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Sample records for significant time preparing

  1. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flexibility of production systems and prepare-finish time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Milan R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the specificities of the large-serial and mass production is the almost neglected percentage of prepare-finish time in the production cycle. In the conditions of today dominant discontinuous production, it becomes a significant element of the production cycle. The eastern (Japan doctrine of increasing the flexibility of the production systems, is based inter alia also on the extreme reduction of the prepare-finish time. For this reason, the aim of this study was to identify the types and percentages of individual jobs within the group of prepare-finish jobs. The sample consisted of 3 (three production systems for the production of joinery, with the discontinuous production system. The research shows that the percentage of time of the jobs installation of work instruments, regulation of processing regime, and removal of work instruments is extremely long and that it ranges between 11.83% and 18.93% of the shift time. The reasons of the high percentage of these jobs are the wide range of products and the absence of the rationalisation of prepare-finish jobs. Within the efforts to minimize the effects of disruption and to increase the flexibility of the production systems, the rationalisation of prepare-finish jobs is the unavoidable condition.

  3. V-amylose structural characteristics, methods of preparation, significance, and potential applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obiro, WC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available , and postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. Various aspects of V-amylose structure, methods of preparation, factors that affect its formation, and the significance and potential applications of the V-amylose complexes are reviewed....

  4. Contrast characteristics of barium preparations and the timing of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 光一; 中桐, 義忠; 東, 義晴; 杉田, 勝彦; 小橋, 高郎; 大倉, 保彦; 丹谷, 延義; 三上, 泰隆; 平木, 祥夫

    1995-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the contrast characteristics of barium suspension and timing of exposure. We poured several kinds of barium preparations on the phantom manufactured by ourselves, and took X-ray pictures continuously by a DSA system. We analyzed each of the characteris-tics of the contrast. The time which was reguired for the contrast to reach the peak (Contrast Peak Time ; CPT) was unrelated with the kind of barium preparations used. It depended on the viscosity of the con...

  5. Prefilled syringes for intravitreal injection reduce preparation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Kjer, Birgit; Munch, Inger Christine

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The demand for intravitreal therapy has increased dramatically with the introduction of vascular endo-thelial growth factor inhibitors. Improved utilisation of existing resources is crucial to meeting the increased future demand. We investigated time spent preparing intravitreal inj...... had no influence on the design of the study, analysis of the data, preparation of the manuscript or the decision to publish. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......INTRODUCTION: The demand for intravitreal therapy has increased dramatically with the introduction of vascular endo-thelial growth factor inhibitors. Improved utilisation of existing resources is crucial to meeting the increased future demand. We investigated time spent preparing intravitreal...... injection treatment using either prefilled syringes or vials in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We video-recorded preparations of intravitreal injections (n = 172) for each preparation type (ranibizumab prefilled syringe (n = 56), ranibizumab vial (n = 56) and aflibercept vial (n = 60)) in a multi...

  6. Who Has Time To Cook? How Family Resources Influence Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Households participating in the Food Stamp Program are increasingly headed by a single parent or two working parents. As this trend continues, more low-income households may find it difficult to allocate the time needed to prepare meals that fit within a limited budget and meet dietary requirements. Using Tobit analysis of the 2003-04 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study finds that household time resources significantly affect how much time is allocated to preparing food. In fact, work...

  7. Significance of focal relaxation times in head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inao, Suguru; Furuse, Masahiro; Saso, Katsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Izawa, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Serial examinations by nuclear magnetic resonance-computed tomography were carried out in 35 head-injured patients aged 7 to 77 years. The injuries were classified as cerebral contusion (nine cases), acute epidural hematoma (eight cases), acute cerebral swelling (two cases), and chronic subdural hematoma (16 cases). The results of 92 measurements were divided into two groups: acute stage (within 3 days of injury) and chronic stage (2 weeks or longer after injury). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/) of brain tissue adjacent to chronic subdural hematoma were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. A Fonar QED 80-alpha system was used for magnetic resonance imaging and measurement of focal T/sub 1/. The T/sub 1/ values at the region of interest were measured 3 to 5 times by the field focusing technique (468 gauss in the focused spot), and the mean value was used for evaluation. The standard T/sub 1/ values obtained from healthy subjects were 290 +- 41 msec in the cerebral cortex and 230 +- 34 msec in the white matter. Prolongation of T/sub 1/ in perifocal brain gradually shortened over time and normalized in the chronic stage. The degree of contusional edema may have been reflected in alterations in T/sub 1/. In contrast, parenchymal injury resulted in a progressive T/sub 1/ elevation, which far exceeded 500 msec in the chronic stage. Such time courses of T/sub 1/ may indicate irreversible tissue damage. There were no noticeable changes in tissue T/sub 1/ over time in patients with acute diffuse cerebral swelling or those who underwent evacuation of acute epidural or chronic subdural hematomas. The underlying pathophysiology in such situations seems to be not brain edema but cerebral hyperemia. In the presence of ischemia, the T/sub 1/ value was prolonged in the early stage, reflecting progression of is chemic edema. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Discovering significant evolution patterns from satellite image time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, François; Masseglia, Florent; Gançarski, Pierre; Forestier, Germain

    2011-12-01

    Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) provide us with precious information on land cover evolution. By studying these series of images we can both understand the changes of specific areas and discover global phenomena that spread over larger areas. Changes that can occur throughout the sensing time can spread over very long periods and may have different start time and end time depending on the location, which complicates the mining and the analysis of series of images. This work focuses on frequent sequential pattern mining (FSPM) methods, since this family of methods fits the above-mentioned issues. This family of methods consists of finding the most frequent evolution behaviors, and is actually able to extract long-term changes as well as short term ones, whenever the change may start and end. However, applying FSPM methods to SITS implies confronting two main challenges, related to the characteristics of SITS and the domain's constraints. First, satellite images associate multiple measures with a single pixel (the radiometric levels of different wavelengths corresponding to infra-red, red, etc.), which makes the search space multi-dimensional and thus requires specific mining algorithms. Furthermore, the non evolving regions, which are the vast majority and overwhelm the evolving ones, challenge the discovery of these patterns. We propose a SITS mining framework that enables discovery of these patterns despite these constraints and characteristics. Our proposal is inspired from FSPM and provides a relevant visualization principle. Experiments carried out on 35 images sensed over 20 years show the proposed approach makes it possible to extract relevant evolution behaviors.

  9. Significantly reducing registration time in IGRT using graphics processing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    respiration phases in a free breathing volunteer and 41 anatomical landmark points in each image series. The registration method used is a multi-resolution GPU implementation of the 3D Horn and Schunck algorithm. It is based on the CUDA framework from Nvidia. Results On an Intel Core 2 CPU at 2.4GHz each...... registration took 30 minutes. On an Nvidia Geforce 8800GTX GPU in the same machine this registration took 37 seconds, making the GPU version 48.7 times faster. The nine image series of different respiration phases were registered to the same reference image (full inhale). Accuracy was evaluated on landmark...

  10. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  11. Preparation of significant complexes of selected transition elements with appropriate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Hala Hassan

    2000-06-01

    New complexes of copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) have been prepared using triphenylphosphine and benzofurazan-1-oxide as ligands. Benzofurazan-1-oxide was prepared from the reaction between o-nitrophenyl azide and toluene as a catalyst. These complexes have been identified by means of infrared spectra and also melting points determination. The coordination bonding was found to be through phosphorus-metal and nitrogen metal. The melting points and colour confirmed are used as initial confirmation or identification procedure. Stability constants were studied to the new complexes prepared which is in good agreement with reported value for similar complexes. (Author)

  12. Preparation of significant complexes of selected transition elements with appropriate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Hala Hassan

    2000-06-01

    New complexes of copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) have been prepared using triphenylphosphine and benzofurazan-1-oxide as ligands. Benzofurazan-1-oxide was prepared from the reaction between o-nitrophenyl azide and toluene as a catalyst. These complexes have been identified by means of infra-red spectra and also melting points determination. The coordination bonding was found to be through phosphorus-metal and nitrogen-metal. The melting points and colour confirmed are used as initial confirmation or identification procedure. Stability constants were studied to the new complexes prepared which is in good agreement with reported value for similar complexes. (Author)

  13. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  16. Time-resolved autofluorescence imaging of human donor retina tissue from donors with significant extramacular drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Gaillard, Elizabeth R; Dillon, James; Mullins, Robert F; Russell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Birgit; Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Biskup, Christoph

    2012-06-08

    Time and spectrally resolved measurements of autofluorescence have the potential to monitor metabolism at the cellular level. Fluorophores that emit with the same fluorescence intensity can be discriminated from each other by decay time of fluorescence intensity after pulsed excitation. We performed time-resolved autofluorescence measurements on fundus samples from a donor with significant extramacular drusen. Tissue sections from two human donors were prepared and imaged with a laser scanning microscope. The sample was excited with a titanium-sapphire laser, which was tuned to 860 nm, and frequency doubled by a BBO crystal to 430 nm. The repetition rate was 76 MHz and the pulse width was 170 femtoseconds (fs). The time-resolved autofluorescence was recorded simultaneously in 16 spectral channels (445-605 nm) and bi-exponentially fitted. RPE can be discriminated clearly from Bruch's membrane, drusen, and choroidal connective tissue by fluorescence lifetime. In RPE, bright fluorescence of lipofuscin could be detected with a maximum at 510 nm and extending beyond 600 nm. The lifetime was 385 ps. Different types of drusen were found. Most of them did not contain lipofuscin and exhibited a weak fluorescence, with a maximum at 470 nm. The lifetime was 1785 picoseconds (ps). Also, brightly emitting lesions, presumably representing basal laminar deposits, with fluorescence lifetimes longer than those recorded in RPE could be detected. The demonstrated differentiation of fluorescent structures by their fluorescence decay time is important for interpretation of in vivo measurements by the new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) ophthalmoscopy on healthy subjects as well as on patients.

  17. The preparation of reports of a significant event at a uranium processing or uranium handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Licenses to operate uranium processing or uranium handling facilities require that certain events be reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and to other regulatory authorities. Reports of a significant event describe unusual events which had or could have had a significant impact on the safety of facility operations, the worker, the public or on the environment. The purpose of this guide is to suggest an acceptable method of reporting a significant event to the AECB and to describe the information that should be included. The reports of a significant event are made available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Access to Information Act and the AECB's policy on public access to licensing information

  18. Dedicated robotics team reduces pre-surgical preparation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lasser

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance; Two-sample t-test for unequal variances. Results: The first and last 100 cases were found to have similar age (P=0.27, BMI (P=0.11, and ASA (P=0.09. The average preoperative times were 66. 4 and 53.4 min, respectively (P<0.05. The second 100 patients treated were found to have a significantly shorter preoperative time when compared to the first 100 patients (P<0.05. When the first 100 cases were divided into cohorts of 10 cases the mean preoperative time for the first through fourth cohorts were 80.5, 69.3, 78.8, and 64.7 min, respectively. After treatment of our first 30 patients we found a significant drop in preoperative time. This persisted throughout the remainder of our experience. Conclusions: From the time of patient arrival a number of tasks are accomplished by the non-physician operating room staff during RALRP. The use of a consistent staff can decrease preoperative setup times and, therefore, the overall length of surgery.

  19. Microparticles variability in fresh frozen plasma: preparation protocol and storage time effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Antonelou, Marianna H; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles or microparticles exhibiting procoagulant and thrombogenic activity may contribute to the haemostatic potential of fresh frozen plasma. Fresh frozen plasma was prepared from platelet-rich plasma at 20 °C (Group-1 donors) or directly from whole blood at 4 °C (Group-2 donors). Each unit was aseptically divided into three parts, stored frozen for specific periods of time, and analysed by flow cytometry for procoagulant activity immediately after thaw or following post-thaw storage for 24 h at 4 °C. Donors' haematologic, biochemical and life-style profiles as well as circulating microparticles were analysed in parallel. Circulating microparticles exhibited a considerable interdonor but not intergroup variation. Fresh frozen plasma units were enriched in microparticles compared to plasma in vivo. Duration of storage significantly affected platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles. Fresh frozen plasma prepared directly from whole blood contained more residual platelets and more platelet-derived microparticles compared to fresh frozen plasma prepared from platelet-rich plasma. Consequently, there was a statistically significant difference in total, platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles between the two preparation protocols over storage time in the freezer. Preservation of the thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C did not significantly alter microparticle accumulation. Microparticle accumulation and anti-oxidant capacity of fresh frozen plasma was positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with the level of circulating microparticles in individual donors. The preparation protocol and the duration of storage in the freezer, independently and in combination, influenced the accumulation of microparticles in fresh frozen plasma units. In contrast, storage of thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C had no significant effect on the concentration of microparticles.

  20. Appointment waiting times and education level influence the quality of bowel preparation in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Khean-Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors for poor bowel preparation are recognized to be independent of the type of bowel preparation method used. Patient and administrative factors influencing bowel preparation are known to vary in different healthcare systems. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study of patients undergoing colonoscopy in an Asian tertiary centre was conducted to identify risk factors associated with poor bowel preparation, and to evaluate the impact of poor bowel preparation on technical performance and patient comfort. Results Data on 501 patients (mean age 60.1 ± 14.0 years old, 51.2% males, 60.9% with secondary education or higher was available for analysis. Poor bowel preparation was present in 151 patients (30.1%. Lower education level (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.54 - 3.60, colonoscopy appointment waiting time beyond 16 weeks (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.04 - 3.37 and non-adherence to bowel preparation instructions (OR = 4.76, 95% CI = 3.00 - 7.55 were identified as independent risk factors for poor bowel preparation. Poor bowel preparation was associated with a lower cecal intubation rate (78.1% versus 98.3%, p Conclusions Education levels and appointment waiting times, in addition to non-adherence to bowel preparation instructions, increase the risk of poor bowel preparation in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. The latter has a significant impact on colonoscopy performance and patient comfort.

  1. The Effects of Reducing Preparation Time on the Execution of Intentionally Curved Trajectories: Optimization and Geometrical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovrat Kohen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the “go” signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively. While trajectories with short preparation times showed target specificity at their onset, they were significantly more variable and showed larger angular deviations from the lines connecting their initial position and the target, compared to the trajectories with long preparation times. Importantly, the trajectories of the short preparation time movements still reached their end-point targets accurately, with comparable movement durations. We hypothesize that success in the short preparation time condition is a result of an online control mechanism that allows further refinement of the plan during its execution and study this control mechanism with a novel trajectory analysis approach using minimum jerk optimization and geometrical modeling approaches. Results show a later agreement of the short preparation time trajectories with the optimal minimum jerk trajectory, accompanied by a later initiation of a parabolic segment. Both observations are consistent with the existence of an online trajectory planning process.Our results suggest that when preparation time is not sufficiently long, subjects execute a more variable and less optimally prepared initial trajectory and exploit online control mechanisms to refine their actions on the fly.

  2. The Effects of Reducing Preparation Time on the Execution of Intentionally Curved Trajectories: Optimization and Geometrical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Dovrat; Karklinsky, Matan; Meirovitch, Yaron; Flash, Tamar; Shmuelof, Lior

    2017-01-01

    When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the “go” signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively. While trajectories with short preparation times showed target specificity at their onset, they were significantly more variable and showed larger angular deviations from the lines connecting their initial position and the target, compared to the trajectories with long preparation times. Importantly, the trajectories of the short preparation time movements still reached their end-point targets accurately, with comparable movement durations. We hypothesize that success in the short preparation time condition is a result of an online control mechanism that allows further refinement of the plan during its execution and study this control mechanism with a novel trajectory analysis approach using minimum jerk optimization and geometrical modeling approaches. Results show a later agreement of the short preparation time trajectories with the optimal minimum jerk trajectory, accompanied by a later initiation of a parabolic segment. Both observations are consistent with the existence of an online trajectory planning process.Our results suggest that when preparation time is not sufficiently long, subjects execute a more variable and less optimally prepared initial trajectory and exploit online control mechanisms to refine their actions on the fly. PMID:28706478

  3. Heat Generation on Implant Surface During Abutment Preparation at Different Elapsed Time Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Keraidis, Abdullah; Aleisa, Khalil; Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Al-Tahawi, Hamdi; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Lynch, Edward; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate heat generation at the implant surface caused by abutment preparation using a diamond bur in a high-speed dental turbine in vitro at 2 different water-coolant temperatures. Thirty-two titanium-alloy abutments were connected to a titanium-alloy implant embedded in an acrylic resin placed within a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37°C. The specimens were equally distributed into 2 groups (16 each). Group 1: the temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C; and group 2: the temperature was maintained at 32 ± 1°C. Each abutment was prepared in the axial plane for 1 minute and in the occlusal plane for 1 minute. The temperature of the heat generated from abutment preparation was recorded and measured at 3 distinct time intervals. Water-coolant temperature (20°C vs 32°C) had a statistically significant effect on the implant's temperature change during preparation of the abutment (P water-coolant temperature of 20 ± 1°C during preparation of the implant abutment decreased the temperature recorded at the implant surface to 34.46°C, whereas the coolant temperature of 32 ± 1°C increased the implant surface temperature to 40.94°C.

  4. A two-station queue with dependent preparation and service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasiou, M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Boxma, O.J.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a single-server multi-station alternating queue where the preparation times and the service times are auto- and cross-correlated. We examine two cases. In the first case, preparation and service times depend on a common discrete time Markov chain. In the second case, we assume that the

  5. A Dynamic Time Warping Approach to Real-Time Activity Recognition for Food Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Plötz, Thomas; Olivier, Patrick

    We present a dynamic time warping based activity recognition system for the analysis of low-level food preparation activities. Accelerometers embedded into kitchen utensils provide continuous sensor data streams while people are using them for cooking. The recognition framework analyzes frames of contiguous sensor readings in real-time with low latency. It thereby adapts to the idiosyncrasies of utensil use by automatically maintaining a template database. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification approach by a number of real-world practical experiments on a publically available dataset. The adaptive system shows superior performance compared to a static recognizer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the generalization capabilities of the system by gradually reducing the amount of training samples. The system achieves excellent classification results even if only a small number of training samples is available, which is especially relevant for real-world scenarios.

  6. 76 FR 53524 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Once Upon Many Times...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7568] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Once Upon Many Times: Legends and Myths in Himalayan Art'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Once Upon Many Times: Legends and Myths in Himalayan Art,'' imported from...

  7. New significance test methods for Fourier analysis of geophysical time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When one applies the discrete Fourier transform to analyze finite-length time series, discontinuities at the data boundaries will distort its Fourier power spectrum. In this paper, based on a rigid statistics framework, we present a new significance test method which can extract the intrinsic feature of a geophysical time series very well. We show the difference in significance level compared with traditional Fourier tests by analyzing the Arctic Oscillation (AO and the Nino3.4 time series. In the AO, we find significant peaks at about 2.8, 4.3, and 5.7 yr periods and in Nino3.4 at about 12 yr period in tests against red noise. These peaks are not significant in traditional tests.

  8. Proceedings of preparing for a significant Central United States earthquake-Science needs of the response and recovery community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    these inhabitants were primitive by today's standards, they could survive because they did not rely on the supporting infrastructure we rely on today. What would you do if such an event struck as you read this? As a society, are we prepared for a similar event? Could you live for an extended period without power, refrigeration, heat, air conditioning, or fresh water? Missouri and its adjacent states have experienced more than 450 recorded earthquakes greater than magnitude 3 since 1964 (Petersen and others, 2008); however, none of these Central United States earthquakes has been as severe as the 1811-12 event. The 1811-12 events actually were a series of three very large earthquakes followed by many smaller but significant aftershocks (Johnston and Schweig, 1984). Ground shaking was reported as far away as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Charleston, South Carolina.

  9. The effect of dentine surface preparation and reduced application time of adhesive on bonding strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, A F M Almas; Fukuyama, Mai; Kakuda, Shinichi; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Sano, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of surface preparation and the application time of adhesives on the resin-dentine bond strengths with universal adhesives. Sixty molars were cut to exposed mid-coronal dentine and divided into 12 groups (n=5) based on three factors; (1) adhesive: G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Okayama, Japan) and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); (2) smear layer preparation: SiC paper ground dentine or bur-cut dentine; (3) application time: shortened time or as manufacturer's instruction. Fifteen resin-dentine sticks per group were processed for microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) according to non-trimming technique (1mm(2)) after storage in distilled water (37 °C) for 24h. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 tests (α=0.05). Fractured surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Another 12 teeth were prepared and cut into slices for SEM examination of bonded interfaces. μTBS were higher when bonded to SiC-ground dentine according to manufacturer's instruction. Bonding to bur-cut dentine resulted in significantly lower μTBS (padhesive resin interface. This was more pronounced when adhesives were bonded with a reduced application time and on bur cut dentine. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised on bur cut dentine and when applied with a reduced application time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  11. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  12. Effects of Glide Path on the Centering Ability and Preparation Time of Two Reciprocating Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Kato, Augusto Shoji; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of establishing glide path on the centering ability and preparation time of two single-file reciprocating systems in mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Methods and Materials: Sixty extracted mandibular molars with curvatures of 25-39 degrees and separate foramina for the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals, were divided into four groups (n=15); WaveOne+glide path; WaveOne; Reciproc+glide path and Reciproc. Non-patent canals were excluded and only one canal in each tooth was instrumented. A manual glide path was established in first and third groups with #10, 15 and 20 hand K-files. Preparation was performed with reciprocating in-and-out motion, with a 3-4 mm amplitude and slight apical pressure. Initial and final radiographs were taken to analyze the amount of dentin removed in the instrumented canals. The radiographs were superimposed with an image editing software and examined to assess discrepancies at 3-, 6- and 9-mm distances from the apex. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Preparation in groups without glide paths was swifter than the other groups (P=0.001). However, no difference was observed regarding centering ability. Conclusion: Establishing a glide path increased the total instrumentation time for preparing curved canals with WaveOne and Reciproc instruments. Glide path had no influence on the centering ability of these systems. PMID:26843875

  13. Identifying significant temporal variation in time course microarray data without replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Weston

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of time course microarray studies is the identification of genes that demonstrate significant time-dependent variation in their expression levels. Until recently, available methods for performing such significance tests required replicates of individual time points. This paper describes a replicate-free method that was developed as part of a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland in which no replicate data was collected. Results A temporal test statistic is proposed that is based on the degree to which data are smoothed when fit by a spline function. An algorithm is presented that uses this test statistic together with a false discovery rate method to identify genes whose expression profiles exhibit significant temporal variation. The algorithm is tested on simulated data, and is compared with another recently published replicate-free method. The simulated data consists both of genes with known temporal dependencies, and genes from a null distribution. The proposed algorithm identifies a larger percentage of the time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. Use of the algorithm in a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland resulted in the identification of genes exhibiting distinct circadian variation. These results were confirmed in follow-up laboratory experiments. Conclusion The proposed algorithm provides a new approach for identifying expression profiles with significant temporal variation without relying on replicates. When compared with a recently published algorithm on simulated data, the proposed algorithm appears to identify a larger percentage of time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. The development of the algorithm was instrumental in revealing the presence of circadian variation in the virgin rat mammary gland during the estrous cycle.

  14. Significance of coast down time on safety and availability of a pool type fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plant dynamics studies for quantifying the benefits of flow coast down time. • Establishment of minimum flow coast down time required for safety. • Assessment of influence of flow coast down on enhancing plant availability. • Synthesis of thermo mechanical benefits of flow coast down time on component design. - Abstract: Plant dynamic investigation towards establishing the influence of flow coast down time of primary and secondary sodium systems on safety and availability of plant has been carried out based on one dimensional analysis. From safety considerations, a minimum flow coast down time for primary sodium circuit is essential to be provided to limit the consequences of loss of flow event within allowable limits. Apart from safety benefits, large primary coast down time also improves plant availability by the elimination of reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events. Threshold values of SCRAM parameters also need optimization. By suitably selecting the threshold values for SCRAM parameters, significant reduction in the inertia of pumping systems can be derived to obtain desirable results on plant availability. With the optimization of threshold values and primary flow coast down behaviour equivalent to a halving time of 8 s, there is a possibility to eliminate reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events extending up to 0.75 s duration. Benefits of secondary flow halving on reducing transient thermal loading on components have also been investigated and mixed effects have been observed

  15. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Value of Test Preparation Courses for the TOEFL iBT: Merit, Worth, and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    Test preparation for high-stakes English language tests has received increasing research attention in the language assessment field; however, little is known about what aspects of test preparation students attend to and value. In this study, we considered the perspectives of 12 Chinese students who were enrolled in various academic programs in a…

  16. Time to significant pain reduction following DETP application vs placebo for acute soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchick, J; Magelli, M; Bodie, J; Sjogren, J; Rovati, S

    2010-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provide fast and effective acute pain relief, but systemic administration has increased risk for some adverse reactions. The diclofenac epolamine 1.3% topical patch (DETP) is a topical NSAID with demonstrated safety and efficacy in treatment of acute pain from minor soft tissue injuries. Significant pain reduction has been observed in clinical trials within several hours following DETP application, suggesting rapid pain relief; however, this has not been extensively studied for topical NSAIDs in general. This retrospective post-hoc analysis examined time to onset of significant pain reduction after DETP application compared to a placebo patch for patients with mild-to-moderate acute ankle sprain, evaluating the primary efficacy endpoint from two nearly identical studies. Data from two double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled studies (N = 274) of safety and efficacy of the DETP applied once daily for 7 days for acute ankle sprain were evaluated post-hoc using statistical modeling to estimate time to onset of significant pain reduction following DETP application. Pain on active movement on a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) recorded in patient diaries; physician- and patient-assessed tolerability; and adverse events. DETP treatment resulted in significant pain reduction within approximately 3 hours compared to placebo. Within-treatment post-hoc analysis based on a statistical model suggested significant pain reduction occurred as early as 1.27 hours for the DETP group. The study may have been limited by the retrospective nature of the analyses. In both studies, the DETP was well tolerated with few adverse events, limited primarily to application site skin reactions. The DETP is an effective treatment for acute minor soft tissue injury, providing pain relief as rapidly as 1.27 hours post-treatment. Statistical modeling may be useful in estimating time to onset of pain relief for comparison of topical

  17. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  18. Clinical Significance of F 18 FP CIT Dual Time Point PET Imaging in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Yoo, Ik Dong; Seo, Ye Young; Chung, Youg An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, In Uk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of dual time point F 18 FP CIT PET imaging in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty four patients with PD (mean age 69.6) and 18 healthy people (mean age 70.26) underwent two sequential PET/CT scans (dual time point imaging) at 90 and 210 min after F 18 FP CIT injection. Tracer activity of region of interest was measured in the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain from both time points. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were obtained in the control group. The percent change in tracer activity between 90 and 210 min images was calculated. The SOR values and the percent change in tracer activity were compared between the patients and healthy control group. The SOR values for the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen at both 90 and 210 min images were significantly reduced in the patients with PD. The lowest P value was obtained for the anterior and posterior putamen (p<0.001) at both time points. There were significant differences of the percent change in tracer activity for the anterior and posterior putamen in the two groups (p=0.01) F 18 FP CIT PET scans at 90 and 210 min after injection are both able to diagnose PD. Therefore, the 90 min image by itself in sufficient for diagnosing PD.

  19. Improving the Mathematics Preparation of Elementary Teachers, One Lesson at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Dawn; Hiebert, James

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for systematically improving the mathematics preparation of elementary teachers, one lesson at a time. We begin by identifying a serious obstacle for teacher educators: the absence of mechanisms for developing a shareable knowledge base for teacher preparation. We propose our model as a way to address this…

  20. Marx’s Philosophy of Revolution in Permanence: Its Significance for Our Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Dmitryev

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available How can Marx’s ideas help us with the problem of how to make new revolutionary beginnings in a time when the counterrevolution is ascendant, without losing sight of the need to prepare for the equally crucial question of what happens after the revolution? Capitalism has taken various forms as it developed, with the latest shaped by its endemic crisis since the mid-1970s generated by its falling rate of profit. Throughout these stages, the humanism and dialectic of Capital remain prime determinants of allowing Marxist responses not to stop at economic analyses but to release, rather than inhibiting, new revolutionary subjects and directions. Critical for the present moment is to take up Marx’s humanism and dialectic as crucial dimensions of his philosophy of revolution in permanence. This encompasses not alone the famous March 1850 Address to the Communist League, but also the full trajectory of Marx's revolutionary life and thought from the 1844 Economic-Philosophic Manuscripts through Capital to the new moments of Marx's last decade as expressed in his writings on Russia and his Ethnological Notebooks. We trace Marx's theoretical/philosophical concept of permanent revolution in a number of his writings, to confront how various post-Marx Marxists addressed or ignored this dimension of Marx's thought, and explore whether this concept can be seen as central to Marx's body of thought, and can assist in the dual task of needed revolutionary transformation – the destruction of the old (negation and the construction of the new (the negation of the negation.

  1. Kinesthetic Astronomy: Significant Upgrades to the Sky Time Lesson that Support Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Zawaski, M.

    2004-12-01

    This paper will report on a significant upgrade to the first in a series of innovative, experiential lessons we call Kinesthetic Astronomy. The Sky Time lesson reconnects students with the astronomical meaning of the day, year, and seasons. Like all Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons, it teaches basic astronomical concepts through choreographed bodily movements and positions that provide educational sensory experiences. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. They emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Kinesthetic Astronomy lesson plans are fully aligned with national science education standards, both in content and instructional practice. Our lessons offer a complete learning cycle with written assessment opportunities now embedded throughout the lesson. We have substantially strengthened the written assessment options for the Sky Time lesson to help students translate their kinesthetic and visual learning into the verbal-linguistic and mathematical-logical realms of expression. Field testing with non-science undergraduates, middle school science teachers and students, Junior Girl Scouts, museum education staff, and outdoor educators has been providing evidence that Kinesthetic Astronomy techniques allow learners to achieve a good grasp of concepts that are much more difficult to learn in more conventional ways such as via textbooks or even computer animation. Field testing of the Sky Time lesson has also led us to significant changes from the previous version to support student learning. We will report on the nature of these changes.

  2. Time-dependent reversal of significant intrapulmonary shunt after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Sun, Byung Joo; Song, Jae-Kwan; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Dae-Hee; Lim, Young-Suk; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Lee, Sung Gyu

    2018-03-05

    Although the association between intrapulmonary shunt (IPS) and liver cirrhosis is clear, data of repeated contrast echocardiography (CE) before and after liver transplantation (LT) to evaluate factors associated with IPS are limited. Hand-agitated saline was used for CE and, by assessing left-chamber opacification, IPS was classified as grade 0 to 4. Grade 3/4 constituted significant IPS and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) was defined as significant IPS with the arterial partial pressure of oxygen < 70 mmHg. Before LT, 253 patients underwent CE and the frequency of significant IPS and HPS were 44% (n = 112) and 7% (n = 17), respectively. Child-Pugh score (odds ratio [OR], 1.345; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.090 to 1.660; p = 0.006) and arterial oxygen content (OR, 0.838; 95% CI, 0.708 to 0.991; p = 0.039) were independent determinants of significant IPS, whereas direct bilirubin (OR, 1.076; 95% CI, 1.012 to 1.144; p = 0.019) was the only variable associated with HPS. Among 153 patients who underwent successful LT, repeated CE was performed in 97 (63%), which showed significant reductions in IPS grade (from 2.6 ± 1.0 to 1.2 ± 1.3, p < 0.001) and the prevalence of significant IPS (from 56% to 20%, p = 0.038). After adjustment for pre-LT IPS grade, time from LT to repeated CE presented negative linear relationship with post-LT IPS grade (r 2 = 0.366, p < 0.001) and was the only determinant of post-LT IPS grade (OR, 1.009; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.014; p = 0.004). Repeated CE is useful to evaluate intrapulmonary vascular change before and after LT. Reversal of IPS after successful LT is time-dependent and follow-up duration should be considered for accurate assessment of IPS after LT.

  3. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  4. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper we present the KASOC Filter, which is used to automatically prepare data from the Kepler/K2 mission for asteroseismic analyses of solar-like planet host stars. The methods are very effective at removing unwanted signals of both instrumental and planetary origins and produce significantly cleaner......One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure...... asteroseismic targets. If not accounted for, the presence of planetary transits in the photometric time series often greatly complicates or even hinders these asteroseismic analyses. This drives the need for specialised methods of preprocessing data to make them suitable for asteroseismic analysis...

  5. Effects of preparation time and trial type probability on performance of anti- and pro-saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control optimizes responses to relevant task conditions by balancing bottom-up stimulus processing with top-down goal pursuit. It can be investigated using the ocular motor system by contrasting basic prosaccades (look toward a stimulus) with complex antisaccades (look away from a stimulus). Furthermore, the amount of time allotted between trials, the need to switch task sets, and the time allowed to prepare for an upcoming saccade all impact performance. In this study the relative probabilities of anti- and pro-saccades were manipulated across five blocks of interleaved trials, while the inter-trial interval and trial type cue duration were varied across subjects. Results indicated that inter-trial interval had no significant effect on error rates or reaction times (RTs), while a shorter trial type cue led to more antisaccade errors and faster overall RTs. Responses following a shorter cue duration also showed a stronger effect of trial type probability, with more antisaccade errors in blocks with a low antisaccade probability and slower RTs for each saccade task when its trial type was unlikely. A longer cue duration yielded fewer errors and slower RTs, with a larger switch cost for errors compared to a short cue duration. Findings demonstrated that when the trial type cue duration was shorter, visual motor responsiveness was faster and subjects relied upon the implicit trial probability context to improve performance. When the cue duration was longer, increased fixation-related activity may have delayed saccade motor preparation and slowed responses, guiding subjects to respond in a controlled manner regardless of trial type probability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Waiting Time for Coronal Preparation and the Influence of Different Cements on Tensile Strength of Metal Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilione Kruschewsky Costa Sousa Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of post-cementation waiting time for core preparation of cemented cast posts and cores had on retention in the root canal, using two different luting materials. Sixty extracted human canines were sectioned 16 mm from the root apex. After cast nickel-chromium metal posts and cores were fabricated and luted with zinc phosphate (ZP cement or resin cement (RC, the specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 according to the waiting time for core preparation: no preparation (control, 15 minutes, or 1 week after the core cementation. At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5 mm/min until failure. Two-way ANOVA (time versus cement and the Tukey tests (P < 0.05 showed significantly higher (P < 0.05 tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. Core preparation and post-cementation waiting time for core recontouring did not influence the retention strength. ZP was the best material for intraradicular metal post cementation.

  7. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Eastham, James A

    2014-10-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin) of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  8. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Silberstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive surgical margins (PSM at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  9. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05, whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops.

  10. Impact of Educational Cartoon on Pediatric Bowel Preparation Quality at Time of Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maxwell MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate if addition of educational cartoon to pediatric bowel preparation instructions improves the quality of bowel preparation and patient experience. Methods: Patients were randomized to control group receiving standard bowel preparation instructions or intervention group receiving additional educational cartoon. To objectively rate bowel preparation, a blinded endoscopist completed numeric Ottawa score (0-14, with 0 being best. The family also completed a questionnaire rating the bowel preparation process. Results: Data from 23 patients were analyzed. Mean Ottawa score in the intervention group compared with controls was not significantly different (mean scores 3.73 and 3.33, respectively; P = .384. Level of education was significantly correlated with better Ottawa score in the overall population (ρ = −.462, P = .026 and within the control group (ρ = −.658, P = .02. Both groups of patients reported positive experience with bowel preparation. Conclusion: There may be benefit to further investigation of this educational cartoon in parents with less than college level education or non-English-speaking families in larger population of patients.

  11. Light water reactor sequence timing: its significance to probabilistic safety assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Buttemer, D.R.; Stetkar, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines event sequence timing in light water reactor plants from the viewpoint of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The analytical basis for the ideas presented here come primarily from the authors' work in support of more than 20 PSA studies over the past several years. Timing effects are important for establishing success criteria for support and safety system response and for identifying the time available for operator recovery actions. The principal results of this paper are as follows: 1. Analysis of event sequence timing is necessary for meaningful probabilistic safety assessment - both the success criteria for systems performance and the probability of recovery are tightly linked to sequence timing. 2. Simple engineering analyses based on first principles are often sufficient to provide adequate resolution of the time available for recovery of PSA scenarios. Only those parameters that influence sequence timing and its variability and uncertainty need be examined. 3. Time available for recovery is the basic criterion for evaluation of human performance, whether time is an explicit parameter of the operator actions analysis or not. (author)

  12. Estimating the implicit component of visuomotor rotation learning by constraining movement preparation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Gunn, Reece; Marinovic, Welber; Carroll, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    When sensory feedback is perturbed, accurate movement is restored by a combination of implicit processes and deliberate reaiming to strategically compensate for errors. Here, we directly compare two methods used previously to dissociate implicit from explicit learning on a trial-by-trial basis: 1 ) asking participants to report the direction that they aim their movements, and contrasting this with the directions of the target and the movement that they actually produce, and 2 ) manipulating movement preparation time. By instructing participants to reaim without a sensory perturbation, we show that reaiming is possible even with the shortest possible preparation times, particularly when targets are narrowly distributed. Nonetheless, reaiming is effortful and comes at the cost of increased variability, so we tested whether constraining preparation time is sufficient to suppress strategic reaiming during adaptation to visuomotor rotation with a broad target distribution. The rate and extent of error reduction under preparation time constraints were similar to estimates of implicit learning obtained from self-report without time pressure, suggesting that participants chose not to apply a reaiming strategy to correct visual errors under time pressure. Surprisingly, participants who reported aiming directions showed less implicit learning according to an alternative measure, obtained during trials performed without visual feedback. This suggests that the process of reporting can affect the extent or persistence of implicit learning. The data extend existing evidence that restricting preparation time can suppress explicit reaiming and provide an estimate of implicit visuomotor rotation learning that does not require participants to report their aiming directions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY During sensorimotor adaptation, implicit error-driven learning can be isolated from explicit strategy-driven reaiming by subtracting self-reported aiming directions from movement directions, or

  13. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  14. Using lean principles to improve outpatient adult infusion clinic chemotherapy preparation turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Matthew H; Eckel, Stephen; Daniels, Rowell; Amerine, Lindsey B

    2015-07-01

    The workflow and chemotherapy preparation turnaround times at an adult infusion clinic were evaluated to identify opportunities to optimize workflow and efficiency. A three-phase study using Lean Six Sigma methodology was conducted. In phase 1, chemotherapy turnaround times in the adult infusion clinic were examined one year after the interim goal of a 45-minute turnaround time was established. Phase 2 implemented various experiments including a five-day Kaizen event, using lean principles in an effort to decrease chemotherapy preparation turnaround times in a controlled setting. Phase 3 included the implementation of process-improvement strategies identified during the Kaizen event, coupled with a final refinement of operational processes. In phase 1, the mean turnaround time for all chemotherapy preparations decreased from 60 to 44 minutes, and a mean of 52 orders for adult outpatient chemotherapy infusions was received each day. After installing new processes, the mean turnaround time had improved to 37 minutes for each chemotherapy preparation in phase 2. In phase 3, the mean turnaround time decreased from 37 to 26 minutes. The overall mean turnaround time was reduced by 26 minutes, representing a 57% decrease in turnaround times in 19 months through the elimination of waste and the implementation of lean principles. This reduction was accomplished through increased efficiencies in the workplace, with no addition of human resources. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma principles improved workflow and efficiency at an adult infusion clinic and reduced the overall chemotherapy turnaround times from 60 to 26 minutes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time imaging of spin-to-orbital angular momentum hybrid remote state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Manuel; Qassim, Hammam; Mand, Harjaspreet; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-08-01

    There exists two prominent methods to transfer information between two spatially separated parties, namely Alice (A) and Bob (B): quantum teleportation and remote state preparation. However, the difference between these methods is, in the teleportation scheme, the state to be transferred is completely unknown, whereas in state preparation it should be known to the sender. In addition, photonic state teleportation is probabilistic due to the impossibility of performing a two-particle complete Bell-state analysis with linear optics, while remote state preparation can be performed deterministically. Here we report the first realization of photonic hybrid remote state preparation from spin to orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom. In our scheme, the polarization state of photon A is transferred to orbital angular momentum of photon B. The prepared states are visualized in real time by means of an intensified CCD camera. The quality of the prepared states is verified by performing quantum state tomography, which confirms an average fidelity higher than 99.4%. We believe that this experiment paves the way towards a novel means of quantum communication in which encryption and decryption are carried out in naturally different Hilbert spaces, and therefore may provide a means for enhancing security.

  16. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.

  17. The time course of temporal preparation in an applied setting: a study of gaming behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, S.A.; Hoorn, J.F.; Grin, M.; van den Burg, E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the time course of temporal preparation in the practice of computer gaming. Participants held an infrared rifle to shoot animated figures ("terrorists") that appeared from an elevator that opened briefly after the sound of a bell. The sound was either loud or soft and the interval

  18. Radionuclide determination of brain blood flow time and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.; Kirkov, M.

    1986-01-01

    Brain blood flow time in the two cerebral hemispheres was measured by the method of radioisotope circulography. The radiopharmaceutical used was 131 I-hypuran with activity 3,7 μBq in volume 0,3 ml. Registrations were made with two-channel radiograph GAMMA (Hungary) with external diameter of the colimator 50 mm. Tape speed was 160 mm/min at time costant 10. Patients with neurological and neurosurgical symptoms, as well as a group of normal subjects, were examined. Brain blood flow time varied within the range 5,5-7,5 s for either sex. It was increased in patients with concussion of the brain, epilepsy, atherosclerosis and tumors and shortened in patients with arterio-venous aneurysm. Conclusion is made that the diagnosis value of the method is high, it is practicable with no radiation load and furnisches reliable information on the effectiveness of surgical or drug treatment

  19. The significance of sampling time in therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M I; Larsen, J R; Svensson, C K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of clozapine is standardized to 12-h postdose samplings. In clinical settings, sampling time often deviates from this time point, although the importance of the deviation is unknown. To this end, serum concentrations (s-) of clozapine and its metabolite...... N-desmethyl-clozapine (norclozapine) were measured at 12 ± 1 and 2 h postdose. METHOD: Forty-six patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and on stable clozapine treatment, were enrolled for hourly, venous blood sampling at 10-14 h postdose. RESULTS: Minor changes in median percentage values were...

  20. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  1. More powerful significant testing for time course gene expression data using functional principal component analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Wu, Hulin

    2013-01-16

    One of the fundamental problems in time course gene expression data analysis is to identify genes associated with a biological process or a particular stimulus of interest, like a treatment or virus infection. Most of the existing methods for this problem are designed for data with longitudinal replicates. But in reality, many time course gene experiments have no replicates or only have a small number of independent replicates. We focus on the case without replicates and propose a new method for identifying differentially expressed genes by incorporating the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) into a hypothesis testing framework. The data-driven eigenfunctions allow a flexible and parsimonious representation of time course gene expression trajectories, leaving more degrees of freedom for the inference compared to that using a prespecified basis. Moreover, the information of all genes is borrowed for individual gene inferences. The proposed approach turns out to be more powerful in identifying time course differentially expressed genes compared to the existing methods. The improved performance is demonstrated through simulation studies and a real data application to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle data.

  2. University Leadership during Times of Significant Transformation: A Case of Kyambogo University in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namubiru, Gertrude; Onen, David; Oonyu, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how leadership was exercised at Kyambogo University [KyU] (in Uganda) during its formation that involved the merger of three tertiary institutions and the period immediately thereafter. This was regarded as a period of significant transformation at the institution. The study was prompted by the rampant strikes and protests…

  3. Timing in administration of a heat-killed Lactobacillus casei preparation for radioprotection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneoka, Kazuko; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Dimchev, A.B.; Shikita, Mikio; Nomoto, Koji; Yokokura, Teruo.

    1994-01-01

    A single subcutaneous injection of a preparation of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018), given before or after irradiation, significantly increased the survival rate of mice that had received 8.5-Gy 137 Cs whole-body γ-irradiation. A similar radioprotective effect was observed when LC 9018 was administered within the period from 2 days before irradiation to 9 h after irradiation, the pre-irradiation treatment being slightly better than the post-irradiation treatment. Increases in the weight of the spleen and in the number of endogenous spleen colonies on days 8 and 12 after irradiation suggested that the radioprotective effect was based on enhanced recovery of hematopoietic tissues. The activity of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in serum was rapidly increased by the treatment and was maintained at the elevated level for 13 days. At the same time, an increased level of M-CSF mRNA was detected in the livers of the treated mice. However, LC 9018 failed to save the lives of mice when administered 3 days after irradiation, although it increased serum M-CSF as effectively as noted above. The small advantage of the pre-irradiation over the post-irradiation treatment was not explained by the increases of metallothionein in the hematopoietic tissues of the treated mice. (author)

  4. Extended causal modeling to assess Partial Directed Coherence in multiple time series with significant instantaneous interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2010-11-01

    The Partial Directed Coherence (PDC) and its generalized formulation (gPDC) are popular tools for investigating, in the frequency domain, the concept of Granger causality among multivariate (MV) time series. PDC and gPDC are formalized in terms of the coefficients of an MV autoregressive (MVAR) model which describes only the lagged effects among the time series and forsakes instantaneous effects. However, instantaneous effects are known to affect linear parametric modeling, and are likely to occur in experimental time series. In this study, we investigate the impact on the assessment of frequency domain causality of excluding instantaneous effects from the model underlying PDC evaluation. Moreover, we propose the utilization of an extended MVAR model including both instantaneous and lagged effects. This model is used to assess PDC either in accordance with the definition of Granger causality when considering only lagged effects (iPDC), or with an extended form of causality, when we consider both instantaneous and lagged effects (ePDC). The approach is first evaluated on three theoretical examples of MVAR processes, which show that the presence of instantaneous correlations may produce misleading profiles of PDC and gPDC, while ePDC and iPDC derived from the extended model provide here a correct interpretation of extended and lagged causality. It is then applied to representative examples of cardiorespiratory and EEG MV time series. They suggest that ePDC and iPDC are better interpretable than PDC and gPDC in terms of the known cardiovascular and neural physiologies.

  5. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  6. The International Context of Teacher Preparation: Rejoinder to "Isn't It Time We Did Something about the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Graham

    2016-01-01

    This paper, a rejoinder to "Isn't It Time We Did Something about the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?" by Marx et al., suggests glancing at practices outside the United States to get some perspective on the nature of the problem of why so little emphasis is placed on teaching preparation in business doctoral…

  7. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  8. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...

  9. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  10. Motor preparation is modulated by the resolution of the response timing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Anthony N; Mackinnon, Colum D

    2010-03-31

    In the present experiment, the temporal predictability of response time was systematically manipulated to examine its effect on the time course of motor pre-programming and release of the intended movement by an acoustic startle stimulus. Participants performed a ballistic right wrist extension task in four different temporal conditions: 1) a variable foreperiod simple RT task, 2) a fixed foreperiod simple RT task, 3) a low resolution countdown anticipation-timing task, and 4) a high resolution anticipation-timing task. For each task, a startling acoustic stimulus (124dB) was presented at several intervals prior to the "go" signal ("go" -150ms, -500ms, and -1500ms). Results from the startle trials showed that the time course of movement pre-programming was affected by the temporal uncertainty of the imperative "go" cue. These findings demonstrate that the resolution of the timing information regarding the response cue has a marked effect on the timing of movement preparation such that under conditions of low temporal resolution, participants plan the movement well in advance in accordance with the anticipated probability of onset of the cue, whereas movement preparation is delayed until less than 500ms prior to response time when continuous temporal information is provided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In the time of significant generational diversity - surgical leadership must step up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Samuel R; O'Donnell, Mark E; Gray, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    The diverse attitudes and motivations of surgeons and surgical trainees within different age groups present an important challenge for surgical leaders and educators. These challenges to surgical leadership are not unique, and other industries have likewise needed to grapple with how best to manage these various age groups. The authors will herein explore management and leadership for surgeons in a time of age diversity, define generational variations within "Baby-Boomer", "Generation X" and "Generation Y" populations, and identify work ethos concepts amongst these three groups. The surgical community must understand and embrace these concepts in order to continue to attract a stellar pool of applicants from medical school. By not accepting the changing attitudes and motivations of young trainees and medical students, we may disenfranchise a high percentage of potential future surgeons. Surgical training programs will fill, but will they contain the highest quality trainees? Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decay-time measurements on 'pure' CsI scintillators prepared by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszthelyi-Landori, S.; Foeldvari, I.; Voszka, R.; Fodor, Z.; Seres, Z.

    1990-05-01

    The discovery of the fast decay time of the pure CsI and the various results of the measured samples led to the investigation of decay time of CsI crystals prepared by different methods. Carefully grown or prepared pure CsI behaves as fast scintillators with well or totally suppressed slow decay component. The estimated fast/slow or fast/total ratio is related to the preparation method and to the remaining built-in contamination of the samples. The fast decay of pure CsI consists of two components with decay times of ≅1 and ≅10 ns - with an intensity ratio of 0.3 and 0.65 for gamma and for alpha radiation, respectively. This new ≅1 ns component and the ≅0.8 fast/total ratio may achieve an important role in many applications where fast timing properties are needed, substituting BaF 2 . (author) 18 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Time-dependent preparation of gelatin-stabilized silver nanoparticles by pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, M. B.; Zamiri, Reza; Abdullah, A. H.; Ibrahim, N. A.; Sadrolhosseini, A. R.

    2011-03-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully prepared using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser, λ = 1064 nm, with laser fluence of approximately about 360 mJ/pulse, in an aqueous gelatin solution. In this work, gelatin was used as a stabilizer, and the size and optical absorption properties of samples were studied as a function of the laser ablation times. The results from the UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that the mean diameter of Ag-NPs decrease as the laser ablation time increases. The Ag-NPs have mean diameters ranging from approximately 10 nm to 16 nm. Compared with other preparation methods, this work is clean, rapid, and simple to use.

  14. A comparison of the time required by radiologists for the preparation of clinico-radiological meetings when film and PACS are used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherburn, G.; Bryan, S.; Cousins, C.

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis was that when a hospital-wide Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) is used, preparation for clinico-radiological meetings is faster, and more images are available, than when a conventional film system is used. This paper reports a study which compared the preparation time by radiologists when film was used with the time for the same activity when a hospital-wide PACS was used at Hammersmith Hospital for the preparation of the respiratory medicine and hepato-biliary meetings. It was found that when PACS was used the time per patient to prepare for the respiratory medicine session was reduced by 11.1 min and that similarly, 16 min per patient was saved in the preparation of the hepato-biliary sessions. The number of images which were unavailable for the session was reduced when PACS was in operation, but this reduction was not shown to be statistically significant. The introduction of PACS at Hammersmith Hospital has significantly reduced the time spent by radiologists in preparing for the two clinico-radiological sessions studied and, if this is extended to the other numerous sessions held each week, contributes to a considerable saving of staff time within the radiology department. (orig.)

  15. Errors in Postural Preparation Lead to Increased Choice Reaction Times for Step Initiation in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study asked whether older adults were more likely than younger adults to err in the initial direction of their anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) prior to a step (indicating a motor program error), whether initial motor program errors accounted for reaction time differences for step initiation, and whether initial motor program errors were linked to inhibitory failure. Methods. In a stepping task with choice reaction time and simple reaction time conditions, we measured forces under the feet to quantify APA onset and step latency and we used body kinematics to quantify forward movement of center of mass and length of first step. Results. Trials with APA errors were almost three times as common for older adults as for younger adults, and they were nine times more likely in choice reaction time trials than in simple reaction time trials. In trials with APA errors, step latency was delayed, correlation between APA onset and step latency was diminished, and forward motion of the center of mass prior to the step was increased. Participants with more APA errors tended to have worse Stroop interference scores, regardless of age. Conclusions. The results support the hypothesis that findings of slow choice reaction time step initiation in older adults are attributable to inclusion of trials with incorrect initial motor preparation and that these errors are caused by deficits in response inhibition. By extension, the results also suggest that mixing of trials with correct and incorrect initial motor preparation might explain apparent choice reaction time slowing with age in upper limb tasks. PMID:21498431

  16. The influence of spatial congruency and movement preparation time on saccade curvature in simultaneous and sequential dual-tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, Tobias; Fiehler, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Saccade curvature represents a sensitive measure of oculomotor inhibition with saccades curving away from covertly attended locations. Here we investigated whether and how saccade curvature depends on movement preparation time when a perceptual task is performed during or before saccade preparation. Participants performed a dual-task including a visual discrimination task at a cued location and a saccade task to the same location (congruent) or to a different location (incongruent). Additionally, we varied saccade preparation time (time between saccade cue and Go-signal) and the occurrence of the discrimination task (during saccade preparation=simultaneous vs. before saccade preparation=sequential). We found deteriorated perceptual performance in incongruent trials during simultaneous task performance while perceptual performance was unaffected during sequential task performance. Saccade accuracy and precision were deteriorated in incongruent trials during simultaneous and, to a lesser extent, also during sequential task performance. Saccades consistently curved away from covertly attended non-saccade locations. Saccade curvature was unaffected by movement preparation time during simultaneous task performance but decreased and finally vanished with increasing movement preparation time during sequential task performance. Our results indicate that the competing saccade plan to the covertly attended non-saccade location is maintained during simultaneous task performance until the perceptual task is solved while in the sequential condition, in which the discrimination task is solved prior to the saccade task, oculomotor inhibition decays gradually with movement preparation time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ''In-house'' pharmacological management for computed tomography coronary angiography: heart rate reduction, timing and safety of different drugs used during patient preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, Erica; Tedeschi, Carlo; Seitun, Sara; Ruffini, Livia; Aldrovandi, Annachiara; Palumbo, Alessandro A.; Martini, Chiara; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Weustink, Annick C.; Meijboom, Willem B.; Mollet, Nico R.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Feyter, Pim J. de; Cademartiri, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the effect, timing and safety of different pharmacological strategies during 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CT-CA). From the institutional database of CT-CA we enrolled 560 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. The type of drug preparation (group 1 = no treatment; group 2 = oral metoprolol; group 3 = other; group 4 = intravenous (IV) atenolol; group 5 = IV atenolol + nitrates; NR = non-responders), timing, and adverse effects were recorded. Heart rate (HR) during different preparation phases was recorded. Four adverse effects were recorded, none of which was attributable to pharmacological treatment. In all groups, except group 1, the HR on arrival was significantly reduced by the pharmacological treatment (p < 0.01). Group 4 showed the best (-16 ± 8 bpm) HR reduction. There was no significant effect on HR due to nitrates (p = 0.49), while a slight increase due to contrast material was noted (p < 0.05). Average time required for preparation was 44 ± 25 min. Groups 4 and 5 showed the most effective timing (8 ± 9 min and 8 ± 8 min, respectively; p < 0.01). Pharmacological preparation in patients undergoing CT-CA is safe and effective. Best results in terms of HR reduction and fast preparation are obtained with IV administration of beta-blockers. (orig.)

  18. ''In-house'' pharmacological management for computed tomography coronary angiography: heart rate reduction, timing and safety of different drugs used during patient preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Tedeschi, Carlo; Seitun, Sara; Ruffini, Livia; Aldrovandi, Annachiara [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Palumbo, Alessandro A.; Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tarantini, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Cardiology, Padua (Italy); Weustink, Annick C.; Meijboom, Willem B.; Mollet, Nico R.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Feyter, Pim J. de [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology c/o Piastra Tecnica - Piano 0, Parma (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the effect, timing and safety of different pharmacological strategies during 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CT-CA). From the institutional database of CT-CA we enrolled 560 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. The type of drug preparation (group 1 = no treatment; group 2 = oral metoprolol; group 3 = other; group 4 = intravenous (IV) atenolol; group 5 = IV atenolol + nitrates; NR = non-responders), timing, and adverse effects were recorded. Heart rate (HR) during different preparation phases was recorded. Four adverse effects were recorded, none of which was attributable to pharmacological treatment. In all groups, except group 1, the HR on arrival was significantly reduced by the pharmacological treatment (p < 0.01). Group 4 showed the best (-16 {+-} 8 bpm) HR reduction. There was no significant effect on HR due to nitrates (p = 0.49), while a slight increase due to contrast material was noted (p < 0.05). Average time required for preparation was 44 {+-} 25 min. Groups 4 and 5 showed the most effective timing (8 {+-} 9 min and 8 {+-} 8 min, respectively; p < 0.01). Pharmacological preparation in patients undergoing CT-CA is safe and effective. Best results in terms of HR reduction and fast preparation are obtained with IV administration of beta-blockers. (orig.)

  19. Advancement of Solidification Processing Technology Through Real Time X-Ray Transmission Microscopy: Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Curreri, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of samples were prepared for the real time X-ray transmission microscopy (XTM) characterization. In the first series directional solidification experiments were carried out to evaluate the critical velocity of engulfment of zirconia particles in the Al and Al-Ni eutectic matrix under ground (l-g) conditions. The particle distribution in the samples was recorded on video before and after the samples were directionally solidified. In the second series samples of the above two type of composites were prepared for directional solidification runs to be carried out on the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) aboard the space shuttle during the LMS mission in June 1996. X-ray microscopy proved to be an invaluable tool for characterizing the particle distribution in the metal matrix samples. This kind of analysis helped in determining accurately the critical velocity of engulfment of ceramic particles by the melt interface in the opaque metal matrix composites. The quality of the cast samples with respect to porosity and instrumented thermocouple sheath breakage or shift could be easily viewed and thus helped in selecting samples for the space shuttle experiments. Summarizing the merits of this technique it can be stated that this technique enabled the use of cast metal matrix composite samples since the particle location was known prior to the experiment.

  20. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  1. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  2. HYPE: a WFD tool for the identification of significant and sustained upward trends in groundwater time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Croiset, Nolwenn; Laurence, Gourcy

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2006/11/CE (WFD) on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration asks Member States to identify significant and sustained upward trends in all bodies or groups of bodies of groundwater that are characterised as being at risk in accordance with Annex II to Directive 2000/60/EC. The Directive indicates that the procedure for the identification of significant and sustained upward trends must be based on a statistical method. Moreover, for significant increases of concentrations of pollutants, trend reversals are identified as being necessary. This means to be able to identify significant trend reversals. A specific tool, named HYPE, has been developed in order to help stakeholders working on groundwater trend assessment. The R encoded tool HYPE provides statistical analysis of groundwater time series. It follows several studies on the relevancy of the use of statistical tests on groundwater data series (Lopez et al., 2011) and other case studies on the thematic (Bourgine et al., 2012). It integrates the most powerful and robust statistical tests for hydrogeological applications. HYPE is linked to the French national database on groundwater data (ADES). So monitoring data gathered by the Water Agencies can be directly processed. HYPE has two main modules: - a characterisation module, which allows to visualize time series. HYPE calculates the main statistical characteristics and provides graphical representations; - a trend module, which identifies significant breaks, trends and trend reversals in time series, providing result table and graphical representation (cf figure). Additional modules are also implemented to identify regional and seasonal trends and to sample time series in a relevant way. HYPE has been used successfully in 2012 by the French Water Agencies to satisfy requirements of the WFD, concerning characterization of groundwater bodies' qualitative status and evaluation of the risk of non-achievement of

  3. Readability of Hospice Materials to Prepare Families for Caregiving at the Time of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Karen A.; McCarty, Kayla N.

    2012-01-01

    Many health care materials are not written at levels that can be understood by most lay people. In this descriptive study, we examined the readability of documents used by hospices to prepare families for caregiving at the time of death. We used two common formulae to examine the documents. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 8.95 (SD 1.80). The mean Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade level was 11.06 (SD 1.36). When we used the Colors Label Ease for Adult Readers instrument, it became evident that medical terminology was the primary reason for the high grade levels. Most documents (78%) included medical terms that were directly (46.2%) or indirectly (25.6%) explained in the text. Modification of hospice materials could improve families’ comprehension of information important for optimal end-of-life care. PMID:22492500

  4. MINIMIZING THE PREPARATION TIME OF A TUBES MACHINE: EXACT SOLUTION AND HEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson S.V. Hoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we optimize the preparation time of a tubes machine. Tubes are hard tubes made by gluing strips of paper that are packed in paper reels, and some of them may be reused between the production of one and another tube. We present a mathematical model for the minimization of changing reels and movements and also implementations for the heuristics Nearest Neighbor, an improvement of a nearest neighbor (Best Nearest Neighbor, refinements of the Best Nearest Neighbor heuristic and a heuristic of permutation called Best Configuration using the IDE (integrated development environment WxDev C++. The results obtained by simulations improve the one used by the company.

  5. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M

    2006-11-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive.

  6. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory preparation questionnaires as a tool for the implementation of the Just in Time Teaching in the Physics I laboratories: Research training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David A.; Sanchez, Melba J.; Forero, Oscar M.

    2017-06-01

    The implementation of the JiTT (Just in Time Teaching) strategy is presented to increase the previous preparation of students enrolled in the subject Physics Laboratory I offered at the Industrial University of Santander (UIS), Colombia. In this study, a laboratory preparation questionnaire (CPL) was applied as a tool for the implementation of JiTT combined with elements of mediated learning. It was found that the CPL allows to improve the students’ experience regarding the preparation of the laboratory and the development of the experimental session. These questionnaires were implemented in an academic manager (Moodle) and a web application (lab.ciencias.uis.edu.co) was used to publish the contents essential for the preparation of the student before each practical session. The most significant result was that the students performed the experimental session with the basic knowledge to improve their learning experience.

  8. A method for the estimation of the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled red-noise time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max-Moerbeck, W.; Richards, J. L.; Hovatta, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a practical implementation of a Monte Carlo method to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data, whose statistical properties are modelled with a simple power-law power spectral density. This implementation builds on published methods; we introduce a number of improvements in the normalization of the cross-correlation function estimate and a bootstrap method for estimating the significance of the cross-correlations. A closely related matter is the estimation of a model for the light curves, which is critical for the significance estimates. We present a graphical and quantitative demonstration that uses simulations to show how common it is to get high cross-correlations for unrelated light curves with steep power spectral densities. This demonstration highlights the dangers of interpreting them as signs of a physical connection. We show that by using interpolation and the Hanning sampling window function we are able to reduce the effects of red-noise leakage and to recover steep simple power-law power spectral densities. We also introduce the use of a Neyman construction for the estimation of the errors in the power-law index of the power spectral density. This method provides a consistent way to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data.

  9. The effect of immediate and delayed post-space preparation using extended working time root canal sealers on apical leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Extended working time root canal sealers do not affect microleakage results using a warm gutta-percha vertical compaction technique. The sealing ability of extended working time root canal sealers on high heat conditions is as good as the standard working time root canal sealer during post-space preparation of different intervals.

  10. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  11. Unit Roots in Economic and Financial Time Series: A Re-Evaluation at the Decision-Based Significance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates key past results of unit root tests, emphasizing that the use of a conventional level of significance is not in general optimal due to the test having low power. The decision-based significance levels for popular unit root tests, chosen using the line of enlightened judgement under a symmetric loss function, are found to be much higher than conventional ones. We also propose simple calibration rules for the decision-based significance levels for a range of unit root tests. At the decision-based significance levels, many time series in Nelson and Plosser’s (1982 (extended data set are judged to be trend-stationary, including real income variables, employment variables and money stock. We also find that nearly all real exchange rates covered in Elliott and Pesavento’s (2006 study are stationary; and that most of the real interest rates covered in Rapach and Weber’s (2004 study are stationary. In addition, using a specific loss function, the U.S. nominal interest rate is found to be stationary under economically sensible values of relative loss and prior belief for the null hypothesis.

  12. Preparing printed circuit boards for rapid turn-around time on a protomat plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtree, J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the use of the LPKF ProtoMat mill/drill unit circuit board Plotter, with the associated CAD/CAM software BoardMaster and CircuitCAM. At present its primarily use here at Fermilab's Particle Physics Department is for rapid-turnover of prototype PCBs double-sided and single-sided copper clad printed circuit boards (PCBs). (The plotter is also capable of producing gravure films and engraving aluminum or plastic although we have not used it for this.) It has the capability of making traces 0.004 inch wide with 0.004 inch spacings which is appropriate for high density surface mount circuits as well as other through-mounted discrete and integrated components. One of the primary benefits of the plotter is the capability to produce double-sided drilled boards from CAD files in a few hours. However to achieve this rapid turn-around time, some care must be taken in preparing the files. This document describes how to optimize the process of PCB fabrication. With proper preparation, researchers can often have a completed circuit board in a day's time instead of a week or two wait with usual procedures. It is assumed that the software and hardware are properly installed and that the machinist is acquainted with the Win95 operating system and the basics of the associated software. This paper does not describe its use with pen plotters, lasers or rubouts. The process of creating a PCB (printed circuit board) begins with the CAD (computer-aided design) software, usually PCAD or VeriBest. These files are then moved to CAM (computer-aided machining) where they are edited and converted to put them into the proper format for running on the ProtoMat plotter. The plotter then performs the actual machining of the board. This document concentrates on the LPKF programs CircuitCam BASIS and BoardMaster for the CAM software. These programs run on a Windows 95 platform to run an LPKF ProtoMat 93s plotter

  13. Time-dependent analysis of incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of pneumothorax after percutaneous lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Woo Hyeon; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Eui Jin; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Goo, Jin Mo

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the time-dependent incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB)-related pneumothorax. From January 2012-November 2015, 3,251 patients underwent 3,354 cone-beam CT-guided PLBs for lung lesions. Cox, logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to identify time-dependent risk factors of PLB-related pneumothorax, risk factors of drainage catheter insertion and those of prolonged catheter placement, respectively. Pneumothorax occurred in 915/3,354 PLBs (27.3 %), with 230/915 (25.1 %) occurring during follow-ups. Risk factors for earlier occurrence of PLB-related pneumothorax include emphysema (HR=1.624), smaller target (HR=0.922), deeper location (HR=1.175) and longer puncture time (HR=1.036), while haemoptysis (HR=0.503) showed a protective effect against earlier development of pneumothorax. Seventy-five cases (8.2 %) underwent chest catheter placement. Mean duration of catheter placement was 3.2±2.0 days. Emphysema (odds ratio [OR]=2.400) and longer puncture time (OR=1.053) were assessed as significant risk factors for catheter insertion, and older age (parameter estimate=1.014) was a predictive factor for prolonged catheter placement. PLB-related pneumothorax occurred in 27.3 %, of which 25.1 % developed during follow-ups. Smaller target size, emphysema, deeply-located lesions were significant risk factors of PLB-related pneumothorax. Emphysema and older age were related to drainage catheter insertion and prolonged catheter placement, respectively. • One-fourth of percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB)-related pneumothorax occurs during follow-up. • Smaller, deeply-located target and emphysema lead to early occurrence of pneumothorax. • Emphysema is related to drainage catheter insertion for PLB-related pneumothorax. • Older age may lead to prolonged catheter placement for PLB-related pneumothorax. • Tailored management can be possible with time-dependent information of PLB-related pneumothorax.

  14. Being prepared on time: On the importance of the previous foreperiod on current preparation, as reflected in speed force and preparation-related brain potentials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lubbe, R.H.J.; Los, S.A.; Jaskowski, P.; Verleger, R.

    2004-01-01

    How do participants adapt to temporal variation of preparatory foreperiods? For reaction times, specific sequential effects have been observed. Responses become slower when the foreperiod is shorter on the current than on the previous trial. If this effect is due to changes in motor activation, it

  15. Being prepared on time: on the importance of the previous foreperiod to current preparation, as reflected in speed, force and preparation-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Los, Sander A.; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Verleger, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    How do participants adapt to temporal variation of preparatory foreperiods? For reaction times, specific sequential effects have been observed. Responses become slower when the foreperiod is shorter on the current than on the previous trial. If this effect is due to changes in motor activation, it

  16. Sample preparation for phosphoproteomic analysis of circadian time series in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Johanna; Hindle, Matthew M; Martin, Sarah F; Le Bihan, Thierry; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Systems biological approaches to study the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock have mainly focused on transcriptomics while little is known about the proteome, and even less about posttranslational modifications. Evidence has emerged that posttranslational protein modifications, in particular phosphorylation, play an important role for the clock and its output. Phosphoproteomics is the method of choice for a large-scale approach to gain more knowledge about rhythmic protein phosphorylation. Recent plant phosphoproteomics publications have identified several thousand phosphopeptides. However, the methods used in these studies are very labor-intensive and therefore not suitable to apply to a well-replicated circadian time series. To address this issue, we present and compare different strategies for sample preparation for phosphoproteomics that are compatible with large numbers of samples. Methods are compared regarding number of identifications, variability of quantitation, and functional categorization. We focus on the type of detergent used for protein extraction as well as methods for its removal. We also test a simple two-fraction separation of the protein extract. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  18. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm 3 (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm 3 , (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence

  19. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Angus

    Full Text Available Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5% and 7.1% (13.3% improvement (reduction on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h, leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost

  1. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Simon D; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing) currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA) techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5%) and 7.1% (13.3%) improvement (reduction) on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h), leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost-effecitive means

  2. Type of oral solid medication packaging and medication preparation time in nursing homes: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cready, C M; Hudson, C; Dreyer, K

    2017-12-01

    Medication administration is a substantial portion of the workday in nursing homes, with the medication preparation step being the most time-consuming. However, little is known about how medication preparation time is affected by the type of packaging used for oral solid medications (ie, tablets/capsules). We examined the effects of two types of packaging. As fewer steps are associated with strip packaging compared to bingo card packaging, we hypothesized that the increase in medication preparation seconds per resident with each additional oral solid medication would be smaller when strip packaging was used. A total of 430 medication preparations conducted by eight nurses during the regularly scheduled morning medication administration period in two nursing homes-using strip packaging and bingo card packaging, respectively-were observed. Each medication preparation observation was matched to its corresponding medication administration record and observations averaged across resident. Using the resident sample (N=149), we estimated three regression models (adjusting the standard errors for the clustering of resident by nurse). The first model regressed medication preparation seconds on the number of oral solid medications. The second model added the type of packaging used and the control variables (type of unit [long-term care, post-acute care], the number of one-half pills and the dosage form diversity in the preparation). To test our hypothesis, the third model added an interaction term between the number of oral solid medications and the type of packaging used. As hypothesized, all else equal, the number of oral solid medications tended to increase medication preparation time per resident in both nursing homes, but the increase was smaller in the strip packaging nursing home (Ppackaging nursing home increased medication preparation by an average of 13 seconds (b=13.077), whereas each oral solid medication administered in the strip packaging nursing home

  3. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmyer, Marcia; Dounis, Georgia; Mobley, Connie; Schwarz, Eli

    2011-04-05

    With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009) that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Significant Caries Index (SiC) were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES) data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of caries free individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was significantly higher than DMFT scores within each

  4. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  5. The Significance of Family, Environment, and College Preparation: A Study of Factors Influencing Graduation and Persistence Rates of African American Males Playing Division I Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Enzley, IV

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific external factors including family composition, pre-college environment, and college preparation that contribute to why some African American males playing basketball at the NCAA Division I level graduate and persist while others do not. Despite an aggressive advertising campaign from the NCAA…

  6. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  7. Time for cleaning and room preparation: connection between surgery size and professional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Andréia Garcia de AVILA

    Full Text Available The objective was to verify the association between time needed for room cleaning (TLPS and the surgery size, and related advantages and difficulties faced by the circulator of the room assigned to this task. A mixed method, with a transverse quantitative, retrospective approach, using a sample of 3095 surgeries performed, from January to June 2011, and a qualitative approach using a Thematic Content Analysis of statements from 11 circulators, was used. The average TLPS was smaller in size 1 surgeries, increasing in sizes 2, 3 and 4, with a significant difference. Advantages reported included organization and size of staff, and difficulties reported related to sharp, bladed materials mixed with surgical instruments and a reduced number of cleaning professionals. The larger the size, the higher the TLPS. Surgical teams operating in the Surgical Center interfere directly in the process, facilitating or hindering the achievement of institutional goals related to quality and productivity.

  8. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Bhandari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of images at intervals and durations suitable for time series analysis of vegetation in many parts of the world. Landsat Image Time Series (LITS is defined here as a sequence of Landsat TM images with observations from every 16 days for a five-year period, commencing on July 2003, for a Eucalyptus woodland area in Queensland, Australia. Synthetic Landsat TM images were created using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM algorithm for all dates when images were either unavailable or too cloudy. This was done using cloud-free scenes and a MODIS Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR product. The ability of the LITS to measure attributes of vegetation phenology was examined by: (1 assessing the accuracy of predicted image-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC estimates using ground-measured values; and (2 comparing the LITS-generated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 time series. The predicted image-derived FPC products (value ranges from 0 to 100% had an RMSE of 5.6. Comparison between vegetation phenology parameters estimated from LITS-generated NDVI and MODIS NDVI showed no significant difference in trend and less than 16 days (equal to the composite period of the MODIS data used difference in key seasonal parameters, including start and end of season in most of the cases. In comparison to similar published work, this paper tested the STARFM algorithm in a new (broadleaf forest environment and also

  9. Preparation for Full Time Employment: A Capstone Experience for Students in Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory T.; Cannon, Karen J.; Stedman, Nicole L.; Telg, Ricky W.

    2011-01-01

    This practice paper describes the development and implementation of a senior capstone course for communication and leadership development for undergraduate students. The resulting course is a unique combination of experiential skill development and career preparation. The success of this course provides students with an important and meaningful…

  10. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: Effects of variety and tuber storage time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J. Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T.; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G.; Mottram, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. PMID:25842300

  11. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparing for the Future: Developing an Adaptive Army in a Time of Peace, 1918-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    the Army demobilized just as rapidly and resumed a peacetime posture . There was little effort to capitalize on lessons learned and to prepare the...established a three-tiered readiness posture for the Army in the form of the Regular Army, the National Guard, and the Organized Reserves. The WDGS...w] hen a ‘conventional’ solution to a complex military problem is already well known by rote, unconventional – and often better – solutions are more

  13. In vitro investigation of the cleaning efficacy, shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of continuous rotary, reciprocating rotary and manual instrumentations in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Efficient canal preparation is the key to successful root canal treatment. This study aimed to assess the cleaning and shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of rotary, reciprocating and manual instrumentation in canal preparation of primary molars. Methods. The mesiobuccal canals of 64 extracted primary mandibular second molars were injected with India ink. The samples were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. Experimental groups were instrumented with K-file, Mtwo in continuous rotation and Reciproc in reciprocating motion, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The files were discarded after four applications. Shaping ability was evaluated using CBCT. After clearing, ink removal was scored. Preparation time and file fracture or deformation was also recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 19 using chi-squared, Fisher’s exact test, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results. Considering cleanliness, at coronal third Reciproc was better than K-file (P < 0.001, but not more effective than Mtwo (P = 0.080. Furthermore, Mtwo leaved the canal cleaner than K-file (P = 0.001. In the middle third, only Reciproc exhibited better cleaning efficacy than K-file (P = 0.005. In the apical third, no difference was detected between the groups (P = 0.794. Regarding shaping ability, no differences were found between Reciproc and Mtwo (P = 1.00. Meanwhile, both displayed better shaping efficacy than K-file (P < 0.05. Between each two groups, there were differences in preparation time (P < 0.05, with Reciproc being the fastest. No file failure occurred. Conclusion. Fast and sufficient cleaning and shaping could be achieved with Mtwo and especially with Reciproc.

  14. In vitro investigation of the cleaning efficacy, shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of continuous rotary, reciprocating rotary and manual instrumentations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Mohammadi, Abbas; Amirabadi, Foroogh; Ramazani, Mohsen; Ehsani, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Background. Efficient canal preparation is the key to successful root canal treatment. This study aimed to assess the cleaning and shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of rotary, reciprocating and manual instrumentation in canal preparation of primary molars. Methods. The mesiobuccal canals of 64 extracted primary mandibular second molars were injected with India ink. The samples were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. Experimental groups were instrumented with K-file, Mtwo in continuous rotation and Reciproc in reciprocating motion, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The files were discarded after four applications. Shaping ability was evaluated using CBCT. After clearing, ink removal was scored. Preparation time and file fracture or deformation was also recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 19 using chi-squared, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results. Considering cleanliness, at coronal third Reciproc was better than K-file (P < 0.001), but not more effective than Mtwo (P = 0.080). Furthermore, Mtwo leaved the canal cleaner than K-file (P = 0.001). In the middle third, only Reciproc exhibited better cleaning efficacy than K-file (P = 0.005). In the apical third, no difference was detected between the groups (P = 0.794). Regarding shaping ability, no differences were found between Reciproc and Mtwo (P = 1.00). Meanwhile, both displayed better shaping efficacy than K-file (P < 0.05). Between each two groups, there were differences in preparation time (P < 0.05), with Reciproc being the fastest. No file failure occurred. Conclusion. Fast and sufficient cleaning and shaping could be achieved with Mtwo and especially with Reciproc.

  15. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  16. The significance of oxygen as oxides and hydroxides in controlling the abundance and residence times of elements in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    A model is presented which signifies the role of oxygen (as oxides and hydroxides) in controlling the composition of seawater. respective concentration and residence times for the unknown elements can be estimated. Geometric and statistical indices...

  17. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  18. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can

  19. Datafit. A new work flow oriented approach for time efficient data preparation, validation and flagging of time series data from environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    Standardized quality assurance according to UN/WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) data quality objectives is essential for a homogeneous high level of data quality in GAW world data centers. However data processing and data preparation often times is done individually and in a non-standardized way. As an additional problem interactive data validation can be a very time consuming step on a GAW measurement station. In front of this background a new approach for a software solution with a set of time efficient and standardized methods is proposed which also can be used as a tool for future standardization of data quality assurance on GAW measurement stations. In general in order to prepare measurement data a set of methods is required. In the framework of this program the methods are ranked in two groups: first - simpler methods for managing structural changes and corrections in the time series data and second - higher developed methods for assuring a correct time structure, graphical control and flagging non representative data and for the calculation of differently or higher aggregated mean values and statistical values. By fulfilling the auxiliary condition that data treatment at first has to be finished with application of methods of group one the user is practically free in finding and selecting its way for a solution. Once the user has found an ordered set of methods and parameters which is a sufficient solution for the preparation of the actual data, the solution can be stored as a set of parameters for the individual project. This enables the user for repeating the solution at another time to another set of time series data which are produced with the same data format from the same instrument. This structure is characteristic and useful for continuous environmental monitoring which produces a high amount of time series data with a constant data format. By saving all intermediate results in a hierarchical way with a fixed naming convention, in a later time the

  20. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed--accuracy trade-offs: effects of advance preparation for processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed--accuracy trade-off(SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is little effect of advance preparation for a given processing time, suggesting that the discrimination mechanisms underlying SAT functions are driven solely by bottom-up information processing in perceptual discrimination tasks.

  1. High luminescent L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots prepared at different reaction times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprotich, Sharon; Onani, Martin O.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a facile synthesis route of high luminescent L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The effect of reaction time on the growth mechanism, optical and physical properties of the CdTe QDs was investigated in order to find the suitability of them towards optical and medical applications. The representative high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) analysis showed that the as-obtained CdTe QDs appeared as spherical particles with excellent monodispersity. The images exhibited clear lattice fringes which are indicative of good crystallinity. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern displayed polycrystalline nature of the QDs which correspond well to zinc blende phase of bulk CdTe. The crystallite sizes calculated from the Scherrer equation were less than 10 nm for different reaction times which were in close agreement with the values estimated from HRTEM. An increase in reaction time improved crystallinity of the sample as explained by highest peak intensity of the XRD supported by the photoluminescence emission spectra which showed high intensity at a longer growth time. It was observed that for prolonged growth time the emission bands were red shifted from about 517-557 nm for 5-180 min of reaction time due to increase in particle sizes. Ultraviolet and visible analysis displayed well-resolved absorption bands which were red shifted upon an increase in reaction time. There was an inverse relation between the band gap and reaction time. Optical band gap decreases from 3.98 to 2.59 eV with the increase in reaction time from 15 to 180 min.

  2. Quantification of platelets and platelet derived growth factors from platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) prepared at different centrifugal force (g) and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Kotwal, Urvershi; Dogra, Mitu

    2016-02-01

    Platelet derived biomaterials represent a key source of cytokines and growth factors extensively used for tissue regeneration; wound healing and tissue repair. Our study was to quantify platelets and growth factors released by PRP when prepared at different centrifugal force (g) and time. Our study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. One hundred millilitres of whole blood (WB) was collected in bag with CPDA as the anticoagulant(AC); (14 mL for 100 mL WB ratio). Nine aliquots of 10 mL each were made from the bag and set of three aliquots were made a group. PRP was prepared at varying centrifugal force (group A: -110 g, group B: -208 g & group C: -440 g) & time (1: -5 min, 2: -10 min & 3: -20 min). Contents of each PRP prepared were analysed. Commercial sandwich ELISA kits were used to quantify the concentrations of CD62P (Diaclone SAS; France), Platelet derived growth factors-AB (Qayee-Bio; China), transforming growth factor-β1 (DRG; Germany) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Boster Immuno Leader; USA) released in each PRP prepared. Eight volunteers were enrolled in the study (24-30 years). The baseline blood counts of all the volunteers were comparable (p ≥ 0.05). Mean ± SD of platelet yield of all nine groups ranged from 17.2 ± 4.2% to 78.7 ± 5.7%. Each PRP was activated with calcified thromboplastin to quantify the growth factors released by them. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were released compared to the baseline. Our study highlights the variation in both force (g) and time results in changes at cellular level and growth factor concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Toporkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  4. Clinical significance of cumulative biological effective dose and overall treatment time in the treatment of carcinoma cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the radiotherapy treatment response of, and complications in, patients with cervical cancer on the basis of cumulative biologic effective dose (BED and overall treatment time (OTT. Sixty-four (stage II - 35/64; stage III - 29/64 patients of cervical cancer were treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and low dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. The cumulative BED was calculated at Point A (BED 10 ; and bladder, rectal reference points (BED 2.5 using the linear-quadratic BED equations. The local control (LC rate and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS rate in patients of stage II were comparable for BED 10 < 84.5 and BED 10 > 84.5 but were much higher for BED 10 > 84.5 than BED 10 < 84.5 ( P < 0.01 in stage III patients. In the stage II patients, The LC rate and 5-year DFS rate were comparable for OTT < 50 days and for OTT> 50 days but were much higher in stage III patients with OTT < 50 than OTT> 50 days ( P < 0.001. It was also observed that patients who received BED 2.5 < 105 had lesser rectal ( P < 0.001 and bladder complications than BED 2.5 > 105. Higher rectal complication-free survival (CFS R rate, bladder complication-free survival (CFS B rate and all-type late complication-free survival rate were observed in patients who received BED 2.5 < 105 than BED 2.5 > 105. A balanced, optimal and justified radiotherapy treatment schedule to deliver higher BED 10 (>84.5 and lower BED 2.5 (< 105 in lesser OTT (< 50 days is essential in carcinoma cervix to expect a better treatment outcome in all respects.

  5. Optimal time-point for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging in assessment of prostate cancer: feasibility of sterile cold-kit tracer preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mohsen; Paymani, Zeinab; Brilhante, Joana; Geinitz, Hans; Gehring, Daniela; Leopoldseder, Thomas; Wouters, Ludovic; Pirich, Christian; Loidl, Wolfgang; Langsteger, Werner

    2018-07-01

    In this prospective study, we evaluated the optimal time-point for 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT acquisition in the assessment of prostate cancer. We also examined, for the first time the feasibility of tracer production using a PSMA-11 sterile cold-kit in the clinical workflow of PET/CT centres. Fifty prostate cancer patients (25 staging, 25 biochemical recurrence) were enrolled in this study. All patients received an intravenous dose of 2.0 MBq/kg body weight 68 Ga-PSMA-11 prepared using a sterile cold kit (ANMI SA, Liege, Belgium), followed by an early (20 min after injection) semi-whole-body PET/CT scan and a standard-delay (100 min after injection) abdominopelvic PET/CT scan. The detection rates with 68 Ga-PSMA-11 were compared between the two acquisitions. The pattern of physiological background activity and tumour to background ratio were also analysed. The total preparation time was reduced to 5 min using the PSMA-11 sterile cold kit, which improved the final radionuclide activity by about 30% per single 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator elution. Overall, 158 pathological lesions were analysed in 45 patients (90%) suggestive of malignancy on both (early and standard-delay) 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. There was a significant (p PET/CT imaging seems to provide a detection rate comparable with that of standard-delay imaging. Furthermore, the shorter preparation time using the 68 Ga-PSMA-11 sterile cold kit and promising value of early PET/CT scanning could allow tailoring of imaging protocols which may reduce the costs and improve the time efficiency in PET/CT centres.

  6. Fast method to determine the elements in maize flour: reduction in preparation time and reagent consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Kelte Filho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to develop and validate methodology to reduce the digestion time and reagent consumption in the determination of minerals in maize flour. The standard methodology employed in Brazil is that described by AOAC. It consists of the calcination of the sample at high temperatures for a long period of time, making the process expensive and slow. In this work, a wet sample digestion method using HNO3 was employed, heating on a block digester with final dissolution in an ultrasonic bath. The validation tests involved linearity and working range studies, and the determination of the detection and quantification limits, accuracy and precision. The sample digestion time was 1:30 h and the percent recoveries for the metals were 93% for Ca, 98% for Cu, 110% for Fe, 97% for Mg, 101% for Mn and 106% for Zn.

  7. Doxycycline concentration over time after storage in a compounded veterinary preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papich, Mark G; Davidson, Gigi S; Fortier, Lisa A

    2013-06-15

    To determine the concentration of doxycycline compounded from doxycycline hyclate tablets into liquid formulations for oral administration in veterinary species and stored for 28 days. Evaluation study. Doxycycline hyclate tablets (100 mg) crushed and mixed with a 50:50 mixture of syrup and suspension vehicles for oral administration to produce 3 batches each of 2 doxycycline formulations: 33.3 and 166.7 mg/mL. Formulations were stored, protected from light, at room temperature (22° to 26°C [71.6° to 78.8°F]) and at a controlled cold temperature (refrigerated 2° to 8°C [35.6° to 46.4°F]). Doxycycline was extracted from the formulations, and concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography on days 0 (date of preparation), 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Concentrations were compared with those of a US Pharmacopeial Convention reference standard. Formulation quality at each point was also assessed through color change, formulation consistency, and suspension uniformity. On days 0, 1, 4, and 7, the concentration of each formulation was within 90% to 110% of the reference standard (range, 93% to 109%), which was deemed acceptable. However, doxycycline concentrations had decreased dramatically by day 14 and remained low for the duration of the study period. Doxycycline concentrations on days 14, 21, and 28 were all < 20% (range, 14% to 18%) of the reference standard, and the quality of the formulations decreased as well. No effect of storage temperatures on doxycycline concentration was identified. The concentration of doxycycline, compounded from commercial tablets in the vehicles evaluated to yield doses of 33.3 and 166.7 mg/mL, cannot be assured beyond 7 days.

  8. A low-volume polyethylene glycol solution was associated with an increased suboptimal bowel preparation rate but had similar recommendations for an early repeat colonoscopy, procedure times, and adenoma detection rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Hankins

    Full Text Available Low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG bowel preparations are better tolerated by patients than high-volume preparations and may achieve similar preparation quality. However, there is little data comparing their effects on a recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy (because of a suboptimal preparation, procedure times, adenoma detection rate (ADR, and advanced adenoma detection rate (AADR.This is a retrospective cohort study of outpatient colonoscopies performed during a one-year period at a single academic medical center in which low-volume MoviPrep® (n = 1841 or high-volume Colyte® (n = 1337 was used. All preparations were split-dosed. Appropriate covariates were included in regression models assessing suboptimal preparation quality (fair, poor, or inadequate, procedure times, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy, ADR, and AADR.MoviPrep® was associated with an increase in having a suboptimal bowel preparation (OR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06-1.76, but it was not associated with differences in insertion (p = 0.43, withdrawal (p = 0.22, or total procedure times (p = 0.10. The adjusted percentage with a suboptimal preparation was 11.7% for patients using MoviPrep® and 8.8% for patients using Colyte®. MoviPrep® was not associated with a significant difference in overall ADR (OR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.78-1.11, AADR (OR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.87-1.62, or recommendation for early repeat colonoscopy (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 0.72-1.88.MoviPrep® was associated with a small absolute increase in having a suboptimal preparation, but did not affect recommendations for an early repeat colonoscopy, procedure times, or adenoma detection rates. Mechanisms to reduce financial barriers limiting low-volume preparations should be considered because of their favorable tolerability profile.

  9. Guideline for preparing comprehensive extension of time (EoT claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ahmed Ali Alnaas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any project faces delays and disruptions especially the mega/complex projects of today, with many interfaces. Proving delay and/or disruption is not an easy task and it is a time consuming process especially in the mega/complex projects with thousands of activities, lots of details and interfaces with the involvement of many stakeholders. The different methods that are used to prove delays, as explained in industry standards and handbooks, are theoretical and could be applied in the small simple projects with few numbers of activities but the same methods cannot easily be applied on mega/complex projects. Proving delays in mega/complex projects, whose schedules contain thousands of activities with many interfaces and lot of causes for delay and disruption is a complicated process and involves lots of details. When any degree of complexity in the project is examined, it becomes more difficult for the project team to record the delays and disruption events properly because they are always busy dealing with the site issues and other project pressures. In order for the contractors to be successful, a time extension claim or disruption claims should adequately establish causation and liability and assist in demonstrating the extend of time-related damages experienced as a direct result of the delay events relied upon. The process of recording the delays and disruption is a dynamic process and needs continuous involvement from the planning team with the support from all other departments.

  10. Identifying and preparing the next generation of part-time clinical teachers from dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D R; Hellyer, P; Meakin, N; Jones, K A

    2015-10-09

    Part-time general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental care professionals (DCPs) working in practice are being increasingly utilised to deliver undergraduate clinical dental education to both dental and hygiene/therapy students. As such, there is a need for appropriate recruitment processes and ongoing staff development in the different and complex role of the clinical teacher. Recently a group of experienced dental practitioners, making a journey from GDP to part-time clinical teacher, identified common themes, experiences, challenges and realisations. These were: 'what is clinical dental education?'; 'me as a clinical teacher'; and 'specific teaching issues'. The themes highlighted the complexity of dental education and the different environment of the teaching clinic from general practice. Some of the themes identified could be a starting point for the induction process to facilitate an easier transition from experienced GDP to clinical teacher. With the current demands from both students and patients alike, the 'three way dynamic of patient, student and teacher' needs to be supported if dental schools are to attract and develop the highest quality clinical teachers. It is of critical importance to give an exceptional experience to students in their clinical education as well as to patients in terms of excellent and appropriate treatment. The challenge for deans and directors of education is to find the resources to properly fund teacher recruitment, induction and the development of part-time GDPs in order to produce the expert teachers of tomorrow.

  11. A significant time for Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    European Science ministers have unaminously approved a "Resolution on establishing a European area of research and innovation", a good start for scientific research to be co-ordinated at an Europe-wide level (1/2 page).

  12. Systematic dynamic viscoelasticity measurements for chitin nanofibers prepared with various concentrations, disintegration times, acidities, and crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Shin; Osada, Mitsumasa

    2018-04-17

    Dynamic viscoelasticities were measured for chitin nanofiber (ChNF) dispersions prepared with various concentrations, disintegration times, acidities, and crystalline structures. The 0.05 w/v% dispersions of pH neutral ChNFs continuously exhibited elastic behavior. The 0.05 w/v% dispersions of acidified ChNFs, on the other hand, transitioned from a colloidal dispersion to a critical gel and then exhibited elastic behavior with increasing ChNF concentration. A double-logarithmic chart of the concentration vs. the storage modulus was prepared and indicated the fractal dimension and the nanostructure in the dispersion. The results determined that the neutral α- and β-ChNFs were dispersed but showed some remaining aggregations and that the acidified β-ChNFs were completely individualized. In addition, the α-chitin steadily disintegrated with increasing disintegration time, and the aspect ratio of the β-chitin decreased as a result of the exscessive disintegration. The storage moduli of the ChNFs were greater than those of chitin solutions, nanorods, and nanowhiskers with the same solids concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  14. Study of the effect of solar flares on VLF signals during D-layer preparation or disappearance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Palit, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    "Very Low Frequency" (VLF) is one of the bands of the Radio waves having frequency 3-30 KHz, which propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In relation to propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, low mass and high mobility cause electrons to play a vital role. Electrons are not distributed uniformly in the ionosphere and depending on this factor, ionosphere has different layers namely D, E and F. Different ionospheric layers generally exist during day and night time. During day-time when the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere is Sun, the lower most layer of ionosphere is D-layer. But during the night-time when Sun is absent and cosmic ray is the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere, this D-layer disappears and E-layer becomes the lower most region of the ionosphere. Normally, patterns of VLF signal depend on regular solar flux variations. However, during solar flares extra energetic particles are released from Sun, which makes the changes in the ionization of the ionosphere and these changes can perturb VLF signal amplitude. Usually if a solar flare occurs during any time of day, it only affects the amplitude and phase of the VLF signals. But in the present work, we found the if the flare occurs during D-layer preparation / disappearance time, then it will not only affect to amplitude and phase of the VLF signals but also to terminator times of VLF signals. We have observed that the sun set terminator time of the VLF signals shifted towards night time due to the effect of a M-class solar flare which occurred during the D-layer disappearance time. The shift is so high that it crossed 5σ level. We are now trying to a make model using the ion-chemistry and LWPC code to explain this observed effect.

  15. Evaluation of the maladaptation of the test base in acrylic resin regarding the technique of preparation, place of measurement and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pereira de OLIVEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The most used material for the preparation of the baseplates is the acrylic resin, but it can present distortions. Objective To evaluate preparation technique, region and storage time that presents less maladaptation of the base when made with self-cured acrylic resin. Material and method Models were created in gypsum type III simulating edentulous maxilla, as divided into 3 groups (n = 10: GC (control group thermopolymerizable acrylic resin; G1 - manual adaptation technique and G2 - drip technique. For the measurements, silicone by condensation of light consistency that was interposed between base and model was used. With a hydraulic press, 50 kg pressure was applied leading the base of the model. The obtained mold was measured in the palate, canine and molar regions with a digital caliper at the following times: immediately after the base polymerization, at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and one week. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. Result G1 presented maladaptation of 0.43 mm ± 0.10, while G2 obtained 0.39 mm ± 0.11. The lowest maladaptation occurred in the CG. The palate region presented greater maladaptation (0.52 ± 0.07 and the canine region, the lowest (CD = 0.27 mm ± 0.07 and CE = 0.27 ± 0.09; There was no statistically significant difference for storage times. Conclusion G2 presented lower values than G1, with no statistically significant difference. The palate region presented greater maladaptation, followed by molars and canines. The bases continued to maladaptation the model after the immediate polymerization, with no statistically significant difference.

  16. Call-to-balloon time dashboard in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction results in significant improvement in the logistic chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Maaike P J; Velders, Matthijs A; Smeekes, Martin; Drexhage, Olivier S; Hautvast, Raymond W M; Ytsma, Timon; Schalij, Martin J; Umans, Victor A W M

    2017-08-04

    Timely reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is associated with superior clinical outcomes. Aiming to reduce ischaemic time, an innovative system for home-to-hospital (H2H) time monitoring was implemented, which enabled real-time evaluation of ischaemic time intervals, regular feedback and improvements in the logistic chain. The objective of this study was to assess the results after implementation of the H2H dashboard for monitoring and evaluation of ischaemic time in STEMI patients. Ischaemic time in STEMI patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and treated with pPCI in the Noordwest Ziekenhuis, Alkmaar before (2008-2009; n=495) and after the implementation of the H2H dashboard (2011-2014; n=441) was compared. Median time intervals were significantly shorter in the H2H group (door-to-balloon time 32 [IQR 25-43] vs. 40 [IQR 28-55] minutes, p-value dashboard was independently associated with shorter time delays. Real-time monitoring and feedback on time delay with the H2H dashboard improves the logistic chain in STEMI patients, resulting in shorter ischaemic time intervals.

  17. Yes!: Rejoinder to "Isn't It Time We Did Something about the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    In this rejoinder to, "Isn't It Time We Did Something about the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?" (Marx, Garcia, Butterfield, Kappen, and Baldwin 2015), the author responds in agreement to the question raised regarding the lack of teaching preparation in business schools. This commentary offers suggestions to…

  18. A technician from NASDA test the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB in preparation fo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. Contrasting Perspectives of Anesthesiologists and Gastroenterologists on the Optimal Time Interval between Bowel Preparation and Endoscopic Sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal time interval between the last ingestion of bowel prep and sedation for colonoscopy remains controversial, despite guidelines that sedation can be administered 2 hours after consumption of clear liquids. Objective. To determine current practice patterns among anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists regarding the optimal time interval for sedation after last ingestion of bowel prep and to understand the rationale underlying their beliefs. Design. Questionnaire survey of anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists in the USA. The questions were focused on the preferred time interval of endoscopy after a polyethylene glycol based preparation in routine cases and select conditions. Results. Responses were received from 109 anesthesiologists and 112 gastroenterologists. 96% of anesthesiologists recommended waiting longer than 2 hours until sedation, in contrast to only 26% of gastroenterologists. The main reason for waiting >2 hours was that PEG was not considered a clear liquid. Most anesthesiologists, but not gastroenterologists, waited longer in patients with history of diabetes or reflux. Conclusions. Anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists do not agree on the optimal interval for sedation after last drink of bowel prep. Most anesthesiologists prefer to wait longer than the recommended 2 hours for clear liquids. The data suggest a need for clearer guidelines on this issue.

  20. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-04-11

    It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965-1966 and 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007-2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001). US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990's. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given

  1. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. Results The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965–1966 and 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007–2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990’s. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only

  2. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  3. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  4. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  5. Real-time assessment of corneal endothelial cell damage following graft preparation and donor insertion for DMEK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Bhogal

    Full Text Available To establish a method for assessing graft viability, in-vivo, following corneal transplantation.Optimization of calcein AM fluorescence and toxicity assessment was performed in cultured human corneal endothelial cells and ex-vivo corneal tissue. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty grafts were incubated with calcein AM and imaged pre and post preparation, and in-situ after insertion and unfolding in a pig eye model. Global, macroscopic images of the entire graft and individual cell resolution could be attained by altering the magnification of a clinical confocal scanning laser microscope. Patterns of cell loss observed in situ were compared to those seen using standard ex-vivo techniques.Calcein AM showed a positive dose-fluorescence relationship. A dose of 2.67μmol was sufficient to allow clear discrimination between viable and non-viable areas (sensitivity of 96.6% with a specificity of 96.1% and was not toxic to cultured endothelial cells or ex-vivo corneal tissue. Patterns of cell loss seen in-situ closely matched those seen on ex-vivo assessment with fluorescence viability imaging, trypan blue/alizarin red staining or scanning electron microscopy. Iatrogenic graft damage from preparation and insertion varied between 7-35% and incarceration of the graft tissue within surgical wounds was identified as a significant cause of endothelial damage.In-situ graft viability assessment using clinical imaging devices provides comparable information to ex-vivo methods. This method shows high sensitivity and specificity, is non-toxic and can be used to evaluate immediate cell viability in new grafting techniques in-vivo.

  6. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  7. Preparing emergency personnel in dialysis: a just-in-time training program for additional staffing during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Genevieve B; Johnston, James R; Stevenson, Judy A; Suyama, Joe

    2013-06-01

    There are 341 000 patients in the United States who are dependent on routine dialysis for survival. Recent large-scale disasters have emphasized the importance of disaster preparedness, including supporting dialysis units, for people with chronic disease. Contingency plans for staffing are important for providing continuity of care for a technically challenging procedure such as dialysis. PReparing Emergency Personnel in Dialysis (PREP-D) is a just-in-time training program designed to train individuals having minimum familiarity with the basic steps of dialysis to support routine dialysis staff during a disaster. A 5-module educational program was developed through a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort. A pilot study testing the program was performed using 20 nontechnician dialysis facility employees and 20 clinical-year medical students as subjects. When comparing pretest and posttest scores, the entire study population showed a mean improvement of 28.9%, with dialysis facility employees and medical students showing improvements of 21.8% and 36.4%, respectively (P just-in-time training format. The knowledge gained by using the PREP-D program during a staffing shortage may allow for continuity of care for critical services such as dialysis during a disaster.

  8. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wan, Min [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Yong-Qiang [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Rong-Ying [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhao, Yuan-Di, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  9. Optical properties of tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water: Influence of laser ablation time duration and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarkar, Himadri Sankar; Kumbhakar, P.; Mitra, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by laser (having a wavelength of 1064 nm) ablation of tin metallic target immersed in pure deionized water. The influences of laser ablation time and laser fluence on the size and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are studied. Prepared tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared tin oxide nanoparticles is found to be mostly spherical and with sizes in the nanometric range (mean radius of 3.2 to 7.3 nm). The measured UV–Visible absorption spectra show the presence of absorption peaks in the ultraviolet region. The band gap energy of samples prepared with different laser ablation time duration is calculated and is found to be increased with decrease in size (radius) of the prepared nanoparticles. Photoluminescence emission measurements at room temperature show that all the samples exhibit photoluminescence in the visible region. The peak photoluminescence emission intensity in the sample prepared with 50 min of laser ablation time is 3.5 times larger than that obtained in the sample prepared with 10 min of laser ablation time. - Highlights: ► SnO 2 nanoparticles (6.4–14.6 nm) are prepared by laser ablation in liquid technique. ► The influences of laser ablation time and laser fluence are studied. ► Samples are characterized by TEM and UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy. ► UV–Visible absorption spectra exhibit quantum confinement effect. ► Samples exhibit enhanced photoluminescence emissions in the visible region.

  10. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, A C M; Elgersma, P E; Friedrich, A W; Nagy, E; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2014-12-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the influence of incubation time, exposure to oxygen and sample preparation on the quality of the spectrum using the Bruker system. Also, reproducibility and inter-examiner variability were determined. Twenty-six anaerobic species, representing 17 genera, were selected based on gram-stain characteristics, growth rate and colony morphology. Inter-examiner variation showed that experience in the preparation of the targets can be a significant variable. The influence of incubation time was determined between 24 and 96 h of incubation. Reliable species identification was obtained after 48 h of incubation for gram-negative anaerobes and after 72 h for gram-positive anaerobes. Exposure of the cultures to oxygen did not influence the results of the MALDI-TOF MS identifications of all tested gram-positive species. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia could not be identified after >24 h and 48 h of exposure to oxygen, respectively. Other tested gram-negative bacteria could be identified after 48 h of exposure to oxygen. Most of the tested species could be identified using the direct spotting method. Bifidobacterium longum and Finegoldia magna needed on-target extraction with 70% formic acid in order to obtain reliable species identification and Peptoniphilus ivorii a full extraction. Spectrum quality was influenced by the amount of bacteria spotted on the target, the homogeneity of the smear and the experience of the examiner. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. Statistical significance approximation in local trend analysis of high-throughput time-series data using the theory of Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Ai, Dongmei; Cram, Jacob A; Liang, Xiaoyi; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2015-09-21

    Local trend (i.e. shape) analysis of time series data reveals co-changing patterns in dynamics of biological systems. However, slow permutation procedures to evaluate the statistical significance of local trend scores have limited its applications to high-throughput time series data analysis, e.g., data from the next generation sequencing technology based studies. By extending the theories for the tail probability of the range of sum of Markovian random variables, we propose formulae for approximating the statistical significance of local trend scores. Using simulations and real data, we show that the approximate p-value is close to that obtained using a large number of permutations (starting at time points >20 with no delay and >30 with delay of at most three time steps) in that the non-zero decimals of the p-values obtained by the approximation and the permutations are mostly the same when the approximate p-value is less than 0.05. In addition, the approximate p-value is slightly larger than that based on permutations making hypothesis testing based on the approximate p-value conservative. The approximation enables efficient calculation of p-values for pairwise local trend analysis, making large scale all-versus-all comparisons possible. We also propose a hybrid approach by integrating the approximation and permutations to obtain accurate p-values for significantly associated pairs. We further demonstrate its use with the analysis of the Polymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) microbial community time series from high-throughput sequencing data and found interesting organism co-occurrence dynamic patterns. The software tool is integrated into the eLSA software package that now provides accelerated local trend and similarity analysis pipelines for time series data. The package is freely available from the eLSA website: http://bitbucket.org/charade/elsa.

  12. Relation of burnout with lack of time for being with significant others, role conflict, cohesion, and self-confidence among Norwegian Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørmo, Odd; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2002-06-01

    We studied the relationship of burnout with environmental and personal characteristics such as lack of time for being with significant others outside sport, cohesion in training groups, role conflict, and self-confidence among 136 elite athletes. Analysis indicated that the mean Burnout scores were in the low range. Cohesion in training groups and Self-confidence were negatively associated with Burnout, whereas Lack of time to be with significant others and Role conflict were positively ssociated with Burnout scores. Results are in accordance with Coakley's 1992 conception of burnout explained as a social problem, Kahn's 1978 hypothesis that role conflict is positively correlated with stress and burnout, and Smith's 1986 hypothesis that personality factors such as self-confidence should be associated with cognitive appraisal of situational demands related to burnout.

  13. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  14. The effect of load on heat production, thermal effects and expenditure of time during implant site preparation - an experimental ex vivo comparison between piezosurgery and conventional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Frenkel, Carsten; Riemann, Max; Knipfer, Christian; Stockmann, Philipp; Nkenke, Emeka

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric surgery (PS) is meant to be a gentle osteotomy method. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgical vs. conventional drilling methods for implant site preparation (ISP) - focusing on load-dependent thermal effect on hard tissue and the expenditure of ISP time. Three hundred and sixty ISP were performed on ex vivo pig heads using piezosurgery, spiral burs (SB) and trephine burs (TB). The load applied was increased from 0 to 1000 g in 100-g intervals. Temperature within the bone was measured with a thermocouple, and duration was recorded with a stop watch. Thermal effects were histomorphometrically analysed. Twelve ISPs per technique were performed at the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. PS yields the highest mean temperatures (48.6 ± 3.4°C) and thermal effects (200.7 ± 44.4 μm), both at 900-1000 g. Duration is reduced with a plus of load and significantly longer in either case for PS (P < 0.05). There is a correlation of the applied load with all other examined factors for PS and TB. Temperature and histological effects decrease for SB beyond 500 g. PS yields significantly higher temperatures and thermal tissue alterations on load levels higher than 500 g and is significantly slower for ISP compared to SB and TB. For ISP with PS, a maximum load of 400 g should be maintained. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. The Wait Calculation: The Broader Consequences of the Minimum Time from Now to Interstellar Destinations and its Significance to the Space Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A.

    This paper summarises the wait calculation [1] of interstellar voyagers which finds the minimum time to destination given exponential growth in the rate of travel available to a civilisation. The minimum time obliges stellar system colonisers to consider departure times a significant risk factor in their voyages since a departure then to a destination will beat a departure made at any other time before or after. Generalised conclusions will be drawn about the significant impact that departures to interstellar destinations before, at, or after the minimum time will have on the economic potential of missions and on the inevitability of competition between them. There will be no international law operating in interstellar space and an ability to escape predatory actions en route, or at the destination, can only be done by precise calculations of departure times. Social and economic forces affecting the factors in the growth equation are discussed with reference to the probability of accelerating growth reaching the technological Singularity and strengthening the growth incentive trap. Islamic banking practices are discussed as a credible alternative to compounding interest bearing paper for funding the space economy in the long term and for supporting stakeholder investment in such long term mission development. The paper considers the essential free productivity of the Earth's biosphere and the capital accumulations made possible by land productivity are essential components to a viable long term space economy and that research into re-creating the costless productivity of the biosphere at a destination will determine both the mission's ultimate success and provide means of returns for stakeholders during the long build up. Conclusions of these arguments suggest that the Icarus project should ignore a robotic interstellar mission concept and develop a manned colonising mission from now.

  16. Whole-body computed tomography in trauma patients: optimization of the patient scanning position significantly shortens examination time while maintaining diagnostic image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickethier T

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilman Hickethier,1,* Kamal Mammadov,1,* Bettina Baeßler,1 Thorsten Lichtenstein,1 Jochen Hinkelbein,2 Lucy Smith,3 Patrick Sven Plum,4 Seung-Hun Chon,4 David Maintz,1 De-Hua Chang1 1Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canada; 4Department of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The study was conducted to compare examination time and artifact vulnerability of whole-body computed tomographies (wbCTs for trauma patients using conventional or optimized patient positioning. Patients and methods: Examination time was measured in 100 patients scanned with conventional protocol (Group A: arms positioned alongside the body for head and neck imaging and over the head for trunk imaging and 100 patients scanned with optimized protocol (Group B: arms flexed on a chest pillow without repositioning. Additionally, influence of two different scanning protocols on image quality in the most relevant body regions was assessed by two blinded readers. Results: Total wbCT duration was about 35% or 3:46 min shorter in B than in A. Artifacts in aorta (27 vs 6%, liver (40 vs 8% and spleen (27 vs 5% occurred significantly more often in B than in A. No incident of non-diagnostic image quality was reported, and no significant differences for lungs and spine were found. Conclusion: An optimized wbCT positioning protocol for trauma patients allows a significant reduction of examination time while still maintaining diagnostic image quality. Keywords: CT scan, polytrauma, acute care, time requirement, positioning

  17. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was 5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  19. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  20. Liquid-phase sample preparation method for real-time monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers by dual-mode high-throughput microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Kim, Jung Kyung; Han, Hwataik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos that had been used widely as a construction material is a first-level carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organization. It can be accumulated in body by inhalation causing virulent respiratory diseases including lung cancer. In our previous study, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) system that can minimize human intervention accompanied by the conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) through automated counting of fibrous materials and thus significantly reduce analysis time and labor. Also, we attempted selective detection of chrysotile using DksA protein extracted from Escherichia coli through a recombinant protein production technique, and developed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) by upgrading the HTM device. We demonstrated that fluorescently-labeled chrysotile asbestos fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically among other types of asbestos fibers or non-asbestos particles in a high-throughput manner through a newly modified HTM system for both reflection and fluorescence imaging. However there is a limitation to apply DM-HTM to airborne sample with current air collecting method due to the difficulty of applying the protein to dried asbestos sample. Here, we developed a technique for preparing liquid-phase asbestos sample using an impinger normally used to collect odor molecules in the air. It would be possible to improve the feasibility of the dual-mode HTM by integrating a sample preparation unit for making collected asbestos sample dispersed in a solution. The new technique developed for highly sensitive and automated asbestos detection can be a potential alternative to the conventional manual counting method, and it may be applied on site as a fast and reliable environmental monitoring tool.

  1. Diagnosing Human Papillomavirus and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 By Real-Time PCR in Patient Undergone to Colposcopy and Significance of the Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Özdaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is aimed to determine presence of HPV and HPV 16 by Real-Time PCR in cervical smears obtained from patients during colposcopic examination who had referred to outpatient clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics Department due to various complaints and to examine interrelation between positive test results and clinical data. Method: Sixty patients were included in the study who were referred to outpatient clinic due to vary complaints and who had been decided to undergo to colposcopic examination. DNA was obtained from each smear sample by phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol method. L1 region was replicated in amplification process using MY09/MY11 primers. Products for Nested Real time PCR were studied in Ligth Cycler equipment by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV 16 DNA specific probe. Real time PCR products were undergone melting curve analysis by LigthCycler software version 3.5.3. HPV DNA positivity and HPV 16 positivity were determined at 78-82°C and 68°C, respectively. Results: No statistically significant difference could be detected between HPV positivity, HPV 16 in and types other than HPV 16 control group and patients with positive test result as a consequence of colposcopic examination. Again, no statistically significant difference could be detected between HPV positivity and status of parity, result of PAP test, marital status and age of patient. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference could be detected between HPV positivity, HPV 16 in and types other than HPV 16 control group and patients with positive test result as a consequence of colposcopic examination. Again, no statistically difference could be detected between HPV positivity and result of PAP smear test, marital status, age of patient and smoking but statistically significant difference could be detected between types other than HPV 16 and status of parity (respectively; χ2=0.821, p=0.365; χ2=0.752, p=0.564; χ2=0.364, p=0.834; χ2= 6.835, p

  2. Directing students to profound open-book test preparation : The relationship between deep learning and open-book test time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J.B.; Hofman, W.H.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Considering the growing amount of medical knowledge and the focus of medical education on acquiring competences, using open-book tests seems inevitable. A possible disadvantage of these tests is that students underestimate test preparation. Aims: We examined whether students who used a

  3. Isn't It Time We Did Something about the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Robert D.; Garcia, Joseph E.; Butterfield, D. Anthony; Kappen, Jeffrey A.; Baldwin, Timothy T.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, we explore "why" there has traditionally been so little emphasis on teaching preparation in business doctoral programs. Program administrators and faculty typically espouse support for teaching development; yet the existing reward systems are powerfully aligned in favor of a focus on research competency. Indeed, through…

  4. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-01-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (sup(99m)Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gasritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis. (J.P.N.)

  5. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-02-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis.

  6. Spectral and cross-spectral analysis of uneven time series with the smoothed Lomb-Scargle periodogram and Monte Carlo evaluation of statistical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2012-12-01

    Many spectral analysis techniques have been designed assuming sequences taken with a constant sampling interval. However, there are empirical time series in the geosciences (sediment cores, fossil abundance data, isotope analysis, …) that do not follow regular sampling because of missing data, gapped data, random sampling or incomplete sequences, among other reasons. In general, interpolating an uneven series in order to obtain a succession with a constant sampling interval alters the spectral content of the series. In such cases it is preferable to follow an approach that works with the uneven data directly, avoiding the need for an explicit interpolation step. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is a popular choice in such circumstances, as there are programs available in the public domain for its computation. One new computer program for spectral analysis improves the standard Lomb-Scargle periodogram approach in two ways: (1) It explicitly adjusts the statistical significance to any bias introduced by variance reduction smoothing, and (2) it uses a permutation test to evaluate confidence levels, which is better suited than parametric methods when neighbouring frequencies are highly correlated. Another novel program for cross-spectral analysis offers the advantage of estimating the Lomb-Scargle cross-periodogram of two uneven time series defined on the same interval, and it evaluates the confidence levels of the estimated cross-spectra by a non-parametric computer intensive permutation test. Thus, the cross-spectrum, the squared coherence spectrum, the phase spectrum, and the Monte Carlo statistical significance of the cross-spectrum and the squared-coherence spectrum can be obtained. Both of the programs are written in ANSI Fortran 77, in view of its simplicity and compatibility. The program code is of public domain, provided on the website of the journal (http://www.iamg.org/index.php/publisher/articleview/frmArticleID/112/). Different examples (with simulated and

  7. Batch and Continuous Flow Preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Heating and Simultaneous Real-time Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christiaens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem’s microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized reaction times.

  8. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2013-11-15

    Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.

  9. The timing and role of initiation rites in preparing young people for adolescence and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Alister C; Zulu, Eliya M

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys' greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex.

  10. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach for the holistic quality control of complex Kang-Jing formula preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Huan; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Qin, Bing; Cai, Zhuo-Ya; Cai, Xiong; Liu, Shao; Wang, Qi; Qin, Yong

    2016-05-30

    The Kang-Jing (KJ) formula is a compound preparation made from 12 kinds of herbs. So far, four different methods (M1-M4) have been documented for KJ preparation, but the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of KJ have remained unknown. In this study, a strategy was proposed to investigate the influence of different preparation methods on the holistic quality of KJ using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling. A total of 101 compounds mainly belonging to flavonoids, tanshinones, monoterpene glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, alkaloids, phenolic acids and volatile oils, were identified. Among these compounds, glaucine was detected only in M3/M4 samples, while two dehydrocorydaline isomers merely detected in M2/M3/M4 samples. Tetrahydrocolumbamine, ethylic lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid E and rosmarimic acid were only detected in M1/M3/M4 samples. In the subsequent quantitative analysis, 12 major compounds were determined by UHPLC-MS/MS. The proposed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. It was found that the contents of marker compounds varied significantly in samples prepared by different methods. These results demonstrated that preparation method does significantly affect the holistic quality of KJ. UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of KJ. Collectively, this study provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of KJ, and establish a simple and accurate chemical profiling method for its quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The significance and lag-time of deep through flow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VanLeeuwen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of deep soil-regolith through flow in a small (3.4 km2 ephemeral catchment in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia was investigated by detailed hydrochemical analysis of soil water and stream flow during autumn and early winter rains. In this Mediterranean climate with strong summer moisture deficits, several significant rainfalls are required to generate soil through flow and stream flow [in ephemeral streams]. During autumn 2007, a large (127 mm drought-breaking rain occurred in April followed by significant May rains; most of this April and May precipitation occurred prior to the initiation of stream flow in late May. These early events, especially the 127 mm April event, had low stable water isotope values compared with later rains during June and July and average winter precipitation. Thus, this large early autumn rain event with low isotopic values (δ18O, δD provided an excellent natural tracer. During later June and July rainfall events, daily stream and soil water samples were collected and analysed. Results from major and trace elements, water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and dissolved organic carbon analysis clearly demonstrate that a large component of this early April and May rain was stored and later pushed out of deep soil and regolith zones. This pre-event water was identified in the stream as well as identified in deep soil horizons due to its different isotopic signature which contrasted sharply with the June–July event water. Based on this data, the soil-regolith hydrologic system for this catchment has been re-thought. The catchment area consists of about 60% sandy and 40% clayey soils. Regolith flow in the sandy soil system and not the clayey soil system is now thought to dominate the deep subsurface flow in this catchment. The clayey texture contrast soils had rapid response to rain events and saturation excess overland flow. The sandy soils had delayed soil through flow and

  12. Left is where the L is right. Significantly delayed reaction time in limb laterality recognition in both CRPS and phantom limb pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Haarmeyer, Golo Sung; Blankenburg, Markus; Frettlöh, Jule; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Maier, Christoph

    2010-12-17

    The body schema is based on an intact cortical body representation. Its disruption is indicated by delayed reaction times (RT) and high error rates when deciding on the laterality of a pictured hand in a limb laterality recognition task. Similarities in both cortical reorganisation and disrupted body schema have been found in two different unilateral pain syndromes, one with deafferentation (phantom limb pain, PLP) and one with pain-induced dysfunction (complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS). This study aims to compare the extent of impaired laterality recognition in these two groups. Performance on a test battery for attentional performance (TAP 2.0) and on a limb laterality recognition task was evaluated in CRPS (n=12), PLP (n=12) and healthy subjects (n=38). Differences between recognising affected and unaffected hands were analysed. CRPS patients and healthy subjects additionally completed a four-day training of limb laterality recognition. Reaction time was significantly delayed in both CRPS (2278±735.7ms) and PLP (2301.3±809.3ms) compared to healthy subjects (1826.5±517.0ms), despite normal TAP values in all groups. There were no differences between recognition of affected and unaffected hands in both patient groups. Both healthy subjects and CRPS patients improved during training, but RTs of CRPS patients (1874.5±613.3ms) remain slower (pCRPS patients, uninfluenced by attention and pain and cannot be fully reversed by training alone. This suggests the involvement of complex central nervous system mechanisms in the disruption of the body schema. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  14. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

  15. An Estimation of the Likelihood of Significant Eruptions During 2000-2009 Using Poisson Statistics on Two-Point Moving Averages of the Volcanic Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1750, the number of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (volcanic explosivity index (VEI)>=4) per decade spans 2-11, with 96 percent located in the tropics and extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere. A two-point moving average of the volcanic time series has higher values since the 1860's than before, being 8.00 in the 1910's (the highest value) and 6.50 in the 1980's, the highest since the 1910's peak. Because of the usual behavior of the first difference of the two-point moving averages, one infers that its value for the 1990's will measure approximately 6.50 +/- 1, implying that approximately 7 +/- 4 cataclysmic volcanic eruptions should be expected during the present decade (2000-2009). Because cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (especially those having VEI>=5) nearly always have been associated with short-term episodes of global cooling, the occurrence of even one might confuse our ability to assess the effects of global warming. Poisson probability distributions reveal that the probability of one or more events with a VEI>=4 within the next ten years is >99 percent. It is approximately 49 percent for an event with a VEI>=5, and 18 percent for an event with a VEI>=6. Hence, the likelihood that a climatically significant volcanic eruption will occur within the next ten years appears reasonably high.

  16. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  17. Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justin P; Chen, David C; Donahue, Timothy R; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy trainees' operative competency requirements while improving feedback validity and timeliness using a mobile Web-based platform. The Southern Illinois University Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS) was embedded into a website formatted for mobile devices. From March 2013 to February 2014, faculty members were instructed to complete the OPRS form while providing verbal feedback to the operating resident at the conclusion of each procedure. Submitted data were compiled automatically within a secure Web-based spreadsheet. Conventional end-of-rotation performance (CERP) evaluations filed 2006 to 2013 and OPRS performance scores were compared by year of training using serial and independent-samples t tests. The mean CERP scores and OPRS overall resident operative performance scores were directly compared using a linear regression model. OPRS mobile site analytics were reviewed using a Web-based reporting program. Large university-based general surgery residency program. General Surgery faculty used the mobile Web OPRS system to rate resident performance. Residents and the program director reviewed evaluations semiannually. Over the study period, 18 faculty members and 37 residents logged 176 operations using the mobile OPRS system. There were 334 total OPRS website visits. Median time to complete an evaluation was 45 minutes from the end of the operation, and faculty spent an average of 134 seconds on the site to enter 1 assessment. In the 38,506 CERP evaluations reviewed, mean performance scores showed a positive linear trend of 2% change per year of training (p = 0.001). OPRS overall resident operative performance scores showed a significant linear (p = 0.001), quadratic (p = 0.001), and cubic (p = 0.003) trend of change per year of clinical training, reflecting the resident operative experience in our training program. Differences between postgraduate year-1 and postgraduate year-5 overall performance scores were greater with the OPRS (mean = 0.96, CI

  18. No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Carter, Olivia; Forte, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Research exploring the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1 has produced homogenous results. The most common explanations to address this homogeneity concerns the differential impact of varied tDCS parameters (such as stimulation intensity or electrode montage). To explore this, we systematically examined the effects of 15 different tDCS protocols on a well-elucidated neurobehavioral system: simple visual motor reaction time (smRT). For the initial phase of this study, 150 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of 5 experimental groups (2mA anodal, 2mA cathodal, 1mA anodal, 1mA cathodal, or sham) across 3 different conditions (orbitofrontal, bilateral, or extracephalic reference electrode location). The active electrode was always placed over M1 and tDCS lasted for 20min. Starting ~5min prior to stimulation and running continuously for ~30min, participants were repeatedly presented with a visual cue centered on a computer monitor and asked to press a response button as quickly as possible at stimulus onset (stimuli number: 100 pre-, 400 during-, and 100-post stimulation - interstimulus interval: 1-3s). Ex-gaussian distribution curves, miss, and error rates were determined for each normalized batch of 100 RTs and compared using a two-way ANOVA. As the largest group differences were seen with 2mA anodal (compared to sham) stimulation using an orbitofrontal montage, an additional 60 healthy participants were recruited to further test for significance in this condition. No significant impact of tDCS was seen on any parameter of smRT distribution, error rate, or miss rate, regardless of polarity, stimulation intensity, electrode montage, or stimulation-to-task relationship. Our results suggest that tDCS over M1 might not have a predictable or reliable effect on short duration smRT. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the mechanisms by which tDCS might modulate more complex motor behaviors. Additional

  19. Anesthesia preparation time is not affected by the experience level of the resident involved during his/her first month of adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, David M; Couch, Michael C

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to answer the question of whether the experience level of the resident on his/her first month of adult cardiothoracic anesthesiology has an impact on operating room efficiency in a large academic medical center. Traditionally, the resident's 1st month of cardiac anesthesia had been reserved for the clinical anesthesia (CA)-2 year of training. This study analyzed the impact on operating room efficiency of moving the 1st month of cardiac anesthesia into the CA-1 year. The authors hypothesized that there would be no difference in anesthesia preparation times (defined as the interval between "in-room" and "anesthesia-ready" times) between CA-1 and CA-2 residents on their 1st month of cardiac anesthesia. This study was retrospective and used an electronic anesthesia information management system database. This study was conducted on care provided at a single 450-bed academic medical center. This study included 12 residents in their 1st month of cardiac anesthesia. The anesthesia preparation time (defined as the interval between "in-room" and "anesthesia-ready" times) was measured for cases involving residents on their first month of cardiac anesthesia. Anesthesia preparation times for 6 CA-1 resident months and 6 CA-2 resident months (100 adult cardiac procedures in total) were analyzed (49 for the CA-1 residents and 51 for the CA-2s). There were no differences in preparation time between CA-1 and CA-2 residents as a group (p = 0.8169). The CA-1 residents had an unadjusted mean (±standard error) of 51.1 ± 3.18 minutes, whereas the CA-2 residents' unadjusted mean was 50.2 ± 2.41 minutes. Adjusting for case mix (valves v coronary artery bypass graft surgery), the CA-1 mean was 49.1 ± 5.22 minutes, whereas the CA-2 mean was 49.1 ± 4.54 minutes. These findings suggest that operating room efficiency as measured by the anesthesia preparation time may not be affected by the level of the resident on his/her 1st month of adult cardiac anesthesia

  20. National Differences in Regional Emergency Department Boarding Times: Are US Emergency Departments Prepared for a Public Health Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer S; Karp, David; Delgado, M Kit; Margolis, Gregg; Wiebe, Douglas J; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-08-01

    Boarding admitted patients decreases emergency department (ED) capacity to accommodate daily patient surge. Boarding in regional hospitals may decrease the ability to meet community needs during a public health emergency. This study examined differences in regional patient boarding times across the United States and in regions at risk for public health emergencies. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed by using 2012 ED visit data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) database and 2012 hospital ED boarding data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database. Hospitals were grouped into hospital referral regions (HRRs). The primary outcome was mean ED boarding time per HRR. Spatial hot spot analysis examined boarding time spatial clustering. A total of 3317 of 4671 (71%) hospitals were included in the study cohort. A total of 45 high-boarding-time HRRs clustered along the East/West coasts and 67 low-boarding-time HRRs clustered in the Midwest/Northern Plains regions. A total of 86% of HRRs at risk for a terrorist event had high boarding times and 36% of HRRs with frequent natural disasters had high boarding times. Urban, coastal areas have the longest boarding times and are clustered with other high-boarding-time HRRs. Longer boarding times suggest a heightened level of vulnerability and a need to enhance surge capacity because these regions have difficulty meeting daily emergency care demands and are at increased risk for disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:576-582).

  1. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 against DSS-induced colitis is dependent on bacterial preparation and timing of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C L; Natividad, J M M; Jury, J; Martin, R; Langella, P; Verdu, E F

    2014-03-01

    Probiotics have been proposed as a therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, but variations in strains, formulations, and protocols used in clinical trials have hindered the creation of guidelines for their use. Thus, preclinical insight into the mechanisms of specific probiotic strains and mode of administration would be useful to guide future clinical trial design. In this study, live, heat inactivated (HI), and spent culture medium preparations of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 were administered to specific pathogen free C57BL/6 mice before or during colitis, as well as before colitis reactivation. Five days of 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium in drinking water was used to induce colitis. Pretreatment with live B. breve reduced disease severity, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic damage, cytokine production, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-10 ratio, and lymphocyte infiltration in the colon. B. breve did not attenuate on-going colitis. After acute colitis, disease symptoms were normalised sooner with live and HI B. breve treatment; however, reactivation of colitis was not prevented. These findings indicate that the efficacy of a probiotic to modulate intestinal inflammation is dependent on the formulation as well as state of inflammation when administered. Overall, live B. breve was most efficacious in preventing acute colitis. Live and HI B. breve also promoted recovery from diarrhoea and colon bleeding after a bout of acute colitis.

  2. 20 CFR 655.1114 - Element IV-What are the timely and significant steps an H-1C employer must take to recruit and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that constitute a “significant” factor in inducing employment and retention of U.S. nurses. (iii) Work schedule options. The facility provides nurses with non-mandatory work schedule options for part-time work, job-sharing, compressed work week or non-rotating shifts (provided, however, that H-1C nurses are...

  3. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  4. Influence of deposition time on the surface morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of copper doped titania nanotubes prepared by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. A.; Chin, L. Y.; Khusaimi, Z.; Zainal, Z.

    2018-05-01

    A great attention has focused on Cu doped titania nanotubes (Cu/TiNT) as a versatile advance material since it can be employed in various promising technological applications. The current study reported on the influence of various deposition times on the surface morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of Cu/TiNT via electrodeposition technique. Cu loaded on the TiNT surface was detected with prolonged deposition time. For photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurement, the highest responsive photocurrent density was obtained at 20 minutes with 54.3 µA/cm2. Too long duration (40 mins) resulted in poor performance of Cu/TiNT as only 22.6 µA/cm2 of photocurrent being generated.

  5. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed accuracy trade-offs : Effects of advance preparation for processing time

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed accuracy trade-off (SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is l...

  6. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  7. Elaborate strategy for preparing Li4Ti5O12-based anode materials with significantly improved lithium storage: TiO2 nanodots in-situ decoration and hierarchical structure construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tian, Qinghua; Huang, Jun; Bao, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) has attracted extensive attention as potential anode materials for power lithium-ion batteries due to its outstanding structural stability and remarkable safety. However, it's practical application yet be limited by such disadvantages of dissatisfied specific capacity, poor electron conductivity and low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient. Thus, design and preparation of LTO anodes with desirable performance is still a challenge. Herein, we have successfully and greatly improved the performance of LTO anodes, in terms of rate capability, life and specific capacity in particular via dot-to-face anatase TiO2in-situ decoration and hierarchical structure construction under a facile approach (directly using the tetrabutyl titanate as titanium source instead of specially prepared titanium oxide precursors). The as-prepared LTO-based anode (denoted as T-LTO) delivers an ultra-high reversible specific capacity of 196.5 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles at 20 mA g-1, and superior rate performance and even ultra-long life of more than 145.8 mAh g-1 at 28.5C between 1.0 and 3.0 V. The achieved outstanding electrochemical performance largely surpasses that of reportedly state-of-the-art LTO-based anode materials. This work may open up a broader vision into developing advanced LTO-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  9. The effect of oxidation time on the parameters of ITO/Si solar cell prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S. A; Afifi, H. H; El-hefnawi, S. H; Eliwa, A.Y [Electronic Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO/N-Si) solar cells have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. The silicon wafers are heated at 500 Celsius degrees with different oxidation time (2-20 min). The best values obtained for ITO/Si solar cell output parameters; open circuit voltage V{sub o}c, short circuit current density J{sub s}c, fill factor FF and efficiency {eta} are 0.48 V, 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.7 and 10.1% respectively. The preceding results were obtained under conditions of 5 minutes oxidation time and the surface area equal to 8 mm{sup 2} when the light intensity is 50 MW/ cm{sup 2}. The values of V{sub o}c, J{sub s}c, FF and {eta} are affected strongly by the varying the oxidation time. This paper is devoted to explain the effect of the interfacial layer SiO{sub 2} thickness on the ITO/Si solar cell parameters as deduced from the I-V and C-V measurements. [Spanish] Mediante tecnicas de pirolisis de dispersion se han fabricado celdas solares de oxido de Indio estanado ITO/N-Si. Las obleas de silicon se calientan a 500 con diferentes tiempos de oxidacion (2-20 min.) Los mejores valores obtenidos para los parametros de produccion de las celdas solares ITO-Si de voltaje en circuito abierto V{sub o}c densidad de corriente de corto circuito J{sub s}c factor de llenado FF y eficiencia {eta} son de 0.48 V, 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.7% y 10.1% respectivamente los resultados precedentes se obtuvieron bajo condiciones de 5 minutos de tiempo de oxidacion y la superficie del area=8 mm{sup 2} cuando la intensidad de la luz es de 50mW/Cm{sup 2}. Los valores de V{sub o}c, J{sub s}c, FF y {eta} se afectan fuertemente por la variacion del tiempo de oxidacion. Este articulo esta dedicado a explicar el efecto del espesor de la capa interfacial de SiO{sub 2} en los parametros de la celda solar ITO-Si como se deduce de las mediciones I-V y C-V.

  10. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  11. High-precision timing of Nanhai coral by using MC-ICP-MS and TIMS techniques and its paleo-environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng; Nie Baofu; Chen Tegu

    2004-01-01

    The techniques of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were used for the high-precision timing of the domestic stalagmite standard (GBW04412), international coral standard (RKM-4) and the Nanhai corals. The results of uranium contents and the ratios of 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 234 U in the two standards measured by using two techniques were consistent within the error range. Most of the Nanhai corals have less than 3 μg/g of the uranium contents and 150 ± 5 of the δ 234 U(T) values, which means that the corals have not been subjected to the alternation since they were brought up 7000 years ago, therefore, they preserve the original environmental signals. The age sequence of the corals shows that three events of the high sea level happened in Nanhai area in the periods corresponding to 6799-6307 a B.P., 4472-4285 a B.P. and 1279-1012 a B.P. respectively. The above-mentioned three stages were relative to the Megathermal and Medieval Warm Periods in our country. (authors)

  12. Prevalence and clinical significance of cancer cachexia based on time from treatment in advanced-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minsu; Kim, Rock Bum; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Sung-Bae; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of cancer cachexia and its prognostic impact in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The prevalence of cancer cachexia was analyzed according to the follow-up periods during the first year after curative initial treatment. Recurrences, noncancer health events (NCHEs), and cause-specific survival outcomes were also analyzed according to the incidence of cancer cachexia during follow-up. Cancer cachexia was identified in 22 (6.1%), 148 (41%), 66 (18.4%), and 65 (18.7%) of 361 enrolled patients at pretreatment, immediately after treatment, 6-months after treatment, and 12-months after treatment, respectively. Sustained or newly developed cachexia at 6 and 12 months showed a significant association with recurrence and NCHE occurrence (p cachexia had a higher probability of cancer-specific death, noncancerous death, and overall death (p Cachexia prevalence at 6 and 12 months after treatment for HNSCC indicates a higher chance of recurrence, NCHE, and death. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 716-723, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx.6.5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190 0 C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 (17 0 F.1,000 ft -1 ), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 imply a temperature of 307 0 C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170 0 C.km -1 , which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955 0 GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650 0 C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas

  14. A novel and discriminative method of in vitro disintegration time for preparation and optimization of taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of carbinoxamine maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Peng; Qian, Rong; Sun, Tianyu; Fang, Fangzhi; Wang, Zonghua; Ke, Xue; Xu, Bohui

    2018-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to mask bitter taste and decrease the disintegration time of carbinoxamine maleate (CAM) orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In order to screen the prescription of ODTs, a novel modified in vitro disintegration method (MIVDM) was developed to measure the in vitro disintegration time. In this method, different concentrations of ethanol served as disintegration medium in order to delay the in vitro water absorption and disintegration process of tablets. The MIVDM demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo correlation and proved more precise and discriminative than other reported methods. In this research, ion exchange resins (IERs) were used to mask bitter taste for improving mouthfeel. The drug-resin ratio and reaction temperature were investigated to obtain the optimum carbinoxamine resin complexes (CRCs). The characterization of CRCs revealed an amorphous state. ODTs were prepared by direct compression. Superdisintegrants and diluents of ODTs were screened first. Further optimization was carried out by using Box-Behnken design. The effect of (X 1 ) mannitol/microcrystalline cellulose ratio, (X 2 ) the amount of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and (X 3 ) the hardness was investigated for achieving the lowest (Y) in vitro disintegration time. Technological characterization, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and roughness degree were evaluated. The CRCs and ODTs proved successful taste-masking efficiency. The end product improved patients' compliance. The developed MIVDM was practical for commercial use.

  15. Insight into the time-resolved extraction of aroma compounds during espresso coffee preparation: online monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, José A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-12-02

    Using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigated the extraction dynamic of 95 ion traces in real time (time resolution = 1 s) during espresso coffee preparation. Fifty-two of these ions were tentatively identified. This was achieved by online sampling of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in close vicinity to the coffee flow, at the exit of the extraction hose of the espresso machine (single serve capsules). Ten replicates of six different single serve coffee types were extracted to a final weight between 20-120 g, according to the recommended cup size of the respective coffee capsule (Ristretto, Espresso, and Lungo), and analyzed. The results revealed considerable differences in the extraction kinetics between compounds, which led to a fast evolution of the volatile profiles in the extract flow and consequently to an evolution of the final aroma balance in the cup. Besides exploring the time-resolved extraction dynamics of VOCs, the dynamic data also allowed the coffees types (capsules) to be distinguished from one another. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed full separation between the coffees types. The methodology developed provides a fast and simple means of studying the extraction dynamics of VOCs and differentiating between different coffee types.

  16. Hypoxia: Exposure Time Until Significant Performance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    three alcoholic beverages per day (on average), or were taking any prescription medication (besides oral contraceptives). Likewise, those who were...or tested positively for pregnancy were disqualified from the study, as the risks of hypoxia to a human fetus are currently unknown. Also, those...that could impact inclusion in the study. After the questionnaire, all female participants provided a urine sample for pregnancy testing. Participants

  17. Preparation of Microcellular Epoxy Foams through a Limited-Foaming Process: A Contradiction with the Time-Temperature-Transformation Cure Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chun; Gong, Wei; Ji, Yubi; Qin, Shuhao; He, Li

    2018-01-01

    3D cross-linking networks are generated through chemical reactions between thermosetting epoxy resin and hardener during curing. The curing degree of epoxy material can be increased by increasing curing temperature and/or time. The epoxy material must then be fully cured through a postcuring process to optimize its material characteristics. Here, a limited-foaming method is introduced for the preparation of microcellular epoxy foams (Lim-foams) with improved cell morphology, high thermal expansion coefficient, and good compressive properties. Lim-foams exhibit a lower glass transition temperature (T g ) and curing degree than epoxy foams fabricated through free-foaming process (Fre-foams). Surprisingly, however, the T g of Lim-foams is unaffected by postcuring temperature and time. This phenomenon, which is related to high gas pressure in the bubbles, contradicts that indicated by the time-temperature-transformation cure diagram. High bubble pressure promotes the movement of molecular chains under heating at low temperature and simultaneously suppresses the etherification cross-linking reaction during post-curing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis: a novel approach to rapid identification of analytical markers for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Wang, Yuefei; Mo, Huanbiao; Qu, Haibin

    2012-07-06

    The paper presents a novel strategy to identify analytical markers of traditional Chinese medicine preparation (TCMP) rapidly via direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). A commonly used TCMP, Danshen injection, was employed as a model. The optimal analysis conditions were achieved by measuring the contribution of various experimental parameters to the mass spectra. Salvianolic acids and saccharides were simultaneously determined within a single 1-min DART-MS run. Furthermore, spectra of Danshen injections supplied by five manufacturers were processed with principal component analysis (PCA). Obvious clustering was observed in the PCA score plot, and candidate markers were recognized from the contribution plots of PCA. The suitability of potential markers was then confirmed by contrasting with the results of traditional analysis methods. Using this strategy, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid A were rapidly identified as the markers of Danshen injections. The combination of DART-MS with PCA provides a reliable approach to the identification of analytical markers for quality control of TCMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of Parvovirus B19 DNA Using COBAS AmpliPrep Automated Sample Preparation and LightCycler Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorling, Stefan; Schalasta, Gunnar; Enders, Gisela; Zauke, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The COBAS AmpliPrep instrument (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany) automates the entire sample preparation process of nucleic acid isolation from serum or plasma for polymerase chain reaction analysis. We report the analytical performance of the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit (Roche Diagnostics) using nucleic acids isolated with the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit (Roche Diagnostics) and amplified with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit. The kit combination processes 72 samples per 8-hour shift. The lower detection limit is 234 IU/ml at a 95% hit-rate, linear range approximately 104-1010 IU/ml, and overall precision 16 to 40%. Relative sensitivity and specificity in routine samples from pregnant women are 100% and 93%, respectively. Identification of a persistent parvovirus B19-infected individual by the polymerase chain reaction among 51 anti-parvovirus B19 IgM-negative samples underlines the importance of additional nucleic acid testing in pregnancy and its superiority to serology in identifying the risk of parvovirus B19 transmission via blood or blood products. Combination of the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit provides a reliable and time-saving tool for sensitive and accurate detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. PMID:14736825

  20. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsieh, M.-S.; Ueng, S.-H.; Hao, S.-P.; Tseng, C.-K.; Pai, P.-C.; Chang, F.-T.; Tsai, M.-H.; Tsang, N.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results to turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status (≥ T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control

  1. Optimal preparation-to-colonoscopy interval in split-dose PEG bowel preparation determines satisfactory bowel preparation quality: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hee; Kim, Tae Oh; Park, Min Jae; Joo, Hee Rin; Heo, Nae Yun; Park, Jongha; Park, Seung Ha; Yang, Sung Yeon; Moon, Young Soo

    2012-03-01

    Several factors influence bowel preparation quality. Recent studies have indicated that the time interval between bowel preparation and the start of colonoscopy is also important in determining bowel preparation quality. To evaluate the influence of the preparation-to-colonoscopy (PC) interval (the interval of time between the last polyethylene glycol dose ingestion and the start of the colonoscopy) on bowel preparation quality in the split-dose method for colonoscopy. Prospective observational study. University medical center. A total of 366 consecutive outpatients undergoing colonoscopy. Split-dose bowel preparation and colonoscopy. The quality of bowel preparation was assessed by using the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale according to the PC interval, and other factors that might influence bowel preparation quality were analyzed. Colonoscopies with a PC interval of 3 to 5 hours had the best bowel preparation quality score in the whole, right, mid, and rectosigmoid colon according to the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale. In multivariate analysis, the PC interval (odds ratio [OR] 1.85; 95% CI, 1.18-2.86), the amount of PEG ingested (OR 4.34; 95% CI, 1.08-16.66), and compliance with diet instructions (OR 2.22l 95% CI, 1.33-3.70) were significant contributors to satisfactory bowel preparation. Nonrandomized controlled, single-center trial. The optimal time interval between the last dose of the agent and the start of colonoscopy is one of the important factors to determine satisfactory bowel preparation quality in split-dose polyethylene glycol bowel preparation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  3. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  4. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  5. On the Call for Action: Rejoinder to "Isn't It Time We Did Something about the Lack of Teaching Preparation in Business Doctoral Programs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Marx, Garcia, Butterfield, Kappen, and Baldwin (2015) lament the current state of affairs where there is sparse and inconsistent teaching preparation across business doctoral programs. The authors refute the idea that teaching is solely an art to be acquired rather than a skill to be learned. They explore the legacy rewards system--incentives…

  6. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  7. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  9. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  10. Left-colon water exchange preserves the benefits of whole colon water exchange at reduced cecal intubation time conferring significant advantage in diagnostic colonoscopy - a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangping; Luo, Hui; Xiang, Yi; Leung, Felix W; Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linhui; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Whole-colon water exchange (WWE) reduces insertion pain, increases cecal intubation success and adenoma detection rate, but requires longer insertion time, compared to air insufflation (AI) colonoscopy. We hypothesized that water exchange limited to the left colon (LWE) can speed up insertion with equivalent results. This prospective, randomized controlled study (NCT01735266) allocated patients (18-80 years) to WWE, LWE or AI group (1:1:1). The primary outcome was cecal intubation time. Three hundred subjects were randomized to the WWE (n = 100), LWE (n = 100) or AI group (n = 100). Ninety-four to ninety-five per cent of patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The median insertion time was shorter in LWE group (4.8 min (95%CI: 3.2-6.2)) than those in WWE (7.5 min (95%CI: 6.0-10.3)) and AI (6.4 min (95%CI: 4.2-9.8)) (both p rates in unsedated patients of the two water exchange methods (WWE 99%, LWE 99%) were significantly higher than that (89.8%) in AI group (p = 0.01). The final success rates were comparable among the three groups after sedation was given. Maximum pain scores and number of patients needing abdominal compression between WWE and LWE groups were comparable, both lower than those in AI group (p higher in WWE group. By preserving the benefits of WWE and reducing insertion time, LWE is appropriate for diagnostic colonoscopy, especially in settings with tight scheduling of patients. The higher PDR in the right colon in WWE group deserves to be further investigated.

  11. Real-time investigations of the influence of sodium on the properties of Cu-poor prepared CuInS{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudigier, E.; Pietzker, Ch.; Wimbor, M.; Luck, I.; Klaer, J.; Scheer, R.; Barcones, B.; Jawhari Colin, T.; Alvarez-Garcia, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A

    2003-05-01

    The influence of sodium on the growth path and the properties of Cu-poor prepared CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) thin films is investigated. In situ experiments of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy reveal a different growth path when sodium is incorporated. A delay of the CIS formation has been found as well as a different contribution of the resulting phases in the layer like the In-S alloy is now supposed to be located nearer the surface. Sodium doping results in a remarkable increase in the lateral conductivity and the cell efficiency of CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells.

  12. Analysis of techniques for estimating evacuation times for emergency planning zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanik, T [Texas Transportation Institute (United States); Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, WA (United States); Desrosiers, A [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Lindell, M K; Schuller, C R [Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Limitations of current methodologies and some alternatives are discussed that point out that evacuation time is a combination of the time required for four separate actions. These are decision, notification, preparation, and response (travel) time. Times for these actions will overlap to some degree with some people receiving notification, some preparing to leave, and others traveling. Notification and preparation times significantly affect the evacuation time and must be known before time to clear an area can be calculated accurately. (author)

  13. The relation between self-regulated strategies and individual study time, prepared participation and achievement in a problem-based curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, M.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL) students are encouraged to take responsibility for their own self-regulated learning process. The present study focuses on two self-regulated learning strategies, namely time planning and self-monitoring. Time planning involves time management, scheduling and planning

  14. Measuring the impact of a burns school reintegration programme on the time taken to return to school: A multi-disciplinary team intervention for children returning to school after a significant burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Sira N; Gaskell, Sarah L; Baker, Charlotte; Ellis, Nicola; Potts, Jennie; Coucill, Theresa; Ryan, Lynn; Smith, Jan; Nixon, Anna; Greaves, Kate; Monk, Rebecca; Shelmerdine, Teresa; Leach, Alison; Shah, Mamta

    2015-06-01

    Returning to school can be a major step for burn-injured children, their family, and staff and pupils at the receiving school. Previous literature has recognised the difficulties children may face after a significant injury and factors that may influence a successful reintegration. A regional paediatric burns service recognised that some patients were experiencing difficulties in returning to school. A baseline audit confirmed this and suggested factors that hindered or facilitated this process, initiating the development of a school reintegration programme (SRP). Since the programme's development in 2009, it has been audited annually. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of the SRP by presenting data from the 2009 to 2011 audits. For the baseline audit, the burn care team gathered information from clinical records (age, gender, total body surface area burned (TBSA), skin grafting and length of stay) and telephone interviews with parents and teachers of the school returners. For the re-audits, the same information was gathered from clinical records and feedback questionnaires. Since its introduction, the mean length of time from discharge to return to school has dropped annually for those that opted into the programme, when compared to the baseline by 62.3% (53 days to 20 days). Thematic analysis highlights positive responses to the programme from all involved. Increased awareness and feeling supported were amongst the main themes to emerge. Returning to school after a significant burn injury can be challenging for all involved, but we hypothesise that outreach interventions in schools by burns services can have a positive impact on the time it takes children to successfully reintegrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel, Improved Sample Preparation for Rapid, Direct Identification from Positive Blood Cultures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a m...

  16. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  17. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  18. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  19. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  20. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  1. Impact of Robotic Antineoplastic Preparation on Safety, Workflow, and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Andrew C.; Churchill, William W.; Keohane, Carol A.; Belisle, Caryn D.; Wong, Stephanie T.; Sylvester, Katelyn W.; Chesnick, Megan A.; Burdick, Elisabeth; Wien, Matt F.; Cotugno, Michael C.; Bates, David W.; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Antineoplastic preparation presents unique safety concerns and consumes significant pharmacy staff time and costs. Robotic antineoplastic and adjuvant medication compounding may provide incremental safety and efficiency advantages compared with standard pharmacy practices. Methods: We conducted a direct observation trial in an academic medical center pharmacy to compare the effects of usual/manual antineoplastic and adjuvant drug preparation (baseline period) with robotic preparation (intervention period). The primary outcomes were serious medication errors and staff safety events with the potential for harm of patients and staff, respectively. Secondary outcomes included medication accuracy determined by gravimetric techniques, medication preparation time, and the costs of both ancillary materials used during drug preparation and personnel time. Results: Among 1,421 and 972 observed medication preparations, we found nine (0.7%) and seven (0.7%) serious medication errors (P = .8) and 73 (5.1%) and 28 (2.9%) staff safety events (P = .007) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. Drugs failed accuracy measurements in 12.5% (23 of 184) and 0.9% (one of 110) of preparations in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P < .001). Mean drug preparation time increased by 47% when using the robot (P = .009). Labor costs were similar in both study periods, although the ancillary material costs decreased by 56% in the intervention period (P < .001). Conclusion: Although robotically prepared antineoplastic and adjuvant medications did not reduce serious medication errors, both staff safety and accuracy of medication preparation were improved significantly. Future studies are necessary to address the overall cost effectiveness of these robotic implementations. PMID:23598843

  2. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  3. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  4. Effect of reaction time on structural, morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanoflakes prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molefe, F.V.; Koao, L.F., E-mail: koaolf@qwa.ufs.ac.za; Dolo, J.J.; Dejene, B.F.

    2014-04-15

    ZnO nanoflakes have been successfully synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for different reaction times. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the initial formation of the cubic ZnO structure. However, increasing the reaction time resulted into the emergence of the well-known hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of agglomerated nanoflakes. The morphology was found not to depend on synthesis time. UV–vis spectra showed a partially increase in the percentage reflectance and the absorption edges red shifted to the higher wavelength with an increase in synthesis time. The highest band gap energy was obtained for ZnO synthesized for 1 min, with its estimated band gap energy of 3.91±0.08 eV. The estimated band gap decreased with an increase in the reaction time. The photoluminescent intensity of the emission peak at 473 nm decreased with an increase in reaction time.

  5. Effect of aging time on the optical, structural and photoluminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by a sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.B.; AL-Shomar, S.M.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited by a sol–gel method and the effect of sol aging time 0, 1, 7 and 11 days on the structural, optical and photoluminescence properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the deposited films were polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure and high orientation along c-axis direction. The grain size was in the range of 42–60 nm increased with sol aging time also the thickness increased from 70 to 147 nm with the aging time increment. The roughness of ZnO film investigated by atomic force microscope showed that roughness of the films increased then decreased with the increment of the aging time. The deposited films are highly transparent with an average transmission exceeding 82–95% in the visible range (400–800 nm), which slightly improved with aging time. The measured optical band gap values of the ZnO films were between 3.1 eV and 3.6 eV. The photoluminescence intensity increased with the aging time and the ZnO films have ultraviolet, violet and green emission.

  6. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  7. Evaluation of a centrifuge with rapid turnaround time for the preparation of plasma samples for measurement of common STAT markers on the ACS: 180 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K; Datta, P; Orswell, M; Tasaico, K; Alpert, A; Bluestein, B

    2000-01-01

    Reported is the evaluation of a new centrifugation method, Statspin, that addresses both time and sample separation integrity. The method can successfully separate the plasma fraction from the cellular material in 2 minutes as compared to 20 minutes for the conventional centrifuge method. The Statspin, combined with the ACS:180 system, can generate test results in less than 30 minutes, exclusive of transport to the laboratory. This study demonstrated that the combined technologies offer timing-saving improvements for clinical laboratories offering STAT immunoassays for cardiac markers, endocrine molecules, and therapeutic drugs.

  8. The significance of relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Kate

    2017-12-01

    Understanding individual energy use can inform interventions for energy conservation. A longitudinal qualitative interview study shows that energy use behaviour is not simply a matter of individual choice, but rather is influenced by unique personal circumstances and familial and social relationships, which change over time.

  9. Metabolic profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and evaluation of commercial preparations using Ultra-High Performance Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-High Performance-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometr(UHPLC-QToF-MS)profiling has become an impattant tool for identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. Chemometric approaches can be used to ana...

  10. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Elgersma, P. E.; Friedrich, A. W.; Nagy, E.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the

  11. A time series approach to the correction for atmosphere effects and the significance of a semi-diurnal variation in corrected intensities of secondary cosmic ray neutrons and mesons (NM64 and MT64)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijsmans, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this research was to distinguish as accurately as possible between two mechanisms behind a half-daily variation in detected numbers of neutrons and mesons in the secondary cosmic ray particles at sea level. These two mechanisms are due to air pressure variations at sea level and affect the number of primary particles with a certain arrival direction. The distribution among arrival directions in the ecliptic plane varies if a gradient exists in the guiding centre density of primaries in directions perpendicular to the neutral sheet. Chapter 2 is devoted to the calculation of a physically and statistically justifiable determination of the barometric coefficient for neutron measurements and air pressures. Chapter 3 deals with the estimation of atmospheric correction coefficients for the elimination of the influence of changing atmospheric conditions on the number of detected mesons. For mesons the variation of total mass, and also the variations in mass-distribution along the trajectory of the mesons are important. After correction for atmospheric variations using the resulting atmospheric correction coefficients from chapter 2 and 3, the influence of the structure of the interplanetary magnetic field near the earth is examined in chapter 4. 0inally, in chapter 5, a power spectral analysis of variations in corrected intensities of neutrons and mesons is carried out. Such an analysis distinguishes the variance of a time series into contributions within small frequency intervals. From the power spectra of variations on a yearly basis, a statistically fundamented judgement can be given as to the significance of the semi-diurnal variation during the different phases of the solar magnetic activity cycle. (Auth.)

  12. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  13. Novel, improved sample preparation for rapid, direct identification from positive blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a method for novel, rapid sample preparation using differential lysis of blood cells. We demonstrate the efficacy and ease of use of this sample preparation and subsequent MALDI-TOF MS identification, applying it to a total of 500 aerobic and anaerobic BCs reported to be positive by a Bactec 9240 system. In 86.5% of all BCs, the microorganism species were correctly identified. Moreover, in 18/27 mixed cultures at least one isolate was correctly identified. A novel method that adjusts the score value for MALDI-TOF MS results is proposed, further improving the proportion of correctly identified samples. The results of the present study show that the MALDI-TOF MS-based method allows rapid (directly from positive BCs and with high accuracy. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of alumina microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina micro-spheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO 2 , ThO 2 ). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper. (C.L.B.) [pt

  15. Implant Fixture Heat Transfer During Abutment Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, Khalil; Alkeraidis, Abdullah; Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Altahawi, Hamdi; Lynch, Edward

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of water flow rate on the heat transmission in implants during abutment preparation using a diamond bur in a high-speed dental turbine. Titanium-alloy abutments (n = 32) were connected to a titanium-alloy implant embedded in an acrylic resin within a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37°C. The specimens were equally distributed into 2 groups (16 each) according to the water flow rate used during the preparation phase. Group 1 had a water flow rate of 24 mL/min, and group 2 had a water flow rate of 40 mL/min. Each abutment was prepared in the axial plane for 1 minute and in the occlusal plane for 1 minute with a coarse tapered diamond bur using a high-speed dental handpiece. Thermocouples embedded at the cervix of the implant surface were used to record the temperature of heat transmission from the abutment preparation. Heat generation was measured at 3 distinct times (immediately and 30 seconds and 60 seconds after the end of preparation). Statistical analyses were carried out using 2-way analysis of variance and the Student t test. Water flow rates (24 mL vs 40 mL) and time interval had no statistically significant effect on the implant's temperature change during the abutment preparation stage (P = .431 and P = .064, respectively). Increasing the water flow rate from 24 to 40 mL/min had no influence on the temperature of the implant fixture recorded during preparation of the abutment.

  16. Effect of CdS Growth Time on the Optical Properties of One-Pot Preparation of CdS-Ag2S Binary Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour, M.; Izadian, L.; Molaei, M.

    2018-02-01

    CdS-Ag2S binary nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile one-pot microwave irradiation method. The effect of initial nucleation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) using 3 min, 5 min, and 7 min of microwave irradiation on the optical properties of the final compound was studied. The composition and crystal structure of the compounds were verified using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. They revealed that existence of Ag and Cd elements with an atomic ratio of 0.19 crystalizes in the form of monoclinic Ag2S and hexagonal CdS. Scanning electron microscope images showed a spherical morphology of the resultant compound, and transmission electron microscope images showed the formation of fine particles of CdS-Ag2S composites with an average size of 5-7 nm and 10-14 nm for CdS and Ag2S, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the initial growth time of CdS has a crucial effect on the emission of binary compounds such that for 3 min and 5 min of irradiation of CdS solution, the binary compound obtains strong red and considerable near-IR emission (850 nm), but for longer time, it rapidly quenches. The results indicate that the strong red emission can be tuned from 600 nm up to 700 nm with prolonging nucleation time of CdS. This study also emphasized that the origin of red emission strongly depends on the size and defects created in the CdS QDs.

  17. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  18. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  19. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  20. Morphology of one-time coated palladium-alumina composite membrane prepared by sol-gel process and electroless plating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R.; Dewi, R.; Pardi; Hakim, L.; Diana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Palladium coated porous alumina ceramic membrane tube was obtained using a combination of sol-gel process and electroless plating technique. The thickness, structure and composition of palladium-alumina composite membrane were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Palladium particle size was 6.18 to 7.64 nm. Palladium membrane with thickness of approximately 301.5 to 815.1 nm was formed at the outer surface of the alumina layer. EDX data confirmed the formation of palladium-alumina membrane containing 45% of palladium. From this research it shows the combination of sol-gel process and electroless plating technique with one-time coating can produce a homogeneous and smoother palladium nano layer film on alumina substrate.

  1. An evidence-based approach to medication preparation for the surgical patient at risk for latex allergy: is it time to stop being stopper poppers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, James W; Bader, Stephen O

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of latex allergy is increasing in surgical patient populations. Avoidance of exposure to the allergen is essential to minimizing perioperative complications in patients suspected to be at risk. Natural rubber latex has historically been ubiquitous in medical devices containing rubber. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to require the labeling of medical devices made from natural rubber latex; since that time substantial progress has been made in identifying latex-free alternatives. However, the rubber stoppers commonly found in pharmaceutical vial closures are exempt from FDA labeling requirements. Examination of the clinical and basic science literature regarding pharmaceutical vial closures supports limiting the rubber stopper to a single needle puncture as a safer practice, with the caveat that no strategy exists for the complete elimination of risk as long as stoppers made from natural rubber latex are used in pharmaceutical vials intended for human use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  3. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The influence of reaction times on structural, optical and luminescence properties of cadmium telluride nanoparticles prepared by wet-chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiprotich, Sharon, E-mail: KiprotichS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Ungula, Jatani [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, Martin O. [Departments of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains one pot synthesis of type II water soluble L-cysteine capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) core shell quantum dots using cadmium acetate, potassium tellurite and L-cysteine as the starting materials. The reaction was carried out in a single three necked flask without nitrogen under reflux at 100 °C. Results from PL show a sharp absorption excitonic band edge of the CdTe core with respect to the core shell which loses its shoulder during the growth of the shell on the core. The PL spectra indicate a drastic shift in emission window of the core which is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in emission intensity. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal phase for all samples. Some difference in absorption edges were observed due to varying synthesis time of CdTe NPs. The position of the absorption band is observed to shift towards the lower wavelength side for shorter durations of synthesis.

  6. Lab-on-a-chip enabled HLA diagnostic: combined sample preparation and real time PCR for HLA-B57 diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Frank, Rainer; Willems, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The diverse human HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system is responsible for antigen presentation and recognition. It is essential for the immune system to maintain a stable defense line, but also is also involved in autoimmunity as well as metabolic disease. HLA-haplotype (HLA-B27), for instance, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as Bechterew's disease. The administration of the HIV drug Abacavir in combination with another HLA-haplotype (HLAB57) is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Accordingly, the HLA status has to be monitored for diagnosis or prior to start of therapy. Along this line, a miniaturized microfluidic platform has been developed allowing performing the complete analytical process from "sample-in" to "answer-out" in a point-of-care environment. The main steps of the analytical cascade inside the integrated system are blood cell lysis and DNA isolation, DNA purification, real-time PCR and quantitative monitoring of the rise of a fluorescent signal appearing during the PCR based sequence amplification. All bio-analytical steps were intended to be performed inside one chip and will be actuated, controlled and monitored by a matching device. This report will show that all required processes are established and tested and all device components work well and interact with the functional modules on the chips in a harmonized fashion.

  7. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  8. A Double-Coil TMS Method to Assess Corticospinal Excitability Changes at a Near-Simultaneous Time in the Two Hands during Movement Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Quoilin, Caroline; Petitjean, Charlotte; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have investigated corticospinal excitability changes occurring when choosing which hand to use for an action, one of the most frequent decision people make in daily life. So far, these studies have applied single-pulse TMS eliciting motor-evoked potential (MEP) in one hand when this hand is either selected or non-selected. Using such method, hand choices were shown to entail the operation of two inhibitory mechanisms, suppressing MEPs in the targeted hand either when it is non-selected (competition resolution, CR) or selected (impulse control, IC). However, an important limitation of this “Single-Coil” method is that MEPs are elicited in selected and non-selected conditions during separate trials and thus those two settings may not be completely comparable. Moreover, a more important problem is that MEPs are computed in relation to the movement of different hands. The goal of the present study was to test a “Double-Coil” method to evaluate IC and CR preceding the same hand responses by applying Double-Coil TMS over the two primary motor cortices (M1) at a near-simultaneous time (1 ms inter-pulse interval). Methods: MEPs were obtained in the left (MEPLEFT) and right (MEPRIGHT) hands while subjects chose between left and right hand key-presses in blocks using a Single-Coil or a Double-Coil method; in the latter blocks, TMS was either applied over left M1 first (TMSLRM1 group, n = 12) or right M1 first (TMSRLM1 group, n = 12). Results: MEPLEFT were suppressed preceding both left (IC) and right (CR) hand responses whereas MEPRIGHT were only suppressed preceding left (CR) but not right (IC) hand responses. This result was observed regardless of whether Single-Coil or Double-Coil TMS was applied in the two subject groups. However, in the TMSLRM1 group, the MEP suppression was attenuated in Double-Coil compared to Single-Coil blocks for both IC and CR, when probed with MEPLEFT (elicited by

  9. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  10. Reactor operation plan preparing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki; Maruyama, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Banto, Masaru; Fukazawa, Yukihisa.

    1993-01-01

    The device comprises a means for retrieving a control rod pattern capable of satisfying a thermal limit upon aimed power/minimum flow rate and providing minimum xenon and a control rod pattern maximum xenon. It further comprises a means for selecting a control rod pattern corresponding to a xenon equilibrium condition, and selecting a control rod which provides a greater thermal margin to provide a control rod operation sequence for each of the patterns. Further, the device comprises an outline plan preparing means and a correction means therefor, a simplified sequence table reference means operated along with sequence change, an operation limit region input means, a control rod operation preferential region changing means, a thermal margin evaluation region and an input means. This can automatically prepare the operation plan, decrease the times for preparation of detailed plans by using the outline plan preparing function, thereby enabling to remarkably shorten the time for preparing of an operation plan. (N.H.)

  11. Preparation to exceptional operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sort, M.

    1984-01-01

    Preparation to special maintenance operations requires a specific approach according to the considered intervention type. Replacement of vapor generators is representative of a kind of intervention where technics is generally only an adaptation to the power plant context of processes already in application in construction, and where methodology, planning and organization have an important role because of the variety and the quantity of taskworks to be done, the involved manpower, the dosimetry and time lag requirements [fr

  12. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

    2013-08-23

    Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and

  13. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician-Silurian times

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Wegmann; U. Riller; F. D. Hongn; Johannes Glodny; Onno Oncken

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NWArgentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relat...

  14. Analysis of the Constituents in “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” lyophilized powder (ZSYXST, consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples.

  15. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  16. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K.; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. PMID:27413188

  18. Sonochemically preparation and characterization of bimetallic Ni-Co/Al2O3-ZrO2 nanocatalyst: Effects of ultrasound irradiation time and power on catalytic properties and activity in dry reforming of CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Salar; Haghighi, Mohammad; Rahmani, Farhad

    2017-09-01

    The catalytic performance of nanostructured Ni-Co/Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 catalysts, prepared by ultrasound-assisted impregnation method was examined in the dry reforming of methane. The effect of irradiation power and irradiation time have been studied by changing time (0, 20, 80min) and power of the sonication (30, 60, 90W) during the synthesis which resulted in different physiochemical properties of the nanocatalyst. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, PSD, EDX, TEM, TPR-H 2 , BET, FTIR and TG analyses. Based on the characterization results, ultrasound treatment endowed the sample with more uniform and smaller nanoparticles; higher surface area, stronger metal-support interaction and more homogenous dispersion. Moreover, the analyses exhibited smaller particles with higher surface area and less population of particle aggregates at longer and highly irradiated nanocatalysts. The nanocatalyst irradiated at 90W for 80min (the longest irradiation time and the most intense power) showed a uniform morphology and a very narrow particles size distribution. More than 65% of particles of this nanocatalyst were in the range of 10-30nm. Activity tests demonstrated that employing ultrasound irradiation during impregnation improves feed conversion and products yield, reaching values close to equilibrium. Among sonicated nanocatalysts, with increasing power and time of irradiation, the nanocatalyst represents higher activity. The superior performance amongst the various bimetallic catalysts tested was observed over the catalyst with 90W and 80min ultrasonic irradiation which is stable in 24h time on stream test. The excellent anti-coking performance of this bimetallic catalyst, confirmed by TG and FESEM analyses of spent catalyst, is closely related to the promoting effect of sonication on the metal-support interaction, Ni dispersion and particle size; and probably, the synergy between metallic species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of patient education on quality of bowel preparation in outpatient colonoscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Chintan; Depasquale, Joseph R; Digiacomo, W Scott; Malinowski, Judith E; Engelhardt, Kristen; Shaikh, Sohail N; Kothari, Shivangi T; Kottam, Raghu; Shakov, Rada; Maksoud, Charbel; Baddoura, Walid J; Spira, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality bowel preparation is essential for successful outpatient colonoscopy. Currently, the rate of adequate bowel preparation for outpatient colonoscopy in the USA is low. Patients often fail to adhere to recommended preparation instructions. Limited literature exists on evaluating educational intervention as a means of improving the quality of bowel preparation prior to outpatient colonoscopy. Our objective was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the quality of outpatient colonoscopy preparation. The secondary objective was to determine whether the quality of bowel preparation improves overall colonoscopy outcomes as measured by rate of polyp detection and caecal intubation time. A single-blinded, prospective, randomised, controlled trial was conducted in two inner-city gastroenterology clinics in the USA. One hundred and sixty-four subjects were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group subjects received verbal and written instructions for colonoscopy. The intervention group subjects received the same instructions and were then asked to answer a questionnaire. The subjects' responses were reviewed and an additional explanation of the preparation process provided. An attending gastroenterologist determined the quality of each bowel preparation at the time of colonoscopy using the Universal Preparation Assessment Scale. The educational intervention had no impact on the overall quality of bowel preparation (P=0.12). However, the type of food (liquid vs solid) consumed during the 24 hours prior to the procedure (P=0.04) and the time since the last solid meal (P=0.03) did have an impact on preparation quality. Other significant factors included elapsed time to first bowel movement from the initiation of bowel preparation (P=0.05) and age younger than 55 (P=0.02). Adequate bowel preparation was associated with shorter total procedure (P=0.001) and caecal intubation (P=0.01) times. Our study failed to demonstrate

  20. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  1. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status. (orig.) [de

  2. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The importance of including local correlation times in the calculation of inter-proton distances from NMR measurements: ignoring local correlation times leads to significant errors in the conformational analysis of the Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Mukram; Almond, Andrew; Cumpstey, Ian; Enis, Seth C; Kupce, Eriks; Butters, Terry D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dwek, Raymond A; Wormald, Mark R

    2006-06-07

    The experimental determination of oligosaccharide conformations has traditionally used cross-linkage 1H-1H NOE/ROEs. As relatively few NOEs are observed, to provide sufficient conformational constraints this method relies on: accurate quantification of NOE intensities (positive constraints); analysis of absent NOEs (negative constraints); and hence calculation of inter-proton distances using the two-spin approximation. We have compared the results obtained by using 1H 2D NOESY, ROESY and T-ROESY experiments at 500 and 700 MHz to determine the conformation of the terminal Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage in a dodecasaccharide and a related tetrasaccharide. For the tetrasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra produced the same qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks but the quantitative pattern, the relative peak intensities, was different. For the dodecasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra at 500 MHz produced a different qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks, with fewer peaks in the NOESY spectrum. At 700 MHz, the NOESY and ROESY spectra of the dodecasaccharide produced the same qualitative pattern of peaks, but again the relative peak intensities were different. These differences are due to very significant differences in the local correlation times for different proton pairs across this glycosidic linkage. The local correlation time for each proton pair was measured using the ratio of the NOESY and T-ROESY cross-relaxation rates, leaving the NOESY and ROESY as independent data sets for calculating the inter-proton distances. The inter-proton distances calculated including the effects of differences in local correlation times give much more consistent results.

  4. Preparation of polyester /Calcium sulfate/ composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Different composites have been prepared using various doses of gamma radiation. Two polyesters, Super Mastics and General, and calcium sulfate or natural gypsum have been used for preparing the composites. Some physical properties of the composites and the influence of Gamma rays on it has been studied as: compression, hardness, thermal decomposition temperature in nitrogen or oxygen, and change in weight in aqua solutions with different pH. Our results show that the glass transition temperature increases by increasing the absorbed dose up to a plateau. Further, the composites show a good thermal stability, and the absorbed dose does not affect the thermal decomposition temperature or the oxidation induction time for the prepared composites. Compression strength of the prepared composites decreases by increasing the filler ratios, and the absorbed does not seem to influence this property significantly. (author)

  5. Preparation of polyester /Calcium sulfate/ composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Different composites have been prepared using various doses of gamma radiation. Two polyesters, Super Mastics and General, and calcium sulfate or natural gypsum have been used for preparing the composites. Some physical properties of the composites and the influence of Gamma rays on it has been studied as: compression, hardness, thermal decomposition temperature in nitrogen or oxygen, and change in weight in aqua solutions with different pH. Our results show that the glass transition temperature increases by increasing the absorbed dose up to a plateau. Further, the composites show a good thermal stability, and the absorbed dose does not affect the thermal decomposition temperature or the oxidation induction time for the prepared composites. Compression strength of the prepared composites decreases by increasing the filler ratios, and the absorbed does not seem to influence this property significantly. (author)

  6. Preparing Scientific Papers, Posters, and Slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Maeno, Misato

    2016-01-01

    Publications and presentations are important in academic medicine. The ability to present information in a standard fashion is critically important. Papers, posters, and slides must be prepared appropriately to maximize their chance of being accepted. The first step is to use word processing software correctly. English language usage must conform to standard scientific English usage. Abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible. Numerical data must be presented with the appropriate number of significant figures. The first step in preparing a paper is to decide the target journal. Papers should always be written in 12 point Times New Roman font, while slides and posters should be in Arial or Helvetica. The Results section must contain actual data with appropriate statistical analysis. Take great care to prepare figures and tables according to the journal's instructions. Posters must be prepared to allow easy reading at a distance of 2m. Use a white background and dark letters. The majority of the area of your poster should be Results, and there is no need to include the abstract or references on a poster. Slide presentations should be limited to about one slide for each minute of the talk. Avoid the use of animations and excessive use of color. Do not use abbreviations on slides. Following these simple guidelines will meet the requirements of most journals and allow your audience to appreciate the data on your posters and slides. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  8. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  9. Just how convenient is convenience? An empirical study of the associations between perceived convenience, meal preparation activities and ready meals' characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Parallel to considerations about settings, selection of the appropriate level of time, effort and care to be put into meal preparation is an important determinant of food choice. Nevertheless, significant relations between the time/energy consumers are willing to devote to food preparation...... in the Netherlands, with the financial support of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology....

  10. Automated dried blood spots standard and QC sample preparation using a robotic liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Zhang, Duxi; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    A dried blood spot (DBS) bioanalysis assay involves many steps, such as the preparation of standard (STD) and QC samples in blood, the spotting onto DBS cards, and the cutting-out of the spots. These steps are labor intensive and time consuming if done manually, which, therefore, makes automation very desirable in DBS bioanalysis. A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed. The automated STD and QC sample preparation process significantly improved the efficiency, robustness and safety of DBS bioanalysis.

  11. Phase-inversion tape-casting preparation and significant performance enhancement of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ dual-phase asymmetric membrane for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hua; Cheng, Shiyang; Gao, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The dual-phase Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95–La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ asymmetric membrane was prepared via a phase-inversion tape-casting method. The membrane consisted of a thicker porous support layer and a thinner dense layer. When the dense side of the membrane was coated with a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ catalytic...

  12. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  13. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  14. Initial formal toxicity evaluation of APC-2, a novel fluorescent tracer agent for real-time measurement of glomerular filtration rate in preparation for a first-in-man clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.

    2014-03-01

    The fluorescent tracer agent 2,5-bis[N-(1-carboxy-2-hydroxy)]carbamoyl-3,6-diaminopyrazine, designated APC-2, has been developed with properties and attributes necessary for use as a direct measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison to known standard exogenous GFR agents in animal models has demonstrated an excellent correlation. A clinical trial to demonstrate this same correlation in humans is in preparation. A battery of formal toxicity tests necessary for regulatory clearance to proceed with a clinical trial has been recently completed on this new fluorescent tracer agent. These include single dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs to determine overall toxicity and toxicokinetics of the compound. Blood compatibility, mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, and several other assays were also completed. Toxicity assessments were based on mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption and anatomical pathology. Blood samples were collected to assess pharmacokinetic parameters including half-life, area under the curve, and clearance. Urine samples were collected to assess distribution. Doses of up to 200-300 times the estimated human dose were administered. No test-article related effects were noted on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic observations and no abnormal pathology was seen in either macroscopic or microscopic evaluations of any organs or tissues. All animals survived to scheduled sacrifice. Transient discoloration of skin and urine was noted at the higher dose levels in both species as expected from a highly fluorescent compound and was not considered pathological. Thus initial toxicology studies of this new fluorescent tracer agent APC-2 have resulted in no demonstrable pathological test article concerns.

  15. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  16. Decommissioning. Success with preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Joerg; Schulz, Rolf; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant poses a significant challenge for the operating company. The business model is turned upside down and a working culture developed for power operation has to be adapted while necessary know- how for the upcoming tasks has to be built up. The trauma for the employees induced by the final plant shut-down has to be considered and respected. The change of working culture in the enterprise has to be managed and the organization has to be prepared for the future. Here the methods of Change-Management offer a systematic and effective approach. Confidence in the employee's competencies is one of the key success factors for the change into the future.

  17. Electrochemical preparation of technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    This work describes the liquid chromatographic and electrochemical analysis of electrogenerated technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) complexes, and studies the effectiveness of the resulting bone imaging agents. Anion exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography is used to separate components, and γ emission is used as the detection mode. The reaction mixtures were prepared at a series of reduction potentials and pH values, at both carrier added and no carrier added technetium levels. The results indicate that all three parameters affect the final complex composition to varying degrees. By optimizing the conditions, a preparation was made which results in a high percentage of a Tc-HEDP complex thought to be a very good home imager. This component was isolated chromatographically and injected into female Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparisons were run on the uptake for seven tissue types at two incubation times. Mercury and Reticulated Vitreous Carbon were used as the working electrode materials, and it is shown how reduced technetium will significantly alter the electrode characteristics, where a conditioned electrode will produce different complexes from those produced at fresh electrode material. By employing coulometric analysis as the preparation was reduced, an n value of 4 was calculated for a particular complex. This procedure involved tracking the radioactive technetium species carefully to account for all electrons used in the system. Finally, an electrochemical detection method for HEDP was explored, utilizing the property of mercury complexation. Anodic sweep Differential Pulse Polarography gives an analytical signal for HEDP at +0.250 V vs Ag/AgCl

  18. Optimising Lecture Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Christensen, Bo

    interest in getting a degree, they prefer the educators to do the work for them. The focus of my experiments have therefore been to develop teaching techniques that ensures that the students study efficiently and at the same time moves the task of identifying which parts of the subjects that are giving...... the students problems from the educator to the students. By using techniques that put more weight on student participation, cooperation and preparation, I have been able to cut significantly down on the time used for lecturing, allowing more time for student work and reflection. As an example by getting...... the students to identify the parts of the subjects that need further explanation, I get the students to take ownership of the learning task and at the same time give me a more direct feedback. By creating teaching materials and exercises that can be used in a number of different ways, it is possible to involve...

  19. O preparo da equipe cirúrgica: aspecto relevante no controle da contaminação ambiental La preparación del equipo quirúrgico: aspecto relevante en el control de la contaminación ambiental The preparation of the surgical team: significant aspect in the control of environmental contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cataneo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle da contaminação ambiental tem sido considerado como medida racional para a prevenção da infecção do sítio cirúrgico. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar as atuais recomendações relacionadas ao preparo da equipe cirúrgica e tecer considerações sobre o papel do enfermeiro no controle da contaminação ambiental. Baseados na literatura atual, abordamos pontos relacionados à paramentação cirúrgica e a escovação das mãos. Os estudos apontam que o preparo da equipe cirúrgica constitui barreira de proteção importante para a prevenção da infecção do sítio cirúrgico; entretanto salientam a necessidade dos profissionais de saúde realizarem os procedimentos de forma adequada.El control de la contaminación ambiental ha sido considerado como una medida racional para la prevención de la infección en el sitio quirúrgico. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar las recomendaciones actuales con respecto a la preparación del equipo quirúrgico y hacer consideraciones acerca del papel del enfermero en el control de la contaminación ambiental. Basados en la literatura actual, tratamos puntos relacionados con el vestuario quirúrgico y al cepillado de las manos. Estudios indican que la preparación del equipo quirúrgico sirve como una importante barrera de protección en la prevención de la infección en el sitio quirúrgico; sin embargo, destacan que los profesionales de salud necesitan realizar los procedimientos de manera adecuada.The control of environmental contamination has been considered a rational measure for preventing surgical site infection. This study aims to present the current recommendations related to the preparation of the surgical team and to discuss the role of nurses in controlling environmental contamination. On the basis of current literature, we treat issues related to surgical garment and hand brushing. Studies indicate that the preparation of the surgical team constitutes an important

  20. [Support and tools for preparing for birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouychou, Mathilde; Sallez, Hélène; de Brito, Gina; Mouilti, Yamina; Piquée, Nathalie; Boyé, Hélène

    There are a thousand and one ways of preparing to be a parent. Specific support is offered to pregnant women or the couple in order to take the time to prepare for this personal transformation. Haptonomy, sophrology, shiatsu and massage, acupuncture or gestalt therapy are some of the methods helping parents to prepare to welcome their future child with peace of mind. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparing for the extension conference of 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to address the preparation process that must precede the conference to be held early in 1995 with intention to decide how long the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons will be extended. The importance of preparation is pointed out. The time has come for every Government interested in the Treaty to take a new look at the issues that will play a role at the Conference and prepare the positions they will adopt

  2. Preparation of pediatric patients for treatment with proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Ayuzawa, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Toshio; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Fukushima, Takashi; Fukushima, Hiroko; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Anesthesia is often used in proton beam therapy (PBT) for pediatric patients and this may prolong the treatment time. The aim of the study was to examine preparation of pediatric patients to allow smooth performance of PBT. Material and methods: Preparation was initiated 1–2 days before treatment planning CT and continued for 10 days. The patient first visited the facility to become familiar with the treatment room and staff. As the second step, the patient stayed in the treatment bed for a certain time with their mother, and then stayed on the treatment bed alone. Special fixtures painted with characters, music, and gifts were also prepared. Results: From 2010 to 2014, 111 pediatric patients underwent PBT. These patients were divided into 3 groups: 40 who could follow instructions well (group A, median age: 13.6 years old), 60 who could communicate, but found it difficult to stay alone for a long time (group B, median age: 4.6 years old), and 11 who could not follow instructions (group C, median age: 1.6 years old). Preparation was used for patients in group B. The mean treatment times in groups A, B and C were 13.6, 17.1, and 15.6 min, respectively, on PBT treatment days 2–6, and 11.8, 13.0, and 16.9 min, respectively, for the last 5 days of PBT treatment. The time reduction was significant in group B (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Preparation is useful for pediatric patients who can communicate. This approach allows PBT to be conducted more smoothly over a shorter treatment time

  3. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  4. Health significance of metal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    and written by well-respected authorities in the range of topics covered, Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine is also an outstanding guide to additional resources of information in preparing for the board exam in preventative medicine and public health. The new edition of Maxcy......An extensive, in-depth look at public health and preventive medicine topics from experts in the field This trusted one-stop resource is a completely up-to-date, all-in-one public health and preventive medicine guide. Sponsored by the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine and edited......-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine has been completely updated to encompass many new diseases, conditions, and policy issues that continue to dramatically shape-and expand the influence of-public health and preventive medicine. New to this Edition: Important coverage of new diseases, conditions...

  5. Guidelines for preparing IAEA design information questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.M.; Bieber, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The format of the IAEA Design Information Questionnaires and the SAI prepared guidelines for completing them, is described. The guidelines should assist facility operators in meeting the time constraints set forth in the Subsidiary Arrangements by effectively supplying the information needed by the IAEA and in minimizing resource allocations to the preparation effort. 8 refs

  6. Wound bed preparation for ischemic diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxin; Lv, Lei; Guan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the effect of allograft skin on wound angiogenesis and wound bed preparation of ischemic diabetic foot ulcer. A total of 60 cases of patients with diabetic foot ulcer were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30). After debridement, in the experimental group, allograft skin was used to cover the wound while in the control group, vaseline and gauze was used to cover the wound. The wound was opened and dressed at 3, 5, 7, 14 days after operation and the growth condition of the granulation tissue was observed and recorded. The wound bed preparation time of the experimental group was 14.37 ± 1.06 days, compared with the control group 25.99 ± 4.03 days, there was statistically significant difference (t = 14.78, P cure time of the experimental group was 32 ± 1.93 days and this time was significantly shortened than the control group 39.73 ± 2.55 days (t = 12.521, P ulcer and shorten the wound bed preparation time and treatment cycle.

  7. Dissolution of high-purity lead and subsequent crystal growth during the preparation of corrosion coupons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); McDougall, T.E.; Owen, D.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    High-purity lead discs were prepared using several combinations of polishing, rinsing and ultrasonic treatment. Physical degradation of the lead surface and the premature generation and deposition of oxides on the surface were observed for certain combinations of preparation steps. Ultrasonic treatment of the discs was found to be particularly detrimental as it induced significant crystal growth and, in several instances, deterioration of the polished surface. Simple air drying of freshly rinsed discs also led to oxide formation on the surface after as short a time as 1 min. An effective method for preparing discs from high-purity lead is described. (author)

  8. Dissolution of high-purity lead and subsequent crystal growth during the preparation of corrosion coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarvey, G.B.; McDougall, T.E.; Owen, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    High-purity lead discs were prepared using several combinations of polishing, rinsing and ultrasonic treatment. Physical degradation of the lead surface and the premature generation and deposition of oxides on the surface were observed for certain combinations of preparation steps. Ultrasonic treatment of the discs was found to be particularly detrimental as it induced significant crystal growth and, in several instances, deterioration of the polished surface. Simple air drying of freshly rinsed discs also led to oxide formation on the surface after as short a time as 1 min. An effective method for preparing discs from high-purity lead is described. (author)

  9. Exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano: influência da temperatura, tempo e preparo da amostra na estabilidade analítica Cerebrospinal fluid exam: influence of sample preparation, temperature and time on analytical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Dimas

    2008-04-01

    . However, there are a few studies about the stability of its analytes during the pre-analytical stage. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing data about the influence of temperature and storage time, freezing/thawing cycles and pre-treatments (centrifugation, denaturation, serum addition on the stability of CSF analytes. METHOD: A systematic review of articles in the literature was conducted by use of Key words: in English such as "storage", "cerebrospinal fluid", "CSF", "stability", "temperature" and "period", based on data from PubMed, Highwire Press, Lilacs and Amazonas Library, free digital archives of biomedical research articles. RESULTt: The search found nine articles, what results from the lack of studies about this subject. Different CSF constituents were analyzed: number of cells and their morphology, total protein, glucose, lactate, amino acids, creatine, creatinine, biomarkers and enzymes. The methodologies employed were: optical microscopy, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Imunoblot/SDS-PAGE and spectrometry. CONCLUSION: The literature review confirms that the stability of CSF samples is influenced by temperature, storage time and conditions of pre-analytical preparation. The findings of this systematic review may contribute to improving the knowledge about CSF examination, as well as to better understanding the sample stability.

  10. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  11. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  12. Attacking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    13 published papers , and 8 technical reports. All of these publications are available through password-protected access at: http...additional Ph.D. thesis on hardware hiding has been completed, together with an additional paper ; thesis preparation is in progress. In addition, this...employing microcontrollers and other real-time processors. These devices typically lack memory management and make little to no use of cache. • Dynamic

  13. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  14. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  15. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoetzer, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator.Material and methods: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50. Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA on ranks (p<0.05. Results: At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator.Conclusion: The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues.

  16. Outage preparation milestones - A tool to improve planned outage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplatney, Jere; Hwang, Euiyoub

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development of Nuclear Energy depends heavily on excellent performance of the existing fleet which in turn depend heavily on the performance of planned outages. Nuclear Power Plants who have successfully undertaken outage optimization projects have demonstrated than an effective Outage Preparation Milestone program is a key component of their improvement programs. This paper will provide background into the field of 'Outage Optimization' including the philosophy, general approach, and results obtained in the U. S. industry. The significant safety improvements afforded by properly implementing outage improvement programs will be explained. Some specific examples of outage improvements will be given including the adoption of a strong Outage Preparation Milestone Program. The paper will then describe the attributes of an effective Outage Preparation Milestone Program and list a set of specific key milestones. The key milestones are defined and the reasons for each are explained. Suggested due dates for each key milestone relative to the outage start date are provided. Successful implementation of an Outage Preparation Milestone program depends heavily upon the management tools and methods used to assure that the organization meets the milestones on time and in a quality fashion. These include methods to handle cases where milestones are not met - either partially or fully. KHNP is investigating implementing an improved Outage Preparation Milestone program for its fleet of reactors as part of its overall program to improve its performance of planned outages

  17. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  18. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  19. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  20. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  1. CT colonography in a Korean population with a high residue diet: Comparison between wet and dry preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Choi, B.I.; Han, J.K.; Lee, J.M.; Eun, H.W.; Lee, J.Y.; Lee, K.H.; Han, C.J.; Choi, Y.H.; Shin, K.-S.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare wet and dry preparation methods for computed tomography colonography (CTC) in terms of preparation quality, interpretation time, and diagnostic performance for polyp detection in a population with a high residue diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=24) received a wet preparation of 4 l polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, and group 2 (n=62) received a dry preparation of phosphor-soda. Abnormal findings, including polyps, and the time required to interpret the CTC images in both groups were documented by a radiologist. CTC findings were compared to those of colonoscopy as a reference standard. Two radiologists evaluated the quality of CTC with regard to residual fluid, faeces, and colonic distension using a four-point scale in consensus. Statistical differences for residual fluid, faeces, distensibility on CTC, and interpretation time between the two groups were analysed. The diagnostic performance of CTC in both groups was also compared. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety polyps in 70 patients were identified using colonoscopy. Regarding the quality of images produced the wet preparation was significantly better than the dry preparation (p 0.05). CONCLUSION: In a population with a high-residue diet, CTC with wet preparation can be interpreted in a time-efficient manner and is comparable with CTC with dry preparation

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Prophylactic co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation in neutropenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, H; Jurk, I H; Waters, K D; Tiedemann, K

    1980-01-01

    A randomized study of intestinal decontamination was undertaken in 68 children with leukemia and solid tumours. Framycetin, colymycin, nystatin, and metronidazole were given in 35 neutropenic episodes in 33 children, while co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation were administered in 35 episodes in 35 children. The diseases, severity of neutropenia, and incidence of infection at entry into study were comparable in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of infections developing during the phase of neutropenia. The median and range of time required to recover from neutropenia were also not different. Co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli were significantly better tolerated, there being no nausea and vomiting, no refusal to take medication, no dose reduction or change to an alternative regimen. We conclude that co-trimoxazole and lactobacilli preparation improve quality of life during a neutropenic episode and have the additional advantage of being relatively inexpensive.

  6. Nurse leader certification preparation: how are confidence levels impacted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junger, Stacey; Trinkle, Nicole; Hall, Norma

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to examine the effect of a nurse leader certification preparation course on the confidence levels of the participants. Limited literature is available regarding nurse leader development and certifications. Barriers exist related to lack of confidence, high cost, time and lack of access to a preparation course. Nurse leaders (n = 51) completed a pre- and post-survey addressing confidence levels of participants related to the topics addressed in the nurse leader certification preparation course. There were statistically significant increases in confidence levels related to all course content for the participants. At the time of the study, there were 31.4% of participants intending to sit for the certification examination, and 5 of the 51 participants successfully sat for and passed the examination. A nurse leader certification preparation course increases confidence levels of the participants and removes barriers, thereby increasing the number of certifications obtained. The health-care climate is increasingly complex and nurse leaders need the expertise to navigate the ever-changing health-care environment. Certification in a specialty, such as leadership, serves as an indicator of a high level of competence in the field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Herzeel

    Full Text Available elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878, we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878, elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  7. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  8. A sample preparation method for recovering suppressed analyte ions in MALDI TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Waal, de B.F.M.; Milroy, L.G.; Dongen, van J.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS), analyte signals can be substantially suppressed by other compounds in the sample. In this technical note, we describe a modified thin-layer sample preparation method that significantly reduces the analyte

  9. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  10. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  11. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  12. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  13. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  14. Preparation of bromine fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, Pr; Duflo, J.

    1958-05-01

    This note addresses the preparation of bromine fluoride. It indicates the implemented process for the reaction, used products (fluorine and bromine), and column characteristics. It describes the operating mode. Apparatus drawing is provided

  15. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  16. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  17. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  18. FERMILAB: Preparing to collide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Against the background of stringent Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) regulations mandated by the US Department of Energy for all national Labs, Fermilab prepared to mount the next major Tevatron proton-antiproton collider run

  19. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  20. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  1. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  2. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  3. A simple method for preparing artificial larval diet of the West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesato, T.; Kohama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The method for preparing ordinary larval artificial diet for Euscepes postfasciatus (old diet) was complicated and time consuming. Some ingredients (casein, saccharose, salt mixture, etc.) of the diet were added to boiled agar solution, others (vitamin mixture, sweetpotato powder, etc.) were added after the solution was cooled to 55degC. To simplify the diet preparation, we combined all ingredients before mixing with water, and then boiled the solution (new diet). There were no significant differences of survival rate (from egg hatching to adult eclosion) and right elytron length between the weevils reared on the old and new diets, but the development period (from egg to adult) of the weevils fed the new diet was significantly (1.3 days) longer than that of those fed the old diet. Preparation time of the new diet was half that of the old diet. These results suggest that simplified diet preparation can be introduced into the mass-rearing of E. postfasciatus

  4. Chemomechanical preparation by hand instrumentation and by Mtwo engine-driven rotary files, an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Tigyi, Zoltán; Papp, Viktória; Marada, Gyula; Sára, Jeges; Tóth, Vilmos

    2012-07-01

    To compare the disinfecting efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite irrigation by root canal preparation with stainless steel hand files, taper 0.02 and nickel-titanium Mtwo files with taper 0.04-0.06. 40 extracted human teeth were sterilized, and then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). After 6 day incubation time the root canals were prepared by hand with K-files (n=20) and by engine-driven Mtwo files (VDW, Munich, Germany) (n=20). Irrigation was carried out with 2.5% NaOCl in both cases. Samples were taken and determined in colony forming units (CFU) from the root canals before and after the preparation with instruments #25 and #35. Significant reduction in bacterial count was determined after filing at both groups. The number of bacteria kept on decreasing with the extension of apical preparation diameter. There was no significant difference between the preparation sizes in the bacterial counts after hand or engine-driven instrumentation at the same apical size. Statistical analysis was carried out with Mann-Whitney test, paired t-test and independent sample t-test. Significant reduction in CFU was achieved after the root canal preparation completed with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation, both with stainless steel hand or nickel-titanium rotary files. The root canal remained slightly infected after chemo mechanical preparation in both groups. Key words:Chemomechanical preparation, root canal disinfection, nickel-titanium, conicity, greater taper, apical size.

  5. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The hospital preparation of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; preparation ((general - sterilization), production areas (laboratories), working methods for injections, working methods for oral preparations and iodination procedures); analytical testing (general, standards common to injections and oral preparations, standards for injections, standards for oral preparations); reliable methods of preparing sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals and 51 Cr-red cells; commercial radiopharmaceutical kits. (U.K.)

  8. Inclusive Education Complexly Defined for Teacher Preparation: The Significance and Uses of "Error"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, Srikala

    2016-01-01

    Research in the implementation of inclusive education in international contexts shows that progress in the Global South appears to lag behind nations in the North. In this paper, I investigate this phenomenon not by associating it with regional cultural and socioeconomic resource limitations, but by reconsidering the assumptions within inclusive…

  9. 21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proportions of wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) manifests no toxicity in the... poisoning. (c) This statement of interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its... provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl...

  10. Not dead yet – the changing significance of newspapers worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Paper prepared for the Future of Journalism Conference, Cardiff, September 2011 Newspapers, particularly in the Western world, have seen paid circulation decline in the last decade. Online news is abundantly available, but at the same time newspapers – in print and online - often serve as sources

  11. A modified method for preparation of 123I-HDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Decristoforo, C.; Staeger, A.; Fridrich, L.

    1994-01-01

    A modified method for preparation of 123 I-Heptadecanoic acid ( 123 I-HDA) is described. The labelling yield is 92.8%(n = 32, 85%-97%)by heating time of 15 minutes. The overall recovery is about 70%. The time for the whole preparation is about 90 min. The method described is reliable, and convenient. A carrier free and precursor free product of high purity can be prepared in a reasonable short time

  12. Impact of bowel preparation type on the quality of colonoscopy: a multicenter community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-quality bowel preparation is crucial for achieving the goals of colonoscopy. However, choosing a bowel preparation in clinical practice can be challenging because of the many formulations. This study aims to assess the impact the type of bowel preparation on the quality of colonoscopy in a community hospital setting. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted utilizing a colonoscopy screening/surveillance database in central Illinois during the period of January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2014. Patients without bowel preparation assessment were excluded from this study. Controlling for the confounders, generalized linear models were used to estimate the adjusted impact [odds ratio (OR] of bowel preparation type on the quality of preparation (excellent, good, fair, and poor, and on the detection of advanced adenoma. The association between the time of withdrawal after insertion and the quality of preparation was also examined using a linear model. Results: A total of 28,368 colonoscopies; half the patients were male, and the average age was 61±9 years. Polyethylene glycol (PEG was used in the majority (70.2% of bowel preparations, followed by sodium sulfate (21.4%, sodium phosphate (2.5%, magnesium sulfate (0.4%, and others. Compared with PEG, magnesium sulfate had a poorer quality of bowel preparations (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9; p<0.05, whereas the quality of bowel preparation was significantly improved by using sodium sulfate (OR=5.7, 95% CI 5.4–6.1; p<0.001 and sodium phosphate (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.8–2.5; p<0.001. For those who had adequate bowel preparation, the better quality of preparation significantly increased the detection rate of advanced adenoma (5.0, 3.6, and 2.9% for excellent, good, and fair, respectively. Conclusion: When possible, sodium sulfate–based preparations should be recommended in the community setting for colonoscopy because of their high quality of bowel preparation.

  13. Just how convenient is convenience? An empirical study of the associations between perceived convenience, meal preparation activities and ready meals' characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Parallel to considerations about settings, selection of the appropriate level of time, effort and care to be put into meal preparation is an important determinant of food choice. Nevertheless, significant relations between the time/energy consumers are willing to devote to food preparation...... and the types of meals they eat are surprisingly hard to find. One explanation for this could be that perceived convenience finds little support on the technological attributes of products like ready meals. This study's aim was to uncover significant relations between perceived convenience, meal preparation...... activities and technological attributes of frozen pizzas. Ninety-eight Dutch meal preparers, 18-29 years old, were asked to rate expected convenience attributes of frozen pizzas; (2) prepare and consume these pizzas in a home-like setting; (3) rate experienced convenience after consumption. Pizzas were also...

  14. Studies on the Preparation of Magnetic Photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.; Scott, J.; Beydoun, D.; Amal, R.

    2005-01-01

    A crystalline titanium dioxide coating was deposited onto silica insulated magnetite particles to prepare a stable magnetic photocatalyst. The direct deposition of crystalline titanium dioxide was conducted by aging dispersions of insulated magnetite particles in a titanium sol-gel precursor mixture at 60-90 deg. C. The coating process was found to be influenced by pH, alkoxide precursor concentration, aging time and reaction temperature. A mechanism for the formation of the titanium dioxide coating has been proposed. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared particles was found to be related to the preparation conditions

  15. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  16. Preparation of naphtalene monocrystals for scintillometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, R.

    1959-01-01

    A method to prepare naphthalene crystals for scintillometers is described. The different methods of preparation and the reasons to choose the Bridgman method are analysed. The thermal curves of the growing furnaces, blister shape, use of curved capillaries and the most convenient growing velocities are studied in detail. Methods of preparation of high purity naphthalene by means of chromatography and zone melting are described. Finally the operations of cutting and polishing of crystal and their most significant physics properties are studied. (Author) 28 refs

  17. Sample preparations for spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catlett, C.W.; Rollins, M.B.; Griffin, E.B.; Dorsey, J.G.

    1977-10-01

    Methods have been developed for the preparation of various materials for spark source mass spectrography. The essential features of these preparations (all which can provide adequate precision in a cost-effective manner) consist in obtaining spark-stable electrode sample pieces, a common matrix, a reduction of anomolous effects in the spark, the incorporation of a suitable internal standard for plate response normalization, and a reduction in time

  18. Prepare for an SpR interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Heppell, P S J

    2003-03-01

    By the time you attend an interview for a military SpR number you should have no real problems but it pays to be prepared. Begin preparations early, reading widely and talk to as many people as possible. Your consultants will have a useful viewpoint on the proceedings and may be able to help you refine your answers to the common questions. Arrive at your interview in a smart and timely fashion and answer questions with confidence and common sense. Avoid confrontation and bluff and be courteous at all times, whatever you may be feeling inside and thank the interview panel as you leave.

  19. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  20. Preparation of patients submitted to thyroidectomy with oral glucose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiszewski, Michał; Drozda, Rafał; Smigielski, Janusz; Kuzdak, Krzysztof; Kołomecki, Krzysztof

    2012-05-01

    The AIM OF THE STUDY was to determine postoperative insulin-resistance in patients subject to total thyroidectomy, the prevalence of subjective feelings of hunger immediately before surgery, and the incidence of nausea/vomiting after surgery in patients prepared for elective operations by means of oral glucose solutions. The study group comprised 115 patients, including 71 patients prepared for surgery by means of oral glucose solutions (12.5% glucose) administered 12 and 3 hours before the procedure, at a dose of 800 and 400 ml. The control group comprised 44 patients prepared for surgery by means of the traditional manner- the last meal was served before 2pm the day before the surgical procedure, while fluids before 10pm. Considering both groups, we evaluated glucose and insulin levels three times, as well as determined the insulin-resistance ratio (HOMA-IR) 24 before, and 12 hours and 7 days after surgery. The incidence of nausea and vomiting after surgery, and the subjective feeling of hunger before surgery were also evaluated. Statistically significant differences considering insulin level and HOMA-IR values were observed during the II and III measurements. The glucose and insulin values, and the HOMA-IR insulin-resistance ratio, showed no statistically significant differences during measurement I. No statistically significant glucose level differences were observed during measurements II and III. A significantly greater subjective feeling of hunger before surgery and nausea/vomiting afterwards were observed in the control group. The preparation of patients with oral glucose solutions decreases the incidence of postoperative (thyroidectomy) insulin-resistance, and occurrence of nausea/vomiting during the postoperative period.

  1. Surface preparation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneisel, P.

    1980-01-01

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  2. Preparation of shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, P.W.; Isaacs, J.W.; Lyon, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a shaped body includes pressing a powder to give a 'green' shaped body, the powder having been made by comminuting a material prepared by means of a gelation process, the material prior to comminuting being of a selected physical configuration (e.g. spherical). Thus, a material prepared by means of a gelation process can be transported and handled in an environmentally desirable, substantially dust-free form (e.g. spherical particles) and then comminuted to produce a powder for pressing into e.g. a shaped nuclear fuel body (e.g. pellets of (70%U/30%Pu)O 2 ), which can be sintered. (author)

  3. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  4. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay; Brauer, Paula

    2015-10-01

    While vegetables are often studied as one food group, global measures may mask variation in the types and forms of vegetables preferred by different individuals. To explore preferences for and perceptions of vegetables, we assessed main food preparers based on their preparation of eight specific vegetables and mushrooms. An online self-report survey. Ontario, Canada. Measures included perceived benefits and obstacles of vegetables, convenience orientation and variety seeking in meal preparation. Of the 4517 randomly selected consumers who received the invitation, 1013 responded to the survey (22·4 % response). Data from the main food preparers were analysed (n 756). Latent profile analysis indicated three segments of food preparers. More open to new recipes, the 'crucifer lover' segment (13 %) prepared and consumed substantially more Brussels sprouts, broccoli and asparagus than the other segments. Although similar to the 'average consumer' segment (54 %) in many ways, the 'frozen vegetable user' segment (33 %) used significantly more frozen vegetables than the other segments due to higher prioritization of time and convenience in meal preparation and stronger 'healthy=not tasty' perception. Perception of specific vegetables on taste, healthiness, ease of preparation and cost varied significantly across the three consumer segments. Crucifer lovers also differed with respect to shopping and cooking habits compared with the frozen vegetable users. The substantial heterogeneity in the types of vegetables consumed and perceptions across the three consumer segments has implications for the development of new approaches to promoting these foods.

  5. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  6. Preparation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.A.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride

  7. Preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Hernandez, A.; Gonzalez, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alkybromides are ones of the main organic precursors for fatty acids and alcohols labelling with Carbon 1-14. In this work the preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane by bromodescarboxylation of 1-octacosanoic acid is described. The synthesis yielded 80.5% of final product and more than 97% of chemical purity. Clean-up procedure modifications and spectral data bromoheptacosane are also reported

  8. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  9. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  10. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  11. Preparing for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    There is a distinct probability that humankind is changing the climate and at the same time raising the sea level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger change in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in sea level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer seas. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in sea level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of climate change is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and

  12. Multiresidue Method for Quantification of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim in Tilapia Fillet by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Using QuEChERS for Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Assalin, Márcia R; Vallim, José H; Jonsson, Claudio M; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-01-01

    A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet ( Oreochromis niloticus ) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity ( r  ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g -1 and 5 ng·g -1 , respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CC α 102.6-120.0 ng·g -1 and 70 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CC β 111.7-140.1 ng·g -1 and 89.9 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies.

  13. Tolerability, safety, and efficacy of PEG 3350 as a 1-day bowel preparation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Ritu; Steffen, Rita; Feinberg, Lisa; Worley, Sarah; Mahajan, Lori

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 without electrolytes as a 1-day bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children. A prospective study of 45 children undergoing colonoscopy prescribed PEG 3350 without electrolytes mixed with a commercial electrolyte beverage was performed. Patients PEG 3350 without electrolytes mixed in 32 ounces of Gatorade. Patients ≥ 45 kg were given 255 g of PEG 3350 without electrolytes in 64 ounces of Gatorade A basic metabolic panel was performed at the time of the clinic visit and just before colonoscopy. Patients completed a survey related to bowel preparation. Endoscopists graded bowel preparation and noted the proximal extent of the examination. A total of 44 patients (14 ± 3 years) completed the study. One patient was excluded due to protocol breach. All subjects reported the preparation was easy (61%) or tolerable (39%). Adverse events included nausea (34%), abdominal pain (23%), vomiting (16%), abdominal distension (20%), bloating (23%), and dizziness (7%). Although significant changes in serum glucose and CO2 were noted, no therapeutic interventions were indicated. Significant changes in sodium, potassium chloride, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine did not occur. Colonic preparation was rated as excellent in 23%, good in 52%, fair in 23%, and poor in 2% of patients. Intubation of the ileum was successful in 100%. One-day bowel preparation with high dose PEG 3350 mixed with commercial electrolyte solution is tolerable, safe, and effective in children before colonoscopy.

  14. European technology activities to prepare for ITER component procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparotto, M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years the technology activities of the European fusion programme have principally been devoted to: a) the completion of design and R (and) D studies in preparation for the procurement of ITER systems and components in close collaboration with the ITER team and according to the ITER design and schedule; b) provision of support to European industry and associations in key areas of fusion R (and) D to ensure a competitive and timely approach to the planned procurement. The EU contribution to ITER design and R (and) D activities has been maintained at a significant level with the objectives of: · continuing, and in some areas expanding, the effort in areas where design and R (and)D are still required: in particular in Machine Assembly, Remote Handling, ITER Test Blanket Modules, Diagnostics, Heating and Current Drive Systems. · continuing and completing manufacturing R (and)D to determine the most technically and cost affective manufacturing methods for ITER components to be built in Europe. · preparing new test facilities needed during ITER construction (DIPOLE, HELOKA, DTP-2, ECRH Test Facility, Fatigue Testing Facility). · supporting the European site preparation process and the preparation of safety and licensing documentation for ITER in Cadarache. · maintaining support to EU industries in R (and) D activities of relevance to fusion. To support the ITER Design activities and to prepare for the provision of timely answers to key issues, which may be raised during the ITER design review, support from specialized companies has been set-up in the fields of Civil and General Plant Engineering, Mechanical Engineering / Components, Mechanical Engineering / Systems (and) Plants, Remote Handling (and) Assembly, Electrical Engineering, Nuclear Safety Engineering. In recent years major efforts have been directed towards the technology development of the ITER components for which procurement can be launched during the first years of the construction

  15. Efficacy of prokinetic agents in improving bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Yuko; Amano, Yuji; Okita, Koichi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Moriyama, Nobuyuki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Furuta, Kenji; Ishihara, Shunji; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-01-01

    Colonoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal illness in both Western countries and Japan. However, preparative bowel cleansing for colonoscopy is frequently troublesome for elderly and/or constipated patients, since they must drink larger volumes of lavage solution for adequate cleansing. We investigated the use of prokinetic agents for improving the efficacy and tolerability of bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy. 613 patients were divided into two groups according to oral lavage solution used (polyethylene glycol or magnesium citrate), and were further randomized to receive either vehicle (100 ml water) alone, vehicle with 5 mg mosapride citrate, or vehicle with 50 mg itopride hydrochloride 30 min before administration of lavage solution. Experimental parameters included bowel cleansing quality, times to first defecation and completion of bowel cleansing, and incidence of uncomfortable abdominal symptoms during colonoscopy preparation. Administration of mosapride citrate or itopride hydrochloride prior to oral lavage solution did not significantly improve bowel cleansing quality. However, statistically significantly fewer uncomfortable abdominal symptoms were found in patients who received mosapride citrate or itopride hydrochloride versus vehicle alone. Prokinetic agents effectively decreased the incidence of uncomfortable abdominal symptoms experienced during colonoscopy preparation. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P athletics training. PMID:26635619

  17. How preparation and modification parameters affect PB-PEO polymersome properties in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    polybutadiene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymers: detergent-mediated film rehydration (DFR) and solvent evaporation (SE). DFR-prepared polymersomes showed a three times higher permeability compared to SE-prepared polymersomes as revealed by stopped-flow light scattering. SE-prepared polymersomes broke down......), a detergent typically used for reconstitution of membrane proteins into lipid bilayers. Specifically, we compared dialysis and biobeads for OG removal to investigate the influence of these methods on bilayer conformation and polymer rearrangement following detergent removal. There was no significant...... difference found between method, temperature, or time within each method. Our findings provide insight on how biocompatible polymersome production affects the physical properties of the resulting polymersomes....

  18. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles: inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, B. C. M.; Bovens, S. M.; van de Kolk, C. W. A.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; ten Hove, M.; van der Weerd, L.; Poelmann, R.; Strijkers, G. J.; Pasterkamp, G.; van Echteld, C. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for

  19. The Significance in the World of Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Adami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of national identity became an important discussion in Mashrooteh era; concern about national identity in many works of writers of this era clarifies position of this historical period. Among those writers is the father of Iranians short stories, Seyyed Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh. According to this, the purpose of present study was to examine the extent of attention to symbols of national identity in the Jamalzadeh's stories (Once Upon a Time, bitter and sweet, old and new, our story came to the end across Various stages of his literary life. The Design of this research was descriptive and its Methodology was qualitative that doing via content analysis method. For this end, by exploring the symbols of national identity in theoretical discussions, and literature review some components of national identity were defined and the structure of content analysis was prepared and then based on this structure, the amount and type of attention to the national identity symbols is evaluated. The results of comparison among the components of national identity symbols in Jamalzadeh's stories showed the largest frequency belongs to "language" and after that, geology, history, literature; celebrities and culture are the most frequent components. Moreover, contemplation in Jamalzadeh's works revealed that he apparently has focused on the visible and materialistic structure of identity more than the epistemic structure. In general, qualitative analysis of Jamalzadeh's stories has shown that he allocates more attention to component of national identity in all of their works; his works depend on context and has an Iranian construction. Nonetheless, we can say he didn't live in Iran but, in their stories he lived with an Iranian culture and Iranian people.

  20. [Research on the preparative method of Arctigenin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Yang, Yi-Shun; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Tao, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To research on the preparation of Arctigenin in vitro. Took enzyme concentration, time course and substrate concentration as investigation factors, used Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis path of Arctigenin. The best operational path for Arctigenin was as follows: the temperature was 50 degrees C, pH was 4.8, enzyme concentration was 0.44 U/mL, time course was 46.81 min, substrate concentration was 0.29 mg/mL, the conversion rate was 90.94%. This research can be regarded as a referencein preparing Arctigenin in vitro.

  1. Assessing the significance of Heidegger's Black Notebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malpas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Heidegger's Black Notebooks (Schwarze Hefte has provoked a storm of controversy. Much of this has centred on the pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic comments the volumes contain. But these aspects of the Notebooks are perhaps the least surprising and important. This essay offers a summary overview of the issues to which the Notebooks give rise, at the same time as it also aims to provide a preliminary assessment of their overall significance, especially in relation to what they show about the nature and development of Heidegger's thinking from the early 1930s to the late 1940s.

  2. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  3. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  4. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  5. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  6. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  7. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  8. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  9. Overview of Site Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of Cadarache as the host of ITER is organised at a double level: Europe, since the beginning of the candidature in 2001, is coordinating the so-called European ITER Site Studies; France, as the host country, has put in place a dedicated structure at a decisional level (close to the government), and operational level in the PACA region with two entities: The Agency Iter France (AIF), inside the CEA, interlocutor of international and European entities, in charge of site preparation and fund recollection; An accompanying prefectoral mission, in charge mainly of road adaptation and the international school. The paper will cover all the aspects related to the preparation of the implementation of ITER: Technical aspects: the progress of site preparation itself, its servicing (water supply, electrical supply, Internet...), the road adaptation between the large harbour of Fos-sur-mer and Cadarache, etc. will be detailed. Regulatory procedures: in the framework of the delegation that the ITER partners gave to the CEA/AIF on 14 th September 2005, two main large files are in progress: The public debate, organised by an independent authority, informs the population of the challenges and impacts of ITER in Provence; The safety documents: the writing of the preliminary safety report, which will be submitted to the Nuclear Safety Authority and the files submitted to the public during the public enquiries are ongoing. Socioeconomic aspects: the welcome of ITER staff and their families is operational, via a dedicated Welcome Office; the location of an international school in Manosque leads now to its pre-figuration. The overall organisation will be described, as well as all planning forecast for the coming years, leading to the start of construction. (author)

  10. Preparing for evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroff, Ian I; Alpaslan, Murat C

    2003-04-01

    How can you plan for every crisis that might occur, even for ones you can't imagine? The task seems so daunting and so limitless that many firms don't even start. In fact, as the authors' 20 years of research shows, three out of four Fortune 500 companies are prepared to handle only the types of calamities they've already suffered, and not even all of those. That's unfortunate because the research also shows that crisis-prepared companies fare better financially, have stronger reputations, and ultimately stay in business longer than their crisis prone counterparts. Crisis-prepared companies use a systematic approach to focus their efforts. In addition to planning for natural disasters, they divide man-made calamities into two sorts--accidental or "normal" ones, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and deliberate or "abnormal" ones, like product tampering. Then they take steps to broaden their thinking about such potential crises. They consider threats that would be common in other industries, for instance. And they seek input from outsiders such as investigative journalists and even reformed criminals. But if these companies think broadly about possible threats, they think narrowly about implementation. Each year, smart companies focus their resources and attention on a few facilities picked at random, just as airlines conduct detailed security checks on just a few passengers for each flight. That reduces the probability of an attack on the entire organization even as it allows the business to migrate steadily to a higher level of crisis readiness. Crisis-prepared companies know that disasters cannot be managed through cost-benefit analyses. It is precisely because the effects of a disaster cannot be predicted or controlled that smart companies focus their efforts on preventing crises rather than containing them after the fact.

  11. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  12. PREPARING A MARKETING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Grönholm, Eija

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to prepare a marketing strategy for Living City Centre of Kotka Association. The work was implemented with the members of the association and the executive director Reijo Saksa. Living City Centre of Kotka Association was founded in spring 2006 for promoting living, enjoyable and safe centers in the City of Kotka. The association has two permanent employees. The main duties are managing the Kotka market places and promoting the stakeholder connections betw...

  13. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  14. Psoriasis causes significant economic burden to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, A; Mattila, K; Leino, M; Koulu, L; Tuominen, R

    2014-06-01

    Psoriasis results in expenses to patients from many cost sources. Psoriasis treatments may result in considerable time and traveling costs, yet many studies fail to account for these costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidimensional economic burden of psoriasis to patients. The study was based on 232 Finnish patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis visiting a tertiary level dermatological clinic during a 1-year study period between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. The data were based on a patient questionnaire, clinical data from the medical records and reimbursement data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Item costs were based on true costs charged from the patients and all time cost estimates were based on the Human Capital Approach method. 199 patients with psoriasis and 33 with psoriatic arthritis were included in the study. Total costs were higher for patients receiving traditional systemic medications or phototherapy than those not receiving such treatment. Travel costs and travel time costs accounted for more than 60% of the costs of phototherapy. Skin care at home was time consuming and thus caused significant burden to patients. The majority of the visit costs arose from hospital visits and only a small proportion were attributed to visiting primary health care providers. Visit charges and other patient co-payments were estimated to play a minor role in the total cost of psoriasis incurred by patients, while travel costs and lost time comprised the majority of the costs, which should not be omitted in future studies regarding costs of treatments.

  15. Uses of γ-radiation for preparing culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranskaya, I.D.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Mironova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technique has been developed for sterilizing the culture media by γ-radiation. For this purpose, dry preparations were exposed to doses of 3 to 6 Mrad and then dissolved in sterile distilled water. The quality of the preparations prepared in such a way is not inferior to that of the preparations sterilized by filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is that it is possible to prepare liquid media quickly and to store dry sterile media for a long time at room temperature

  16. Employment status, medical support and Income as significant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant differences in affordability between individuals who had full time paid employment and those who ... Studies have shown that the direct costs of healthcare services2, travel time, patients' income, and ..... and age was their real ages.

  17. Oxidation characteristics of porous-nickel prepared by powder metallurgy and cast-nickel at 1273 K in air for total oxidation time of 100 h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Z. Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation behavior of two types of inhomogeneous nickel was investigated in air at 1273 K for a total oxidation time of 100 h. The two types were porous sintered-nickel and microstructurally inhomogeneous cast-nickel. The porous-nickel samples were fabricated by compacting Ni powder followed by sintering in vacuum at 1473 K for 2 h. The oxidation kinetics of the samples was determined gravimetrically. The topography and the cross-section microstructure of each oxidized sample were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffractometry and X-ray energy dispersive analysis were used to determine the nature of the formed oxide phases. The kinetic results revealed that the porous-nickel samples had higher trend for irreproducibility. The average oxidation rate for porous- and cast-nickel samples was initially rapid, and then decreased gradually to become linear. Linear rate constants were 5.5 × 10−8 g/cm2 s and 3.4 × 10−8 g/cm2 s for the porous- and cast-nickel samples, respectively. Initially a single-porous non-adherent NiO layer was noticed on the porous- and cast-nickel samples. After a longer time of oxidation, a non-adherent duplex NiO scale was formed. The two layers of the duplex scales were different in color. NiO particles were observed in most of the pores of the porous-nickel samples. Finally, the linear oxidation kinetics and the formation of porous non-adherent duplex oxide scales on the inhomogeneous nickel substrates demonstrated that the addition of new layers of NiO occurred at the scale/metal interface due to the thermodynamically possible reaction between Ni and the molecular oxygen migrating inwardly.

  18. Oxidation characteristics of porous-nickel prepared by powder metallurgy and cast-nickel at 1273 K in air for total oxidation time of 100 h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Lamiaa Z; Ghanem, Wafaa A; El Kady, Omayma A; Lotfy, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Hafiz A; Elrefaie, Fawzi A

    2017-11-01

    The oxidation behavior of two types of inhomogeneous nickel was investigated in air at 1273 K for a total oxidation time of 100 h. The two types were porous sintered-nickel and microstructurally inhomogeneous cast-nickel. The porous-nickel samples were fabricated by compacting Ni powder followed by sintering in vacuum at 1473 K for 2 h. The oxidation kinetics of the samples was determined gravimetrically. The topography and the cross-section microstructure of each oxidized sample were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffractometry and X-ray energy dispersive analysis were used to determine the nature of the formed oxide phases. The kinetic results revealed that the porous-nickel samples had higher trend for irreproducibility. The average oxidation rate for porous- and cast-nickel samples was initially rapid, and then decreased gradually to become linear. Linear rate constants were 5.5 × 10 -8  g/cm 2  s and 3.4 × 10 -8  g/cm 2  s for the porous- and cast-nickel samples, respectively. Initially a single-porous non-adherent NiO layer was noticed on the porous- and cast-nickel samples. After a longer time of oxidation, a non-adherent duplex NiO scale was formed. The two layers of the duplex scales were different in color. NiO particles were observed in most of the pores of the porous-nickel samples. Finally, the linear oxidation kinetics and the formation of porous non-adherent duplex oxide scales on the inhomogeneous nickel substrates demonstrated that the addition of new layers of NiO occurred at the scale/metal interface due to the thermodynamically possible reaction between Ni and the molecular oxygen migrating inwardly.

  19. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  20. Explosive double salts and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  1. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Diagnostic Cytopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Albert J.; Adeyiga, Oladunni B.; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-01-01

    The cellular components of body fluids are routinely analyzed to identify disease and treatment approaches. While significant focus has been placed on developing cell analysis technologies, tools to automate the preparation of cellular specimens have been more limited, especially for body fluids beyond blood. Preparation steps include separating, concentrating, and exposing cells to reagents. Sample preparation continues to be routinely performed off-chip by technicians, preventing cell-based point-of-care diagnostics, increasing the cost of tests, and reducing the consistency of the final analysis following multiple manually-performed steps. Here, we review the assortment of biofluids for which suspended cells are analyzed, along with their characteristics and diagnostic value. We present an overview of the conventional sample preparation processes for cytological diagnosis. We finally discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing microfluidic devices for the purpose of automating or miniaturizing these processes, with particular emphases on preparing large or small volume samples, working with samples of high cellularity, automating multi-step processes, and obtaining high purity subpopulations of cells. We hope to convey the importance of and help identify new research directions addressing the vast biological and clinical applications in preparing and analyzing the array of available biological fluids. Successfully addressing the challenges described in this review can lead to inexpensive systems to improve diagnostic accuracy while simultaneously reducing overall systemic healthcare costs. PMID:23380972

  2. Droplet Size-Aware and Error-Correcting Sample Preparation Using Micro-Electrode-Dot-Array Digital Microfluidic Biochips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zipeng; Lai, Kelvin Yi-Tse; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu; Ho, Tsung-Yi; Lee, Chen-Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sample preparation in digital microfluidics refers to the generation of droplets with target concentrations for on-chip biochemical applications. In recent years, digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) have been adopted as a platform for sample preparation. However, there remain two major problems associated with sample preparation on a conventional DMFB. First, only a (1:1) mixing/splitting model can be used, leading to an increase in the number of fluidic operations required for sample preparation. Second, only a limited number of sensors can be integrated on a conventional DMFB; as a result, the latency for error detection during sample preparation is significant. To overcome these drawbacks, we adopt a next generation DMFB platform, referred to as micro-electrode-dot-array (MEDA), for sample preparation. We propose the first sample-preparation method that exploits the MEDA-specific advantages of fine-grained control of droplet sizes and real-time droplet sensing. Experimental demonstration using a fabricated MEDA biochip and simulation results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed sample-preparation method.

  3. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  4. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Le Treut, H.; Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO 2 . The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO 2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO 2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH 4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH 4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the

  5. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Times New Roman',serif">Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  6. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  7. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  8. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008).

  9. Preparing Groups of Engaged Couples for Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David J.

    This paper outlines a program designed for preparing groups of engaged couples for marriage in circumstances where program time is limited to two afternoon sessions. Six topic areas are covered: Adjustments and Priorities; Communication Skills; Parenthood; Money Management; Religious Dimensions in Marriage; and Sexuality. The method used is one of…

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wetting and disintegration times, water absorption, and in vtro dissolution. Results: Increase in ... reagent were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). ... pressure and the resultant solid dispersions were collected [10]. ... were prepared. Preweighed amount of the ..... It is an ideal choice for low calorie and diabetic ...

  11. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

  12. Procedure for preparation of dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Procedure for the preparation of a water based dispersion of cerium oxide, characterised in that a suspension of cerium (IV) hydroxide is formed with an acid, where the acid is in the state of a disaggregation of aggregated crystalline cerium hydroxide, the suspension being preheated for a specified time and to a specified temperature, so that the pH value becomes constant, and whereby the quantity of acid in the suspension is such that the constant pH value is lower than 5.4, so that a conditioned suspension may be obtained, and water may be mixed with the conditioned suspension for making a water based dispersion of cerium oxide. (G.C.)

  13. Debridement and wound bed preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Anna F

    2006-01-01

    Debridement can play a vital role in wound bed preparation and the removal of barriers that impair wound healing. In accordance with the TIME principles, debridement can help remove nonviable tissue, control inflammation or infection, decrease excess moisture, and stimulate a nonadvancing wound edge. There are many types of debridement, each with a set of advantages and disadvantages that must be clearly understood by the healthcare team. Failure to use the correct debridement method for a given type of wound may lead to further delays in healing, increase patient suffering, and unnecessarily increase the cost of care. This review article discusses the various methods of debridement, describes currently available debriding agents, evaluates the clinical data regarding their efficacy and safety, and describes strategies for the management of problematic nonhealing wounds.

  14. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...

  15. Preparing School Leaders for Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, John A.

    1972-01-01

    Paper attempts to identify two of the reasons for the slow progress of school superintendents in bringing positive, significant, and lasting improvement to their schools, and to develop a scheme for preparing central staff and school principals for the change process. (Author)

  16. Method for preparation of uranium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, M.S.; Goncalves, Miriam; Mirage, A.; Lima, W. de.

    1985-01-01

    A method for preparation of Uranium Hydride starting from Hidrogen and Uranium is described. In the temperature range of 250 0 up to 350 0 C, and pressures above 10torr, Hydrogen reacts smoothly with Uranium turnings forming a fine black or dark gray powder (UH 3 ). Samples containing a significant amount of oxides show a delay before the reaction begging. (Author) [pt

  17. Tuning of Preparational Factors Affecting the Morphological Structure and Gas Separation Property of Asymmetric Polysulfone Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyao, C.; Ruangdit, S.; Chittrakarn, T.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of preparational factors such as solvent type, evaporation time (ET) and non-solvent additive, on the morphological structure, physical and gas separation properties of the prepared membrane samples by tuning of these parameters. Flat sheet asymmetric polysulfone (PSF) membranes were prepared by the dry/wet phase inversion process combined with the double coagulation bath method. The alteration of the prepared membranes were analyzed through scientific techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). Furthermore, gas separation performance of membrane samples was measured in term of gas permeation and ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4. Experimental results showed that the change of preparational factors affected to the gas permeation of asymmetric PSF membranes. For example, the selective layer thickness increased with increasing of ET. This lead to increase significantly of ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4. The CO2/CH4 ideal selectivity was also increased with increase of ethanol (non-solvent additive) concentration in casting solution. In summary, the tuning of preparational factors affected to morphological structure, physical and gas separation properties of PSF membranes.

  18. A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Young, D A; Eversole, L R; Gornbein, J A

    2000-06-01

    Laser systems have been developed for the cutting of dental hard tissues. The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, or Er,Cr:YSGG, laser system used in conjunction with an air-water spray has been shown to be efficacious in vitro for cavity preparation. The authors randomly selected subjects for cavity preparation with conventional air turbine/bur dental surgery or an Er,Cr:YSGG laser-powered system using a split-mouth design. They prepared Class I, III and V cavities, placed resin restorations and evaluated subjects on the day of the procedure and 30 days and six months postoperatively for pulp vitality, recurrent caries, pain and discomfort, and restoration retention. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. There were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups for the parameters measured with one exception; there was a statistically significant decrease in discomfort levels for the laser system at the time of cavity preparation for subjects who declined to receive local anesthetic. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is effective for preparation of Class I, III and V cavities and resin restorations are retained by lased tooth surfaces. Hard-tissue cutting lasers are being introduced for use in operative dentistry. In this study, an Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been shown to be effective for cavity preparation and restoration replacement.

  19. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

  20. Data Breach Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  1. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  2. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  3. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  4. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  5. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences with internat......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... the positive influence on number of our partnership agreements with other European universities. Globalisation makes it necessary to cooperate on an international platform. At the IHK we have more than 50 active Erasmus agreements. We also have bilateral agreements with many non-European countries, for example......: USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international...

  6. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  7. Inhibitor efficiency in long-time protection of steel tanks for the chemical surface preparation against local corrosion by process solutions containing hydrochloric acid; Inhibitorwirksamkeit beim Langzeitschutz von Stahlbehaeltern fuer die chemische Oberflaechenvorbereitung gegen oertliche Korrosion durch salzsaeurehaltige Prozessloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, U.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden GmbH, Gostritzer Str. 61-63, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The efficiency of prevailing acid inhibitors is examined by age hardening heavy tank-steel plates in technically usual hot-galvanizing solutions for 1000 hours. With acid inhibitors local corrosion emerged as shallow pit formation first and foremost in hydrochlorid acid pickles (20 g/l HCl) at ambient temperature as well as in cleaners containing hydrochloric acid (10-30 g/l HCl) at 40 C when other conditions also applied. Above all, local corrosion was produced if the inhibitor concentration became too low (0.2 g/l) in connection with a minimum hydrochloric acid concentration (10-30 g/l). However, oxidizing agents like iron(III)-ions (5-10 g/l), atmospheric oxygen and free chlorine (100-1000 mg/l) lead to local corrosion, too. Local corrosion did not emerge in rinse baths (2-10 g/l HCl) and fluxing material solutions of zinc chloride and ammonium chloride (pH value: 2.0-5.5). Here uniform corrosion developed. Acid inhibitors turned out to be very effective against uniform corrosion in the examined long-time period (inhibiting values up to 99%). (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Wirksamkeit handelsueblicher Saeureinhibitoren wird durch eine Auslagerung von Grobblechen aus Behaelterstahl ueber 1000 Stunden in technisch gebraeuchlichen Loesungen der Feuerverzinkung untersucht. Oertliche Korrosion ist als Muldenkorrosion in Gegenwart von Saeureinhibitoren vor allem in Salzsaeurebeizen (20 g/l HCl) bei Raumtemperatur und in salzsaeurehaltigen Reinigern (10-30 g/l HCl) bei 40 C aufgetreten, wenn Zusatzbedingungen erfuellt sind. Oertliche Korrosion wird vorwiegend durch eine Unterschreitung der Inhibitorkonzentration (0,2 g/l) in Verbindung mit einer minimalen Salzsaeurekonzentration (10-30 g/l) ausgeloest. Aber auch Oxidationsmittel wie Eisen(III)-Ionen (5-10 g/l), Luftsauerstoff und freies Chlor (100-1000 mg/l) fuehren zu oertlicher Korrosion. In Spuelbaedern (2-10 g/l HCl) und Flussmittelloesungen aus Zinkchlorid und Ammoniumchlorid (p

  8. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  9. Preparation and characterization of endohedral metallofullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, D.

    1996-03-01

    The successful preparation of endohedral metallofullerenes in amounts of mg's is strongly hampered by the fact that the commonly use procedure is extremely time consuming. We have dramatically changed this by several improvements. Firstly, the development of a new extraction scheme, based on a selective solubility of M C 82 and the use of special chromatographic columns allow a more rapid purification of these fullerenes. Further, significant advancement has been achieved by the discovery of the catalytic influence of various boron compounds on the yield of M C 82 during coevaporation. The production of macroscopic amounts of M C 82 (mg-scale) is now possible in a much shorter time thus opening the door to series of new investigations including the characterization of endohedral metallofullerenes. Chromatographic retention relationships between endohedral metallofullerenes M C 82 (M=Y, La, Ce and Gd) and a [2-(1-pyrenyl) ethyl]silyl-silica stationary phase were studied in detail and are discussed in comparison with those of empty fullerenes. The elution behavior of metallofullerenes reflects the polar nature of these molecules and allows a rough determination of dipole moments for these species. Furthermore for the first time the dipole moment of La C 82 was investigated by direct dipole moment measurements in solution (CS 2 ). These results are consistent with those obtained form retention relationships. The dipole moments of M C 82 show a characteristic trend with respect to the ionic radius (M +3 6 ) of the doped metal and indicate that the metal is coordinated to a facing carbon hexagon. Such a fixed position at the inner side of the fullerene cage is also consistent with EPR-experiments and makes a thermal activated hopping process of the metal ion inside the fullerene cage as in the case of Sc 3 C 82 and Sc 2 C 82 imporable. (orig./WL)

  10. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  11. Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The potassium ester (C11H23COO-K+) commonly known as African black soap was prepared by the action of palm kernel oil on cocoa pods. This was divided into four portions. Sample A contained the African Black soap without any modification, sample B was black soap modified with honey, sample C and ...

  12. Preparation Parameter Analysis and Optimization of Sustainable Asphalt Binder Modified by Waste Rubber and Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, crumb rubber and diatomite were used to modify asphalt binder. Wet process was adopted as a preparation method, and the corresponding preparation process was determined firstly. The effects of six preparation parameters (crumb rubber concentration, diatomite concentration, shear time, shear speed, shear temperature, and storing time on properties of modified asphalt binder (penetration at 25°C, softening point, ductility, viscosity at 135°C, elastic recovery, and penetration index were investigated, and multiresponse optimization was conducted using the response surface method. The results revealed that softening points, viscosity, elastic recovery, and penetration index increase, while penetration and ductility decrease with the increase of crumb rubber concentration. Softening points, viscosity, and penetration index increase, while penetration and ductility decrease with the increase of diatomite concentration, which presents little influence on elastic recovery of binder. Shear temperature presented significant effects on penetration, softening point, viscosity, and ductility. Shear speed, shear time, and storing time have similar effects on binder properties because of their similar mechanism of action. Based on the model obtained from the response surface method, optimized preparation parameters corresponding to specific criteria can be determined, which possess favorable accuracy compared with experimental results.

  13. Preparation for a postgraduate specialty examination by medical students in Turkey: processes and sources of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Sevgi; Üner, Sarp

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Interns in Turkey must endeavor to study for a specialty exam during their internship. The preparation process for the specialty exam and the effect of this process on the students' anxiety has not been studied comprehensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interns' preparation time for the specialty exam, their perception of how the preparation process affects their training, and which factors are related to their test anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6th-year students (interns). A questionnaire asked participants to report health status, academic achievement, exam-related anxiety, and trait anxiety. Two open-ended questions asked about views regarding the specialty exam. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the significant predictors of anxiety level due to the exam. The average duration of exam preparations of participating interns (n = 214) was 16.8 months and 14.3 hours/week. Participating interns' health status, economic level, perception of academic achievement, time allocated to study for the exam, time remaining until the exam, and trait anxiety level demonstrated a relationship with anxiety level due to the exam (R =.35, R(2) =.13, p anxiety level. The internship curriculum, requirements, and timing of the specialty exam should be reconsidered.

  14. Experiences of using the GMP audit preparation tool in pharmaceutical contract manufacturer audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Anu; Korhonen, Mirka; Airaksinen, Marja; Juppo, Anne Mari

    2010-06-01

    Use of external contractors is nowadays inevitable in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the amount of current good manufacturing practice audits has been increasing. During the audit, a large amount of items should be covered in a limited amount of time. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies should have systematic and effective ways to manage and prepare for the audits. This study is a continuation to the earlier study, where a tool for the preparation of cGMP audit was developed and its content was validated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the developed tool in audit preparation and during the actual cGMP audit. Three qualitative research methods were used in this study (observation, interviews, and opinion survey). First, the validity of the information given through the tool was examined by comparing the responses to the actual conditions observed during the contract manufacturer audits (n = 15). Additionally the opinions of the contract manufacturers of the tool were gathered (n = 10) and the auditors were interviewed (n = 2). The developed tool was proven to be useful in audit preparation phase from both the auditor's and the contract manufacturers' point of view. Furthermore, using the tool can also save some time when performing the audit. The results show that using the tool can give significant support in audit preparation phase and also during the actual audit.

  15. Preparation of conductive membranes using poly pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaeni, S.; Khavaran, B.

    2003-01-01

    Conductive membranes show many benefits including fouling reduction for feeds containing ionic species. These membranes may be prepared either by conductive polymers or coating of the surfaces of non-conductive membranes with conductive polymer. In this research, the commercial micro filtration GVHP membrane manufactured from PVDF was coated with poly pyrrole using two different techniques. The conductivity of the prepared membranes was measured. In this paper, effects of various factors including concentration of the solutions, oxidizing agents, time for leaving the support in the solutions, support type and temperature on membrane conductivity were investigated

  16. Preparing for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  17. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  18. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.C.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  19. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  20. Preparing paraffin wax, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-12-27

    A process is described for preparing paraffin wax by separation from substances containing bitumen, consisting of treating the raw material at an elevated temperature under such moderate conditions and by means of such organic solvents that the bitumen present in the raw material or formed in the process dissolves as well as the asphaltic and phenolic substances and the humic acids which may be said to be neither extracts nor decomposed materials, and then submitting the products and extracts to a treatment with hydrogen gas, which is effected below 300/sup 0/C, and passing the material over fixed hydrogenation catalysts above 300/sup 0/C by means of hydrogenation catalysts finely dispersed in carbonaceous materials all avoiding decomposition with the formation of volatile products.

  1. Use of gamma radiation for preparation of nutrient culture media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranskaya, I.D.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Mironova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technique was developed for sterilization of nutrient culture media using ..gamma..-radiation. For this purpose, dry preparations were exposed to 3 to 6 Mrad radiation, then dissolved in sterile distilled water. The quality of media and solutions thus obtained is as good as that of preparations sterilized by filtration. The advantage of the proposed sterilization method is that liquid media can be rapidly prepared and dry sterile media can be stored at room temperature for long periods of time.

  2. Time over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Navarro, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is designed to be a general introduction to the philosophical problem of time from its very different forms and ways of approaching. In this sense, the article covers the problem from different perspectives and gives a brief account of the plurality and diversity of the time found in the different philosophical definitions, in the different layers of knowledge, in different periods and cultures and also in the different instruments used to measure time itself

  3. Time to eat? The relationship between food security and food-related time use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Timothy K M; Nanney, M Susie; Tuttle, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present analysis, we seek to establish a relationship between time spent on food-related activities and food security status as well as between time spent on these activities and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program) participation and benefit level. After matching similar households using Coarsened Exact Matching, we estimate the relationship between food-related time, food insecurity and SNAP participation and benefit level using a comprehensive data set that combines two subsets of the Current Population Survey from years 2004-2010: the Food Security Supplement and the American Time Use Survey. City, suburban and rural areas of the USA. Non-institutionalized US population over the age of 15 years. Total sample size is 10 247 households. In single households, food insecurity and SNAP participation are associated with 20% more time in meal preparation and 13% less time eating. Similarly, in married households, SNAP participation and benefit level are associated with 32% less time in meal preparation while food insecurity is associated with 17% less time eating and 14% less time in grocery shopping. A significant relationship exists between time spent on food-related activities and food insecurity and SNAP. This implies that federal and state government may need to consider the time constraints many low-income households face when reforming food assistance programmes.

  4. A QMRA Model for Salmonella in Pork Products During Preparation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, A. N.; Leusden, F.; Nauta, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    As part of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) food chain model, this article describes a model for the consumer phase for Salmonella‐contaminated pork products. Three pork products were chosen as a proxy for the entire pork product spectrum: pork cuts, minced meat patties, and ...... factors “knife cleaning” and “preparation of a salad” are important parameters for pork cuts. For minced meat cleaning of the board, salad consumption, refrigerator temperature, and storage time were significant....

  5. Evaluating a nurse mentor preparation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Olivia; Brown, Donna

    Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.

  6. Cytomegalovirus neutralization by hyperimmune and standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Christina B; Saemann, Marcus D; Gajek, Hartwig; Farcet, Maria R; Kreil, Thomas R

    2011-08-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most important pathogens after transplantation, potentially leading to CMV disease, allograft dysfunction, acute, and chronic rejection and opportunistic infections. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations with high antibody titers against CMV are a valuable adjunctive prevention and treatment option for clinicians and apart from standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), CMV hyperimmune preparations are available. The CMV antibody titer of these preparations is typically determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also used for the selection of high titer plasma donors for the production of the CMV Hyperimmune product. However, CMV ELISA titers do not necessarily correlate with CMV antibody function which is determined by virus neutralization tests. CMV antibody titers were determined by both ELISA and virus neutralization assay and the IgG subclass distribution was compared between a CMV hyperimmune licensed in Europe and standard IVIG preparations. Although the expected high CMV IgG ELISA antibody titers were confirmed for three lots of a CMV hyperimmune preparation, the functionally more relevant CMV neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher for 31 lots of standard IVIG preparations. Moreover, considerably lower IgG3 levels were found for the CMV hyperimmune preparation compared with standard IVIG preparations. The higher functional CMV neutralization titers of standard IVIG preparations and the better availability of these preparations, suggest that these products could be a valuable alternative to the CMV hyperimmune preparation.

  7. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  8. Reducing preparation time of locally manufactured baby food at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Significance of venous anastomosis in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Abe, Yukio; Dhawan, Vikas

    2003-03-01

    Adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for successful fingertip replantation. The authors have attempted venous anastomosis in all cases of fingertip replantation to overcome postoperative congestion. In this article, the significance of venous repair for fingertip replantation is described from the authors' results of 64 complete fingertip amputations in 55 consecutive patients, which were replanted from January of 1996 to June of 2001. The overall survival rate was 86 percent. Of the 44 replantations in zone I, 37 survived, and the success rate was 84 percent. Of the 20 replantations in zone II, 18 survived, and the success rate was 90 percent. Venous anastomosis was attempted in all cases, but it was possible in 39 zone I and in all zone II replantations. For arterial repair, vein grafts were necessary in 17 of the 44 zone I and in one of the 20 zone II replantations; for venous repair, they were necessary in six zone I replantations and one zone II replantation. Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 15 replantations. There were five cases of arterial thrombosis and 10 cases of venous congestion. Venous congestion occurred in nine zone I and one zone II replantations. In five of these 10 replantations, venous anastomosis was not possible. In another five replantations, venous outflow was established at the time of surgery, but occlusion occurred subsequently. Except for the five failures resulting from arterial thrombosis, successful venous repair was possible in 49 of 59 replantations (83 percent). Despite the demand for skillful microsurgical technique and longer operation time, the authors' results using venous anastomosis in successful fingertip replantations are encouraging. By performing venous anastomosis, external bleeding can be avoided and a higher survival rate can be achieved. Venous anastomosis for fingertip replantation is a reliable and worthwhile procedure.

  10. Protective effect of a coffee preparation (Nescafe pure) against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongyang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Bai, Yanhua; Zhao, Juhui; Zhang, Li

    2010-06-01

    We examined the effects of a coffee preparation on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and explored the possible mechanisms. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: control, CCl(4), and two coffee preparation groups. Except for the control group, liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl(4) twice a week for 8 weeks. At the same time, a coffee preparation (300 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg) was administered to the two coffee preparation groups intragastrically once daily. Upon pathological examination, a coffee preparation treatment significantly reduced liver damage and symptoms of liver fibrosis. The mRNA expression of collagen I, collagen III, bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) were markedly increased by CCl(4) treatment but suppressed by a coffee preparation treatment. Whereas compared with the CCl(4) group, the mRNA expression of Bax was increased in the coffee preparation group. The protein expression of Bax and bcl-2 were confirmed by western blot. Intragastric administration of a coffee preparation reduced the protein expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the glucose-regulated proteins (GRP) 78 and 94 in rats increased by CCl(4). Our data indicate that a coffee preparation can efficiently inhibit CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. The coffee preparation may therefore be a potential functional food for preventing liver fibrosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  12. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  13. Preparing for Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.T.; Manson, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Risk management is one of the most complex project management processes, requiring rigorous management and discipline. Unfortunately, for many organizations, the risk management process has become contaminated by poor management practices, an absence of meaningful risk assessments, meaningless risk event descriptions, incomplete and vague risk impact analyses, poor follow through on risk mitigation activities and a general lack of attention to accuracy, completeness and quality. At this point, the risk register, instead of being a key tool used by the organization to systematically identify and eliminate risk, while exploiting opportunities, has become a list of pre-prepared excuses based on the repeat of failures encountered on past projects. However, organizations are not condemned to repeat past failures. By returning to the basics of risk management, and through the application of some basic management guidelines, the risk register-instead of being an 'Excuse Register' - can become the cornerstone of a comprehensive risk management program to promote a systematic, pro-active approach within an organization that will result in accomplishing mitigation activities, reducing risk and gaining advantage through opportunities. (authors)

  14. Teachers' Views of Their Preparation for Inclusive Education and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagona, Alison L.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; MacFarland, Stephanie Z. C.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to advance inclusive education for students with significant disabilities, and one way to support this effort is to ensure educators have expertise in, and are prepared to implement, inclusive practices. We surveyed and interviewed general and special education teachers to understand their experiences and preparation to demonstrate…

  15. Principal Preparation in Special Education: Building an Inclusive Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The importance of principal preparation in special education has increased since the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed in 1975. There are significant financial reasons for preparing principals in the area of special education. Recent research also shows that all children learn better in an inclusive environment. Principals who…

  16. Technical quality of root canal treatment of posterior teeth after rotary or hand preparation by fifth year undergraduate students, The University of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Tahun, Ibrahim; Al-Rabab'ah, Mohammad A; Hammad, Mohammad; Khraisat, Ameen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the technical quality of root canal treatment provided by the undergraduate students as their first experience in molar endodontics using nickel-titanium (NiTi) files in a crown-down approach compared with stainless steel standard technique. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training programme, using two different questionnaires to assess the overall technical quality and potential problems regarding endodontic complications after root canal preparation with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant difference in the performance of the two instrument techniques in difficult cases showing better performance of the NiTi system and mean rotary preparation time (P ProTaper rotary files, were able to prepare root canals faster with more preparation accuracy compared with canals of same teeth prepared with hand instruments. © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  17. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  18. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  19. Significant and Basic Innovations in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyasnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the development features of the innovative urban planning in the USSR and Russia in XVIII - XX centuries. Innovative urban planning is defined as an activity on innovations creation and their implementation to obtain a socio-economic, political, environmental or other effect. In the course of urban development history this activity represents a cyclic wave process in which there are phases of rise and fall. The study of cyclic waves in the development of innovative urban planning uses the concept of basic and epochal innovations selection. This concept was developed by scientists for the study of cyclic wave processes in economics. Its adaptation to the conditions of innovative urban planning development allows one to introduce the concept of “basic innovation” and “significant innovation” in the theory and practice of settlement formation and their systems as well as to identify opportunities to highlight these innovations in the history of Russian urban planning. From these positions, six innovation waves committed to the urban development over the past 300 years are being investigated. The observed basic innovations in the domestic urban area show that urban development is a vital area for ensuring the country’s geopolitical security. Basic innovations are translated in time and modernized under new conditions of urban planning development. In this regard, we can predict the development of four basic innovations in post-Soviet Russia.

  20. Bowel preparation for CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emanuele; Lefere, Philippe; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan; Bemi, Pietro; Mantarro, Annalisa; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Bowel preparation represents an essential part of CT colonography, as the accuracy of the exam is strongly related to the adequacy of colonic cleansing, and a poor bowel preparation may compromise the diagnostic quality even despite optimization of all other acquisition parameters. Residual stool and fluid in the large bowel may affect the interpretation of the exam and may increase the number of false positives and false negatives. In this regard, the majority of patients having undergone CT colonography state that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part. Unfortunately, to date no definite consensus has been reached about the ideal bowel preparation technique, and there is great variability in preparation strategies across diagnostic centers. The purpose of this review article is to describe the development and evolution of bowel preparation techniques in order to choose the best approach for optimizing the diagnostic quality of CT colonography in each patient

  1. Bowel preparation for CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.neri@med.unipi.it [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy); Lefere, Philippe; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan [Department of Radiology, Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Roeselare (Belgium); Bemi, Pietro; Mantarro, Annalisa; Bartolozzi, Carlo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Bowel preparation represents an essential part of CT colonography, as the accuracy of the exam is strongly related to the adequacy of colonic cleansing, and a poor bowel preparation may compromise the diagnostic quality even despite optimization of all other acquisition parameters. Residual stool and fluid in the large bowel may affect the interpretation of the exam and may increase the number of false positives and false negatives. In this regard, the majority of patients having undergone CT colonography state that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part. Unfortunately, to date no definite consensus has been reached about the ideal bowel preparation technique, and there is great variability in preparation strategies across diagnostic centers. The purpose of this review article is to describe the development and evolution of bowel preparation techniques in order to choose the best approach for optimizing the diagnostic quality of CT colonography in each patient.

  2. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  3. A developed wedge fixtures assisted high precision TEM samples pre-thinning method: Towards the batch lamella preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion milling, wedge cutting or polishing, and focused ion beam (FIB milling are widely-used techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM sample preparation. Especially, the FIB milling provides a site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials in the micrometer and nanometer scale. However, the cost of FIB tools has been always a significant concern. Since it is inevitable to use the FIB technique, the improvement of efficiency is a key point. Traditional TEM sample preparation with FIB was routinely implemented on a single sample each time. Aiming at cost efficiency, a new pre-thinning technique for batch sample preparation was developed in this paper. The present proposal combines the sample preparation techniques with multi-samples thinning, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wedge cutting, FIB and other sample pre-thinning techniques. The new pre-thinning technique is to prepare an edge TEM sample on a grinding and polishing fixture with a slant surface. The thickness of the wedges sample can be measured to 1∼2 μm under optical microscope. Therefore, this fixture is superior to the traditional optical method of estimating the membrane thickness. Moreover, by utilizing a multi-sample holding fixture, more samples can be pre-thinned simultaneously, which significantly improved the productivity of TEM sample preparation.

  4. Educational Colonoscopy Video Enhances Bowel Preparation Quality and Comprehension in an Inner City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Ajish; Menon, Radha; Oustecky, David; Ahmad, Asyia

    2017-07-24

    Quality of bowel preparation and patient knowledge remains a major barrier for completing colorectal cancer screening. Few studies have tested unique ways to impact patient understanding centering on interactive computer programs, pictures, and brochures. Two studies explored instructional videos but focused on patient compliance and anxiety as endpoints. Furthermore, excessive video length and content may limit their impact on a broad patient population. No study so far has studied a video's impact on preparation quality and patient understanding of the colonoscopy procedure. We conducted a single blinded prospective study of inner city patients presenting for a first time screening colonoscopy. During their initial visit patients were randomized to watch an instructional colonoscopy video or a video discussing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). All patients watched a 6 minutes long video with the same spokesperson, completed a demographic questionnaire (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JCG/A352) and were enrolled only if screened within 30 days of their visit. On the day of the colonoscopy, patients completed a 14 question quiz of their knowledge. Blinded endoscopist graded patient preparations based on the Ottawa scale. All authors had access to the study data and reviewed and approved the final manuscript. Among the 104 subjects enrolled in the study, 56 were in the colonoscopy video group, 48 were in GERD video group, and 12 were excluded. Overall, 48% were male and 52% female; 90% of patients had less than a high school education, 76% were African American, and 67% used a 4 L split-dose preparation. There were no differences between either video group with regard to any of the above categories. Comparisons between the 2 groups revealed that the colonoscopy video group had significantly better Ottawa bowel preparation score (4.77 vs. 6.85; P=0.01) than the GERD video group. The colonoscopy video group also had less-inadequate repeat

  5. LHC preparations change gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    After the formal approval by CERN Council in December (January, page 1) of the LHC protonproton collider for CERN's 27- kilometre LEP tunnel, preparations for the new machine change gear. Lyndon Evans becomes LHC Project Leader, and CERN's internal structure will soon be reorganized to take account of the project becoming a definite commitment. On the experimental side, the full Technical Proposals for the big general purpose ATLAS and CMS detectors were aired at a major meeting of the LHC Committee at CERN in January. These Technical Proposals are impressive documents each of some several hundred pages. (Summaries of the detector designs will appear in forthcoming issues of the CERN Courier.) The ALICE heavy ion experiment is not far behind, and plans for other LHC experiments are being developed. Playing an important role in this groundwork has been the Detector Research and Development Committee (DRDC), founded in 1990 to foster detector development for the LHC experimental programme and structured along the lines of a traditional CERN Experiments Committee. Established under the Director Generalship of Carlo Rubbia and initially steered by Research Director Walter Hoogland, the DRDC has done sterling work in blazing a trail for LHC experiments. Acknowledging that the challenge of LHC experimentation needs technological breakthroughs as well as specific detector subsystems, DRDC proposals have covered a wide front, covering readout electronics and computing as well as detector technology. Its first Chairman was Enzo larocci, succeeded in 1993 by Michal Turala. DRDC's role was to evaluate proposals, and make recommendations to CERN's Research Board for approval and resource allocation, not an easy task when the LHC project itself had yet to be formally approved. Over the years, a comprehensive portfolio of detector development has been built up, much of which has either led to specific LHC detector subsystems for traditional detector tasks

  6. The Third International Reference Preparation of Egg Lecithin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, P.; Bentzon, M. Weis

    1961-01-01

    The Third International Reference Preparation of Egg Lecithin was produced (in a quantity of 5000 ml) at the WHO Serological Reference Centre, Copenhagen, and assayed in 1958 against the Second International Reference Preparation by four laboratories in three countries. Complement-fixation and slide-flocculation tests were used. The new preparation was found acceptable, and its establishment was authorized by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. The average log10 titres and results of analyses of variances are shown. The variances were of the usual order of magnitude, and the differences in titre between antigens containing the Second and the Third International Reference Preparations varied from -0.011 to 0.116; only one of the differences exceeded the 5% limit of significance. The use of the Third International Reference Preparation in tests for the acceptability of lecithin preparations is described. PMID:13753864

  7. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15-18 years), emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and the mid-to-late twenties (24-28 years), as well as 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults)-I, EAT-II and EAT-III (n 1321). Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73 % of males, 80 % of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24 % of males, 41 % of females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (P prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (P food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables and dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Food preparation behaviours appeared to track over time and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood.

  8. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Mary Petrea; Johnson, Cary E; Lee, Jordan; Currie, Kenne

    2010-02-15

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions was studied. An oral suspension of rifaximin 20 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding six 200-mg tablets of rifaximin in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the six bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 15, 30, and 60 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 microg/mL with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and pH was tested on each day of analysis. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point and defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of rifaximin. At least 99% of the initial rifaximin remained throughout the 60-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Extemporaneously prepared suspensions of rifaximin 20 mg/mL in 1:1 mixtures of Ora-Plus with either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 60 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  9. Mental and Active Preparation: Examining Variations in Women's Processes of Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermea, Autumn M; Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Rosenbloom, Lindsay; Salerno, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Although the process of leaving abusive relationships has received increased research attention, preparing to leave is still largely understudied. Despite an emphasis on safety planning, not all women take active steps to prepare, and the characteristics and experiences of those who do or do not actively prepare are unknown. We address this gap with a secondary data analysis of interviews with 25 abused mothers in the process of leaving. All women initially engaged in mental planning, where they had emotionally disconnected from their partners. Using constructivist grounded theory techniques, we identified two distinct groups: those whose mental planning led to active planning ( n = 11), and those who moved directly from mental planning to leaving ( n = 14) with little time or need to actively plan. The groups differed on several individual, relationship, and child factors, which may have impacted the ability or decisions to prepare. This study supports the feminist view that survivors are not helpless victims but active agents who strategize for safety. Those who engage solely in mental planning still prepare to leave, even if they do not engage in active planning. Practitioners should consider factors affecting preparations and acknowledge mental planning as a necessary effort in leaving.

  10. Preparation of the Reagent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Analysis of carbohydrates is a significant part of qualitative organic analysis at the undergraduate level. A qualitative test that distingui- shes them from other classes of organic compounds is the Molisch test. Depending on their structure, sugars are classified ... Chemistry Department. Zakir Husain College. J.L.Nehru Marg.

  11. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Magnetic properties and crystal texture of Co alloy thin films prepared on double bias Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    A double layer Cr film structure has been prepared by sputter depositing Cr on single crystal Si substrates first without substrate bias and then with various substrate bias voltages. Without substrate bias, Cr{200} texture grows on Si at room temperature; thus the first Cr layer acts like a seed Cr layer with the {200} texture, and the second Cr layer, prepared with substrate bias, tends to replicate the {200} texture epitaxially. CoCrTa and CoNiCr films prepared on these double Cr underlayers, therefore, tend to have a {112¯0} texture with their c-axes oriented in the plane of the film. At the same time, the bias sputtering of the second Cr layer increases the coercivity of the subsequently deposited magnetic films significantly. Comparison studies of δM curves show that the use of the double Cr underlayers reduces the intergranular exchange interactions. The films prepared on the Si substrates have been compared with the films prepared on canasite and glass substrates. It has also been found that the magnetic properties are similar for films on canasite and on glass.

  13. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique ... buccal absorption, in vitro drug release studies, moisture absorption as well as for in vitro and in vivo ... recovery time after exposure to stress and.

  14. Radiological significance of thorium processing in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study of thorium processing in manufacturing comprised monitoring programs at a plant where thorium dioxide was in use and another where the use of thorium nitrate had been discontinued. The measurements of the solubility in simulated lung fluid proved that both materials belonged in the Y Class with dissolution half-times greater than 500 days. Bioassay measurements of 20 subjects from both facilities proved that in vitro monitoring methods, urine, feces, hair and nails analysis were not sufficient indicators of thorium uptake. In vivo monitoring by phoswich and large sodium iodide detectors were proven to be good methods of determining thorium lung burdens. The thoron in breath technique was shown to have a lower limit of sensitivity than lung counting, however, due to lack of information regarding the thoron escape rate from the thorium particles in the lungs the method is not as accurate as lung counting. Two subjects at the thorium dioxide facility had lung burdens of 21+- 16 Bq and 29+- 24 Bq Th 232 and one at the thorium nitrate facility had a lung burden of 37+- 13 Bq. Improvements in the procedures and use of a glove box were among the recommendations to reduce the inhalation of thorium by workers at the thorium dioxide facility. Decontamination of several rooms at the thorium nitrate facility and sealing of the walls and floors were recommended in order to reduce the escape of thoron gas into the room air. The risk to non Atomic Radiation Workers was primarily due to thoron daughters in air while gamma radiation and thorium in air were less important. Conversely, at the thorium dioxide facility the inhalation of thorium in air was the most significant exposure pathway

  15. Multiresolution wavelet-ANN model for significant wave height forecasting.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deka, P.C.; Mandal, S.; Prahlada, R.

    Hybrid wavelet artificial neural network (WLNN) has been applied in the present study to forecast significant wave heights (Hs). Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is used to preprocess the time series data (Hs) prior to Artificial Neural Network...

  16. Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles via Sonochemical Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Puig, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    Pure nickel, copper and zinc nanoparticles were prepared from chlorides of these elements using ultrasound with three different reducing agents (zinc, aluminum and magnesium). In the second part, syntheses of nickel-copper alloy and nickel-zinc using ultrasound were investigated. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The reaction parameters, such as sonification time, the amount of reagents and reaction conditions were modified to observe variations in...

  17. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  18. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of function-enriched edible oils: Preventive effect of lipid peroxidation; (a Heat exposure: Commercial rape-seed oil and extra virgin oil were used as controls. For preparation of the test samples (function fortified oils of tomato-juice waste-residue and grape wine- ferment waste-residues, it is described in above section (1. All oil preparations were exposed to high temperature at 150oC and peroxide value (POV, acid value and TBARS were measured at various times as described. The methods of measurements of POV, acid value and TBARS were adapted conventional standard method described elsewhere. (b Light exposure: Similar to (a they were exposed to excessive light using Nippon Ikaga Kikai (Tokyo, LH-200-RDS equipped with fluorescent light tube (x3, NEC FL40S-2XN, 3.2K lux at 390-730nm. Result and Discussions: (1 Extraction of carotenoids etc. Modern edible oil refining processes are highly elaborated and efficient. The most of the commercial edible oils in the market are so purified that many important antioxidant components are mostly removed during refining process. Oils became mostly colorless and odorless; and they lack are devoid of anti-oxidative or radical scavenging components. We measured anti-alkyl peroxy radical (ROO.-scavenging activity, and found that many commercial oils have very little such activity (Figure 1. Many disposal- of tomato juice or extraction waste-residues in wine making, yet contained significant amount of functionally useful components that may be recovered by immersing the dried waste residues in the functionally poor oil, ie., low grade oils. Figure 2A, B shows it was indeed possible to recover such component like lycopene and carotenoids, and the spectrum of this oil exhibits multiple peaks correspond tomato lycopene. (2 Antioxidation activity: (a Acid value after light and heat exposure. Commercial highly purified edible oils are vulnerable for oxidation and resulting in lipid or alkyl hydroperoxides formation (ROOH, which

  19. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  20. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  1. Correlation Between the Two Manual and Cavity Preparation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravej-Salehi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Acquiring fine psychomotor skills is challenging for dental students. Objectives This study aimed to assess the correlation of cavity preparation skills with drawing skills and handwriting of dental students. Methods Ninety-two male and female dental students taking the preclinical course of restorative dentistry in Shahid Beheshti dental school participated in three tests of handwriting, drawing a smile and an amalgam class (CL I cavity preparation and were scored using a specific scoring system. The correlation among the three skills was assessed using multivariate linear regression. Results Most dental students had cavity preparation, handwriting and drawing skills above the average. A significant correlation was found between drawing and tooth preparation skills (P < 0.05. Conclusions A statistically significant difference existed between drawing and cavity preparation skills in students; however, this correlation was not clinically considerable.

  2. LHC Report: Restart preparations continue

    CERN Multimedia

    Katy Foraz for the LHC team and Julia Trummer for the RP Group

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance and consolidation work has been progressing well in both the machine and the experiments in preparation for the March restart.   A sample material is attached to the LHC (the white bag taped to the green line), to measure the radiation doses. Additional work was required around Point 5 due to the discovery and repair of a problem with the RF fingers at the connection of two beam vacuum chambers in CMS. The repair has been completed successfully and the sector is now under vacuum. In order to avoid rushing the delicate final operations required for closing the detector, the restart of the machine has been postponed by one week, from 7 March to 14 March. In the machine, the first cool-down to 1.9 K has started in several sectors ,and the cool-down of the whole machine is still planned to be finished by 21 February. The time window between 22 February and 14 March will be dedicated to powering and cryogenic tests. Since 12 December, the Radiation Protection (RP) group has been deep...

  3. TFTR DT preparation project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, E.D.; Dudek, L.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) research program is preparing to commence the first high power Deuterium-Tritium (DT) experiments of the US Fusion Program. Hardware upgrades to TFTR required for DT operations have been completed. This paper discusses these hardware preparations.

  4. Merging Expertise: Preparing Collaborative Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Elizabeth M.; Colley, Kenna M.; Daniel, Leslie S.; Dickenson, Kathie W.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, teacher education faculty of a medium-size university, historically grounded in teacher preparation within a rural context, describe their ongoing work to transform their practice in order to prepare special and general educators who co-plan, co-teach, and co-assess with their counterparts in the field. Follow-up research with…

  5. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...

  6. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  7. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  8. Unified nature of bimanual movements revealed by separating the preparation of each arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinch, Jarrod; Franks, Ian M; Carpenter, Mark G; Chua, Romeo

    2015-06-01

    Movement preparation of bimanual asymmetric movements is longer than bimanual symmetric movements in choice reaction time conditions, even when movements are cued directly by illuminating the targets (Blinch et al. in Exp Brain Res 232(3):947-955, 2014). This bimanual asymmetric cost may be caused by increased processing demands on response programming, but this requires further investigation. The present experiment tested the demands on response programming for bimanual movements by temporally separating the preparation of each arm. This was achieved by precuing the target of one arm before the imperative stimulus. We asked: What was prepared in advance when one arm was precued? The answer to this question would suggest which process causes the bimanual asymmetric cost. Advance movement preparation was examined by comparing reaction times with and without a precue for the left target and by occasionally replacing the imperative stimulus with a loud, startling tone (120 dB). A startle tone releases whatever movement is prepared in advance with a much shorter reaction time than control trials (Carlsen et al. in Clin Neurophysiol 123(1):21-33, 2012). Participants made bimanual symmetric and asymmetric reaching movements in simple and 2-choice reaction time conditions and a condition with a precue for the left target. We found a bimanual asymmetric cost in 2-choice conditions, and the asymmetric cost was significantly smaller when the left target was precued. These results, and the results from startle trials, suggest (1) that the precued movement was not fully programmed but partially programmed before the imperative stimulus and (2) that the asymmetric cost was caused by increased processing demands on response programming. Overall, the results support the notion that bimanual movements are not the sum of two unimanual movements; instead, the two arms of a bimanual movement are unified into a functional unit. When one target is precued, this critical unification

  9. Preparation of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Garlich, J.R.; Frank, R.K.; McMillan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical formulations for complexes comprising at least one radionuclide complexed with a ligand, or its physiologically-acceptable salts thereof, especially 153 samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid, which optionally contains a divalent metal ion, e.g. calcium, and is frozen, thawed, and then administered by injection. Alternatively, the radiopharmaceutical formulations must contain the divalent metal and are frozen only if the time before administration is sufficiently long to cause concern for radiolysis of the ligand. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Sample preparation with solid phase microextraction and exhaustive extraction approaches: Comparison for challenging cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Ángel; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh; Souza-Silva, Érica A; Hein, Dietmar; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-05-11

    In chemical analysis, sample preparation is frequently considered the bottleneck of the entire analytical method. The success of the final method strongly depends on understanding the entire process of analysis of a particular type of analyte in a sample, namely: the physicochemical properties of the analytes (solubility, volatility, polarity etc.), the environmental conditions, and the matrix components of the sample. Various sample preparation strategies have been developed based on exhaustive or non-exhaustive extraction of analytes from matrices. Undoubtedly, amongst all sample preparation approaches, liquid extraction, including liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), are the most well-known, widely used, and commonly accepted methods by many international organizations and accredited laboratories. Both methods are well documented and there are many well defined procedures, which make them, at first sight, the methods of choice. However, many challenging tasks, such as complex matrix applications, on-site and in vivo applications, and determination of matrix-bound and free concentrations of analytes, are not easily attainable with these classical approaches for sample preparation. In the last two decades, the introduction of solid phase microextraction (SPME) has brought significant progress in the sample preparation area by facilitating on-site and in vivo applications, time weighted average (TWA) and instantaneous concentration determinations. Recently introduced matrix compatible coatings for SPME facilitate direct extraction from complex matrices and fill the gap in direct sampling from challenging matrices. Following introduction of SPME, numerous other microextraction approaches evolved to address limitations of the above mentioned techniques. There is not a single method that can be considered as a universal solution for sample preparation. This review aims to show the main advantages and limitations of the above mentioned sample

  11. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  12. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  13. Personality Development during Teacher Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Roisin P; O'Flaherty, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this 3-year longitudinal study was to examine pre-service teachers' personality trajectories as measured by the IPIP Big-Five factor markers during teacher preparation. The relationship between students' personality traits, social desirability, and prior academic attainment was also examined. Method: This 3-year longitudinal study invited participants from the first year of a 4-year undergraduate (UG) pre-service teacher education program, the class of 2017. The sample consisted of 305 students. Results: The results suggest that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience were best represented by a non-significant longitudinal change in means. Results also suggest that social desirability predicts agreeableness and emotional stability with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusion: The study concludes that no value is added to pre-service teachers' personality traits during 3 years of tertiary education. Furthermore, the data presented does not support the view that academic attainment is a good predictor of personality traits. Implications for educational research, theory, and practice are considered.

  14. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  15. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  16. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  17. Old times Old times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Paiva de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Pinter: A Study of His Plays, Martin Esslin mentions three levels of possible interpretation for Old Times. According to him, Pinter's play could be interpreted on a realistic level, or either representing the male character's dream or a ritual game. He correctly remarks, though, that none of those levels excludes the others, because "... they must co-exist to create the atmosphere of poetic ambivalence on which the image of the play rests..1 In Pinter: A Study of His Plays, Martin Esslin mentions three levels of possible interpretation for Old Times. According to him, Pinter's play could be interpreted on a realistic level, or either representing the male character's dream or a ritual game. He correctly remarks, though, that none of those levels excludes the others, because "... they must co-exist to create the atmosphere of poetic ambivalence on which the image of the play rests..1

  18. Preparation and evaluation of famotidine polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ravouru; Prathusha, Ande Penchala; Subhash Chandra Bose, Penjury; Kaza, Rajesh; Bharathi, Koganti

    2010-06-01

    parameters was also done. In these studies also polymorphs of PVP showed better antiulcer activity and also significant antioxidant activity when compared to famotidine (pure) and famotidine methanol polymorphs. Hence in the present investigation, amongst the various polymorphs of famotidine prepared, PVP polymorphs were found to possess good dissolution behaviour, stability and absence of drug additive interactions. Further, in vivo studies confirmed the better therapeutic action of these PVP polymorphs over the pure drug and famotidine methanol polymorphs.

  19. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  20. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.