prefer oddity per se. Instead, they might have used a hierarchical process, assigning options to color categories and then choosing between categories. If so, their behavior matches expectation after all (on average, subjects chose the odd option 50% of the time). It should be straightforward to test these competing hypotheses. The current results can be viewed as a new example of how simple mechanisms sometimes produce economically puzzling yet ecologically rational decision making.

  17. Peripheral formalin injection induces unique spinal cord microglial phenotypic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-Yuan; Tan, Yong-Hui; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of brain and activated by peripheral tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of several microglial surface immunomolecules in the spinal cord, including leukocyte common antigen (LCA/CD45), MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, Fc receptor, and CD11c following formalin injection into the rat’s hind paw. CD45 and MHC class I were upregulated in the activated microglia, which was evident on day 3 with the peak expression on day 7 following peripheral formalin injection. There was a very low basal expression of MHC class II, CD11c, and the Fc receptor, which did not change after the formalin injection. These results, for the first time, indicate that peripheral formalin injection can induce phenotypic changes of microglia with distinct upregulation of CD45 and MHC class I antigen. The data suggest that phenotypic changes of the activated microglia may be a unique pattern of central changes following peripheral tissue injury. PMID:19015000

  18. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Slack, Jonathan C; Naugler, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    The use of electronic health records (EHRs) has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5) and secure hashing algorithm (SHA) as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  19. A uniquely specialized ear in a very early tetrapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, J A; Ahlberg, P E; Finney, S M; Dominguez Alonso, P; Robinson, J; Ketcham, R A

    2003-09-04

    The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology remained enigmatic and not what was expected of a very primitive tetrapod. Its apparent specializations led it to be considered as a "blind offshoot" or "sidebranch" off the tetrapod family tree, and recent cladistic analyses have disagreed about its exact phylogenetic position within the tetrapod stem group. In particular, its braincase and ear region defied interpretation, such that conventional anatomical terms seemed inapplicable. Using new material collected in 1998 (ref. 9), preparation of earlier-collected material, and high-resolution computed tomography scanning, here we identify and interpret these problematic anatomical structures. They can now be seen to form part of a highly specialized ear, probably a hearing device for use in water. This represents a structurally and functionally unique modification of the tetrapod otic region, unlike anything seen in subsequent tetrapod evolution. The presence of deeply grooved gill bars as in its contemporary Acanthostega suggest that Ichthyostega may have been more aquatically adapted than previously believed.

  20. Tibialis Posterior Tenosynovitis: A Unique Musculoskeletal Manifestation of Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupper, Peter; Stitik, Todd P

    2018-02-01

    Extra-articular manifestations of gout can present in several ways, including tenosynovitis. We present a rare case of acute tibialis posterior gouty tenosynovitis. An 82-year-old man with a history of well-controlled gout presented with acute onset of left ankle pain, occurring without inciting event. The medial ankle was slightly erythematous with moderate dorsal-medial swelling and mild dorsal-lateral swelling, with severe tenderness to palpation over the medial retro-malleolar region. Range of motion and manual muscle testing were pain limited throughout. Ultrasound examination revealed a left posterior tibialis tendon sheath tenosynovitis with effusion and overlying soft tissue edema. Tendon sheath aspirate revealed sodium urate crystals and a white blood cell count of 6400/μL. Tendon sheath injection with a mixture of 1% lidocaine and dexamethasone 4 mg resulted in symptom resolution. Repeat ultrasound examination demonstrated no evidence of tibialis posterior tendon sheath effusion. This case is unique not only because acute gouty posterior tibialis tenosynovitis is very rare, particularly in a normouricemic individual, but also because the sonographic evidence of gouty infiltration into the posterior tibialis tendon and overlying subcutaneous tissue considerably aided in arriving at the correct diagnosis in a timely manner.