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Sample records for significant theoretical implications

  1. Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An overview ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Keywords: Legal Research, Methodology, Theory, Pedagogy, Legal Training, Scholarship ...

  2. Theoretical and practical significance of formal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Piaget's theory has profoundly influenced science education research. Following Piaget, researchers have focused on content-free strategies, developmentally based mechanisms, and structural models of each stage of reasoning. In practice, factors besides those considered in Piaget's theory influence whether or not a theoretically available strategy is used. Piaget's focus has minimized the research attention placed on what could be called practical factors in reasoning. Practical factors are factors that influence application of a theoretically available strategy, for example, previous experience with the task content, familiarity with task instructions, or personality style of the student. Piagetian theory has minimized the importance of practical factors and discouraged investigation of (1) the role of factual knowledge in reasoning, (2) the diagnosis of specific, task-based errors in reasoning, (3) the influence of individual aptitudes on reasoning (e.g., field dependence-independence), and (4) the effect of educational interventions designed to change reasoning. This article calls for new emphasis on practical factors in reasoning and suggests why research on practical factors in reasoning will enhance our understanding of how scientific reasoning is acquired and of how science education programs can foster it.

  3. Data, Methods, and Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Rebecca J.; Schneider, Monica C.; Greenlee, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Within the subfields of political psychology and the study of gender, the introduction of new data collection efforts, methodologies, and theoretical approaches are transforming our understandings of these two fields and the places at which they intersect. In this article we present an overview of the research that was presented at a National…

  4. The Greek Financial Crisis – Theoretical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world we live in is a product of the way we think. Our conception of reality determines what we see and what we achieve. The Greek crisis is not simply a case of high public debt, economic mismanagement or weak political will in Greece or the Eurozone. It is underpinned by economic premises, constructs and resulting practices that promote exactly the type of dilemma Greece faces today. Without addressing these conceptual issues, no lasting solution is possible. Rather it can be expected to repeat and spread to other countries and regions. This article is based on views presented by participants in a WAAS webinar examining the Greek financial crisis in the light of economic theory and practice. Wherever there are unmet social needs and underutilized social resources, such as high levels of unemployment, the potential exists to stimulate economic activity, enhance human welfare and promote resilience and sustainable entrepreneurship. Both conditions prevail in Greece today, but neither current nor anticipated policies are likely to result in near term benefits to the Greek people and the local economy nor for Europe and the world economy. It supports the view that a permanent and effective win-win solution can be found to the Greek crisis, compatible with the financial stability of the country and the welfare of its citizens within the framework of the Eurozone, but that such a solution will require a rethinking of fundamental theoretical issues and adoption of innovative policy instruments beyond those presently being contemplated.

  5. Quintom cosmology: Theoretical implications and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yifu; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, Mohammad R.; Xia Junqing

    2010-01-01

    We review the paradigm of quintom cosmology. This scenario is motivated by the observational indications that the equation-of-state of dark energy across the cosmological constant boundary is mildly favored, although the data are still far from being conclusive. As a theoretical setup we introduce a no-go theorem existing in quintom cosmology, and based on it we discuss the conditions for the equation-of-state of dark energy realizing the quintom scenario. The simplest quintom model can be achieved by introducing two scalar fields with one being quintessence and the other phantom. Based on the double-field quintom model we perform a detailed analysis of dark energy perturbations and we discuss their effects on current observations. This type of scenario usually suffers from a manifest problem due to the existence of a ghost degree-of-freedom, and thus we review various alternative realizations of the quintom paradigm. The developments in particle physics and string theory provide potential clues indicating that a quintom scenario may be obtained from scalar systems with higher derivative terms, as well as from non-scalar systems. Additionally, we construct a quintom realization in the framework of braneworld cosmology, where the cosmic acceleration and the phantom divide crossing result from the combined effects of the field evolution on the brane and the competition between four- and five-dimensional gravity. Finally, we study the outsets and fates of a universe in quintom cosmology. In a scenario with null energy condition violation one may obtain a bouncing solution at early times and therefore avoid the Big Bang singularity. Furthermore, if this occurs periodically, we obtain a realization of an oscillating universe. Lastly, we comment on several open issues in quintom cosmology and their connection to future investigations.

  6. Monoideism in psychiatry: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffman, M

    1981-04-01

    The incessant repetition of disturbing monoideistic thoughts which cannot be eliminated from the patient's mind is a symptom of a variety of psychiatric conditions. The persistent monoideistic preoccupation tends to acquire the quality of a repetitive hypnotic suggestion or "inner commands" and creates an altered state of consciousness that transcends the limits of volitional control. The one-sided ideational context permeates interpersonal relations, intensifies family conflict and drains a considerable portion of available psychic energy. Disregard or an incorrect approach to this factor may result in painful therapeutic failure, since no exploratory psychotherapy or verbal intervention technique will be able to penetrate the monoideistic armour. THe continuous repetition of the dominant idea functions as a cumulative suggestion stimulus leading to disruption of spontaneous processes and self-defeating thinking, behavioral, motivational, and affective changes. The monoideistic preoccupation may be total and pervade the individual's entire life. Any comprehensive form of therapy should offer formulations and precise procedures--for the identified patient, nuclear family, and network of significant others--to block the feedback supplying system attached to the monoideistic pattern.

  7. Organizational Resilience: The Theoretical Model and Research Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are all subject to a diverse and ever changing and uncertain environment. Under this situation organizations should develop a capability which can resist the emergency and recover from the disruption. Base on lot of literature, the paper provides the main concept of organizational resilience; construct the primary theoretical model and some implications for management.

  8. Evolutionary adaptations: theoretical and practical implications for visual ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.

  9. Theoretical analyses of the refractive implications of transepithelial PRK ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Awwad, Shady T

    2013-07-01

    To analyse the refractive implications of single-step, transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) ablations. A simulation for quantifying the refractive implications of TransPRK ablations has been developed. The simulation includes a simple modelling of corneal epithelial profiles, epithelial ablation profiles as well as refractive ablation profiles, and allows the analytical quantification of the refractive implications of TransPRK in terms of wasted tissue, achieved optical zone (OZ) and induced refractive error. Wasted tissue occurs whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the applied epithelial ablation profile, achieved OZ is reduced whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thicker than the applied epithelial ablation profile and additional refractive errors are induced whenever the actual difference centre-to-periphery in the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the difference in the applied epithelial ablation profile. The refractive implications of TransPRK ablations can be quantified using simple theoretical simulations. These implications can be wasted tissue (∼14 µm, if the corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the ablated one), reduced OZ (if the corneal epithelial profile is thicker than ablated one, very severe for low corrections) and additional refractive errors (∼0.66 D, if the centre-to-periphery progression of the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the progression of the ablated one). When TransPRK profiles are applied to normal, not previously treated, non-pathologic corneas, no specific refractive implications associated to the transepithelial profile can be anticipated; TransPRK would provide refractive outcomes equal to those of standard PRK. Adjustments for the planned OZ and, in the event of retreatments, for the target sphere can be easily derived.

  10. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  11. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  12. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: clinical significance and implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grap, M J; Munro, C L

    1997-01-01

    Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and the leading cause of death from nosocomial infections. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of bacterial pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in a patient treated with mechanical ventilation, and it is neither present nor developing at the time of intubation; it is a serious problem--with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Aspiration of bacteria from the oropharynx, leakage of contaminated secretions around the endotracheal tube, patient position, and cross-contamination from respiratory equipment and health care providers are important factors in the development of VAP. Nurses caring for patients treated with mechanical ventilation must recognize risk factors and include strategies for reducing these factors as part of their nursing care. This article summarizes the literature related to VAP: its incidence, associated factors, diagnosis, and current therapies, with an emphasis on nursing implications in the care of these patients.

  13. Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

  14. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  15. Theoretical calculations on layered perovskites: implications for photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of first-principles calculations to the study of layered perovskites is reviewed here, with an emphasis on properties relevant to the use of these materials in photocatalysis. First, the accuracies of the theoretical methods in common use for the study of layered perovskites are compared. The main body of the article then reviews studies of the bulk atomic and electronic structures of pure and doped perovskites; first-principles thermodynamics studies; studies of surfaces and studies of adsorption on surfaces.

  16. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

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    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  17. Information–theoretic implications of quantum causal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian; Gross, David

    2015-01-01

    . However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information–theoretic constraints on the correlations that can arise from a given causal structure, where we allow for quantum systems as well...... as classical random variables. The general technique is applied to two relevant cases: first, we show that the principle of information causality appears naturally in our framework and go on to generalize and strengthen it. Second, we derive bounds on the correlations that can occur in a networked architecture......It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution...

  18. Retrospective Revaluation: The Phenomenon and Its Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R.; Witnauer, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective revaluation refers to an increase (or decrease) in responding to conditioned stimulus (CS X) as a result of decreasing (or increasing) the associative strength of another CS (A) with respect to the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., A-US) that was previously trained in compound with the target CS (e.g., AX−US or just AX). We discuss the conditions under which retrospective revaluation phenomena are most apt to be observed and their implications for various models of learning that are able to account for retrospective revaluation (e.g., Dickinson and Burke, 1996; Miller and Matzel, 1988; Van Hamme and Wasserman, 1994). Although retroactive revaluation is relatively parameter specific, it is seen to be a reliable phenomenon observed across many tasks and species. As it is not anticipated by many conventional models of learning (e.g., Rescorla and Wagner, 1972), it serves as a critical benchmark for evaluating traditional and newer models. PMID:26342855

  19. Pensions, tax and the anaesthetist: significant implications for workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, J J

    2016-08-01

    This paper shows how recent tax changes to pensions (i.e. new lifetime and annual allowance contribution limits) mean that NHS consultants will need to adopt one of four rational strategies to work and financial planning. Two of those strategies (termed 'Earn Fast, Drop Out' and 'Never Enter') involve a break between work and pensions. The logical consequence of this break is that consultants may exercise options to maximise their total income, which in turn will result in less work within the NHS and more work in alternative higher paying (e.g. private) sectors. A third strategy ('Go Slow, Stay Low') also involves less-than-full-time NHS work. Only one option ('Do Nothing' as a result of the tax changes) has no effect. In short, the tax changes will predictably lead to future senior consultants devoting proportionately much less of their time to NHS work than before. The article discusses the important implications of this conclusion for NHS workforce planning. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Theoretical implications of 0νββ decay measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin

    2015-07-15

    Lower limits on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay are usually interpreted as an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. However, from a theoretical point of view 0νββ decay is an effective dimension-9 (ΔL = 2) operator, O{sub 0νββ}, for which the mass mechanism is only one possible realization. Any new physics model, which allows for lepton number violation (LNV), will contribute to the 0νββ decay amplitude. Here, after some preliminaries, I will discuss the general decomposition of O{sub 0νββ}. Most “exotic” contributions to 0νββ decay are of the so-called “short-range” type, i.e. involve heavy, electrically charged (and/or coloured) particles. Thus, current and future LHC data will put these exotic contributions to the test and either discover signals for LNV or rule out most cases as possible explanations of a hypothetical future signal of 0νββ decay.

  1. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2016-02-01

    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Accurate coding in sepsis: clinical significance and financial implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Y T; Scattergood, N; Thornber, M; Thomas, S

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is a major healthcare problem and leading cause of death worldwide. UK hospital mortality statistics and payments for patient episodes of care are calculated on clinical coding data. The accuracy of these data depends on the quality of coding. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with significant bacteraemia are coded for sepsis and to estimate the financial costs of miscoding. Of 54 patients over a one-month period with a significant bacteraemia, only 19% had been coded for sepsis. This is likely to lead to falsely high calculated hospital mortality. Furthermore, this resulted in an underpayment of £21,000 for one month alone. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Contemporary marketing practice : theoretical propositions and practical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Palmer, R.; Vanhamme, J.

    2004-01-01

    Marketing has changed significantly since it first emerged as a distinct business and management phenomenon. We identify some of the major factors causing the observed change in marketing practice. We then describe a classification scheme that is based on transaction marketing and relationship

  4. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  5. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority “Relationship” Condition: Some Methodological and Theoretical Implications

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    Nestar Russell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In May 1962, social psychologist, Stanley Milgram, ran what was arguably the most controversial variation of his Obedience to Authority (OTA experiments: the Relationship Condition (RC. In the RC, participants were required to bring a friend, with one becoming the teacher and the other the learner. The learners were covertly informed that the experiment was actually exploring whether their friend would obey an experimenter’s orders to hurt them. Learners were quickly trained in how to react to the impending “shocks”. Only 15 percent of teachers completed the RC. In an article published in 1965, Milgram discussed most of the variations on his baseline experiment, but only named the RC in passing, promising a more detailed account in his forthcoming book. However, his 1974 book failed to mention the RC and it remained unpublished until François Rochat and Andre Modigliani discovered it in Milgram’s personal archive in 1997 at Yale University. Their overview of the RC’s procedure and results left a number of questions unanswered. For example, what were the etiological origins of the RC? Why did Milgram decide against publishing this experiment? And does the RC have any significant methodological or theoretical implications on the Obedience studies discourse? Based on documents obtained from Milgram’s personal archive, the aim of this article is to shed new light on these questions.

  6. Theoretical and Practical Significance of the Issue of Maritime Delimitation in the Law of the Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lakićević-Đuranović, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to show the significance of maritime delimitation in the Law of the Sea, as well as the contribution of international jurisprudence to the creation of the rules of maritime delimitation. The decisions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the awards of arbitration tribunals are especially significant in the part of the Law of the Sea dealing with maritime delimitation. Based on the analysis of the principle of equity and the method of equidistance, the jurisprudence ...

  7. Statistical significance of theoretical predictions: A new dimension in nuclear structure theories (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUDEK, J; SZPAK, B; FORNAL, B; PORQUET, M-G

    2011-01-01

    In this and the follow-up article we briefly discuss what we believe represents one of the most serious problems in contemporary nuclear structure: the question of statistical significance of parametrizations of nuclear microscopic Hamiltonians and the implied predictive power of the underlying theories. In the present Part I, we introduce the main lines of reasoning of the so-called Inverse Problem Theory, an important sub-field in the contemporary Applied Mathematics, here illustrated on the example of the Nuclear Mean-Field Approach.

  8. [Rethinking the theory of melancholia (Tellenbach): its construction process and theoretical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmae, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    , Tellenbach's theory of melancholia lost significance. The value of the theory of endon, which constitutes Tellenbach's theory of melancholia in empirical medicine, is considered to be restrictive. However, the discovery of the melancholic type concurrently in Germany, the United States, and Japan is of marked significance. It is now possible to reappraise the importance of the melancholic type and premelancholic situations.

  9. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  10. The quest for significance model of radicalization: implications for the management of terrorist detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2014-01-01

    Radicalization and its culmination in terrorism represent a grave threat to the security and stability of the world. A related challenge is effective management of extremists who are detained in prison facilities. The major aim of this article is to review the significance quest model of radicalization and its implications for management of terrorist detainees. First, we review the significance quest model, which elaborates on the roles of motivation, ideology, and social processes in radicalization. Secondly, we explore the implications of the model in relation to the risks of prison radicalization. Finally, we analyze the model's implications for deradicalization strategies and review preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program targeting components of the significance quest. Based on this evidence, we argue that the psychology of radicalization provides compelling reason for the inclusion of deradicalization efforts as an essential component of the management of terrorist detainees. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Apparel shopping behaviour – Part 2: Conceptual theoretical model, market segments, profiles and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Du Preez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the conceptual theoretical model developed in Part 1 of this series of articles. The objective of this research is to identify female apparel consumer market segments on the basis of differentiating lifestyles, shopping orientation, cultural consciousness, store patronage and demographics. These profiles are discussed in full and the implications thereof for retailers, marketers and researchers are highlighted. A new conceptual model is proposed and recommendations are made for further research. Opsomming Hierdie artikel word gebaseer op die konseptuele teoretiese model wat reeds in Deel 1 van hierdie artikelreeks ontwikkel is. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om marksegmente van vroue klere-kopers te identifiseer na aanleiding van hulle lewenstyle, kooporiëntasie, kulturele bewustheid, winkelvoorkeurgedrag en demografie. Hierdie profiele word volledig beskryf en die implikasies van die verskillende profiele vir kleinhandelaars, bemarkers en navorsers word uitgelig. ’n Nuwe konseptuele model word voorgestel en aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gemaak.

  12. Several foundational and information theoretic implications of Bell’s theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Guruprasad; Banik, Manik

    2016-08-01

    In 1935, Albert Einstein and two colleagues, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) developed a thought experiment to demonstrate what they felt was a lack of completeness in quantum mechanics (QM). EPR also postulated the existence of more fundamental theory where physical reality of any system would be completely described by the variables/states of that fundamental theory. This variable is commonly called hidden variable and the theory is called hidden variable theory (HVT). In 1964, John Bell proposed an empirically verifiable criterion to test for the existence of these HVTs. He derived an inequality, which must be satisfied by any theory that fulfill the conditions of locality and reality. He also showed that QM, as it violates this inequality, is incompatible with any local-realistic theory. Later it has been shown that Bell’s inequality (BI) can be derived from different set of assumptions and it also find applications in useful information theoretic protocols. In this review, we will discuss various foundational as well as information theoretic implications of BI. We will also discuss about some restricted nonlocal feature of quantum nonlocality and elaborate the role of Uncertainty principle and Complementarity principle in explaining this feature.

  13. Reference group theory with implications for information studies: a theoretical essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Murell Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role and implications of reference group theory in relation to the field of library and information science. Reference group theory is based upon the principle that people take the standards of significant others as a basis for making self-appraisals, comparisons, and choices regarding need and use of information. Research that applies concepts of reference group theory to various sectors of library and information studies can provide data useful in enhancing areas such as information-seeking research, special populations, and uses of information. Implications are promising that knowledge gained from like research can be beneficial in helping information professionals better understand the role theory plays in examining ways in which people manage their information and social worlds.

  14. Significance of genetic predisposition and genomic instability for individual sensitivity to radiation. Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.

    2001-01-01

    At its closed-door meeting on 20/21 January 2000 the Radiation Protection Committee dedicated much of its attention to the significance of genetic predisposition and genetic instability for individual radiation sensitivity and to the implication of this for radiation protection. The statements and contributions to the closing plenary discussion touched on many aspects of ethics, personal rights, occupational medicine and insurance issues relating to this subject, all of which extend far beyond the purely technical issues of radiation protection. The present volume contains the lecture manuscripts of the meeting as well as a summarising assessment by the Radiation Protection Committee [de

  15. Continuing medical education revisited: theoretical assumptions and practical implications: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Karalis, Thanassis; Panitsides, Eugenia A

    2014-12-31

    Recent research has evidenced that although investment in Continuing Medical Education (CME), both in terms of participation as well as financial resources allocated to it, has been steadily increasing to catch up with accelerating advances in health information and technology, effectiveness of CME is reported to be rather limited. Poor and disproportional returns can be attributed to failure of CME courses to address and stimulate an adult audience. The present study initially drew on research findings and adult learning theories, providing the basis for comprehending adult learning, while entailing practical implications on fostering effectiveness in the design and delivery of CME. On a second level, a qualitative study was conducted with the aim to elucidate parameters accounting for effectiveness in educational interventions. Qualitative data was retrieved through 12 in-depth interviews, conducted with a random sample of participants in the 26th European Workshop of Advanced Plastic Surgery (EWAPS). The data underwent a three level qualitative analysis, following the "grounded theory" methodology, comprising 'open coding', 'axial coding' and 'selective coding'. Findings from the EWAPS study come in line with relevant literature, entailing significant implications for the necessity to apply a more effective and efficient paradigm in the design and delivery of educational interventions, advocating for implementing learner-centered schemata in CME and benefiting from a model that draws on the learning environment and social aspects of learning. What emerged as a pivotal parameter in designing educational interventions is to focus on small group educational events which could provide a supportive friendly context, enhance motivation through learner-centered approaches and allow interaction, experimentation and critical reflection. It should be outlined however that further research is required as the present study is limited in scope, having dealt with a limited

  16. Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) provides for compulsory energy performance certification (labelling) for all existing dwellings. In the Netherlands, a labelling scheme was introduced in 2008. Certificates contain the energy label of the dwelling and corresponding theoretical gas and electricity consumption, calculated based on the dwellings physical characteristics, its heating, ventilation and cooling systems and standard use characteristics. This paper reports on a large-scale study of around 200,000 dwellings comparing labels and theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use. The study shows that dwellings with a low energy label actually consume much less energy than predicted by the label, but on the other hand, energy-efficient dwellings consume more than predicted. In practice, policy targets are set according to the theoretical rather than the actual consumptions of the building stock. In line with identified discrepancies, the study shows that whereas most energy reduction targets can be met according to the theoretical energy consumption of the dwelling stock, the future actual energy reduction potential is much lower and fails to meet most of the current energy reduction targets. - Highlights: ► Actual gas consumption in Dutch dwellings is lower than the theoretical. ► In the dwellings with label A–B, theoretical gas consumption is lower than actual gas consumption. ► In less efficient dwellings, theoretical gas consumption is much higher than the actual. ► Most current energy reduction targets are unachievable if modelled with actual instead of theoretical energy consumption

  17. Talent : Innate or acquired? Theoretical considerations and their implications for talent management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, M.C.; van Woerkom, M.; Dries, N.

    2013-01-01

    In order to contribute to the theoretical understanding of talent management, this paper aims to shed light on the meaning of the term ‘talent’ by answering the following question: Is talent predominantly an innate construct, is it mostly acquired, or does it result from the interaction between

  18. NON-TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY IN RUSSIA: PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RUDNEVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the theoretical possibility to use non-territorial autonomy as a mechanism through which ethnic groups can fulfil their right to selfdetermination along with other minority rights, not many states have been willing to put theory into practice. The article offers an explanation why wider applicability of NTA is problematic by arguing that the theory itself is not yet polished enough to be implemented. The study includes examination of both theoretical approaches and empirical data from a case study of an attempt to establish NTAs in the Russian Federation. The findings suggest that inconsistencies and unclarities in the theory do correlate with practical flaws of NTAs, which allows to suggest that when the theory is tested empirically, the reality reveals all the flaws of the theory. The results indicate that the concept of NTA needs further refinement and development to make it more practice-oriented and applicable. As the problem of minority rights is still to be dealt with, we also propose a model of global union of NTAs where each ethnic group is represented by a non-governmental organisation, which seems to be more applicable than the others, alongside a number of other mechanisms that are even more essential and universal and focus on defending basic human rights

  19. Theoretical approaches of online social network interventions and implications for behavioral change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A theoretical signal processing framework for linear diffusion MRI: Implications for parameter estimation and experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Divya; Haldar, Justin P

    2017-11-01

    The data measured in diffusion MRI can be modeled as the Fourier transform of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP), a probability distribution that summarizes the molecular diffusion behavior of the spins within each voxel. This Fourier relationship is potentially advantageous because of the extensive theory that has been developed to characterize the sampling requirements, accuracy, and stability of linear Fourier reconstruction methods. However, existing diffusion MRI data sampling and signal estimation methods have largely been developed and tuned without the benefit of such theory, instead relying on approximations, intuition, and extensive empirical evaluation. This paper aims to address this discrepancy by introducing a novel theoretical signal processing framework for diffusion MRI. The new framework can be used to characterize arbitrary linear diffusion estimation methods with arbitrary q-space sampling, and can be used to theoretically evaluate and compare the accuracy, resolution, and noise-resilience of different data acquisition and parameter estimation techniques. The framework is based on the EAP, and makes very limited modeling assumptions. As a result, the approach can even provide new insight into the behavior of model-based linear diffusion estimation methods in contexts where the modeling assumptions are inaccurate. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework is illustrated using both simulated and real diffusion MRI data in applications such as choosing between different parameter estimation methods and choosing between different q-space sampling schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers. PMID:27618121

  2. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  3. Micrometastatic cancer cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood: Clinical significance and biologic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Stanley P L; Tseng, William W

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis may be regarded as a progressive process from its inception in the primary tumor microenvironment to distant sites by way of the lymphovascular system. Although this type of tumor dissemination often occurs in an orderly fashion via the sentinel lymph node (SLN), acting as a possible gateway to the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood and ultimately to distant metastatic sites, this is not a general rule as tumor cells may enter the blood and spread to distant sites, bypassing the SLN. Methods of detecting micrometastatic cancer cells in the SLN, bone marrow, and peripheral blood of patients have been established. Patients with cancer cells in their SLN, bone marrow, or peripheral blood have worse clinical outcomes than patients with no evidence of spread to these compartments. The presence of these cells also has important biologic implications for disease progression and the clinician's understanding of the process of cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these micrometastatic cancer cells at each stage and site of metastasis is needed to design novel selective therapies for a more "personalized" treatment. © 2014 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  4. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  5. A theoretical reassessment of microbial maintenance and implications for microbial ecology modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M

    2012-09-01

    We attempted to reconcile three microbial maintenance models (Herbert, Pirt, and Compromise) through a theoretical reassessment. We provided a rigorous proof that the true growth yield coefficient (Y(G)) is the ratio of the specific maintenance rate (a in Herbert) to the maintenance coefficient (m in Pirt). Other findings from this study include: (1) the Compromise model is identical to the Herbert for computing microbial growth and substrate consumption, but it expresses the dependence of maintenance on both microbial biomass and substrate; (2) the maximum specific growth rate in the Herbert (μ(max,H)) is higher than those in the other two models (μ(max,P) and μ(max,C)), and the difference is the physiological maintenance factor (m(q) = a); and (3) the overall maintenance coefficient (m(T)) is more sensitive to m(q) than to the specific growth rate (μ(G)) and Y(G). Our critical reassessment of microbial maintenance provides a new approach for quantifying some important components in soil microbial ecology models. © This article is a US government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. ``Phantom'' Modes in Ab Initio Tunneling Calculations: Implications for Theoretical Materials Optimization, Tunneling, and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Sergey V.; Pramanik, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Development of low-leakage dielectrics for semiconductor industry, together with many other areas of academic and industrial research, increasingly rely upon ab initio tunneling and transport calculations. Complex band structure (CBS) is a powerful formalism to establish the nature of tunneling modes, providing both a deeper understanding and a guided optimization of materials, with practical applications ranging from screening candidate dielectrics for lowest ``ultimate leakage'' to identifying charge-neutrality levels and Fermi level pinning. We demonstrate that CBS is prone to a particular type of spurious ``phantom'' solution, previously deemed true but irrelevant because of a very fast decay. We demonstrate that (i) in complex materials, phantom modes may exhibit very slow decay (appearing as leading tunneling terms implying qualitative and huge quantitative errors), (ii) the phantom modes are spurious, (iii) unlike the pseudopotential ``ghost'' states, phantoms are an apparently unavoidable artifact of large numerical basis sets, (iv) a presumed increase in computational accuracy increases the number of phantoms, effectively corrupting the CBS results despite the higher accuracy achieved in resolving the true CBS modes and the real band structure, and (v) the phantom modes cannot be easily separated from the true CBS modes. We discuss implications for direct transport calculations. The strategy for dealing with the phantom states is discussed in the context of optimizing high-quality high- κ dielectric materials for decreased tunneling leakage.

  7. The number of beams in IMRT-theoretical investigations and implications for single-arc IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to shed some new light on the old question of selecting the number of beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The second purpose is to illuminate the related issue of discrete static beam angles versus rotational techniques, which has recently re-surfaced due to the advancement of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). A specific objective is to find analytical expressions that allow one to address the points raised above. To make the problem mathematically tractable, it is assumed that the depth dose is flat and that the lateral dose profile can be approximated by polynomials, specifically Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind, of finite degree. The application of methods known from image reconstruction then allows one to answer the first question above as follows: the required number of beams is determined by the maximum degree of the polynomials used in the approximation of the beam profiles, which is a measure of the dose variability. There is nothing to be gained by using more beams. In realistic cases, in which the variability of the lateral dose profile is restricted in several ways, the required number of beams is of the order of 10-20. The consequence of delivering the beams with a 'leaf sweep' technique during continuous rotation of the gantry, as in VMAT, is also derived in an analytical form. The main effect is that the beams fan out, but the effect near the axis of rotation is small. This result can serve as a theoretical justification of VMAT. Overall the analytical derivations in this paper, albeit based on strong simplifications, provide new insights into, and a deeper understanding of, the beam angle problem in IMRT. The decomposition of the beam profiles into well-behaved and easily deliverable smooth functions, such as Chebyshev polynomials, could be of general interest in IMRT treatment planning.

  8. Theoretical Kinetic Study of the Formic Acid Catalyzed Criegee Intermediate Isomerization: Multistructural Anharmonicity and Atmospheric Implications

    KAUST Repository

    Monge Palacios, Manuel

    2018-01-29

    We performed a theoretical study on the double hydrogen shift isomerization reaction of a six carbon atom Criegee intermediate (C6-CI), catalyzed by formic acid (HCOOH), to produce vinylhydroperoxide (VHP), C6-CI+HCOOH→VHP+HCOOH. This Criegee intermediate can serve as a surrogate for larger CIs derived from important volatile organic compounds like monoterpenes, whose reactivity is not well understood and are difficult to handle computationally. The reactant HCOOH exerts a pronounced catalytic effect on the studied reaction by lowering the barrier height, but the kinetic enhancement is hindered by the multistructural anharmonicity. First, the rigid ring-structure adopted by the saddle point to facilitate simultaneous transfer of two atoms does not allow formation of as many conformers as those formed by the reactant C6-CI. And second, the flexible carbon chain of C6-CI facilitates the formation of stabilizing intramolecular C–H···O hydrogen bonds; this stabilizing effect is less pronounced in the saddle point structure due to its tightness and steric effects. Thus, the contribution of the reactant C6-CI conformers to the multistructural partition function is larger than that of the saddle point conformers. The resulting low multistructural anharmonicity factor partially cancels out the catalytic effect of the carboxylic acid, yielding in a moderately large rate coefficient, k(298 K) = 4.9·10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. We show that carboxylic acids may promote the conversion of stabilized Criegee intermediates into vinylhydroperoxides in the atmosphere, which generates OH radicals and leads to secondary organic aerosol, thereby affecting the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and ultimately the climate.

  9. Conducting qualitative research in the British Armed Forces: theoretical, analytical and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. A theoretical reflection on the implications of the philosophy of technology for teacher education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Ankiewicz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of technology as relatively new school subject, challenges are constantly being posed to higher education institutions (HEIs, and in particular those engaged in teacher training and the professional development of technology teachers. Teacher training programmes had to be developed and implemented within a limited time frame in comparison to other school subjects, despite a lack of previous experience of an appropriate academic discipline, subject methodology and classroom pedagogy. Furthermore, implications on organisational and managerial level regarding its accommodation within existing structures of faculties, schools and departments at HEIs had to be accounted for. The purpose of the article was to investigate how a scientifically founded philosophical framework of technology might guide teacher training at HEIs. The following research questions served as point of departure: in which way can a scientifically founded philosophical framework of technology be indicative regarding a relevant: (1 Subject methodology of technology? (2 Underlying academic discipline for undergraduate technology education students? In answer to the first question, it was found that it is important for programme developers, coordinators and subject methodology lecturers at HEIs to acquaint themselves sufficiently with a philosophical framework for technology to direct the technology teacher’s training and professional development. It seems viable to keep subject methodology of technology autonomous, with only one lecturer responsible, and that technology education students should be conversant in the philosophical framework for technology. In answer to the second question HEIs should urgently determine the nature and composition of the relevant academic disciplines underpinning the undergraduate qualification of a specialised technology teacher. Mechanisms should also be created to forge a relationship between the academic discipline and

  11. Laboratory, Computational and Theoretical Investigations of Ice Nucleation and its Implications for Mixed Phase Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan

    Ice particles in atmospheric clouds play an important role in determining cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiation. It is therefore important to understand the whole life cycle of ice particles in the atmosphere, e.g., where they come from (nucleation), how they evolve (growth), and where they go (precipitation). Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation, and in this study, we will mainly focus on ice nucleation in the lab and its effect on mixed-phase stratiform clouds. In the first half of this study, we investigate the relevance of moving contact lines (i.e., the region where three or more phases meet) on the phenomenon of contact nucleation. High speed video is used to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled droplets resting on cold substrates under two different dynamic conditions: droplet electrowetting and droplet vibration. The results show that contact-line motion is not a sufficient condition to trigger ice nucleation, while locally curved contact lines that can result from contact-line motion are strongly related to ice nucleation. We propose that pressure perturbations due to locally curved contact lines can strongly enhance the ice nucleation rate, which gives another interpretation for the mechanism for contact nucleation. Corresponding theoretical results provide a quantitative connection between pressure perturbations and temperature, providing a useful tool for ice nucleation calculations in atmospheric models. In this second half of the study, we build a minimalist model for long lifetime mixed-phase stratiform clouds based on stochastic ice nucleation. Our result shows that there is a non-linear relationship between ice water contact and ice number concentration in the mixed-phase cloud, as long as the volume ice nucleation rate is constant. This statistical property may help identify the source of ice nuclei in mixed-phase clouds. In addition, results from Lagrangian ice particle tracking in time dependent fields

  12. Modeling Exoplanetary Atmospheres using BART, TEA, and Drift-RHD; Theoretical studies and Observational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    numerous published papers, further work is needed to couple them self-consistently. Our theoretical studies focus on a number of objectives. We will start by incorporating our kinetic, non-equilibrium cloud model within BART, allowing us to obtain a consistent solution for cloud characteristics. We will further test simple parameterizations against the full solution to explore the reliability of simpler models. Utilizing Drift-RHD, we will explore the role of horizontal advection on cloud distribution, investigate the validity of 1D retrievals by comparing them to selfconsistently generated 3D models, and develop a retrieval framework for wavelengthdependent phase-curves. TEA will be enhanced with additional databases and the inclusion of condensates, providing realistic initial cloudy-model for retrievals. To explore the importance of equilibrium chemistry and exclude non-plausible chemical compositions (often the outcome of many retrieval approaches) we will relax the assumption of non-equilibrium chemistry by utilizing an analytical chemical equilibrium approach in BART. To address observations, our OBS suit for generating synthetic observations will be adapted to interface with our models, allowing us to both compare to existing observations and make predictions for future observations. With these tools, we are particularly well suited to understand discriminants between classes of models and identifying which particular set of observations could most readily distinguish cloud constituents and temperature features. The proposed research is directly relevant to the Planetary Science and Astrophysics goals through furthering our understanding of compositions, dynamics, energetics, and chemical behaviors of exoplanetary atmospheres. In addition, to maximize NASA's investment and encourage open access, we have and will continue to make all of our codes public and available to the community throughout the course of the research.

  13. Significance of Perceived Social Expectation and Implications to Conservation Education: Turtle Conservation as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man

    2012-11-01

    The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.

  14. Resurrecting an extinct salmon evolutionarily significant unit: archived scales, historical DNA and implications for restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Eric M; Myers, James M; Gustafson, Richard G

    2012-04-01

    Archival scales from 603 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), sampled from May to July 1924 in the lower Columbia River, were analysed for genetic variability at 12 microsatellite loci and compared to 17 present-day O. nerka populations-exhibiting either anadromous (sockeye salmon) or nonanadromous (kokanee) life histories-from throughout the Columbia River Basin, including areas upstream of impassable dams built subsequent to 1924. Statistical analyses identified four major genetic assemblages of sockeye salmon in the 1924 samples. Two of these putative historical groupings were found to be genetically similar to extant evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) in the Okanogan and Wenatchee Rivers (pairwise F(ST)  = 0.004 and 0.002, respectively), and assignment tests were able to allocate 77% of the fish in these two historical groupings to the contemporary Okanogan River and Lake Wenatchee ESUs. A third historical genetic grouping was most closely aligned with contemporary sockeye salmon in Redfish Lake, Idaho, although the association was less robust (pairwise F(ST)  = 0.060). However, a fourth genetic grouping did not appear to be related to any contemporary sockeye salmon or kokanee population, assigned poorly to the O. nerka baseline, and had distinctive early return migration timing, suggesting that this group represents a historical ESU originating in headwater lakes in British Columbia that was probably extirpated sometime after 1924. The lack of a contemporary O. nerka population possessing the genetic legacy of this extinct ESU indicates that efforts to reestablish early-migrating sockeye salmon to the headwater lakes region of the Columbia River will be difficult. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  16. A significant longshore transport divergence zone at the Northeastern Brazilian coast: implications on coastal Quaternary evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABÍLIO C.S.P. BITTENCOURT

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available By using the mean directions of the wave-fronts approaching the Brazilian northeastern coastal stretch comprised between the localities of Real river (Sergipe State and Galinhos (Rio Grande do Norte State - coincident with those of the main winds occurring in the area - and their periods, we have defined a wave climate model based on the construction of refraction diagrams. The resulting model of sediment transport, as obtained by numerical modelling from the refraction diagrams, taking into consideration the angle of approach and waves heights along the 10-m isobath, was capable of reproducing the patterns of sediment dispersion provided by geomorphic indicators of the longshore drift. All this coastal region, approximately 900 km in length, is characterized by a significant divergence zone in the direction of net longshore drift of sediments, the potential intensity of which increases considerably in value, in almost its entire length, continuously toward downdrift, which might explain the greater or lesser long term susceptibility to erosion, during the Quaternary, along the coastal stretch studied.Utilizando-se as direções médias das principais frentes-de-onda que se aproximam do trecho costeiro do nordeste brasileiro compreendido entre as localidades de Rio Real (Sergipe e Galinhos (Rio Grande do Norte - coincidentes com aquelas dos principais ventos que ocorrem na área - e de seus períodos, nós definimos um modelo de clima de ondas baseado na construção de diagramas de refração. O modelo resultante de transporte de sedimentos, obtido por modelagem numérica feita a partir dos diagramas de refração, considerando o ângulo de aproximação e a altura das ondas ao longo da isóbata de 10m, foi capaz de reproduzir os padrões de dispersão de sedimentos fornecidos pelos indicadores geomórficos de deriva litorânea. Toda essa região costeira, com cerca de 900km de extensão, caracteriza-se por se constituir em uma grande zona de

  17. Satisfaction with Life in Orofacial Pain Disorders: Associations and Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggero, Ian A; Rojas-Ramirez, Marcia V; de Leeuw, Reny; Carlson, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    To test if patients with masticatory myofascial pain, local myalgia, centrally mediated myalgia, disc displacement, capsulitis/synovitis, or continuous neuropathic pain differed in self-reported satisfaction with life. The study also tested if satisfaction with life was similarly predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning across disorders. Satisfaction with life, fatigue, affective distress, social support, and pain data were extracted from the medical records of 343 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Patients were grouped by primary diagnosis assigned following their initial appointment. Satisfaction with life was compared between disorders, with and without pain intensity entered as a covariate. Disorder-specific linear regression models using physical, emotional, and social predictors of satisfaction with life were computed. Patients with centrally mediated myalgia reported significantly lower satisfaction with life than did patients with any of the other five disorders. Inclusion of pain intensity as a covariate weakened but did not eliminate the effect. Satisfaction with life was predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning, but these associations were not consistent across disorders. Results suggest that reduced satisfaction with life in patients with centrally mediated myalgia is not due only to pain intensity. There may be other factors that predispose people to both reduced satisfaction with life and centrally mediated myalgia. Furthermore, the results suggest that satisfaction with life is differentially influenced by physical, emotional, and social functioning in different orofacial pain disorders.

  18. Satisfaction with Life in Orofacial Pain Disorders: Associations and Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggero, Ian A.; Rojas-Ramirez, Marcia V.; de Leeuw, Reny; Carlson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test if patients with masticatory myofascial pain, local myalgia, centrally mediated myalgia, disc displacement, capsulitis/synovitis, or continuous neuropathic pain differed in self-reported satisfaction with life. The study also tested if satisfaction with life was similarly predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning across disorders. Methods Satisfaction with life, fatigue, affective distress, social support, and pain data were extracted from the medical records of 343 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Patients were grouped by primary diagnosis assigned following their initial appointment. Satisfaction with life was compared between disorders, with and without pain intensity entered as a covariate. Disorder-specific linear regression models using physical, emotional, and social predictors of satisfaction with life were computed. Results Patients with centrally mediated myalgia reported significantly lower satisfaction with life than did patients with any of the other five disorders. Inclusion of pain intensity as a covariate weakened but did not eliminate the effect. Satisfaction with life was predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning, but these associations were not consistent across disorders. Conclusions Results suggest that reduced satisfaction with life in patients with centrally mediated myalgia is not due only to pain intensity. There may be other factors that predispose people to both reduced satisfaction with life and centrally mediated myalgia. Furthermore, the results suggest that satisfaction with life is differentially influenced by physical, emotional, and social functioning in different orofacial pain disorders. PMID:27128473

  19. Significance of Ubiad1 for Epidermal Keratinocytes Involves More Than CoQ10 Synthesis: Implications for Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Labarrade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 as an anti-oxidant barrier of the skin, as well as a key component in anti-aging strategies for skin care products, has been firmly established. Biosynthesis of CoQ10 in the mitochondria is well known, but there is only limited information on the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10 in the skin. Recent findings in zebrafish identified that a tumor suppressor, Ubiad1, is also a key enzyme in the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of Ubiad1 in human skin, and its implication in the skin’s cutaneous response to oxidative stress. We observed Ubiad1 localization in the epidermis, particularly a subcellular localization in the Golgi apparatus. Ubiad1 modulation by a pentapeptide was associated with an observed reduction in ROS/RNS stresses (−44%/−19% respectively, lipid peroxidation (−25% and preservation of membrane fluidity under stress conditions. Electron microscopy of keratinocytes revealed a significant degree of stimulation of the Golgi complex, as well as significantly improved mitochondrial morphology. Given the importance of CoQ10 in mitigating the visible signs of skin aging, our findings identify Ubiad1 as an essential component of the defensive barriers of the epidermis.

  20. Research cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in end stage renal disease - incidence, significance and implications of unexpected incidental findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Elaine; Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Houston, J.G.; Struthers, Allan D. [Ninewells Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Medicine, Dundee (United Kingdom); Patel, Rajan K.; Jardine, Alan G.; Mark, Patrick B. [Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Roditi, Giles [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) at cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a frequent end point in clinical trials in nephrology. Trial participants with end stage renal disease (ESRD) may have a greater frequency of incidental findings (IF). We retrospectively investigated prevalence of IF in previous research CMR and reviewed their subsequent impact on participants. Between 2002 and 2006, 161 ESRD patients underwent CMR in a transplant assessment study. Images were used to assess LV mass and function. In the current study a radiologist reviewed the scans for IF. Review of patient records determined the subsequent clinical significance of IF. There were 150 IF in 95 study participants. Eighty-four (56 %) were new diagnoses. One hundred and two were non-cardiac. Fifteen were suspicious of malignancy. There was a clinically significant IF for 14.9 % of the participants. In six cases earlier identification of an IF may have improved quality of life or survival. Without radiology support clinically important IF may be missed on CMR. Patients undergoing CMR in trials should be counselled about the frequency and implications of IF. Patients with ESRD have a higher prevalence of IF than reported in other populations. Nephrology studies require mechanisms for radiologist reporting and strategies for dealing with IF. (orig.)

  1. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Significance of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Dispersion in the dc and ac Voltammetry of Surface-Confined Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Morris, Graham P.; Baker, Ruth E.; Gillow, Kathryn; Davis, Jason J.; Gavaghan, David J.; Bond, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Commonly, significant discrepancies are reported in theoretical and experimental comparisons of dc voltammograms derived from a monolayer or close to monolayer coverage of redox-active surface-confined molecules. For example, broader-than-predicted voltammetric wave shapes are attributed to the thermodynamic or kinetic dispersion derived from distributions in reversible potentials (E0) and electrode kinetics (k0), respectively. The recent availability of experimentally estimated distributions of E0 and k0 values derived from the analysis of data for small numbers of surface-confined modified azurin metalloprotein molecules now allows more realistic modeling to be undertaken, assuming the same distributions apply under conditions of high surface coverage relevant to voltammetric experiments. In this work, modeling based on conventional and stochastic kinetic theory is considered, and the computationally far more efficient conventional model is shown to be equivalent to the stochastic one when large numbers of molecules are present. Perhaps unexpectedly, when experimentally determined distributions of E0 and k0 are input into the model, thermodynamic dispersion is found to be unimportant and only kinetic dispersion contributes significantly to the broadening of dc voltammograms. Simulations of ac voltammetric experiments lead to the conclusion that the ac method, particularly when the analysis of kinetically very sensitive higher-order harmonics is undertaken, are far more sensitive to kinetic dispersion than the dc method. ac methods are therefore concluded to provide a potentially superior strategy for addressing the inverse problem of determining the k0 distribution that could give rise to the apparent anomalies in surface-confined voltammetry.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Significance of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Dispersion in the dc and ac Voltammetry of Surface-Confined Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Morris, Graham P.

    2015-05-05

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Commonly, significant discrepancies are reported in theoretical and experimental comparisons of dc voltammograms derived from a monolayer or close to monolayer coverage of redox-active surface-confined molecules. For example, broader-than-predicted voltammetric wave shapes are attributed to the thermodynamic or kinetic dispersion derived from distributions in reversible potentials (E0) and electrode kinetics (k0), respectively. The recent availability of experimentally estimated distributions of E0 and k0 values derived from the analysis of data for small numbers of surface-confined modified azurin metalloprotein molecules now allows more realistic modeling to be undertaken, assuming the same distributions apply under conditions of high surface coverage relevant to voltammetric experiments. In this work, modeling based on conventional and stochastic kinetic theory is considered, and the computationally far more efficient conventional model is shown to be equivalent to the stochastic one when large numbers of molecules are present. Perhaps unexpectedly, when experimentally determined distributions of E0 and k0 are input into the model, thermodynamic dispersion is found to be unimportant and only kinetic dispersion contributes significantly to the broadening of dc voltammograms. Simulations of ac voltammetric experiments lead to the conclusion that the ac method, particularly when the analysis of kinetically very sensitive higher-order harmonics is undertaken, are far more sensitive to kinetic dispersion than the dc method. ac methods are therefore concluded to provide a potentially superior strategy for addressing the inverse problem of determining the k0 distribution that could give rise to the apparent anomalies in surface-confined voltammetry.

  3. Uranium theoretical speciation for drinking water from private drilled wells in Sweden – Implications for choice of removal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine; Löv, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutral charge uranium complexes dominated in the pH range 6.7–7.8. • The Ca concentration influence which calcium-UO 2 carbonate complexes was formed. • In the acidic pH range several different U complexes can comprise a large fraction of total complexes. • It is crucial to include all relevant chemical compounds in the model. • Before removal method is selected, some crucial parameters should be measured. - Abstract: Elevated concentrations of uranium (U) from natural sources have been measured in drinking water from private drilled wells in Sweden and many other countries world-wide. Although U is a radioactive element, radioactivity is not the main concern, but rather chemical toxicity, e.g. kidney damage. Uranium chemistry is complex and U in water has a very high tendency to form complexes with other compounds. Since speciation is crucial for the properties of U, and therefore the removal efficiency, this study determined theoretical U species in drinking water from private drilled wells using the geochemical model Visual MINTEQ. The drinking water samples used in modelling were from two datasets: (1) 76 water samples selected from a previous survey of 722 wells; and (2) samples of drinking water from 21 private wells sampled in May 2013. The results showed that neutrally charged U complexes dominated in the pH range 6.7–7.8, which is common in private drilled wells. This has important implications for removal method, since charge is an important factor for U removal efficiency. In the alkaline pH range, one of two calcium-UO 2 carbonate complexes dominated and calcium (Ca) concentration proved to be a key factor determining the Ca-UO 2 carbonate complex formed: the neutral Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 0 (aq) or the negative CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2− . Complexes with organic carbon (C) varied greatly in the acidic range, indicating that it is crucial to measure organic C content in the water since it is critical for the dissolved organic matter

  4. Electricity and combined heat and power from municipal solid waste; theoretically optimal investment decision time and emissions trading implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, Athanasios; Rentizelas, Athanasios; Aravossis, Konstantin; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias

    2010-11-01

    Waste management has become a great social concern for modern societies. Landfill emissions have been identified among the major contributors of global warming and climate changes with significant impact in national economies. The energy industry constitutes an additional greenhouse gas emitter, while at the same time it is characterized by significant costs and uncertain fuel prices. The above implications have triggered different policies and measures worldwide to address the management of municipal solid wastes on the one hand and the impacts from energy production on the other. Emerging methods of energy recovery from waste may address both concerns simultaneously. In this work a comparative study of co-generation investments based on municipal solid waste is presented, focusing on the evolution of their economical performance over time. A real-options algorithm has been adopted investigating different options of energy recovery from waste: incineration, gasification and landfill biogas exploitation. The financial contributors are identified and the impact of greenhouse gas trading is analysed in terms of financial yields, considering landfilling as the baseline scenario. The results indicate an advantage of combined heat and power over solely electricity production. Gasification, has failed in some European installations. Incineration on the other hand, proves to be more attractive than the competing alternatives, mainly due to its higher power production efficiency, lower investment costs and lower emission rates. Although these characteristics may not drastically change over time, either immediate or irreversible investment decisions might be reconsidered under the current selling prices of heat, power and CO(2) allowances.

  5. The geochemical evolution of syncollisional magmatism and the implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization (Gangdese, Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsheng; Yang, Zhusen; Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yingchao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhao, Miao; Ma, Wang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to well-known subduction processes, the collision of two continents also generates abundant ore deposits, as in the case of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the youngest and most spectacular collisional belt on Earth. During the building history of the Gangdese magmatic belt, several magmatic flare-up events developed, however, significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization dominantly accompanied the magmatism during the syncollisional period ( 65-41 Ma). Based on integrated geochemical and isotopic data, we provide insights into the genesis and evolution of syncollisional magmas, and their implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of most syncollisional igneous rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7034-0.7123; εNd(t) = - 9.0 to + 1.8) indicate a mixing origin between mantle-derived basaltic magmas and ancient crustal melts, and fractional crystallization is a fundamental mechanism by which syncollisional magmas evolve towards intermediate to silicic compositions. Most lead-zinc mineralization-related plutons are high silica (76.14% wt.% SiO2 on average), high oxygen fugacity (average ΔFMQ + 2.5) granites with highly evolved chemical signatures [average Eun/Eun* = 0.33, high Rb/Sr (average = 3.9)], and they represent the final products from primary magmas. Due to the contribution of ancient crustal melts to the genesis of mineralization-related parent magmas, the spatial distribution of Pb-Zn deposits within the northern Gangdese magmatic belt is controlled by the lithospheric architecture. In compressional environments, magmas have low evacuation efficiency and long magma chamber lifespan, which is favorable for basaltic parents evolved to high silica granites through sufficient fractional crystallization. This scenario contributes to our understanding of the significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization that occurred in the syncollisional period.

  6. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Wilson, G. T.; Gueorguieva, R.; Masheb, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined rapid response in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method Altogether, 90 participants were randomly assigned to CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout and post-treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by week four, was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 57% of participants (67% of CBT, 47% of BWL) and was unrelated to most baseline variables. Rapid response predicted greater improvements across outcomes but had different prognostic significance and distinct time courses for CBT versus BWL. Patients receiving CBT did comparably well regardless of rapid response in terms of reduced binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology but did not achieve weight loss. Among patients receiving BWL, those without rapid response failed to improve further. However, those with rapid response were significantly more likely to achieve binge-eating remission (62% v. 13%) and greater reductions in binge-eating frequency, eating disorder psychopathology and weight loss. Conclusions Rapid response to treatment in BED has prognostic significance through 12-month follow-up, provides evidence for treatment specificity and has clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Rapid responders who receive BWL benefit in terms of both binge eating and short-term weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that BWL might be a candidate for initial intervention in stepped-care models with an evaluation of progress after 1 month to identify non-rapid responders who could be advised to consider a switch to a specialized treatment. PMID:21923964

  7. Intraspecific venom variation in the medically significant Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): biodiscovery, clinical and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Scheib, Holger; Gren, Eric C K; Cochran, Chip; Person, Carl E; Koludarov, Ivan; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K; King, Glenn F; Antunes, Agosthino; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2014-03-17

    Due to the extreme variation of venom, which consequently results in drastically variable degrees of neutralization by CroFab antivenom, the management and treatment of envenoming by Crotalus oreganus helleri (the Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), one of the most medically significant snake species in all of North America, has been a clinician's nightmare. This snake has also been the subject of sensational news stories regarding supposed rapid (within the last few decades) evolution of its venom. This research demonstrates for the first time that variable evolutionary selection pressures sculpt the intraspecific molecular diversity of venom components in C. o. helleri. We show that myotoxic β-defensin peptides (aka: crotamines/small basic myotoxic peptides) are secreted in large amounts by all populations. However, the mature toxin-encoding nucleotide regions evolve under the constraints of negative selection, likely as a result of their non-specific mode of action which doesn't enforce them to follow the regime of the classic predator-prey chemical arms race. The hemorrhagic and tissue destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) were secreted in larger amounts by the Catalina Island and Phelan rattlesnake populations, in moderate amounts in the Loma Linda population and in only trace levels by the Idyllwild population. Only the Idyllwild population in the San Jacinto Mountains contained potent presynaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex characteristic of Mohave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) and Neotropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). The derived heterodimeric lectin toxins characteristic of viper venoms, which exhibit a diversity of biological activities, including anticoagulation, agonism/antagonism of platelet activation, or procoagulation, appear to have evolved under extremely variable selection pressures. While most lectin α- and β-chains evolved rapidly under the influence of positive Darwinian selection, the β-chain lectin of

  8. Dangerous anthropogenic interference, dangerous climatic change, and harmful climatic change. Non-trivial distinctions with significant policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    2007-01-01

    climate sensitivity and three alternative pdfs for the harm temperature threshold. The allowable radiative forcing ratio depends on the probability of significant harm that is tolerated, and can be translated into allowable CO2 concentrations given some assumption concerning the future change in total non-CO2 GHG radiative forcing. If future non-CO2 GHG forcing is reduced to half of the present non-CO2 GHG forcing, then the allowable CO2 concentration is 290-430 ppmv for a 10% risk tolerance (depending on the chosen pdfs) and 300-500 ppmv for a 25% risk tolerance (assuming a pre-industrial CO2 concentration of 280 ppmv). For future non-CO2 GHG forcing frozen at the present value, and for a 10% risk threshold, the allowable CO2 concentration is 257-384 ppmv. The implications of these results are that (1) emissions of GHGs need to be reduced as quickly as possible, not in order to comply with the UNFCCC, but in order to minimize the extent and duration of non-compliance; (2) we do not have the luxury of trading off reductions in emissions of non-CO2 GHGs against smaller reductions in CO2 emissions, and (3) preparations should begin soon for the creation of negative CO2 emissions through the sequestration of biomass carbon

  9. A Theoretical Framework for Serious Game Design: Exploring Pedagogy, Play and Fidelity and Their Implications for the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that digital games can provide an engaging, motivating and "fun" experience for students. However an entertaining game does not necessarily constitute a meaningful, valuable learning experience. For this reason, experts espouse the importance of underpinning serious games with a sound theoretical framework which…

  10. Distinction between externally vs. internally guided decision-making: Operational differences, meta-analytical comparisons and their theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNakao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making. Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e. internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e. circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using MKDA, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  11. The discrepancy between emotional vs. rational estimates of body size, actual size, and ideal body ratings: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J K; Dolce, J J

    1989-05-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic college females were assessed on multiple aspects of body image. Subjects' estimation of the size of three body sites (waist, hips, thighs) was affected by instructional protocol. Emotional ratings, based on how they "felt" about their body, elicited ratings that were larger than actual and ideal size measures. Size ratings based on rational instructions were no different from actual sizes, but were larger than ideal ratings. There were no differences between actual and ideal sizes. The results are discussed with regard to methodological issues involved in body image research. In addition, a working hypothesis that differentiates affective/emotional from cognitive/rational aspects of body size estimation is offered to complement current theories of body image. Implications of the findings for the understanding of body image and its relationship to eating disorders are discussed.

  12. Self-reflection and the brain: a theoretical review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies with implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Lisette; Costafreda, Sergi; Aleman, André; David, Anthony S

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have investigated the neural correlates of self-reflection. In the paradigm most commonly used to address this concept, a subject is presented with trait adjectives or sentences and asked whether they describe him or her. Functional neuroimaging research has revealed a set of regions known as Cortical Midline Structures (CMS) appearing to be critically involved in self-reflection processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that patients suffering damage to the CMS, have difficulties in properly evaluating the problems they encounter and often overestimate their capacities and performance. Building on previous work, a meta-analysis of published fMRI and PET studies on self-reflection was conducted. The results showed that two areas within the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) are important in reflective processing, namely the ventral (v) and dorsal (d) MPFC. In this paper a model is proposed in which the vMPFC is responsible for tagging information relevant for 'self', whereas the dMPFC is responsible for evaluation and decision-making processes in self- and other-referential processing. Finally, implications of the model for schizophrenia and lack of insight are noted. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "I feel more connected to the physically ideal mini me than the mirror-image mini me": theoretical implications of the "malleable self" for speculations on the effects of avatar creation on avatar-self connection in Wii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-10-01

    What are the impacts of creating an avatar replicating the actual self versus an avatar projecting the ideal self on game players' avatar-self connection? This study leveraged an avatar-creating game (Mii Channel) within a video-game console (Wii) in a controlled, randomized study. The results of a two-group comparison (actual self-priming vs. ideal self-priming) between-subjects study (N = 76) demonstrated the significant main effect of self-priming via avatar (Mii) creation on avatar-self connection. Game players who were primed to create a Mii reflecting the ideal self felt greater avatar-self connection than those primed to create a replica Mii mirroring the actual self. Theoretical values and implications for a burgeoning body of research on the "malleable self" and the multidimensionality of the self-concept in avatar-based interactive media are discussed.

  14. PROFILING THE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES SHAPING THE FOSSILISED IL OF ADULT SPANISH LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE. SOME THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monroy Casas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the ever-growing literature dealing with the acquisition by adults of the phonetics and phonology of a foreign language (FL, research has tried to provide an answer to the complex nature of cross-language transfer. The fact that despite idiosyncratic differences and sociolinguistic variation most adults learners of a foreign language (FL speak with an accent which is a reflection of their native language (NL and that their progress is impaired at a certain stage prompted a host of questions such as whether adults follow identical or different paths of development in their approach to a foreign language, whether those speaking the same native language are able to identify target language categories in the same way, whether perception and production are interdependent, the nature of the learning abilities and the interplay of transfer with universals. These and other problems relating to foreign language speech have been approached from different angles and theoretical frameworks (see Leather & James (1 99 1 for an overview, and more recently Leather (1999. The research reported here, based on the oral production of sixty-five Spanish adult learners of English as a FL, tries to shed some light on one of well-known problems related to the acquisition of a foreign language by non-native speakers: the analysis of different types of phonological processes shaping the fossilised interlanguage (IL of adult FL learners in order to see a whether they are adhered to by those adult learners sharing identical L1; b whether frozen IL reflects transfer from the leamer's L1 or is the result of developmental (Le. universal processes. In this connection we(1987 and SimilarityIDifferential Rate Hypothesis (1999 or Ekman's Markedness Differential Hypothesis (1977 and Structural Conformity Hypothesis in connection with some of the processes under analysis. Optimality Theory will be brought in in dealing with some problems encountered under Cluster Simplification

  15. Language and "New" African Migration to South Africa: An Overview and Some Reflections on Theoretical Implications for Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of African migration to post-apartheid South Africa from a language-sociological perspective. Although the subject has been one largely neglected by language scholars, the handful of studies which have addressed the issue have yielded ethnographic data and raised questions of considerable significance for the…

  16. Who is more skilful? Doping and its implication on the validity, morality and significance of the sporting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Møller, Rasmus Bysted

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore if and in what ways doping can be regarded as a challenge to the validity, morality and significance of the sporting test. We start out by examining Kalevi Heinilä’s analysis of the logic of elite sport, which shows how the ‘spiral of competition’ leads to the use...... of ‘dubious means’. As a supplement to Heinilä, we revisit American sports historian John Hoberman’s writings on sport and technology. Then we discuss what function equality and fairness have in sport and what separates legitimate form illegitimate ways of enhancing performance. We proceed by discussing...... the line of argumentation set forth by philosopher Torbjörn Tännsjö on how our admiration of sporting superiority based on natural talent or ‘birth luck’ is immoral. We analyse his argument in favour of eliminating the significance of meritless luck in sport by lifting the ban on doping and argue that its...

  17. Significance of thymosin β4 and implication of PINCH-1-ILK-α-parvin (PIP complex in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Sopko

    Full Text Available Myocardial remodeling is a major contributor in the development of heart failure (HF after myocardial infarction (MI. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK, LIM-only adaptor PINCH-1, and α-parvin are essential components of focal adhesions (FAs, which are highly expressed in the heart. ILK binds tightly to PINCH-1 and α-parvin, which regulates FA assembly and promotes cell survival via the activation of the kinase Akt. Mice lacking ILK, PINCH or α-parvin have been shown to develop severe defects in the heart, suggesting that these proteins play a critical role in heart function. Utilizing failing human heart tissues (dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM, we found a 2.27-fold (p<0.001 enhanced expression of PINCH, 4 fold for α-parvin, and 10.5 fold (p<0.001 for ILK as compared to non-failing (NF counterparts. No significant enhancements were found for the PINCH isoform PINCH-2 and parvin isoform β-parvin. Using a co-immunoprecipitation method, we also found that the PINCH-1-ILK-α-parvin (PIP complex and Akt activation were significantly up-regulated. These observations were further corroborated with the mouse myocardial infarction (MI and transaortic constriction (TAC model. Thymosin beta4 (Tβ4, an effective cell penetrating peptide for treating MI, was found to further enhance the level of PIP components and Akt activation, while substantially suppressing NF-κB activation and collagen expression--the hallmarks of cardiac fibrosis. In the presence of an Akt inhibitor, wortmannin, we show that Tβ4 had a decreased effect in protecting the heart from MI. These data suggest that the PIP complex and activation of Akt play critical roles in HF development. Tβ4 treatment likely improves cardiac function by enhancing PIP mediated Akt activation and suppressing NF-κB activation and collagen-mediated fibrosis. These data provide significant insight into the role of the PIP-Akt pathway and its regulation by Tβ4 treatment in post-MI.

  18. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  19. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  1. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  2. Coronary risk assessment by point-based vs. equation-based Framingham models: significant implications for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, William J; Polansky, Jesse M; Boscardin, W John; Fung, Kathy Z; Steinman, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    US cholesterol guidelines use original and simplified versions of the Framingham model to estimate future coronary risk and thereby classify patients into risk groups with different treatment strategies. We sought to compare risk estimates and risk group classification generated by the original, complex Framingham model and the simplified, point-based version. We assessed 2,543 subjects age 20-79 from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for whom Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) guidelines recommend formal risk stratification. For each subject, we calculated the 10-year risk of major coronary events using the original and point-based Framingham models, and then compared differences in these risk estimates and whether these differences would place subjects into different ATP-III risk groups (20% risk). Using standard procedures, all analyses were adjusted for survey weights, clustering, and stratification to make our results nationally representative. Among 39 million eligible adults, the original Framingham model categorized 71% of subjects as having "moderate" risk (20%) risk. Estimates of coronary risk by the original and point-based models often differed substantially. The point-based system classified 15% of adults (5.7 million) into different risk groups than the original model, with 10% (3.9 million) misclassified into higher risk groups and 5% (1.8 million) into lower risk groups, for a net impact of classifying 2.1 million adults into higher risk groups. These risk group misclassifications would impact guideline-recommended drug treatment strategies for 25-46% of affected subjects. Patterns of misclassifications varied significantly by gender, age, and underlying CHD risk. Compared to the original Framingham model, the point-based version misclassifies millions of Americans into risk groups for which guidelines recommend different treatment strategies.

  3. A review of significant events analysed in general practice: implications for the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant event analysis (SEA is promoted as a team-based approach to enhancing patient safety through reflective learning. Evidence of SEA participation is required for appraisal and contractual purposes in UK general practice. A voluntary educational model in the west of Scotland enables general practitioners (GPs and doctors-in-training to submit SEA reports for feedback from trained peers. We reviewed reports to identify the range of safety issues analysed, learning needs raised and actions taken by GP teams. Method Content analysis of SEA reports submitted in an 18 month period between 2005 and 2007. Results 191 SEA reports were reviewed. 48 described patient harm (25.1%. A further 109 reports (57.1% outlined circumstances that had the potential to cause patient harm. Individual 'error' was cited as the most common reason for event occurrence (32.5%. Learning opportunities were identified in 182 reports (95.3% but were often non-specific professional issues not shared with the wider practice team. 154 SEA reports (80.1% described actions taken to improve practice systems or professional behaviour. However, non-medical staff were less likely to be involved in the changes resulting from event analyses describing patient harm (p Conclusion The study provides some evidence of the potential of SEA to improve healthcare quality and safety. If applied rigorously, GP teams and doctors in training can use the technique to investigate and learn from a wide variety of quality issues including those resulting in patient harm. This leads to reported change but it is unclear if such improvement is sustained.

  4. Cytochrome c oxidase inhibition by calcium at physiological ionic composition of the medium: Implications for physiological significance of the effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygodina, Tatiana V; Mukhaleva, Elizaveta; Azarkina, Natalia V; Konstantinov, Alexander A

    2017-12-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) from mammalian mitochondria binds Ca 2+ and Na + in a special cation binding site. Binding of Ca 2+ brings about partial inhibition of the enzyme while Na + competes with Ca 2+ for the binding site and protects the enzyme from the inhibition [Vygodina, T., Kirichenko, A. and Konstantinov, A.A. (2013). Direct Regulation of Cytochrome c oxidase by Calcium Ions. PLoS One 8(9): e74436]. In the original studies, the inhibition was found to depend significantly on the ionic composition of the buffer. Here we describe inhibition of CcO by Ca 2+ in media containing the main ionic components of cytoplasm (150mM KCl, 12mM NaCl and 1mM MgCl 2 ). Under these conditions, Ca 2+ inhibits CcO with effective K i of 20-26μM, that is an order of magnitude higher than determined earlier in the absence of Na + . At physiological value of ionic strength, the inhibition can be observed at any turnover number of CcO, rather than only at low TN (calcium matches closely the known value of "K m " for Ca 2+ -induced activation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The inhibition of CcO by Ca 2+ is proposed to modulate mitochondrial Ca 2+ -uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, promote permeability transition pore opening and induce reduction of Mia40 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transsexual subtypes : Clinical and theoretical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, YLS; van Goozen, SHM; Kuiper, AJ; Cohen-Kettenis, PT

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether transsexuals can be validly subdivided into subtypes on the basis of sexual orientation, and whether differences between subtypes of transsexuals are similar for male-to-female (ME) and female-to-male transsexuals (FMs). Within a large

  6. Theoretical Issues and Methodological Implications in Researching Visual Search Behaviours: A Preliminary Study Comparing the Cognitive and Ecologic Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of research papers have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underpinning successful decision-making in sports, and analysis of eye movements has deserved special attention in this concern. A thorough reading of existing literature denotes that research on ocular fixations requires at least 100 milliseconds within the same location. For average eye-tracking systems, this means using at least three frames for each fixation. However, ecological psychology has claimed that as low as 16.67 milliseconds might suffice to capture relevant information, implying using merely one frame to consider that a fixation has been made. The goal of this experiment was to directly compare two systems (one frame-one fixation versus three frames-one fixation for coding information concerning eye movements in a representative volleyball task in an in situ condition. Specifically, it was intended to analyse emerging differences and their meaning. Results exhibited statistically significant differences with regard to search rate (number of fixations, number of fixation locations, and mean fixation duration. Analysing fixation locations it was apparent that the ecological paradigm for considering visual fixations afforded supplementary information. Furthermore, the additional emerging cues appeared to be meaningful, and the level of noise introduced was very low. It is suggested that future research in eye movements considers using the one frame-one fixation approach, instead of the traditional three frames-one fixation set.

  7. Individual differences in the shape bias in preschool children with specific language impairment and typical language development: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Beverly Anne; Grela, Bernard; Spaulding, Tammie; Rueckl, Jay G; Magnuson, James S

    2015-05-01

    We investigated whether preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit the shape bias in word learning: the bias to generalize based on shape rather than size, color, or texture in an object naming context ('This is a wek; find another wek') but not in a non-naming similarity classification context ('See this? Which one goes with this one?'). Fifty-four preschool children (16 with SLI, 16 children with typical language [TL] in an equated control group, and 22 additional children with TL included in individual differences analyses but not group comparisons) completed a battery of linguistic and cognitive assessments and two experiments. In Experiment 1, children made generalization choices in object naming and similarity classification contexts on separate days, from options similar to a target object in shape, color, or texture. On average, TL children exhibited the shape bias in an object naming context, but children with SLI did not. In Experiment 2, we tested whether the failure to exhibit the shape bias might be linked to ability to detect systematicities in the visual domain. Experiment 2 supported this hypothesis, in that children with SLI failed to learn simple paired visual associations that were readily learned by children with TL. Analyses of individual differences in the two studies revealed that visual paired-associate learning predicted degree of shape bias in children with SLI and TL better than any other measure of nonverbal intelligence or standard assessments of language ability. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Theoretical Implications of Gender, Power, and Sexual Scripts for HIV Prevention Programs Aimed at Young, Substance-Using African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mandy; Granado, Misha; Stotts, Angela

    2017-12-01

    HIV continues to be a major public health problem for African-American (AA) women, and the burden of new cases to our society is significant because each case is at risk of infecting others. Substance use worsens the risk of HIV transmission to AA women. We provide specific recommendations to move the concept of tailoring HIV prevention interventions for substance users forward by focusing on young, sexually active, substance-using AA women and applying a culturally relevant revision to existing theoretical frameworks to include the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Gender and Power. We encourage use of these theories to guide adaptation of interventions to demonstrate efficacy within this hard-to-reach population. Consistent use of theories designed to exploit powerlessness and sexual scripts as barriers to adoption of protective sexual behaviors has potential to permeate sexual and substance use networks among African-Americans. This recommendation is being made because this theoretical framework has not been used in HIV prevention interventions targeting young, sexually active, substance-using AA women.

  9. Effect of bulky substituents on thiopyrylium polymethine aggregation in the solid state: A theoretical evaluation of the implications for all-optical switching applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Risko, Chad; Marder, Seth R.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    and limit their utility. Here, we examine the impact of a series of bulky substituents on the solid-state molecular packing of thiopyrylium polymethines by using a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum

  10. Significance and Implications of Patient-reported Xerostomia in Sjögren's Syndrome: Findings From the National Institutes of Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Monisha; Dye, Bruce A; Iafolla, Timothy; Baer, Alan N; Grisius, Margaret; Alevizos, Ilias

    2016-10-01

    Xerostomia is a chief complaint of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, newer proposals for SS classification remove xerostomia and hyposalivation from the criteria list. Given these developments and the importance of patient-centered research outcomes, we sought to evaluate the utility of patient-reported xerostomia with implications for classification criteria, and clinical trials targeting SS treatment modalities. A nested case-control study was designed within The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research/National Institutes of Health (NIDCR/NIH) SS Cohort - one of the largest SS cohorts in the US. Clinical characteristics of those with and without xerostomia in SS and other salivary gland dysfunctions were compared. Several analytical methods were employed, including multivariable logistic regression modeling. The NIDCR/NIH Sjögren's Syndrome Clinic has an open cohort with ongoing enrollment since 1984. This open cohort comprised of 2046 participants by August 27, 2015. Baseline data of 701 SS, 355 Sicca, and 247 ISS participants within the source cohort were analyzed. Xerostomia was highest among SS participants (87.4%, 95% CI: 84.8%-89.8%) compared to Sicca (72.4%, 95% CI: 67.4%-77.0%, pxerostomia were more likely to have SS than Sicca/ISS (OR=4.98, 95% CI: 3.78-6.56). The ability of xerostomia to screen for SS among those with salivary gland dysfunction was higher than screening for Sicca/ISS. Screening diagnostics of xerostomia were of greater utility compared to hyposalivation. After adjusting for confounding in multivariable modeling, SS participants with xerostomia were more likely to be White (Black/African Americans (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23-0.68, p-value=0.001) and Asians (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.96, p-value=0.038) were less likely to have xerostomia compared to Whites), have dry eye symptoms for >3months (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 3.62-9.28, p-value 2 (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.20-3.09, p-value=0.007), and salivary gland swelling (OR: 49

  11. Effect of bulky substituents on thiopyrylium polymethine aggregation in the solid state: A theoretical evaluation of the implications for all-optical switching applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2014-11-25

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions display many of the optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in thin films, aggregation and polymethine-counterion interactions can substantially modify their properties and limit their utility. Here, we examine the impact of a series of bulky substituents on the solid-state molecular packing of thiopyrylium polymethines by using a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations. Importantly, it is found that the positions of the substituents near the center and/or ends of the dye determine the extent to which aggregation is reduced; in particular, substituents near the polymethine center primarily modify the type of aggregation that is observed, while substituents near the polymethine ends reduce aggregation and aid in maintaining solution-like properties in the solid state. Our theoretical study elucidates relationships between molecular structure and bulk optical properties and provides design guidelines for all-optical switching materials.

  12. Natural age dispersion arising from the analysis of broken crystals. Part I: Theoretical basis and implications for the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roderick W.; Beucher, Romain; Roper, Steven; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Fin; Fitzgerald, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade major progress has been made in developing both the theoretical and practical aspects of apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and it is now standard practice, and generally seen as best practice, to analyse single grain aliquots. These individual prismatic crystals are often broken and are fragments of larger crystals that have broken during mineral separation along the weak basal cleavage in apatite. This is clearly indicated by the common occurrence of only 1 or no clear crystal terminations present on separated apatite grains, and evidence of freshly broken ends when grains are viewed using a scanning electron microscope. This matters because if the 4He distribution within the whole grain is not homogeneous, because of partial loss due to thermal diffusion for example, then the fragments will all yield ages different from each other and from the whole grain age. Here we use a numerical model with a finite cylinder geometry to approximate 4He ingrowth and thermal diffusion within hexagonal prismatic apatite crystals. This is used to quantify the amount and patterns of inherent, natural age dispersion that arises from analysing broken crystals. A series of systematic numerical experiments were conducted to explore and quantify the pattern and behaviour of this source of dispersion using a set of 5 simple thermal histories that represent a range of plausible geological scenarios. In addition some more complex numerical experiments were run to investigate the pattern and behaviour of grain dispersion seen in several real data sets. The results indicate that natural dispersion of a set of single fragment ages (defined as the range divided by the mean) arising from fragmentation alone varies from c. 7% even for rapid (c. 10 °C/Ma), monotonic cooling to over 50% for protracted, complex histories that cause significant diffusional loss of 4He. The magnitude of dispersion arising from fragmentation scales with the grain cylindrical radius, and is of

  13. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  14. Trauma y trastornos de la alimentación: Implicaciones teóricas y terapéuticas Trauma and eating disorders: Theoretical and therapeutical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castaldi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de alimentación representan un fenómeno complejo, cuya aproximación implica miradas que integren múltiples niveles de análisis. El presente documento pretende analizar el concepto de trauma relacional aplicado a contextos relacionales en los cuales un miembro presenta tal sintomatología. Se presentan y articulan las implicancias ligadas a la hipótesis planteada, con el objetivo de evidenciar como el tomar en consideración la existencia de un trauma relacional puede ser útil para profundizar aspectos de la dinámica familiar y del posicionamiento individual del miembro sintomático, integrando los aportes psicoanalíticos y sistémicos. Se articulará dicho concepto con la visión trigeneracional clásica y se explicitarán las implicancias posibles en relación al trabajo terapéutico. Eating disorders represent a complex phenomenon that requires a multiple-level analysis approach. The present document analyzes the concept of relational trauma applied to relational contexts where a member presents the symptomatology. The implications linked to the hypothesis proposed are presented and articulated, with the purpose of providing evidence of how considering the existence of a relational trauma can be useful for analyzing elements of family dynamics and of the individual positioning of the symptomatic member, integrating both psychoanalytic and systemic contributions. The concept of relational trauma is articulated with the traditional third-generation view, and the possible implications concerning therapeutic work are stated.

  15. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  16. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr

  17. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear theory program deals with the properties of nuclei and with the reactions and interactions between nuclei and a variety of projectiles. The main areas of concentration are: heavy-ion direct reactions at nonrelativistic energies; nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure; nuclear matter and nuclear forces;intermediate-energy physics and pion-nucleus interactions; and high-energy collisions of heavy ions. Recent progress and plans for future work in these five main areas of concentration and a summary of other theoretical studies currently in progress or recently completed are presented

  18. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  19. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  20. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of “too good to be true” for replication, theoretical claims, and experimental design: An example using prominent studies of racial bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Francis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to concerns about the validity of empirical findings in psychology, some scientists use replication studies as a way to validate good science and to identify poor science. Such efforts are resource intensive and are sometimes controversial (with accusations of researcher incompetence when a replication fails to show a previous result. An alternative approach is to examine the statistical properties of the reported literature to identify some cases of poor science. This review discusses some details of this process for prominent findings about racial bias, where a set of studies seems too good to be true. This kind of analysis is based on the original studies, so it avoids criticism from the original authors about the validity of replication studies. The analysis is also much easier to perform than a new empirical study. A variation of the analysis can also be used to explore whether it makes sense to run a replication study. As demonstrated here, there are situations where the existing data suggest that a direct replication of a set of studies is not worth the effort. Such a conclusion should motivate scientists to generate alternative experimental designs that better test theoretical ideas.

  2. Re-thinking typologies of multiple murders: the missing category of serial-mass murder and its theoretical and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    The concept of multiple murders (mm) is as old as humanity itself but it has only become prevalent in academic thought within the last three decades. Over this period scholars have introduced two main attitudes regarding multiple murders. Some argue that multiple murders are, theoretically and empirically, one concept that includes different sub-types: mass murder, spree murder, and serial murder. Other scholars claim that those "sub categories", are a whole different phenomenon, which are worthy and needed a separate examination and discussion because its uniqueness. To my opinion, this argument is more a semantic one than a fundamental one, as long as we consider each type of these murders as a unique phenomenon, with its own and unique characteristics. In addition both parties agree that the concept of multiple murders is differentiated into the same three main sub-categories. My argument is that a fourth sub-category of mm exists which goes unrecognized by most scholars. This sub-category, named "serial-mass murder," will help to differentiate the sub-categories more accurately and will more clearly define each of the remaining sub-categories.

  3. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical Kinetic Study of the Unimolecular Keto–Enol Tautomerism Propen-2-ol ↔ Acetone. Pressure Effects and Implications in the Pyrolysis of tert- and 2-Butanol

    KAUST Repository

    Grajales Gonzalez, Edwing

    2018-03-21

    The need for renewable and cleaner sources of energy has made biofuels an interesting alternative to fossil fuels, especially in the case of butanol isomers, with its favorable blend properties and low hygroscopicity. Although C4 alcohols are prospective fuels, some key reactions governing their pyrolysis and combustion have not been adequately studied, leading to incomplete kinetic models. Enols are important intermediates in the combustion of C4 alcohols, as well as in atmospheric processes. Butanol reactions kinetics is poorly understood. Specifically, the unimolecular tautomerism of propen-2-ol ↔ acetone, which is included in butanol combustion kinetic models, is assigned rate parameters based on the tautomerism vinyl alcohol ↔ acetaldehyde as an analogy. In an attempt to update current kinetic models for tert- and 2-butanol, a theoretical kinetic study of the titled reaction was carried out by means of CCSD(T,FULL)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d,p) ab initio calculations, with multistructural torsional anharmonicity and variational transition state theory considerations in a wide temperature and pressure range (200-3000 K; 0.1-108 kPa). Results differ from vinyl alcohol ↔ acetaldehyde analogue reaction, which shows lower rate constant values. It was observed that decreasing pressure leads to a decrease in rate constants, describing the expected falloff behavior. Tunneling turned out to be important, especially at low temperatures. Accordingly, pyrolysis simulations in a batch reactor for tert- and 2-butanol with computed rate constants showed important differences in comparison with previous results, such as larger acetone yield and quicker propen-2-ol consumption.

  5. Theoretical Kinetic Study of the Unimolecular Keto–Enol Tautomerism Propen-2-ol ↔ Acetone. Pressure Effects and Implications in the Pyrolysis of tert- and 2-Butanol

    KAUST Repository

    Grajales Gonzalez, Edwing Javier; Monge Palacios, Manuel; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    The need for renewable and cleaner sources of energy has made biofuels an interesting alternative to fossil fuels, especially in the case of butanol isomers, with its favorable blend properties and low hygroscopicity. Although C4 alcohols are prospective fuels, some key reactions governing their pyrolysis and combustion have not been adequately studied, leading to incomplete kinetic models. Enols are important intermediates in the combustion of C4 alcohols, as well as in atmospheric processes. Butanol reactions kinetics is poorly understood. Specifically, the unimolecular tautomerism of propen-2-ol ↔ acetone, which is included in butanol combustion kinetic models, is assigned rate parameters based on the tautomerism vinyl alcohol ↔ acetaldehyde as an analogy. In an attempt to update current kinetic models for tert- and 2-butanol, a theoretical kinetic study of the titled reaction was carried out by means of CCSD(T,FULL)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d,p) ab initio calculations, with multistructural torsional anharmonicity and variational transition state theory considerations in a wide temperature and pressure range (200-3000 K; 0.1-108 kPa). Results differ from vinyl alcohol ↔ acetaldehyde analogue reaction, which shows lower rate constant values. It was observed that decreasing pressure leads to a decrease in rate constants, describing the expected falloff behavior. Tunneling turned out to be important, especially at low temperatures. Accordingly, pyrolysis simulations in a batch reactor for tert- and 2-butanol with computed rate constants showed important differences in comparison with previous results, such as larger acetone yield and quicker propen-2-ol consumption.

  6. Population genetic analysis of a medicinally significant Australian rainforest tree, Fontainea picrosperma C.T. White (Euphorbiaceae): biogeographic patterns and implications for species domestication and plantation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, R W; Conroy, G C; Reddell, P; Ogbourne, S M

    2016-02-29

    Fontainea picrosperma, a subcanopy tree endemic to the rainforests of northeastern Australia, is of medicinal significance following the discovery of the novel anti-cancer natural product, EBC-46. Laboratory synthesis of EBC-46 is unlikely to be commercially feasible and consequently production of the molecule is via isolation from F. picrosperma grown in plantations. Successful domestication and plantation production requires an intimate knowledge of a taxon's life-history attributes and genetic architecture, not only to ensure the maximum capture of genetic diversity from wild source populations, but also to minimise the risk of a detrimental loss in genetic diversity via founder effects during subsequent breeding programs designed to enhance commercially significant agronomic traits. Here we report the use of eleven microsatellite loci (PIC = 0.429; P ID  = 1.72 × 10(-6)) to investigate the partitioning of genetic diversity within and among seven natural populations of F. picrosperma. Genetic variation among individuals and within populations was found to be relatively low (A = 2.831; H E  = 0.407), although there was marked differentiation among populations (PhiPT = 0.248). Bayesian, UPGMA and principal coordinates analyses detected three main genotypic clusters (K = 3), which were present at all seven populations. Despite low levels of historical gene flow (N m  = 1.382), inbreeding was negligible (F = -0.003); presumably due to the taxon's dioecious breeding system. The data suggests that F. picrosperma was previously more continuously distributed, but that rainforest contraction and expansion in response to glacial-interglacial cycles, together with significant anthropogenic effects have resulted in significant fragmentation. This research provides important tools to support plantation establishment, selection and genetic improvement of this medicinally significant Australian rainforest species.

  7. Empirical Analysis of Human Capital, Learning Culture, and Knowledge Management as Antecedents to Organizational Performance: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Logistics Readiness Officer Force Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    extracting the factors the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin ( KMO ) Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity were conducted. Suitability for...factor extraction is dependent on a KMO index greater than .50 and a Bartlett’s significance of less than .05 (Williams, et al., 2012). The KMO index was

  8. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and ''new physics'' searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given

  9. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S.

    2010-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  10. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  11. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  12. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Mark P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/- compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88 for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation

  13. Geochemical processes in marine salt deposits: Their significance and their implications in connection with disposal of radioactive waste within salt domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, A G [Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Geochemisches Inst.

    1980-01-01

    Attempts to effect permanent disposal of radioactive wastes in marine evaporites should do nothing to disturb, either in the short or the long term, the present relative stability of such bodies of rock. It is necessary to take account of all of the geochemical and physico-chemical reactions known to have been involved in the processes which formed the evaporites before proceeding to an acceptable strategy for disposal of radionucleides. These processes can be represented as three kinds of metamorphism: 1. solution metamorphism, 2. thermal metamorphism, 3. dynamic metamorphism. In all of the evaporite occurrences in Germany such processes have been influential in altering, on occasion significantly, the primary mineralogical composition and have also promoted a considerable degree of transposition of material. Given similar geochemical and physico-chemical premises, these metamorphic processes could become effective now or in the future. It is therefore necessary to discuss the following criteria when examining salt domes as permanent repositories of highly radioactive substances: (1) Temperatures <= 90/sup 0/ +- 10/sup 0/C at the contact between waste containers and rock salt; (2) Temperatures <= 75/sup 0/C within zones of carnallite rocks; (3) Immobilisation of high-level waste in crystalline forms whenever possible; (4) Systems of additional safety barriers around the waste containers or the unreprocessed spent fuel elements. The geochemical and physical effectiveness of the barriers within an evaporite environment must be guaranteed. For example: Ni-Ti-alloys, corundum, ceramic, anhydrite.

  14. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  15. The low risk of precancer after a screening result of human papillomavirus-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance papanicolaou and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Behrens, Catherine; Sharma, Abha; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Cuzick, Jack; Yang, Zi Hua; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-11-01

    Different US practice guidelines have conflicting recommendations for when women should return after a screening result of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative with an equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (ie, return in either 3 or 5 years). One way to determine management is to compare the risk of precancer/cancer after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result with the risks after other negative screening results. For example, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result was similar to the risk after a negative Pap test, a 3-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women with negative Pap test results should return in 3 years. Alternatively, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result is similar to that after a cotest-negative result (HPV negative/Pap test negative), a 5-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women testing cotest negative should return in 5 years. The authors compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) and cervical cancer among women aged 30 years to 64 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California with the following test results from 2003 through 2012: 17,191 women testing HPV negative/ASC-US; 980,268 women testing Pap test negative (regardless of HPV result); and 892,882 women testing cotest negative. The 5-year CIN3+ and cancer risks after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result were closer to the risks after a negative Pap test result (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.31% [P =.0019]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.031% [P =.4]) than after a negative cotest (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.11% [P<.0001]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.014% [P =.016]). Women testing HPV negative/ASC-US were found to have precancer/cancer risks that were more closely aligned with women with negative Pap test results, suggesting that women testing HPV negative/ASC-US should be managed similarly to women testing negative on Pap tests with a 3-year return for screening. © 2014

  16. Assessment of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in commensal Escherichia coli from the Indian urban waste water: Implications and significance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambram Somendro Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics like β-lactams, quinolones/fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and tetracycline constitute the major mainstay of treatment against most infectious diseases including Escherichia coli. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics for human and animal well-being has generated an enormous evolutionary pressure on bacteria especially E.coli, which has a highly plastic/evolving genome. Though, antibiotic resistance (AR has been extensively studied in pathogenic E.coli, commensal strains have been studied less owing to lesser clinical significance. However, commensal strains pose a serious threat as reservoirs and transmitters of resistance genes to other bacteria. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of resistance genes and integrons in commensal E.coli isolated from river Yamuna, Delhi, India, which receives plentiful urban waste water. Eighty three well-characterized E.coli strains of phylogroups A and B1 isolated from river Yamuna were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline and quinolone/fluoroquinolone were determined by disk diffusion and Etest, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Production of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL and AmpC was investigated. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistance genes for β-lactams (blaTEM,blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaCMY-42, aminoglycosides (rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, armA, str, aacC2, tetracycline (tetA, tetR, tetM, tetW, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, PMQR (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qep, aac were assessed. Integrons and  gene-cassette arrays were characterized. Commensal E.coli strains showed a higher resistance to ampicillin (95%, less to cefazolin (45% and still lesser to tetracycline (15%. About 19% of these strains showed multidrug resistant (three or more classes of antibiotics, of which 15% also produced ESBLs. None of the

  17. A Chinese Birth Cohort: Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, Paul C.; Ren, Xin; Weitekamp, Elmar; Kerner, Hans-Jurgen; Taylor, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    Research on delinquency has shown consistent results across Western industrialized countries. Few studies have been done in non-Western cultures. This study reports on the results of a birth cohort study in China, which was started by Marvin Wolfgang but never completed. The cohort, born in 1973, was traced through official and community files.…

  18. Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hiermeier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valveless pumping phenomena (peristalsis, Liebau-effect can generate unidirectional fluid flow in periodically compressed tubular conduits. Early embryonic hearts are tubular conduits acting as valveless pumps. It is unclear whether such hearts work as peristaltic or Liebau-effect pumps. During the initial phase of its pumping activity, the originally straight embryonic heart is subjected to deforming forces that produce bending, twisting, kinking, and coiling. This deformation process is called cardiac looping. Its function is traditionally seen as generating a configuration needed for establishment of correct alignments of pulmonary and systemic flow pathways in the mature heart of lung-breathing vertebrates. This idea conflicts with the fact that cardiac looping occurs in all vertebrates, including gill-breathing fishes. We speculate that looping morphogenesis may improve the efficiency of valveless pumping. To test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, we analyzed the pumping performance of a Liebau-effect pump in straight and looped (kinked configurations. Compared to the straight configuration, the looped configuration significantly improved the pumping performance of our pump. This shows that looping can improve the efficiency of valveless pumping driven by the Liebau-effect. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this finding may have implications for understanding of the form-function relationship of embryonic hearts.

  19. The significance of sense of coherence for the perceptions of task characteristics and stress during interruptions amongst a sample of public health nurses in Hong Kong: implications for nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, A T

    1998-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate the significance of sense of coherence (SOC) for the perceptions of task characteristics and for stress perceptions during interruptions of public health nurses (PHNs) with children in Hong Kong. The research design employed the experience sampling method. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 20 subjects. During stage one of the study a watch was worn that gave a signal at six random times each day for seven days to complete an experience sampling diary. PHNs on average responded to 34 signals (80%) to complete the diaries which collected data on work and family juggling, task characteristics, and their effects on mood states. At stage two respondents completed the SOC scale which measured confidence in life as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful. Two major findings provide the focus for this paper. First, results indicate that there was positive correlation between SOC and perceived task characteristics. Second, results reveal that when interruptions occurred, PHNs with high SOC had higher positive affect and lower negative affect than PHNs with low SOC. These results suggest that SOC as a salutogenic model helps PHNs to cope with the family and work juggling as well as the occupational stress. Implications for nursing management on strengthening SOC of PHNs are discussed.

  20. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David, Ed.; Land, Susan, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to the major pedagogical and psychological theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, or corporations. Leading experts describe the most…

  1. Theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical physics program in the Physics Division at ORNL involves research in both nuclear and atomic physics. In nuclear physics there is extensive activity in the fields of direct nuclear reactions with light- and heavy-ion projectiles, the structure of nuclei far from stability and at elevated temperatures, and the microscopic and macroscopic description of heavy-ion dynamics, including the behavior of nuclear molecules and supernuclei. New research efforts in relativistic nuclear collisions and in the study of quark-gluon plasma have continued to grow this year. The atomic theory program deals with a variety of ionization, multiple-vacancy production, and charge-exchange processes. Many of the problems are selected because of their relevance to the magnetic fusion energy program. In addition, there is a joint atomic-nuclear theory effort to study positron production during the collision of two high-Z numbers, i.e., U+U. A new Distinguished Scientist program, sponsored jointly by the University of Tennessee and ORNL, has been initiated. Among the first appointments is G.F. Bertsch in theoretical physics. As a result of this appointment, Bertsch and an associated group of four theorists split their time between UT and ORNL. In addition, the State of Tennessee has established a significant budget to support the visits of outstanding scientists to the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research at ORNL. This budget should permit a significant improvement in the visitor program at ORNL. Finally, the Laboratory awarded a Wigner post-doctoral Appointment to a theorist who will work in the theory group of the Physics Division

  2. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  3. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  4. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  5. External Validity in the Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; Hickey, Tom

    1978-01-01

    An examination of the concept of external validity from two theoretical perspectives: a traditional mechanistic approach and a dialectical organismic approach. Examines the theoretical and methodological implications of these perspectives. (BD)

  6. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  7. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  8. Summary on Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.

  9. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  10. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles [fr

  11. A Theoretical Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    L-rhamnose and L-fucose: A Theoretical Approach ... L-ramnose and L-fucose, by means of the Monte Carlo conformational search method. The energy of the conformers ..... which indicates an increased probability for the occurrence of.

  12. Theoretical Coalescence: A Method to Develop Qualitative Theory: The Example of Enduring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M

    Qualitative research is frequently context bound, lacks generalizability, and is limited in scope. The purpose of this article was to describe a method, theoretical coalescence, that provides a strategy for analyzing complex, high-level concepts and for developing generalizable theory. Theoretical coalescence is a method of theoretical expansion, inductive inquiry, of theory development, that uses data (rather than themes, categories, and published extracts of data) as the primary source for analysis. Here, using the development of the lay concept of enduring as an example, I explore the scientific development of the concept in multiple settings over many projects and link it within the Praxis Theory of Suffering. As comprehension emerges when conducting theoretical coalescence, it is essential that raw data from various different situations be available for reinterpretation/reanalysis and comparison to identify the essential features of the concept. The concept is then reconstructed, with additional inquiry that builds description, and evidence is conducted and conceptualized to create a more expansive concept and theory. By utilizing apparently diverse data sets from different contexts that are linked by certain characteristics, the essential features of the concept emerge. Such inquiry is divergent and less bound by context yet purposeful, logical, and with significant pragmatic implications for practice in nursing and beyond our discipline. Theoretical coalescence is a means by which qualitative inquiry is broadened to make an impact, to accommodate new theoretical shifts and concepts, and to make qualitative research applied and accessible in new ways.

  13. Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...

  14. New particles, theoretical. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J.D.; Quigg, C.; Rosner, J.L.

    1978-09-01

    This report is the written summary of papers presented in Parallel Session B8 at the XIXth International Conference on High Energy Physics, August 24 to 30, 1978, Tokyo, Japan. The work of the minirapporteur was divided three ways: Q anti Q interaction and charmonium (Jackson), implications of the upsilon states (Rosner), and weak decays of heavy quarks (Quigg). 162 references.

  15. New particles, theoretical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.D.; Quigg, C.; Rosner, J.L.

    1978-09-01

    This report is the written summary of papers presented in Parallel Session B8 at the XIXth International Conference on High Energy Physics, August 24 to 30, 1978, Tokyo, Japan. The work of the minirapporteur was divided three ways: Q anti Q interaction and charmonium (Jackson), implications of the upsilon states (Rosner), and weak decays of heavy quarks (Quigg). 162 references

  16. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  17. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  18. Tourism Management and Industrial Ecology: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Lucchetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Ecology (IE is based on the relation between the natural ecosystem and economic ecosystem. The concept refers to the metaphorical relation between the natural and industrial ecosystems as a model for transforming unsustainable industrial systems. Several tools and strategies are particularly significant for the IE development. In other words, the primary purpose of industrial ecology is to assess and reduce the impact economic activities on the environment. Tourism, as an economic activity, resulting in a full range of environmental impacts, should be treated like any other industry. This paper propose uses a theoretical review focused on IE for to investigate what is the best way to implement industrial ecology in the tourism activities. It seemed interesting to search within the IE concept for a model for the tourism sector, one of the fields with the greatest environmental interaction and economic implications.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigations about the vaporization of laser-produced aerosols and individual particles inside inductively-coupled plasmas — Implications for the extraction efficiency of ions prior to mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamigni, Luca; Koch, Joachim; Günther, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Current quantification capabilities of laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are known to be restricted by elemental fractionation as a result of LA-, transport-, and ICP-induced effects which, particularly, may provoke inaccuracies whenever calibration strategies on the basis of non-matrix matched standard materials are applied. The present study is dealing with the role of ICP in this complex scenario. Therefore, the vaporization process of laser-produced aerosols and subsequent diffusion losses occurring inside ICP sources were investigated using 2-D optical emission spectrometry (OES) and ICP-quadrupole (Q)MS of individual particles. For instance, Na- and Ca-specific OES of aerosols produced by LA of silicate glasses or metals revealed axial shifts in the onset and maximum position of atomic emission which were in the range of a few millimeters. The occurrence of these shifts was found to arise from composition-dependent particle/aerosol penetration depths, i.e. the displacement of axial vaporization starting points controlling the ion extraction efficiency through the ICP-MS vacuum interface due to a delayed, diffusion-driven expansion of oxidic vs. metallic aerosols. Furthermore, ICP-QMS of individual particles resulted in 1/e half-value signal durations of approximately 100 μs, which complies with modeled values if OES maxima are assumed to coincide with positions of instantaneous vaporization and starting points for atomic diffusion. To prove phenomena observed for their consistency, in addition, “ab initio” as well as semi-empirical simulations of particle/aerosol penetration depths followed by diffusion-driven expansion was accomplished indicating differences of up to 15% in the relative ion extraction efficiency depending on whether analytes are supplied as metals or oxides. Implications of these findings on the accuracy achievable by state-of-the-art LA-ICP-MS systems are outlined. - Highlights: ► Specification

  20. Compendium of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics comprise the canonical undergraduate curriculum of theoretical physics. In Compendium of Theoretical Physics, Armin Wachter and Henning Hoeber offer a concise, rigorous and structured overview that will be invaluable for students preparing for their qualifying examinations, readers needing a supplement to standard textbooks, and research or industrial physicists seeking a bridge between extensive textbooks and formula books. The authors take an axiomatic-deductive approach to each topic, starting the discussion of each theory with its fundamental equations. By subsequently deriving the various physical relationships and laws in logical rather than chronological order, and by using a consistent presentation and notation throughout, they emphasize the connections between the individual theories. The reader’s understanding is then reinforced with exercises, solutions and topic summaries. Unique Features: Every topic is ...

  1. Concluding theoretical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1986-01-01

    My task in this talk is to review the happenings of this workshop from a theoretical perspective, and to emphasize lines for possible future research. My remarks are organized into a theoretical overview of the what, why, (mainly the hierarchy problem) how, (supersymmetry must be broken: softly or spontaneously, and if the latter, by means of a new U tilde(1) gauge group or through the chiral superfields) when (how heavy are supersymmetric partner particles in different types of theories) and where (can one find evidence for) supersymmetry. In the last part are discussed various ongoing and future searches for photinos γ tilde, gravitinos G tilde, the U vector boson, shiggses H tilde, squarks q tilde and sleptons l tilde, gluinos g tilde, winos W tilde and other gauginos, as well as hunts for indirect effects of supersymmetry, such as for example in baryon decay. Finally there is a little message of encouragement to our experimental colleagues, based on historical precedent. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  3. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  4. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  5. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1995-01-01

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy ππ and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S p (6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars

  6. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  7. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.

    2016-04-14

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  8. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  9. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  10. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  11. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included [fr

  12. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  13. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-01-15

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  15. Theoretical Kinetic Study of the Unimolecular and H-Assisted Keto-Enol Tautomerism Propen-2-ol ↔Acetone. Pressure Effects and Implications in the Pyrolysis and Oxidation of tert- And 2-Butanol

    KAUST Repository

    Grajales Gonzalez, Edwing Javier

    2018-05-01

    The need for renewable and cleaner sources of energy has made biofuels an interesting alternative to fossil fuels, especially in the case of butanol isomers, with their favorable blend properties and low hygroscopicity. Although C4 alcohols are prospective fuels, some key reactions governing their pyrolysis and combustion have not been adequately studied, leading to incomplete kinetic models. Butanol reactions kinetics is poorly understood. Specifically, the unimolecular and H-assisted tautomerism of propen-2-ol to acetone, which are included in butanol combustion kinetic models, are assigned rate parameters based on the analogous unimolecular tautomerism vinyl alcohol ↔ acetaldehyde and H addition to the double bound of iso-butene, respectively. In an attempt to update current kinetic models for tert- and 2-butanol, a theoretical kinetic study of the unimolecular and H-assisted tautomerism, i-C3H5OH⟺CH3COCH3 and i-C3H5OH+Ḣ⟺CH3COCH3+Ḣ, was carried out by means of CCSD(T,FULL)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d,p) and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//M062X/cc-pVTZ ab initio calculations, respectively. For H-assisted tautomerism, the reaction takes place in two consecutive steps: i-C3H5OH+Ḣ⟺CH3ĊOHCH3 and CH3ĊOHCH3⟺CH3COCH3+Ḣ. Multistructural torsional anharmonicity and variational transition state theory were considered in a wide temperature and pressure range (200 K – 3000 K, 0.1 kPa – 108 kPa). It was observed that decreasing pressure leads to a decrease in rate constants, describing the expected falloff behavior for both isomerizations. Results for unimolecular tautomerism differ from vinyl alcohol ↔ acetaldehyde analogue reactions, which shows lower rate constant values. Tunneling turned out to be important, especially at low temperatures. Accordingly, pyrolysis simulations in a batch reactor for tert- and 2-butanol with computed unimolecular rate constants showed important differences in comparison with previous results, such as larger acetone yield and

  16. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM_1 in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze–fog pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, X.Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Shen, X.J.; Sun, J.Y.; Ma, Q.L.; Yu, X.M.; Zhu, J.L.; Zhang, L.; Che, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze–fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM_1 at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze–fog events, among which a heavy haze–fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM_1 was 212 μg m"−"3 in the heavy haze–fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298 μg m"−"3. Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM_1 on heavy haze–fog days (average mass concentration of 86 μg m"−"3), followed by nitrate (58 μg m"−"3), sulfate (35 μg m"−"3), ammonium (29 μg m"−"3), and chloride (4.0 μg m"−"3). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~ 20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NO_x. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze–fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O_3. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze–fog event in the YRD area. - Highlights: • Formation mechanism of a heavy haze-fog event

  17. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM{sub 1} in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze–fog pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.W. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.Y., E-mail: xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Y.M.; Shen, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Sun, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, Q.L.; Yu, X.M. [Lin' an Regional Air Background Station, Lin' an 311307 (China); Zhu, J.L. [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, L.; Che, H.C. [Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze–fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM{sub 1} at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze–fog events, among which a heavy haze–fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM{sub 1} was 212 μg m{sup −3} in the heavy haze–fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298 μg m{sup −3}. Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM{sub 1} on heavy haze–fog days (average mass concentration of 86 μg m{sup −3}), followed by nitrate (58 μg m{sup −3}), sulfate (35 μg m{sup −3}), ammonium (29 μg m{sup −3}), and chloride (4.0 μg m{sup −3}). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~ 20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NO{sub x}. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze–fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O{sub 3}. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze–fog event in the YRD area. - Highlights

  18. Expression of proteins FGFR3, PI3K, AKT, p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclins D1 and D3 in patients with T1 bladder tumours: clinical implications and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca Pedregosa, A M; Sánchez-González, Á; Carrasco Valiente, J; Ruiz García, J M; Gómez Gómez, E; López Beltrán, A; Requena Tapia, M J

    2017-04-01

    To determine the differential protein expression of biomarkers FGFR3, PI3K (subunits PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII, PI3Kp85), AKT, p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclins D1 and D3 in T1 bladder cancer versus healthy tissue and to study their potential role as early recurrence markers. This is a prospective study that employed a total of 67 tissue samples (55 cases of T1 bladder tumours that underwent transurethral resection and 12 cases of adjacent healthy mucosa). The protein expression levels were assessed using Western blot, and the means and percentages were compared using Student's t-test and the chi-squared test. The survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Greater protein expression was detected for FGFR3, PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII, cyclins D1 and D3 and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the tumour tissue than in the healthy mucosa. However, these differences were not significant for PI3Kp85 and AKT. We observed statistically significant correlations between early recurrence and PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII, PI3Kp85 and AKT (P=.003, P=.045, P=.050 and P=.028, respectively), between the tumour type (primary vs. recurrence) and cyclin D3 (P=.001), between the tumour size and FGFR3 (P=.035) and between multifocality and cyclin D1 (P=.039). The survival analysis selected FGFR3 (P=.024), PI3Kp110α (P=.014), PI3KClassIII (P=.042) and AKT (P=.008) as markers of early-recurrence-free survival. There is an increase in protein expression levels in bladder tumour tissue. The overexpression of FGFR3, PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII and AKT is associated with increased early-recurrence-free survival for patients with T1 bladder tumours. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  20. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  1. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  2. Review of theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Nowadays the 'experimental' charge densities are produced with convincing error estimates due to new methods and techniques. In addition the accuracy of those experiments means that r.m.s. radii are known within a few hundredths of a fermi. Because of that accuracy the theorists are left far behind. In order to show which theoretical possiblities exist at the moment we will discuss the single particle shell model and the Hartree-Fock or mean field approximation. Corrections to the mean field approximation are described. Finally, some examples and conclusions are presented. (KBE)

  3. Information theoretic preattentive saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Employing an information theoretic operational definition of bottom-up attention from the field of computational visual perception a very general expression for saliency is provided. As opposed to many of the current approaches to determining a saliency map there is no need for an explicit data...... of which features, image information is described. We illustrate our result by determining a few specific saliency maps based on particular choices of features. One of them makes the link with the mapping underlying well-known Harris interest points, which is a result recently obtained in isolation...

  4. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  5. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  6. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  7. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  8. The effect of ethnicity on the performance of protein-creatinine ratio in the prediction of significant proteinuria in pregnancies at risk of or with established hypertension: an implementation audit and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Sadia; Cordina, Mark; Penna, Leonie; Sherwood, Roy; Dew, Tracy; Kametas, Nikos A

    2018-05-01

    The replacement of 24-h urine collection by protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) for the diagnosis of preeclampsia has been recently recommended. However, the literature is conflicting and there are concerns about the impact of demographic characteristics on the performance of PCR. This was an implementation audit of the introduction of PCR in a London Tertiary obstetric unit. The performance of PCR in the prediction of proteinuria ≥300 mg/day was assessed in 476 women with suspected preeclampsia who completed a 24-h urine collection and an untimed urine sample for PCR calculation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent predictors of significant proteinuria. In a pregnant population, ethnicity and PCR are the main predictors of ≥300 mg proteinuria in a 24-h urine collection. A PCR cut-off of 30 mg/mmol would have incorrectly classified as non-proteinuric, 41.4% and 22.9% of black and non-black women, respectively. Sensitivity of 100% is achieved at cut-offs of 8.67 and 20.56 mg/mmol for black and non-black women, respectively. Applying these levels as a screening tool to inform the need to perform a 24-h urine collection in 1000 women, would lead to a financial saving of €2911 in non-black women and to an additional cost of €3269 in black women. Our data suggest that a move from screening for proteinuria with a 24-h urine collection to screening with urine PCR is not appropriate for black populations. However, the move may lead to cost-saving if used in the white population with a PCR cut-off of 20.5. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Expression of HIF-1α and Markers of Angiogenesis Are Not Significantly Different in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Compared to Other Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Future Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Lamis; Boulos, Fouad; Jabbour, Mark; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Fakhruddin, Najla; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer lacks estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptors rendering it refractory to available targetedtherapies. TNBC is associated with central fibrosis and necrosis, both indicators of tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α is up-regulated under hypoxia and its expression is associated with induction of angiogenesis resulting in proliferation, aggressive tumor phenotype and metastasis. In this study we evaluate the potential use of HIF-1α as aTNBC-specific marker. 62 TNBC, 64 HER2+, and 64 hormone-receptors positive breast cancer cases were evaluated for central fibrosis and necrosis, HIF-1α, HIF-1β, VEGFR3, CD31 expression and microvessel density. RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation of HIF-1α and VEGF transcripts was performed on 54 cases (18 from each subtype). HIF-1α protein was expressed in 35.5% TNBC, 45.3% HER2+and 25.0% ER+/PR+ (p = 0.055; χ2 test). PCRanalysis of subgroup of breast cancers, 84.2% expressed HIF-1α protein and its transcripts, while only 66.7% expressed VEGF transcripts simultaneously with the HIF-1α protein and its transcripts. Central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in TNBC (p = 0.015; χ2 test), while MVD was comparable among all groups (p = 0.928; χ2 test). VEGFR3 was highest in TNBC expressing HIF-1α. HIF-1β protein was expressed in 32.0% of HIF-1α(+), and in (44.3%) of HIF-1α(-) breast cancer cases (p = 0.033; χ2 test). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in cases with central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in the HER2+ followed by the TNBC (p = 0.156; χ2 test). A proportion of TNBC express HIF-1α but not in a significantly different manner from other breast cancer subtypes. The potential of anti-HIF-1α targeted therapy is therefore not a candidate for exclusive use in TNBC, but should be considered in all breast cancers, especially in the setting of clinically aggressive or

  10. Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for Nonsyndromic Clefting of Both the Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Ahmed, Syeda Tasnim; Böhmer, Anne C.; Sangani, Nasim Bahram; Varghese, Sheryil; Klamt, Johanna; Schuenke, Hannah; Gültepe, Pinar; Hofmann, Andrea; Rubini, Michele; Aldhorae, Khalid Ahmed; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P.; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Reiter, Rudolf; Borck, Guntram; Knapp, Michael; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Graf, Daniel; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peters, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively). Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on genetic and clinical data from three large cohorts and identified strong association between a region on chromosome 15q13 and nsCLP (P = 8.13×10−14 for rs1258763; relative risk (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32–1.61)) but not nsCLO (P = 0.27; RR: 1.09 (0.94–1.27)). The 5 kb region of strongest association maps downstream of Gremlin-1 (GREM1), which encodes a secreted antagonist of the BMP4 pathway. We show during mouse embryogenesis, Grem1 is expressed in the developing lip and soft palate but not in the hard palate. This is consistent with genotype-phenotype correlations between rs1258763 and a specific nsCLP subphenotype, since a more than two-fold increase in risk was observed in patients displaying clefts of both the lip and soft palate but who had an intact hard palate (RR: 3.76, CI: 1.47–9.61, Pdifflip or palate defects in Grem1-deficient mice, wild type embryonic palatal shelves developed divergent shapes when cultured in the presence of ectopic Grem1 protein (P = 0.0014). The present study identified a non-coding region at 15q13 as the second, genome-wide significant locus specific for nsCLP, after 13q31. Moreover, our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical nsCLP entity. This entity specifically involves abnormalities of the lip and soft palate, which develop at different time-points and in separate anatomical regions. PMID:26968009

  11. Significant concentration changes of chemical components of PM1 in the Yangtze River Delta area of China and the implications for the formation mechanism of heavy haze-fog pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y M; Shen, X J; Sun, J Y; Ma, Q L; Yu, X M; Zhu, J L; Zhang, L; Che, H C

    2015-12-15

    Since the winter season of 2013, a number of persistent haze-fog events have occurred in central-eastern China. Continuous measurements of the chemical and physical properties of PM1 at a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta area of China from 16 Nov. to 18 Dec., 2013 revealed several haze-fog events, among which a heavy haze-fog event occurred between 6 Dec. and 8 Dec. The mean concentration of PM1 was 212μgm(-3) in the heavy haze-fog period, which was about 10 times higher than on clean days and featured a peak mass concentration that reached 298μgm(-3). Organics were the largest contributor to the dramatic rise of PM1 on heavy haze-fog days (average mass concentration of 86μgm(-3)), followed by nitrate (58μgm(-3)), sulfate (35μgm(-3)), ammonium (29μgm(-3)), and chloride (4.0μgm(-3)). Nitrate exhibited the largest increase (~20 factors), associated with a significant increase in NOx. This was mainly attributable to increased coal combustion emissions, relative to motor vehicle emissions, and was caused by short-distance pollutant transport within surrounding areas. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosols (OA) (LV-OOA) and biomass-burning OA (BBOA) also increased sharply on heavy haze-fog days, exhibiting an enhanced oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and increased emissions from biomass burning. The strengthening of the oxidation capacity during the heavy pollution episode, along with lower solar radiation, was probably due to increased biomass burning, which were important precursors of O3. The prevailing meteorological conditions, including low wind and high relative humidity, and short distance transported gaseous and particulate matter surrounding of the sampling site, coincided with the increased pollutant concentrations mainly from biomass-burning mentioned above to cause the persistent haze-fog event in the YRD area. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for open-quotes new physics.close quotes The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10 -6 --10 -4 eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs

  13. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ''new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10 -6 eV--10 -4 eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos

  14. Theoretical physics. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    From the first in two comprehensive volumes appeared Theoretical Physics of the author by this after Mechanics and Electrodynamics also Quantum mechanics appears as thinner single volume. First the illustrative approach via wave mechanics is reproduced. The more abstract Hilbert-space formulation introduces the author later by postulates, which are because of the preceding wave mechanics sufficiently plausible. All concepts of quantum mechanics, which contradict often to the intuitive understanding formed by macroscopic experiences, are extensively discussed and made by means of many examples as well as problems - in the largest part provided with solutions - understandable. To the interpretation of quantum mechanics an extensive special chapter is dedicated. this book arose from courses on theoretical physics, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine University in Duesseldorf, and was in numerous repetitions fitted to the requirement of the studyings. it is so designed that it is also after the study suited as reference book or for the renewing. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied that each step is separately reproducible. About motivation and good understandability is cared much

  15. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  16. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  17. INFANTILISM: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena V. Sabelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research is to define and operationalize theoretically the concept of infantilism and its construct. The content of theoretical construct «infantilism» is analyzed. Methods. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. The age and content criteria are analysed in the context of childhood and adulthood. The traits which can be interpreted as adult infantile traits are described. Results. The characteristics of adult infantilism in modern world taking into account the increasing of information flows and socio-economic changes are defined. The definition of the concept «infantilism» including its main features is given. Infantilism is defined as the personal organization including features and models of the previous age period not adequate for the real age stage with emphasis on immaturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. Scientific novelty. The main psychological characteristics of adulthood are described as the reflection, requirement to work and professional activity, existence of professional self-determination, possession of labor skills, need for selfrealization, maturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. As objective adulthood characteristics are considered the following: transition to economic and territorial independence of a parental family, and also development of new social roles, such as a worker, spouse, and parent. Two options of a possible operationalization of concept are allocated: objective (existence / absence in real human life of objective criteria of adulthood and subjective (the self-report on subjective feeling of existence / lack of psychological characteristics of adulthood. Practical significance consists in a construct operationalization of «infantilism» which at the moment has so many interpretations. That operationalization is necessary for the further analysis and carrying out various researches. 

  18. A theoretical and empirical review of the death-thought accessibility concept in terror management research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph; Schimel, Jeff; Arndt, Jamie; Faucher, Erik H

    2010-09-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) highlights the motivational impact of thoughts of death in various aspects of everyday life. Since its inception in 1986, research on TMT has undergone a slight but significant shift from an almost exclusive focus on the manipulation of thoughts of death to a marked increase in studies that measure the accessibility of death-related cognition. Indeed, the number of death-thought accessibility (DTA) studies in the published literature has grown substantially in recent years. In light of this increasing reliance on the DTA concept, the present article is meant to provide a comprehensive theoretical and empirical review of the literature employing this concept. After discussing the roots of DTA, the authors outline the theoretical refinements to TMT that have accompanied significant research findings associated with the DTA concept. Four distinct categories (mortality salience, death association, anxiety-buffer threat, and dispositional) are derived to organize the reviewed DTA studies, and the theoretical implications of each category are discussed. Finally, a number of lingering empirical and theoretical issues in the DTA literature are discussed with the aim of stimulating and focusing future research on DTA specifically and TMT in general.

  19. Theoretical physics 3 electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to electrodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series. The first part of the book describes the interaction of electric charges and magnetic moments by introducing electro- and magnetostatics. The second part of the book establishes deeper understanding of electrodynamics with the Maxwell equations, quasistationary fields and electromagnetic fields. All sections are accompanied by a detailed introduction to the math needed. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical and analytical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful Germa...

  20. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  1. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  2. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  3. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  4. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  5. Significance, mechanisms and environmental implications of microbial bio-mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzerara, K.; Miot, J.; Morin, G.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Skouri-Panet, F.; Ferard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms can mediate the formation of minerals by a process called bio-mineralization. This process offers an efficient way to sequester inorganic pollutants within relatively stable solid phases. Here we review some of the main mechanisms involved in the mediation of mineral precipitation by microorganisms. This includes supersaturation caused by metabolic activity, the triggering of nucleation by production of more or less specific organic molecules, and the impact of mineral growth. While these processes have been widely studied in the laboratory, assessment of their importance in the environment is more difficult. We illustrate this difficulty using a case study on an As-contaminated acid mine drainage located in the South of France (Carnoules, Gard). In particular, we explore the potential relationships that might exist between microbial diversity and mineral precipitation. The present review, far from being exhaustive, highlights some recent advances in the field of bio-mineralogy and provides non-specialists an introduction to some of the main approaches and some questions that remain unanswered. (authors)

  6. The coagulopathy in sepsis: significance and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardino Pollio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis related coagulopathy ranges from mild laboratory alterations up to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. There is evidence that DIC is involved in the pathogenesis of microvascular dysfunction contributing to organ failure. Additionally, the systemic activation of coagulation, by consuming platelets and coagulation factors, may cause bleeding. Thrombin generation via the tissue factor/factor VIIa route, contemporary depression of antithrombin and protein C anticoagulant system, as well as impaired fibrin degradation, due to high circulating levels of PAI-1, contribute to enhanced intravascular fibrin deposition. This deranged coagulopathy is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in patients with severe sepsis. Innovative supportive strategies aiming at the inhibition of coagulation activation comprise inhibition of tissue factor-mediated activation or restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways, as the administration of recombinant human activated protein C or concentrate. In spite of some promising initial studies, additional trials are needed to define their clinical effectiveness in adults and children with severe sepsis.

  7. Novas conformações metodológicas em relação à jurimetria: discussão teórica e implicações práticas para a regulação de preços no Brasil / New Methodological Contours regarding Jurimetrics: Theoretical Discussion and Practical Implications to Brazilian Price Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Medeiros de Castro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper discusses how quantitative methods can be used to improve the understanding of juridical phenomena. As research hypothesis, this article maintains that this methodology is not frequently used in Brazilian Law, which, in turn, prevents the diagnosis of social injustices, hinders the improvement of institutions, makes it harder to discuss burden of proof and overshadows the debate of price regulation. Methodology – After a review of the literature on the theoretical debate about the subject, this study takes an econometric approach, using 5 models, to verify if Brazilian Legal Academic Research uses quantitative language. Also, it identifies what would be the impact on society resulted from a quantitative-silence on Legal Studies. Findings – None of 1,723 thesis of Legal Academic Research made any Econometric regression. There was a low level of quantitative discussion in the analyzed sample. This finding is particularly problematic, especially in Brazil, where quantitative debate is needed to prevent some unfair legal standards, which in turn hinders the improvement of society, even in regulatory aspects. Practical implications – The article sheds light on the need to foster an interdisciplinary agenda between Law and Econometrics.

  8. Framing curriculum discursively: theoretical perspectives on the experience of VCE physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Christina

    2002-10-01

    The process of developing prescribed curricula has been subject to little empirical investigation, and there have been few attempts to develop theoretical frameworks for understanding the shape and content of particular subjects. This paper presents an account of the author's experience of developing a new course for school physics in the State of Victoria, Australia, at the end of the 1980s. The course was to represent a significant departure from traditional physics courses, and was intended to broaden participation and improve the quality of student learning. In the event the new course turned out to be very similar to traditional courses in Physics. The paper explores the reasons for this outcome. Some powerful discursive mechanisms are identified and some implications of post-structuralism for the theoretical understanding of curriculum are discussed.

  9. Macroeconomic implications of virtual shopping : a theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yetkiner, I. Hakan; Horvath, Csilla

    2000-01-01

    Recently, parallel to developments in the communication technology, online shopping has become increasingly popular for many products, like books, CDs, software, and computers. Most analysts conjecture that the future will witness a wider basket of products and a higher trade volume via the

  10. Internationalization Assessment in Schools: Theoretical Contributions and Practical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Cosmopolitan, international capital has become an integral ingredient in the set of competencies considered to provide a competitive edge and to be required for affective citizenship in the 21st century. Recently, internationalization of education has become a more common phenomenon in local schools around the world, serving as a tool to provide…

  11. Holistic study of an aquatic microcosm: theoretical and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of any system cannot by understood fully unless it is investigated as an intact unit over a range of states. The main task of holistic investigation is to determine the patterns of the set of responses and state transitions of a system and to examine the state space for trends, phases, and thresholds. Small laboratory ecosystems are ideal tools for holistic investigation of ecosystem function, because they are replicable and state settable. A small aquatic microcosm was characterized holistically as an example of this approach. Comparison of the nominal behavior of this system with its behavior under various degrees of cadmium stress (1, 10, 100 ppM Cd) indicated that holistic investigation of such systems is a sensitive and rapid means of assessing stress at the community level of organization.

  12. Theoretical Implications of Extralist Probes for Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Lili; Goodmon, Leilani B.

    2010-01-01

    In 5 experiments, the authors examined the influence of associative information in list-method directed forgetting, using the extralist cuing procedure (Nelson & McEvoy, 2005). Targets were studied in the absence of cues, but during retrieval, related cues were used to test their memory. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of resonant…

  13. The implications of environmental variability on caribou demography: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schaefer

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Random environmental influences, such as snow cover, are widely regarded as an integral feature of caribou population dynamics. We conducted computer simulations to explore the ramifications of such stochastic variability for caribou demography. We devised 4 models with increasing levels of complexity: Model 1, density-independence under different levels of stochasticity and r; Model 2, non-linear effect of snow cover on r; Model 3, non-linear effect of snow cover on r and stochasticity as a function of population size; and Model 4, non-linear effect of snow cover on r, stochasticity as a funciton of population size, and density-dependence according to the logistic equation. The results of Model 1 indicated that nearly all caribou populations subject only to environmental vagaries experienced either extincition or irruption. Model 2 revealed that non-linear effect of snow cover depressed the realised r as a function of population size. Finally, Model 4 suggested long-term population as previously reported in literature, but with reduced chance of overshooting K under moderate to high environmental variability.

  14. Cosmic ray observations of Cygnus X-3: some theoretical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    We describe how the discovery of surface showers from Cygnus X-3 and other compact X-ray binaries may resolve the long-standing question of the origin of cosmic rays above 10 15 eV. In contrast, we show how possible underground muon observations raise rather than answer questions. 5 figs.; 17 refs

  15. Aspect sensitivity of equatorial electrojet irregularities and theoretical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors used a multi baseline 50-MHz radar interferometer at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory to study the dependence of echo strength on the aspect angle, the angle of arrival relative to normal to the geomagnetic field. They observed rms values of this angle in the range 0.1 degree-0.4 degree, which implies an aspect sensitivity somewhat greater than the nominal 10 dB/deg often quoted for auroral echoes. The technique has sufficient resolution to allow deviations from normal of less than 0.1 degree to be measured fairly easily, and they were able to determine variations of the aspect sensitivity with altitude, Doppler shift, and electrojet conditions. During weakly driven periods, when only type 2 echoes were observed, the width, or rms angular deviation from normal, decreased monotonically with increasing altitude, as simple linear theory would suggest, but the variation was less rapid than the variation of ν e /Ω e , especially on the bottomside of the electrojet. A particularly interesting observation was that; during strongly driven type 1 conditions, there was a pronounced variation of width with Doppler shift. The width for small phase velocities was sometimes more than twice that at the ion-acoustic velocity. They believe that this broadening is due to nonlinear three-wave mode coupling which produces a reverse cascade of energy from short wavelengths to long and an increase in the mean aspect angle. Such a cascade represents an increase in the effective diffusion coefficient for the short wavelength waves and so could provide an explanation alternative to that of the anomalous collision process of Sudan (1983) for the limitation of the type 1 phase velocity at the ion-acoustic velocity

  16. Improving statistical reasoning: theoretical models and practical implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ... in Psychology? 206 References 216 Author Index 230 Subject Index 235 v PrefacePreface Statistical literacy, the art of drawing reasonable inferences from an abundance of numbers provided daily by...

  17. Heavy leptons: theoretical study of the implications of their existence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragiadakos, C.

    1978-01-01

    The following points are studied: the possibility of an internal structure of heavy leptons and its manifestation; a study of the production of neutral heavy leptons in e + -e - collisions; consequences of the lumaton (heavy lepton having strong interactions) hypothesis; the introduction of a muon number violating mechanism in gauge theories. A gauge model characterized by the symmetries: left-right and quarks-leptons is also studied. A general review of the heavy leptons is given [fr

  18. CNO abundances in Cepheids and supergiants: theoretical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.; Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Models of a 9 M/sub sun/ star have been evolved to see if the observed nitrogen enhancement and the carbon and oxygen depletions in yellow supergiants and Cepheids can be explained. In the standard (first dredge-up phase) evolutionary picture, the normal or near normal CNO abundances for the envelopes of stars on the main sequence are altered when such stars become red giants with deeply mixed convective envelopes prior to core He ignition. While this process does result in a noticeable nitrogen enhancement and a carbon reduction (oxygen is only slightly reduced), the observed changes in the CNO abundances are reported to be much larger. Consequently, other additional mechanisms need to be considered. The effects of primordial abundances, mass loss and transfer, convective overshoot, rotation, and magnetic fields are discussed. It is found that in order to explain the observed O depletion, there must be some form of mixing between the convective hydrogen-burning core and the inner part of the radiative envelope. This additional mixed material is then latter dredged up during the red giant phase. A simplified three-zone model is proposed. Finally, as a consequence of this additional mixing, longer main-sequence lifetimes and more luminous blue loops in the Cepheid region are predicted

  19. Theoretical Implications of Contemporary Brain Science for Japanese EFL Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, John Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in brain science show that adult native Japanese speakers utilize a different balance of language processing routes in the brain as compared to native English speakers. Biologically this represents the remarkable flexibility of the human brain to adapt universal human cognitive processes to fit the specific needs of linguistic and…

  20. Theoretical introduction to the 37Cl solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical introduction is given to the chlorine 37 solar neutrino experiment. From the definition of an SNU as 10 -36 captures per target atom per second the discussion proceeds to stellar evolution, the neutrino absorption cross sections, nuclear reactions, and lastly the implications for astronomy and for physics of the 37 Cl experiment

  1. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  2. Theoretical perspective for baryon number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langacker, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this talk I describe the theoretical predictions for proton decay and other baryon number violating processes, emphasizing that there are many models and theories involving baryon number violation and that it is an experimental problem to distinguish between them. I first review the the theoretical predictions for the unification mass M/sub X/ and for the weak angle sin 2 theta/sub W/. It will be seen that the class of models involving an Su 3 x SU 2 x U 1 invariant desert between M/sub W/ and M/sub X/ are strongly favored. I then turn to baryon number violation. The proton lifetime and branching ratio predictions for the SU 5 and other 3-2-1 desert models are reviewed, with emphasis on distinguishing between models and on the implications of the small value of the QCD parameter lambda/sub anti MS/ that seems to be favored by the data. I then discuss the consequences of low energy supersymmetry for proton decay, nuclear effects, and models with low mass scales. Finally, I mention possible implications of the anomalously large flux of cosmic ray antiprotons that has recently been reported

  3. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  4. Theoretical disagreement about law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the dominant direction of the study of legal phenomena, legal positivism has suffered criticisms above all from representatives of natural law. Nevertheless, the most complex criticism of legal positivism came from Ronald Dworkin. With the methodological criticism he formed in 'Law's Empire', Dworkin attacked the sole foundations of legal positivism and his main methodological assumptions. Quoting the first postulate of positivism, which understands the law as a fact, Dworkin claims that, if this comprehension is correct, there could be no dispute among jurists concerning the law, except if some of them make an empirical mistake while establishing facts. Since this is not the case, Dworkin proves that this is actually a theoretical disagreement which does not represent a disagreement about the law itself, but about its morality. On these grounds, he rejects the idea of law as a fact and claims that the law is an interpretive notion, which means that disagreements within jurisprudence are most frequently interpretative disagreements over criteria of legality, and not empirical disagreements over historic and social facts.

  5. Theoretical basis and significance of the variance of discharge as a bidimensional variable for the design of lateral lines of micro-irrigation Bases teóricas e importância da variância da vazão como variável bidimensional no dimensionamento de linhas laterais em microirrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Roberto Detomini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the theoretical basis and contribute to the improvement of educational capability issues relating to irrigation systems design, this point of view presents an alternative deduction of the variance of the discharge as a bidimensional and independent random variable. Then a subsequent brief application of an existing model is applied for statistical design of laterals in micro-irrigation. The better manufacturing precision of emitters allows lengthening a lateral for a given soil slope, although this does not necessarily mean that the statistical uniformity throughout the lateral will be more homogenous.Visando a reforçar as bases teóricas e contribuir com a melhoria da capacitação educacional em assuntos relacionados a dimensionamento de sistemas de irrigação, o presente ponto de vista revela uma dedução alternativa para a variância da vazão dos emissores, variável aleatória independente bidimensional. Posteriormente apresenta breve aplicação do modelo aceito para dimensionamento de linhas laterais em sistemas de microirrigação, de acordo com a abordagem estatística. A melhor precisão na fabricação de emssores permite, para uma dada inclinação de terreno, dimensionar laterais mais longas, o que não significa necessariamente que uniformidade de emissão dessas laterais será projetada como mais homogênea.

  6. Theoretical Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.G.

    1979-04-01

    This report presents highlights of activities in the Theoretical (T) Division from October 1976-January 1979. The report is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of the Division: its unique function at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and within the scientific community as a whole; the organization of personnel; the main areas of research; and a survey of recent T-Division initiatives. This overview is followed by a survey of the 13 groups within the Division, their main responsibilities, interests, and expertise, consulting activities, and recent scientific accomplisments. The remainder of the report, Parts II and III, is devoted to articles on selected research activities. Recent efforts on topics of immediate interest to energy and weapons programs at LASL and elsewhere are described in Part II, Major National Programs. Separate articles present T-Divison contributions to weapons research, reactor safety and reactor physics research, fusion research, laser isotope separation, and other energy research. Each article is a compilation of independent projects within T Division, all related to but addressing different aspects of the major program. Part III is organized by subject discipline, and describes recent scientific advances of fundamental interest. An introduction, defining the scope and general nature of T-Division efforts within a given discipline, is followed by articles on the research topics selected. The reporting is done by the scientists involved in the research, and an attempt is made to communicate to a general audience. Some data are given incidentally; more technical presentations of the research accomplished may be found among the 47 pages of references. 110 figures, 5 tables

  7. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  8. Theoretical Models, Assessment Frameworks and Test Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the usefulness of proficiency models influencing second language testing. Findings indicate that several factors contribute to the lack of congruence between models and test construction and make a case for distinguishing between theoretical models. Underscores the significance of an empirical, contextualized and structured approach to the…

  9. Implicações da doença orgânica crônica na infância para as relações familiares: algumas questões teóricas Implications of physical chronic disease in childhood to family relationships: some theoretical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina algumas questões teóricas e achados de estudos recentes acerca das implicações da doença orgânica crônica na infância. Analisam-se, em particular, as conseqüências emocionais da enfermidade precoce tanto para a criança como para sua família, especialmente no que se refere à relação mãe-criança. Além disso, discute-se as dificuldades enfrentadas pela família ao lidar com uma criança doente e os possíveis riscos de ajustamento aos quais ela pode estar exposta. Apesar dos avanços no tratamento de doenças crônicas orgânicas infantis e a melhora nas taxas de sobrevivência dessas crianças, poucas investigações são encontradas na literatura em relação às implicações emocionais e familiares da doença orgânica crônica na infância. Os estudos revisados sugerem que mudanças importantes nos relacionamentos familiares podem ocorrer quando há uma criança com doença crônica orgânica na família, em particular no que se refere ao estresse parental, isolamento social, comportamentos de superproteção com a criança e riscos aumentados para desajustes psicológicos tanto para a criança quanto para seus genitores e irmãos.The present article examines some theoretical questions and reviews recent findings concerning the implications of physical chronic disease in childhood. The emotional consequences of the disease to the child and the child's family, in particular to the child-mother relationship are analyzed. Furthermore, family difficulties when dealing with an ill child and the possible risks to his/her adjustment are discussed. Despite the medical advances in the treatment of childhood physical chronic diseases and the increase on survival rates of these children, there are few studies on the emotional and family implications of a physical chronic disease in childhood. The reviewed studies suggest that important changes in family relationships may happen when a child has a physical

  10. Arnhajm's 'visual thinking': Theoretical (nonfoundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, as in other sciences, surely there are concepts that are not theoretically based and are not consistently thought trough. One of these concepts that has found a significant place in the understanding of artistic creativity and psychology of art overall is Arnheim's term: 'visual perception'. It can be said, as Arnheim does, that any perception is thinking at the same time, all reasoning is also intuition, each observation invention, provided that this approach can be deduced from a psychological theory. Starting from Gestalt psychology that seems to be impossible. Understandably, Arnheim, as Gestalt psychologist, with this term wanted to point out that the whole is different than the sum of its parts. 'A visual thinking' was supposed to add something more to the perceptual experience, a property that the perception does not have. Since Gestalt psychology is not based on the psychic apparatus and deferred system, with different functions and especially those unconscious, it is difficult to talk about the theoretical grounding of this notion. Only after postulating these moments Arnheim could elaborate his view that the process of observing the world is interaction between the properties that certain object provides and observers nature. That 'nature of the observer' can only be viewed within the psychic apparatus. In the creativity (art and science, where it aims to be a basic explanatory principle, 'visual perception' is faced with difficulties such as statements from Goetea and Helmholtz, that what is important and new in their creation was given as a free forethought, and that their knowledge came as something almost complete.

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. Theoretical ecology as etiological from the start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhauser, Justin

    2016-12-01

    The world's leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to the theoretical and broadly philosophical merits of doing so, it is therefore practically significant to clear up confusions about ecology's conceptual foundations and to clarify the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological metaphors in ecological research and defuses certain enduring confusions about work in ecology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. MANAGING CHANGE: SOME THEORETICAL AND APPLICATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezat Elena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The strategic organizational change aims is the change of procedures and systems, organizational structures and responsibilities but especially acquiring new knowledge and skills. Significant authors (Drucker: 1999; Kotter: 1996; Buckingham n Clifton: 2001, supporters of the theory of strategic leadership show an inclination for the idea of optimal management of an organization, which depends on circumstantial factors as place and time, the individual and the context in which it acts. Many experts who studied organizational change saw as possible the future replacement of the current state, desired only after completion of specific phases, in a certain sequence. In this article we will focus our attention on the reduction phase of resistance to change. The research objectives targeted both theoretical aspects consisting in bringing to the forefront the relevant aspects related to organizational change in the current context and practical aspects related to identifying and analyzing the main elements that make it possible or on the contrary act as brakes in way of introduction and implementation of change. To achieve the research objectives, we used the method of direct observation and the questionnaire method supported by the gathering of more information from the organization's documents (Beton Construct SRL and support discussions with the employees. Data processing and analysis revealed that in the organization certain factors exist and manifest that constitute obstacles or inhibit organizational change, namely: the goal of the change is not clear, the rewards of change are not related to the effort needed to make them happen, change determines fear of failure, change is often imposed by coercion, change requires effort and commitment required for employees that think they do not have resources anymore. Summarizing the results of usage for certain methods and techniques to implement change, we can say that the actions of an authoritarian

  14. SOME THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Merdić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic links of the process of globalization are economic integrations. The aim of this paper is to systematize theoretical achievements and to review the forms, effects and conditions for connecting countries motivated by economic benefits. In addition to the theoretical review of the conceptual definition of economic integration, the focus is on the levels of economic integration from the free-trade zone to the monetary and fiscal union, explaining the specificity of each of the mentioned levels. Considering that the connection between countries always raises the question of the benefits and costs of connection, the special emphasis in this paper is placed on the potential effects for free trade. Finally, the greatest contribution of this paper is the systematization and theoretical review of the theory of optimal currency area and monetary integration, which is especially significant for the European soil, taking into account the already established European Monetary Union

  15. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  16. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  19. The power of theoretical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Martha Raile

    2011-10-01

    Nursing theoretical knowledge has demonstrated powerful contributions to education, research, administration and professional practice for guiding nursing thought and action. That knowledge has shifted the primary focus of the nurse from nursing functions to the person. Theoretical views of the person raise new questions, create new approaches and instruments for nursing research, and expand nursing scholarship throughout the world.

  20. Brand Image Theoretical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Išoraitė, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The article analyzes the image of a brand and a brand image, brand value assessment methods, brand value, and benefits. A brand is a word or phrase that identifies and separates goods belonging to one person from belonging to another person. A brand is one of the elements of marketing, advertising. High-quality brand brings significant benefits to the manufacturer or the trader. A brand name may consist of a brand name and a brand symbol. There is several brand value evaluation model analyze ...

  1. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  2. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  3. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  4. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  5. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  6. HOLIDAY: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban Yuliia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to leave is part of the employee’s legal status. It has every employee who works under an employment contract. Ensuring the employee’s right to leave is guaranteed by the state. At the same time, the term “vacation” is a significant range of different phenomena that have features in different sectors of the economy, including agrarian space, different regions, different production conditions, etc. The foregoing complicates not only the basic definition of the term “vacation”, but also its organizational and accounting support. According to the legislation of Ukraine, the holiday is set by law, collective agreement or employment contract a certain number of calendar days of continuous rest, which are provided to the employee by the employer in a calendar year, with or without payment, with the preservation of the place of work (position by the employee at this time. The citizens of Ukraine, who are in labor relations with enterprises, institutions, organizations irrespective of the forms of ownership, type of activity and branch affiliation, are also entitled to leave, as well as work under an employment contract from an individual. The main features that are inherent to the overwhelming majority of the holidays are the following: the employee’s dismissal from performing labor duties, the preservation of the employee during the period of vacations of the place of work (position, payment. Domestic legislation, together with the scientific achievements of researchers, the concept of “vacation” is identified with the concept of “time”. The main characteristic features of the vacation include the guarantee of vacation by law; scope of leave; periodicity of holidays; definition of the length of leave in legislation; continuity of rest during the holiday period; connection of vacation with work experience; the main purpose of vacation; preservation of the place of work at the time of vacations; saving at the time of

  7. Theoretical estimation of Z´ boson mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maji, Priya; Banerjee, Debika; Sahoo, Sukadev

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of Higgs boson at the LHC brings a renewed perspective in particle physics. With the help of Higgs mechanism, standard model (SM) allows the generation of particle mass. The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have predicted the mass of Higgs boson as m_H=125-126 GeV. Recently, it is claimed that the Higgs boson might interact with dark matter and there exists relation between the Higgs boson and dark matter (DM). Hertzberg has predicted a correlation between the Higgs mass and the abundance of dark matter. His theoretical result is in good agreement with current data. He has predicted the mass of Higgs boson as GeV. The Higgs boson could be coupled to the particle that constitutes all or part of the dark matter in the universe. Light Z´ boson could have important implications in dark matter phenomenology

  8. How faith heals: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes theoretical perspectives from psychology supportive of a healing effect of faith. First, faith is defined as a congruence of belief, trust, and obedience in relation to God or the divine. Second, evidence for a faith-healing association is presented, empirically and in theory. To exemplify religiously sanctioned affirmation of such a connection, selected passages are cited from the Jewish canon attesting to biblical and rabbinic support for a faith factor in longevity, disease risk, mental health and well-being, disease prevention, and healing. Third, reference to theories of hope, learned optimism, positive illusions, and opening up or disclosure, and to theory and research on psychoneuroimmunology and placebos, demonstrates that contemporary psychology can accommodate a healing power of faith. This is summarized in a typology of five hypothesized mechanisms underlying a faith-healing association, termed behavioral/conative, interpersonal, cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological. Finally, implications are discussed for the rapprochement of religion and medicine.

  9. Statistical and theoretical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include the creation of field designs to detect population impacts, new census procedures for small mammals, and methods for designing studies to determine where and how much of a contaminant is extent over certain landscapes. A book describing these statistical methods is currently being written and will apply to a variety of environmental contaminants, including radionuclides. PNL scientists also have devised an analytical method for predicting the success of field eexperiments on wild populations. Two highlights of current research are the discoveries that population of free-roaming horse herds can double in four years and that grizzly bear populations may be substantially smaller than once thought. As stray horses become a public nuisance at DOE and other large Federal sites, it is important to determine their number. Similar statistical theory can be readily applied to other situations where wild animals are a problem of concern to other government agencies. Another book, on statistical aspects of radionuclide studies, is written specifically for researchers in radioecology

  10. Theoretical particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, S.A.

    1990-05-01

    My research in lattice gauge theory during the past year is described. Several projects were completed dealing with QCD simulations including dynamical fermions. Under the DOE Grand Challenge program, a large scale calculation of the QCD spectrum with two light flavors of dynamical staggered quarks was carried out. This calculation is one of the most significant efforts to data to take into account the effects of dynamical fermions. Smaller lattice spacing and lighter quark masses were used than in previous attempts. QCD thermodynamics was studied on the ST-100 array processor and on an ETA supercomputer at the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center. On the ST-100, a study with two flavors of dynamical staggered quarks with am q = 0.025 and 0.0125 was carried out on a 12 3 x 8 lattice. These results give a rough estimate of the crossover couplings where we see the restoration of chiral symmetry. A study of QCD with dynamical Wilson fermions was carried out with N t = 4 to try to bring the study of QCD with dynamical Wilson fermions to the level that has been attained with staggered fermions over the past two years. We have calculated screening lengths to elucidate the properties of the high temperature phase. In the pure gluon theory, claims that the finite temperature deconfinement transition is second order, rather than first order, were investigated using a finite size scaling analysis. Our results support a first order transition. Finally, work was done to port computer code to new environments involving parallelism in order to pursue more ambitious calculations on more powerful hardware than the ST-100 and ETA10 used for the calculations reported here

  11. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef

  12. Theoretical Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    with the electric field only being about three times higher than in the ideal case. Moreover, the quasi-optical grill was significantly fewer structural elements that the multijunction grill. Nevertheless there has not been much interest from experimental fusion groups to implementing these structures. Hence we have returned to optimizing the multijunction grill so that the large number of coupling matrix elements can be efficiently evaluated using symmetry arguments. In overdense plasmas, the standard electromagnetic waves cannot propagate into the plasma center, but are reflected at the plasma edge. By optimizing mode conversion processes (in particular, the O-X-B wave propagation of Ordinary Mode converting to an Extraordinary mode which then converts into an electrostatic Bernstein wave) one can excite within the plasma an electrostatic Bernstein wave that does not suffer density cutoffs and is absorbed on the electron cyclotron harmonics. Finally we have started looking at other mesoscopic lattice algorithms that involve unitary collision and streaming steps. Because these algorithms are unitary they can be run on quantum computers when they become available – unlike their computational cousin of lattice Boltzmann which is a purely classical code. These quantum lattice gas algorithms have been tested successfully on exact analytic soliton collision solution. These calculations are hoped to be able to study Bose Einstein condensed atomic gases and their ground states in an optical lattice.

  13. Theoretical tools for B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannel, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this talk I try to give an overview over the theoretical tools used to compute observables in B physics. The main focus is the developments in the 1/m Expansion in semileptonic and nonleptonic decays. (author)

  14. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  15. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  16. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical ... released the legendary song with the singular bridge over forty years ago): .... Another set of cases concerns the frozen forms pass and fail, which occur without any.

  17. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  18. Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...

  19. Nonlinear problems in theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranada, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the lecture notes and review talks delivered at the 9th GIFT international seminar on theoretical physics on the general subject 'Nonlinear Problems in Theoretical Physics'. Mist contributions deal with recent developments in the theory of the spectral transformation and solitons, but there are also articles from the field of transport theory and plasma physics and an unconventional view of classical and quantum electrodynamics. All contributions to this volume will appear under their corresponding subject categories. (HJ)

  20. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N; Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Songbo; Li, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether, when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups. Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Theoretical Significance in Q Methodology: A Qualitative Approach to a Mixed Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlo, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Q methodology (Q) has offered researchers a unique scientific measure of subjectivity since William Stephenson's first article in 1935. Q's focus on subjectivity includes self-referential meaning and interpretation. Q is most often identified with its technique (Q-sort) and its method (factor analysis to group people); yet, it consists of a…

  3. Separation Anxiety in Parents of Adolescents: Theoretical Significance and Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Ellen; Eberly, Mary; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Ellwanger, Pamela; Widaman, Keith F.

    2001-01-01

    Developed and validated Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale with parents of sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders, and college freshmen and seniors. Factor analyses supported two subscales: Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR); both showed distinctive change patterns with child age.…

  4. Theoretical and methodological significance of Information and Communication Technology in educational practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In September 1998 the Research Network ‘ICT in Education and Training’ was initiated at the conference of the European Educational Research Association (EERA). The new network reflected the recognition and growing importance of information and communication technology (ICT) with respect to education

  5. Theoretical description and numerical calculations of significant three-dimensional magnetic field configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierau, Anna; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (DE). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF); Schnizer, Pierre; Fischer, Egbert [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, Pavel [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The heavy ion synchrotron SIS100, the core component of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research will accelerate high current ion beams of up to U{sup 27+}. For operating such a machine the static and transient magnetic field quality must be fully understood. This is also necessary to keep the beam losses well below acceptable limits and to prepare a sound strategy for high resolution magnetic measurements and data analysis. Challenging preconditions to perform such work are to find a proper description for the non. Cartesian symmetry of the magnets, most important for curved dipoles with elliptical apertures. We describe the parameterisation methods using elliptic and toroidal multipoles and summarise comparing the calculated to the measured field quality.

  6. Theoretical investigations on plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the steady-state dynamics of plasma centrifuges is dealt with to understand the physics of rotating plasmas and their feasibility for isotope separation. The centrifuge systems under consideration employ cylindrical gas discharge chambers with externally-applied axial magnetic fields. The cathode and anode are symmetric about the cylinder axis and arranged in such a way for each system, i.e., (1) two ring electrodes of different radii in the chamber end plates or (2) two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of the cylinder. They produce converging and/or diverging current density field lines, which intersect the external magnetic field under a nonvanishing angle. The associated Lorentz forces set the plasma, which is produced through an electrical discharge, into rotation around the cylinder axis. Three boundary-value problems for the coupled partial differential equations of the centrifuge fields are formulated, respectively, on the basis of the magnetogasdynamic equations. The electric field, electrostatic potential, current density, induced magnetic field, and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number, the Hall coefficient, and the magnetic Reynolds number. The plasma centrifuge analyses presented show that the speeds of plasma rotation up to the order of 10 4 m/sec are achievable at typical conditions. The associated centrifugal forces produce a significant spatial isotope separation, which is somewhat reduced in the viscous boundary layers at the centrifuge walls. The speeds of plasma rotation increase with increasing Hartmann number and Hall coefficient. For small Hall coefficient, the induced azimuthal magnetic field does not affect the plasma rotation. For large volumes of rotating isotope mixtures, a multidischarge centrifuge can be constructed by setting up a large number of centrifuge systems in series

  7. Forensic case formulation: theoretical, ethical and practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jason; Black, Susie; Bentley, Natalie; Nagi, Claire

    2013-10-01

    Forensic case formulation, of increasing interest to practitioners and researchers raises many ethical, theoretical and practical issues for them. Systemic, contextual and individual factors which need to be considered include the multitude of staff often involved with any one individual, the pressure to 'get it right' because of the range of risk implications that are associated with individuals within forensic mental health settings, and individual parameters, for example reluctance to be engaged with services. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Theoretical Relevance of Neuropsychological Data for Connectionist Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Iza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic information-processing paradigm in cognitive psychology has met a growing challenge from neural network models over the past two decades. While neuropsychological
    evidence has been of great utility to theories concerned with information processing, the real question is, whether the less rigid connectionist models provide valid, or enough, information
    concerning complex cognitive structures. In this work, we will discuss the theoretical implications that neuropsychological data posits for modelling cognitive systems.

  9. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  10. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department successfully collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular, members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows for the mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute and at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present, eight students are working towards their Ph.D. degrees under the supervision of senior members of the Department. (author)

  11. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research, yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five students are working for their Ph.D. or MSc degrees under supervision of the senior members from the Department. We continue our participation at the EC SOCRATES-ERASMUS educational programme which allows exchange of graduate students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the UK. (author)

  12. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet more formal problems are also considered. A detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various field is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular, members of our Department participate in the EC network, which stimulates the mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and up graduate teaching activity at our Institute as well as at other academic institution in Cracow. At present nine students are working on their Ph.D. degrees under the supervision of senior members of the Department. (author)

  13. The beautiful invisible creativity, imagination, and theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vignale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Challenging the image of theoretical physics as a dry discipline, The Beautiful Invisible shows that this highly abstract science is in fact teeming with beautiful concepts, and the task of imagining them demands profound creativity, just as creative as the work of poets or magical realist novelists such as Borges and Musil. "A good scientific theory is like a symbolic tale, an allegory of reality," writes Giovanni Vignale, as he uncovers the unexpected links between theoretical physics and artistic creativity. In engaging and at times poetic prose, and with ample quotations from many of the writers he admires, Vignale presents his own unorthodox accounts of fundamental theoretical concepts such as Newtonian mechanics, superconductivity, and Einstein's theory of relativity, illuminating their profound implications. Throughout, the author treats readers to glimpses of physics as "exercised in the still night, when only the moon rages." Indeed, as we delve behind now-familiar concepts such as "electron spin" an...

  14. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a

  15. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  16. Mechanics lectures on theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1952-01-01

    Mechanics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume I covers a general course on theoretical physics. The book discusses the mechanics of a particle; the mechanics of systems; the principle of virtual work; and d'alembert's principle. The text also describes oscillation problems; the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a rigid body; the theory of relative motion; and the integral variational principles of mechanics. Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates and the theory of Hamilton are also considered. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking Physics courses will find the book

  17. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...

  18. Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.

  19. Theoretical Division annual report, FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.A.

    1976-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in the Theoretical Division and a summary of research highlights during FY 1975. It is intended to inform a wide audience about the theoretical work of the LASL and, therefore, contains introductory material which places recent advances in a broader context. The report is organized into two special interest reports: reactor safety research and the Advanced Research Committee, and 11 reports from the T-Division group leaders on the work of their respective groups. Main interests and responsibilities are outlined including the relationship of the group's work to the work of other T-Division groups and other divisions at the Laboratory. The description of research highlights for FY 1975 explains in a fairly simple, straightforward manner the major recent advances and their significance. Each group report is followed by a publication list for FY 1975 (330 references) and a list of talks given outside the Laboratory (140 references). 29 figures

  20. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS EFFICIENT MASS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical basis for determining the effectiveness of mass valuation of land in present-day conditions are described. The concept defenitsy effect and effectiveness as economic categories and their classification values for mass valuation of land are presented. The effectiveness of mass valuation of land in the settlements defines the structure of local budget and economic activities undertaken by local authorities on the basis of the results of the mass appraisal of real estate. Mass valuation is regular and it is characterized by high degree of standardization of procedures and a significant increase in the role of statistical methods for processing data related to the use of the most significant factors influencing the parameters of the object to its cost, as well as the need to determine the value of the objective laws change equivalent, which is only possible when using economic and mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Quality control results of mass valuation carried out principally in other ways, as obtained by applying statistical machine results can be checked as soon statistical methods. This shows the relevance of research topic and lack of elaboration for Ukraine problems of efficiency of mass land valuation. Scientific research conducted through the use of the dialectical method and techniques of abstraction, comparative analysis and synthesis, the article various models and methods of valuation of land for taxation purposes are analyzed. In addition, the group explored methods used, comparisons, and more. In economic theory and practice problems and determine the effect of efficiency aimed at profit is quite relevant. Economists consider cost-effectiveness, such as economic efficiency. In this case, the production can be attributed to the activities to conduct and organization of mass valuation of land. This pushes many different positions on criteria and indicators of economic efficiency, the

  1. Theoretical analysis of rolled joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for theoretically analysing the case of an externally restrained sandwich joint formed by a hypothetical uniform hydrostatic expansion process is outlined. Reference is made to a computer program based on this theory. Results illustrating the effect of major joint variables on residual contact pressure are presented and analysed. The applicability and limitations of this theory are discussed. (author)

  2. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, althou...

  3. Supercomputer requirements for theoretical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.B.; Hay, P.J.; Galbraith, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Many problems important to the theoretical chemist would, if implemented in their full complexity, strain the capabilities of today's most powerful computers. Several such problems are now being implemented on the CRAY-1 computer at Los Alamos. Examples of these problems are taken from the fields of molecular electronic structure calculations, quantum reactive scattering calculations, and quantum optics. 12 figures

  4. Theoretical models of DNA flexibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dršata, Tomáš; Lankaš, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2013), s. 355-363 ISSN 1759-0876 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics simulations * base pair level * indirect readout Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.041, year: 2013

  5. Infantilism: Theoretical Construct and Operationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelnikova, Y. V.; Khmeleva, N. L.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define and operationalize the construct of infantilism. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. Age and content criteria are analyzed for childhood and adulthood. Infantile traits in an adult are described. Results: The characteristics of adult infantilism in the modern world are defined,…

  6. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlachter, Jack S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  7. Theoretical Approaches to Lignin Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey M.

    1994-01-01

    A critical review is presented of the applications of theoretical methods to the studies of the structure and chemical reactivity of lignin, including simulation of macromolecular properties, conformational calculations, quantum chemical analyses of electronic structure, spectra and chemical reactivity. Modern concepts of spatial organization and chemical reactivity of lignins are discussed.

  8. Theoretical foundations for collaboration engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Collaboration is often presented as the solution to numerous problems in business and society. However, collaboration is challenging, and collaboration support is not an off-the-shelf-product. This research offers theoretical foundations for Collaboration Engineering. Collaboration Engineering is an

  9. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  10. The Effect of Private Benefits of Control on Minority Shareholders: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from State Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of private benefits of control on minority shareholders. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is established. The empirical analysis includes hand-collected data from a wide range of data sources. OLS and 2SLS regression analysis are applied with Huber-White standard errors. Findings: The theoretical model shows that, while private benefits are generally harmful to minority shareholders, the overall effect depends on the size of large shareholder ownership. The empirical evidence from government ownership is consistent with theoretical analysis. Research limitations/implications: The empirical evidence is based on a small number of hand-collected data sets of government ownership. Further studies can be expanded to other types of ownership, such as family ownership and financial institutional ownership. Originality/value: This study is the first to theoretically analyse and empirically test the effect of private benefits. In general, this study significantly contributes to the understanding of the effect of large shareholder and corporate governance.

  11. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five PhD students are working for their degree under supervision of the senior members from the Department. In the last year we have completed our active participation in the educational TEMPUS programme funded by the European Communities. This programme has in particular allowed exchange of students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. In 1998 we joined the SOCRATES - ERASMUS project which will make it possible to continue this exchange. (author)

  12. On the relative significance of lithospheric weakening mechanisms for sustained plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araceli Sanchez-Maes, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Plate tectonics requires the bending of strong plates at subduction zones, which is difficult to achieve without a secondary weakening mechanism. Two classes of weakening mechanisms have been proposed for the generation of ongoing plate tectonics, distinguished by whether or not they require water. Here we show that the energy budget of global subduction zones offers a simple yet decisive test on their relative significance. Theoretical studies of mantle convection suggest bending dissipation to occupy only 10-20 % of total dissipation in the mantle, and our results indicate that the hydrous mechanism in the shallow part of plates is essential to satisfy the requirement. Thus, surface oceans are required for the long-term operation of plate tectonics on terrestrial worlds. Establishing this necessary and observable condition for sustained plate tectonics carries important implications for planetary habitability at large.

  13. Neuropsychological and Emotional Correlates Involved in Cocaine Use: A Theoretical Review of New Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramos-Cejudo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is being an alarming health problem in developed countries. This issue has important implications in economic, social and public health. Currently, efforts are focused on research in metabolic, neuropsychological and emotional changes, resulting from chronic use. However, theoretical work review on this critical area is not available. The aim of our study is to review and integrate the ultimate findings and results in terms of metabolic abnormalities, neuropsychological and emotional abuse of cocaine. The results show a significant impairment of dopaminergic pathways in the frontal lobe, both in the number of recipient and depletion of the neurotransmitter, as well as an important executive function deficit in response inhibition in attention and working memory. In addition, alterations in the ability in identifying emotions, impulsiveness, decision making, anxiety and depression are proved in different studies.

  14. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Street, Roger; Chu, Cordia

    2018-03-16

    Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  15. Effects of aerosol polydispersity on theoretical calculations of unattached fractions of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, F.; Khan, A.; Phillips, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of unattached fractions of radon progeny require prediction of an attachment coefficient. Average attachment coefficients for aerosols of various count median diameters, CMD, and geometric standard deviations, σ/sub g/, are calculated using four different theories. These theories are: (1) the kinetic theory, (2) the diffusion theory, (3) the hybrid theory and (4) the kinetic-diffusion theory. Comparisons of the various calculated attachment coefficients are made and the implications of using either the kinetic or the diffusion theory to calculate unattached fractions for aerosols of various CMD and σg are discussed. Significant errors may arise in use of either the kinetic theory or the diffusion theory. Large and unacceptable errors arise in calculating unattached fractions of a polydisperse aerosol by characterizing the aerosol as monodisperse. Unattached fractions of RaA are calculated for two mine aerosols and a room aerosol

  16. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Street, Roger; Chu, Cordia

    2018-01-01

    Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies. PMID:29547592

  17. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Banwell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  18. Theoretical issues in Spheromak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R. H.; Hooper, E.B.; LoDestro, L.L.; Mattor, N.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of theoretical knowledge of several physics issues important to the spheromak. It was prepared as part of the preparation for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), which addresses these goals: energy confinement and the physics which determines it; the physics of transition from a short-pulsed experiment, in which the equilibrium and stability are determined by a conducting wall (''''flux conserver'''') to one in which the equilibrium is supported by external coils. Physics is examined in this report in four important areas. The status of present theoretical understanding is reviewed, physics which needs to be addressed more fully is identified, and tools which are available or require more development are described. Specifically, the topics include: MHD equilibrium and design, review of MHD stability, spheromak dynamo, and edge plasma in spheromaks

  19. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feofanova Iryna V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

  20. A course in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, P J

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive account of five extended modules covering the key branches of twentieth-century theoretical physics, taught by the author over a period of three decades to students on bachelor and master university degree courses in both physics and theoretical physics. The modules cover nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, thermal and statistical physics, many-body theory, classical field theory (including special relativity and electromagnetism), and, finally, relativistic quantum mechanics and gauge theories of quark and lepton interactions, all presented in a single, self-contained volume. In a number of universities, much of the material covered (for example, on Einstein’s general theory of relativity, on the BCS theory of superconductivity, and on the Standard Model, including the theory underlying the prediction of the Higgs boson) is taught in postgraduate courses to beginning PhD students. A distinctive feature of the book is that full, step-by-step mathematical proofs of all essentia...

  1. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  2. Theoretical Fundamentals of Human Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Maria Ienciu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical approaches presented by the literature on the human factor. In order to achieve such objective we have performed a qualitative research by analyzing the content of several papers published in internationally renowned journals, classified according to the list of journals' ranking provided by the Association of Business Schools (UK), in relation to the theories that have been approached within it. Our findings suggest that from all ident...

  3. Theoretical Foundations of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    I study the informational complexity of active learning in a statistical learning theory framework. Specifically, I derive bounds on the rates of...convergence achievable by active learning , under various noise models and under general conditions on the hypothesis class. I also study the theoretical...advantages of active learning over passive learning, and develop procedures for transforming passive learning algorithms into active learning algorithms

  4. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind.

  5. Information theoretic description of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Hollunder, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We present a new information theoretic approach for network characterizations. It is developed to describe the general type of networks with n nodes and L directed and weighted links, i.e., it also works for the simpler undirected and unweighted networks. The new information theoretic measures for network characterizations are based on a transmitter-receiver analogy of effluxes and influxes. Based on these measures, we classify networks as either complex or non-complex and as either democracy or dictatorship networks. Directed networks, in particular, are furthermore classified as either information spreading and information collecting networks. The complexity classification is based on the information theoretic network complexity measure medium articulation (MA). It is proven that special networks with a medium number of links ( L∼n1.5) show the theoretical maximum complexity MA=(log n)2/2. A network is complex if its MA is larger than the average MA of appropriately randomized networks: MA>MAr. A network is of the democracy type if its redundancy Rdictatorship network. In democracy networks all nodes are, on average, of similar importance, whereas in dictatorship networks some nodes play distinguished roles in network functioning. In other words, democracy networks are characterized by cycling of information (or mass, or energy), while in dictatorship networks there is a straight through-flow from sources to sinks. The classification of directed networks into information spreading and information collecting networks is based on the conditional entropies of the considered networks ( H(A/B)=uncertainty of sender node if receiver node is known, H(B/A)=uncertainty of receiver node if sender node is known): if H(A/B)>H(B/A), it is an information collecting network, otherwise an information spreading network. Finally, different real networks (directed and undirected, weighted and unweighted) are classified according to our general scheme.

  6. Psychotherapy Integration via Theoretical Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Tryon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful psychotherapy integration requires theoretical unification because psychotherapists can only be expected to treat patients with the same diagnoses similarly if they understand these disorders similarly and if they agree on the mechanisms by which effective treatments work. Tryon (in press has proposed a transtheoretic transdiagnostic psychotherapy based on an Applied Psychological Science (APS clinical orientation, founded on a BioPsychology Network explanatory system that provides sufficient theoretical unification to support meaningful psychotherapy integration. That proposal focused mainly on making a neuroscience argument. This article makes a different argument for theoretical unification and consequently psychotherapy integration. The strength of theories of psychotherapy, like all theory, is to focus on certain topics, goals, and methods. But this strength is also a weakness because it can blind one to alternative perspectives and thereby promote unnecessary competition among therapies. This article provides a broader perspective based on learning and memory that is consistent with the behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, pharmacologic, and Existential/Humanistic/Experiential clinical orientations. It thereby provides a basis for meaningful psychotherapy integration.

  7. Qualitative methods in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, Dmitrii

    2018-01-01

    This book comprises a set of tools which allow researchers and students to arrive at a qualitatively correct answer without undertaking lengthy calculations. In general, Qualitative Methods in Theoretical Physics is about combining approximate mathematical methods with fundamental principles of physics: conservation laws and symmetries. Readers will learn how to simplify problems, how to estimate results, and how to apply symmetry arguments and conduct dimensional analysis. A comprehensive problem set is included. The book will appeal to a wide range of students and researchers.

  8. Interconnection policy: a theoretical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the theoretical foundations of interconnection policy. The requirement of an interconnection policy should not be taken for granted in all circumstances, even considering the issue of network externalities. On the other hand, when it is required, an encompassing interconnection policy is usually justified. We provide an overview of the theory on interconnection pricing that results in several different prescriptions depending on which problem the regulator aims to address. We also present a survey on the literature on two-way interconnection.

  9. Machine learning a theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Balas K

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive introduction to computational learning theory. The author's uniform presentation of fundamental results and their applications offers AI researchers a theoretical perspective on the problems they study. The book presents tools for the analysis of probabilistic models of learning, tools that crisply classify what is and is not efficiently learnable. After a general introduction to Valiant's PAC paradigm and the important notion of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, the author explores specific topics such as finite automata and neural networks. The presentation

  10. THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Montes Galbán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine the current theoretical concepts handled by third stage basic education geography teachers. A non experimental descriptive study was made. Data was collected through a semi structured questionnaire. The population was conformed by the teachers who work at the National schools placed in the parishes Raul Leoni and Cacique Mara of Maracaibo city, Zulia State. There is not clarity in regard to the correct handling of the different geographic currents, and the slight notion teachers have leans towards a traditional, descriptive, retrospective memory based conception.

  11. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  12. The significance of radiative coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent theoretical study, Jarvis and McNaughton derived an expression for the elasticity of evaporation with respect to canopy conductance to analyze the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere. They concluded that one cannot expect a fractional change in stomatal resistance to cause a proportional change in leaf or canopy transpiration, especially for vegetation with low aerodynamic roughness. However, a potentially important stomatal feedback was left out. As stomata close, transpiration decreases, while the temperature of sunlit leaves and the associated outgoing long-wave radiation from the leaf increase. The net result is a change both in transpiration and leaf net radiation. This paper examines the assumptions made in Jarvis and McNaughton's analysis, presents an alternative derivation for the elasticity of evaporation to conductance, and discusses its theoretical and practical implications

  13. Implications of the behavioral approach to hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starker, S

    1975-07-01

    The findings of behaviorally oriented research regarding the importance of cognitive-motivational variables in hypnosis are examined and some clinical and theoretical implications are explored. Hypnosis seems usefully conceptualized as a complex configuration or gestalt of interacting variables on several different levels, for example, cognitive, motivational, social, physiologic.

  14. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, T.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the accomplishments in basic research in nuclear physics carried out by the theoretical nuclear physics group in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, during the period of November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993. The work done covers three separate areas, low-energy nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, and nuclear structure studies. Although the subjects are thus spread among different areas, they are based on two techniques developed in previous years. These techniques are a powerful method for continuum-random-phase-approximation (CRPA) calculations of nuclear response and the breakup-fusion (BF) approach to incomplete fusion reactions, which calculation on a single footing of various incomplete fusion reaction cross sections within the framework of direct reaction theories. The approach was developed as a part of a more general program for establishing an approach to describing all different types of nuclear reactions, i.e., complete fusion, incomplete fusion and direct reactions, in a systematic way based on single theoretical framework

  15. Theoretical perspectives on strange physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-04-01

    Kaons are heavy enough to have an interesting range of decay modes available to them, and light enough to be produced in sufficient numbers to explore rare modes with satisfying statistics. Kaons and their decays have provided at least two major breakthroughs in our knowledge of fundamental physics. They have revealed to us CP violation, and their lack of flavor-changing neutral interactions warned us to expect charm. In addition, K 0 -anti K 0 mixing has provided us with one of our most elegant and sensitive laboratories for testing quantum mechanics. There is every reason to expect that future generations of kaon experiments with intense sources would add further to our knowledge of fundamental physics. This talk attempts to set future kaon experiments in a general theoretical context, and indicate how they may bear upon fundamental theoretical issues. A survey of different experiments which would be done with an Intense Medium Energy Source of Strangeness, including rare K decays, probes of the nature of CP isolation, μ decays, hyperon decays and neutrino physics is given

  16. Theoretical perspectives on narrative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emden, C

    1998-04-01

    Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.

  17. Theoretical foundations of intercultural business communication and their practical consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikhart Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural business communication is well researched regarding theoretical foundations; however, we still lack practical consequences of this theoretical enquiry. The aim of the paper is to bring crucial practical implications which could be efficiently used in everyday business activity (such as negotiations, advertising and meetings in the current global business environment. The current reality of business communication is based purely on interaction with people from other cultures, backgrounds, nations and continents. To communicate successfully we make surface adaptation so that we are able to cross cultural boundaries and transcendent culture, and not only survive in today multicultural society but we manage to prosper, and even economically. When being aware of the differences in rhetoric style and conversational style in various cultures, we can become better communicators and negotiators and therefore be more successful in the global market.

  18. Theoretical issues in PDF determination and associated uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We study several sources of theoretical uncertainty in the determination of parton distributions (PDFs) which may affect current PDF sets used for precision physics at the Large Hadron Collider, and explain discrepancies between them. We consider in particular the use of fixed-flavor versus variable-flavor number renormalization schemes, higher twist corrections, and nuclear corrections. We perform our study in the framework of the NNPDF2.3 global PDF determination, by quantifying in each case the impact of different theoretical assumptions on the output PDFs. We also study in each case the implications for benchmark cross sections at the LHC. We find that the impact in a global fit of a fixed-flavor number scheme is substantial, the impact of higher twists is negligible, and the impact of nuclear corrections is moderate and circumscribed.

  19. Understanding the managerial state: a few theoretical tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Gomes de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers theoretical tools to the analysis of the state and contemporary public policies, with special attention to educational policies. Utilizing mainly the contribution of John Clarke and Janet Newman and adding the concepts used by Michael Apple and Stephen Ball, this article offer theoretical lenses to theexamination of the managerial nature of the contemporary state. Through the dispersal of power, the blurring of the borders between public and private and assessment policies that control the action of public institutions, the managerial state fi ghts the Welfare State and creates the conditions to public policies that reshape the relationship between civil society and the state. The article ends with some implications to the study of educational policies, emphasizing the fact that the managerial logic does not transfer, unmediated, to all state actions.

  20. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Gautam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, promotion of product, and revenue generation have been highlighted in the paper. All the suggestions are theoretical and may have relevance and implication to the marketers.

  1. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Gautam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, promotion of product, and revenue generation have been highlighted in the paper. All the suggestions are theoretical and may have relevance and implication to the marketers.

  2. A Game Theoretical Approach to Hacktivism: Is Attack Likelihood a Product of Risks and Payoffs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodford, Jessica E; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2018-02-01

    The current study examines hacktivism (i.e., hacking to convey a moral, ethical, or social justice message) through a general game theoretic framework-that is, as a product of costs and benefits. Given the inherent risk of carrying out a hacktivist attack (e.g., legal action, imprisonment), it would be rational for the user to weigh these risks against perceived benefits of carrying out the attack. As such, we examined computer science students' estimations of risks, payoffs, and attack likelihood through a game theoretic design. Furthermore, this study aims at constructing a descriptive profile of potential hacktivists, exploring two predicted covariates of attack decision making, namely, peer prevalence of hacking and sex differences. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that participants' estimations of attack likelihood stemmed solely from expected payoffs, rather than subjective risks. Peer prevalence significantly predicted increased payoffs and attack likelihood, suggesting an underlying descriptive norm in social networks. Notably, we observed no sex differences in the decision to attack, nor in the factors predicting attack likelihood. Implications for policymakers and the understanding and prevention of hacktivism are discussed, as are the possible ramifications of widely communicated payoffs over potential risks in hacking communities.

  3. Theoretical physics 8 statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to statistical physics, one of the core components of advanced undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, using methods of probability theory and statistics to solve physical problems. The first part of the book gives a detailed overview on classical statistical physics and introduces all mathematical tools needed. The second part of the book covers topics related to quantized states, gives a thorough introduction to quantum statistics, followed by a concise treatment of quantum gases. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successf...

  4. Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...

  5. Theoretical nuclear and subnuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walecka, John Dirk

    1995-01-01

    This comprehensive text expertly details the numerous theoretical techniques central to the discipline of nuclear physics. It is based on lecture notes from a three-lecture series given at CEBAF (the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility), where John Dirk Walecka at the time was Scientific Director: "Graduate Quantum Mechanics", "Advanced Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory" and "Special Topics in Nuclear Physics". The primary goal of this text is pedagogical; providing a clear, logical, in-depth, and unifying treatment of many diverse aspects of modern nuclear theory ranging from the non-relativistic many-body problem to the standard model of the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Four key topics are emphasised in this text: basic nuclear structure, the relativistic nuclear many-body problem, strong-coupling QCD, and electroweak interactions with nuclei. The text is designed to provide graduate students with a basic level of understanding of modern nuclear physics so that they in turn can...

  6. Einstein's impact on theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    There occurred in the early years of this century three conceptual revolutions that profoundly changed Man's understanding of the physical universe: the special theory of relativity (in 1905), the general theory of relativity (1915) and quantum mechanics (1925). Einstein personally was responsible for the first two of these revolutions, and influenced and helped to shape the third. But it is not about his work in these conceptual revolutions that he writes about here. Much has been written about that work already. Instead, he discusses, in general terms, Einstein's insights on the structure of theoretical physics and their relevance to the development of physics in the second half of this century. He divides the discussion into four sections which are, of course, very much related

  7. 'Impulsar': Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Objective of the 'Impulsar' project is to accomplish a circle of experimental, engineering and technological works on creation of a high efficiency laser rocket engine. The project includes many organizations of the rocket industry and Academy of Sciences of Russia. High repetition rate pulse-periodic CO 2 laser system project for launching will be presented. Optical system for 15 MW laser energy delivery and optical matrix of laser engine receiver will by discussed as well. Basic characteristics of the laser-based engine will be compared with theoretical predictions and important stages of further technology implementation (low frequency resonance). Relying on a wide cooperation of different branches of science and industry organizations it is very possible to use the accumulated potential for launching of nano-vehicles during the upcoming 4-5 years

  8. Theoretical Physics Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research areas covered in this report are solid state and quantum physics, theoretical metallurgy, fuel modelling and reactor materials, statistical physics and the theory of fluids. Attention is drawn to a number of items: (i) the application of theories of aerosol behaviour to the interpretation of conditions in the cover-gas space of a fast reactor; (ii) studies in non-linear dynamics, dynamical instabilities and chaotic behaviour covering for example, fluid behaviour in Taylor-Couette experiments, non-linear behaviour in electronic circuits and reaction-diffusion systems; (iii) the development of finite element computational techniques to describe the periodic behaviour of a system after a Hopf bifurcation and in simulating solidification processes; (iv) safety assessment of disposal concepts for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. (U.K.)

  9. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  10. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  11. Solid surfaces : some theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    An appraisal of the current situation concerning some of the theoretical aspects of solid surfaces is presented. First of all the characterization of the surfaces that involves the surface geometry and atomic composition for both the clean and adsorbed surfaces is discussed. Under this, the methods for determining the surface structure (such as low energy electron diffraction, field electron and field ion microscopy, photo emission spectroscopy and atomic scattering) and methods for determining the surface composition by the Auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In the second part, emphasis is on the electronic structure of the clean and adsorbed surfaces. The measurements of ultra-violet and X-ray photo electron spectra are shown to yield the information about the surface electronic structure. In this context the many body effects such as, shake-up and relaxation energy etc. are discussed. Finally the status of the theory in relation to the experiments on angular resolved and polarization dependent photo emission are presented. (auth.)

  12. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FILMMUSIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova Tatiana K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, author analyzes the theoretical aspects of the film music study taking into account with modern realities in the development of world film-process and attempts to its scientific understanding. Need for innovation in this area is long overdue, because the existing on this topic nonfiction no longer meets the new aesthetic and art-practical achievements and innovations in the film music development at the XXI century. Related to the phenomenon of music in screen arts a number of new terms and concepts require a certain adjustment as well. Their range of action is not yet fully defined. Author of the article offered her version of their content-semantic interpretation (largely experimental designed to promote new research methods for the film music study.

  13. Plasmon holographic experiments: theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeeck, J.; Dyck, D. van; Lichte, H.; Potapov, P.; Schattschneider, P.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical framework is described to understand the results of plasmon holography experiments leading to insight in the meaning of the experimental results and pointing out directions for future experiments. The framework is based on the formalism of mutual intensity to describe how coherence is transferred through an optical system. For the inelastic interaction with the object, an expression for the volume plasmon excitations in a free electron gas is used as a model for the behaviour of aluminium. The formalism leads to a clear graphical intuitive tool for understanding the experiments. It becomes evident that the measured coherence is solely related to the angular distribution of the plasmon scattering in the case of bulk plasmons. After describing the framework, the special case of coherence outside a spherical particle is treated and the seemingly controversial idea of a plasmon with a limited coherence length obtained from experiments is clarified

  14. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  15. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf ESMER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, having just leadership or entrepreneurship qualities by business managers is not enough for success of enterprises. Managers need to have both leadership and entrepreneurship qualities in order to be successful. At this point, the concept of entrepreneurial leadership emerges. Entrepreneurial leadership is a new and modern type of leadership that is a combination of leadership qualities and spirit of entrepreneurship. In addition, entrepreneurial leadership is creating new products, new processes and expansion opportunities in existing businesses, working in social institutions and dealing with ignored social issues, participating in social and political movements, contributing to the change of current services and policies implemented by civil society organizations and governments. In recent times, entrepreneurial leadership has become a new phenomenon in business management that needs to be discussed. In this regard, in this study, the importance of entrepreneurial leadership is emphasized by examining the concept of entrepreneurial leadership within a theoretical framework.

  16. Theoretical microbial ecology without species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.

  17. The probabilistic innovation theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite technological advances that offer new opportunities for solving societal problems in real time, knowledge management theory development has largely not kept pace with these developments. This article seeks to offer useful insights into how more effective theory development in this area could be enabled. Aim: This article suggests different streams of literature for inclusion into a theoretical framework for an emerging stream of research, termed ‘probabilistic innovation’, which seeks to develop a system of real-time research capability. The objective of this research is therefore to provide a synthesis of a range of diverse literatures, and to provide useful insights into how research enabled by crowdsourced research and development can potentially be used to address serious knowledge problems in real time. Setting: This research suggests that knowledge management theory can provide an anchor for a new stream of research contributing to the development of real-time knowledge problem solving. Methods: This conceptual article seeks to re-conceptualise the problem of real-time research and locate this knowledge problem in relation to a host of rapidly developing streams of literature. In doing so, a novel perspective of societal problem-solving is enabled. Results: An analysis of theory and literature suggests that certain rapidly developing streams of literature might more effectively contribute to societally important real-time research problem solving if these steams are united under a theoretical framework with this goal as its explicit focus. Conclusion: Although the goal of real-time research is as yet not attainable, research that contributes to its attainment may ultimately make an important contribution to society.

  18. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural Geology, Crystallography, Mineralogy, Thermodynamics, Experimental Petrology and Theoretical Geophysics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 8 August 2017 ...

  20. Comparison between theoretical predictions and tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction in a proton-antiproton collider has been an outstanding issue for a long time. Several theoretical predictions have been made in the past which range from the appearance of single beam-beam driven resonances to the onset of stochasticity and Arnold diffusion and the presence of chaotic trajectories. All these effects would cause a limit on the maximum strength of the beam-beam interaction, the so called beam-beam tune-shift, and speculative values have been offered ranging from as low as 0.0005 to as large as a fraction of unit. The lower limit could be caused in a more complicated situation where the external focussing forces which keep the two beams in the same storage ring are also modulated in time. These theoretical predictions have been compared with extensive computer tracking where the motion of the particles is followed turn after turn over very long periods of time. Though it is indeed possible to observe the formation of several resonances, nevertheless the onset of connected stochasticity seems to occur at too large beam-beam tune-shift to be of any practical relevance. Moreover no Arnold diffusion has been observed to have any practical significance. Chaotic trajectories have been found to embed the phase space in disconnected regions of appreciable extension. They increase in numbers considerably when time modulation of external focussing forces is added. 15 refs., 18 figs.

  1. Theoretical Division annual report, FY 1975. [LASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.A.

    1976-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in the Theoretical Division and a summary of research highlights during FY 1975. It is intended to inform a wide audience about the theoretical work of the LASL and, therefore, contains introductory material which places recent advances in a broader context. The report is organized into two special interest reports: reactor safety research and the Advanced Research Committee, and 11 reports from the T-Division group leaders on the work of their respective groups. Main interests and responsibilities are outlined including the relationship of the group's work to the work of other T-Division groups and other divisions at the Laboratory. The description of research highlights for FY 1975 explains in a fairly simple, straightforward manner the major recent advances and their significance. Each group report is followed by a publication list for FY 1975 (330 references) and a list of talks given outside the Laboratory (140 references). 29 figures. (auth)

  2. Comparison between theoretical predictions and tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction in a proton-antiproton collider has been an outstanding issue for a long time. Several theoretical predictions have been made in the past which range from the appearance of single beam-beam driven resonances to the onset of stochasticity and Arnold diffusion and the presence of chaotic trajectories. All these effects would cause a limit on the maximum strength of the beam-beam interaction, the so called beam-beam tune-shift, and speculative values have been offered ranging from as low as 0.0005 to as large as a fraction of unit. The lower limit could be caused in a more complicated situation where the external focussing forces which keep the two beams in the same storage ring are also modulated in time. These theoretical predictions have been compared with extensive computer tracking where the motion of the particles is followed turn after turn over very long periods of time. Though it is indeed possible to observe the formation of several resonances, nevertheless the onset of connected stochasticity seems to occur at too large beam-beam tune-shift to be of any practical relevance. Moreover no Arnold diffusion has been observed to have any practical significance. Chaotic trajectories have been found to embed the phase space in disconnected regions of appreciable extension. They increase in numbers considerably when time modulation of external focussing forces is added. 15 refs., 18 figs

  3. Theoretical Foundations of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to reveal theoretical foundations of corporate social responsibility. It is argued that the financial crisis and its implications for the global economy have demonstrated once and again that stability of the global market is conditional on the responsible behavior, models of balanced business operation, active management, impact of business (companies on the social life, and regulatory framework. The global corporate social responsibility depends on problems associated with change in the global climate and deepened social inequality. The demand for social policy is tremendous at global and sectoral level. Business needs to be engaged in social issues because a new global social contract between business, government and society is required to ensure long-term stabilization and reproduction of wealth. It has become even more obvious at corporate level. It is shown that the notion of “social” has many meanings, but in the legal context it means the need to account, apart from the literary meaning of this norm, for the social context in which this norm operates. The notion “social” is synonymous to society, referring to not only business operation target but also to the responsibility of a businessman. It is demonstrated that the corporate social responsibility will work effectively and help achieve the organizations’ objectives if it has the parameters of an open system interacting with the environment. At the same time, it should be remembered that in keeping with the system characteristic of modern management theories addressing a company as a homogenous and target-oriented system all the internal processes occurring in one component of this system will have effects for its other components.

  4. Hash functions and information theoretic security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasoor; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Naderi, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Information theoretic security is an important security notion in cryptography as it provides a true lower bound for attack complexities. However, in practice attacks often have a higher cost than the information theoretic bound. In this paper we study the relationship between information theoretic...

  5. Does ethical membership matter? Moral identification and its organizational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Douglas R; Chang, Young K; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    This research meaningfully connects the literatures on identification and business ethics by proposing the new construct of moral identification. Moral identification is defined here as the perception of oneness or belongingness associated with an organization that exhibits ethical traits (e.g., care, kindness, and compassion), which also involves a deliberate concern of the membership with an ethical organization. Integrating social identity theory with theory on the moral self, this research examines an overall theoretical model where moral identification plays a significant role in explaining employee attraction, motivation, and retention (i.e., 3 components of the overall theoretical framework). These components were examined separately in 3 empirical studies and findings from these studies first revealed that moral identification explained why job seekers with strong (vs. weak) moral identities were more attracted to a socially responsible organization (Study 1). Second, moral identification was associated with lower employee unethical proorganizational behavior (Study 2). Finally, moral identification was negatively related to employees' turnover intentions. Organizations' legal compliance moderated this relation such that it was stronger when organizations have higher (vs. lower) levels of legal compliance (Study 3). Taken together, these studies suggest that moral identification offers new insights in explaining both potential and current employees' behaviors when morality is contextually relevant and subjectively meaningful. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.

  7. Fluorescein isothiocyanate: Molecular characterization by theoretical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, Jordi [Departament de Quimica, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Lleida, c/Jaume II No 69, Lleida E-25001 (Spain); Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: denis.jacquemin@fundp.ac.be; Perpete, Eric A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique Appliquee, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Aleman, Carlos [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, E. T. S. d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu

    2008-12-10

    Quantum mechanical calculations have been used to investigate the conformation, molecular geometry, basicity and spectroscopic properties of fluorescein isothiocyanate in both the gas-phase and aqueous solution. Specifically, calculations have been performed considering the neutral, monoanionic and dianionic forms of this important fluorescent compound. Results reveal that for the neutral form multiple conformational states are possible, all them with significant contributions, and the stability of the different conformers is similar in the gas-phase and aqueous solution. Calculation of the excitation energies revealed that spectroscopic properties are very sensitive to the relaxation effect in solution. A good agreement has been reached obtained between the experimental and theoretical values derived from time-dependent density functional theory methods for the neutral form, whereas for charged species the calculations fail to accurately reproduce the measured trends.

  8. Democratic Deliberation Procedures : Theoretical and Practical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutui Viorel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : In contemporary political philosophy, the focus of the most important controversies is on the deliberative model of democracy. These controversies concern not only the theoretical problem of providing the best justification for a deliberative model of democratic legitimacy, but also the practical problem of designing the best deliberative procedure that will secure the implementation of deliberative democracy. In this paper I will present and analyze some of the most important deliberative designs: deliberative polls, citizens’ juries, consensus conferences and planning cells. I argue that these deliberative events can have a significant impact on the political behavior of a democratic community. However, I explain that all of them have only a limited influence on the policy-making activities in local and central governing structures. This is the reason why I believe we could only supplement and never fully replace the traditional aggregative procedures of democracy (voting and bargaining with a deliberative design.

  9. Brains on Wheels: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Bio-Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the re...

  10. THE REPURCHASE OF SHARES - ANOTHER FORM OF REWARDING INVESTORS - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISACARIU Maria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the shareholder remuneration policies, in recent years, share repurchases are gaining more and more ground. Like any other phenomenon or financial practice, repurchases lacked no theories to explain their motivation, effects and controversies. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to the subject by summarizing relevant research in order to highlight the motivations behind this decision and its implications.

  11. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  12. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  13. Theoretical Physics. Lectures presented at the Seminar on Theoretical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The seminar on Theoretical Physics was held in Trieste, Italy, from 16 July to 25 of August 1962 and was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The published proceedings of the lectures consist of five books. Book I is concerned with quantum field theory in its axiomatic as well as lagrangian formulations. Part 1 is a survey by Wightman of the recent achievements of the axiomatic approach followed by an account from Wigner of some of the less known representations of the Lorentz Group (continuous spin and imaginary mass representations) which may possibly acquire relevance in connection with theories of Regge poles. Part two of Book I consists of Schwinger’s lectures on the structure of Gauge Theories of Vector Particles and an account of his recent ideas about gauge invariance and its connection with mass. Book II is devoted to the symmetry properties of elementary particles with an experimental review by Capps and a survey of the formalism of Lie groups by Salam. A number of contributions by Gatto, Sakurai and others specialize to particular Lie groups, exploring the possibility of testing which, if any, of the higher symmetries are in fact realized in nature. Book III is concerned with complex angular momenta and Mandelstam representation, with major lecture courses from Regge, Fubini, Mandelstam and Froissart. A shorter Book IV surveys some recent dynamical investigations of πN and NN Systems as well as compound models of elementary particles (Thirring). The concluding part of this volume (Book V) is different in spirit from the rest. Its concern is with the emerging topic of very high energies, with a survey of strong interactions from Hayakawa, of electromagnetic interactions from Ericsson and others and of weak interactions at very high energies from Pais.

  14. Theoretical Physics. Lectures presented at the Seminar on Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The seminar on Theoretical Physics was held in Trieste, Italy, from 16 July to 25 of August 1962 and was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The published proceedings of the lectures consist of five books. Book I is concerned with quantum field theory in its axiomatic as well as lagrangian formulations. Part 1 is a survey by Wightman of the recent achievements of the axiomatic approach followed by an account from Wigner of some of the less known representations of the Lorentz Group (continuous spin and imaginary mass representations) which may possibly acquire relevance in connection with theories of Regge poles. Part two of Book I consists of Schwinger’s lectures on the structure of Gauge Theories of Vector Particles and an account of his recent ideas about gauge invariance and its connection with mass. Book II is devoted to the symmetry properties of elementary particles with an experimental review by Capps and a survey of the formalism of Lie groups by Salam. A number of contributions by Gatto, Sakurai and others specialize to particular Lie groups, exploring the possibility of testing which, if any, of the higher symmetries are in fact realized in nature. Book III is concerned with complex angular momenta and Mandelstam representation, with major lecture courses from Regge, Fubini, Mandelstam and Froissart. A shorter Book IV surveys some recent dynamical investigations of πN and NN Systems as well as compound models of elementary particles (Thirring). The concluding part of this volume (Book V) is different in spirit from the rest. Its concern is with the emerging topic of very high energies, with a survey of strong interactions from Hayakawa, of electromagnetic interactions from Ericsson and others and of weak interactions at very high energies from Pais.

  15. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  16. Studies in theoretical particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter -- which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal

  17. Climate Change: a Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq-ur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change has been undoubtedly the most illustrious environmental issue since late 20th century. But neither the discourse merely emerged during that time, nor it was problematized in the same way since its onset. History of Climate Change discourse reveals that from a purely scientific concern it has turned into a public agenda that is nowadays more inclined to be development problem. Transformations have brought about a complete new paradigm every time. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the Climate Change discourse and to do so it captured the underlying philosophy of the issue using Thomas Kuhn’s well-known thesis of ‘paradigm shift’. In particular it discusses about the crisis that lead the issue towards transformations; explores key perspectives around the crisis thus representation of the issue in the environmental discourse over the time. While this paper establishes that with the beginning of the 21st century, the discourse entered into a new paradigm and will reach to a critical point by the end of 2012, it finally postulates some measures that the discourse might integrate with the existing to advance beyond that point.

  18. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL TEXTBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveriene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available School textbook is an important part of general education. Some theoretical works were written on school textbook theory. The question about textbook concept, structure and functions wasunder the dispute a long time in Lithuania and abroad.The main purpose of this article is to analyse and summarize the experience of researchers school textbook theory from Lithuania and foreign countries. The tasks of article are to determineconcept of textbook, describe the structure and the functions of the textbook. Famous scientists in this field are D. Zujev (Russia, P. Weinbrenner, F. Pingel (Germany, J. Mikk (Estonia, E. B. Johnsen (Norway, A. Choppin (France, F. M. Gerard and X. Roegiers Belgium, R. Bamberger (Austria. There are many interpretations of textbook concept, and different suggestions what is a textbook. In Lithuania the textbook concept was discussed with some specialists of Educational Development Centre and the Ministry of Education and Science. The Requirements on textbook development were approved in Lithuania only in 2003. According to the research litterature, the main aspect of the textbook is to meet the requirements of curriculum. The textbook consists of text, paratext and illustrations. All these parts of the textbook play many functions in education. The main function of the textbook is to motivate students. Other important functions of the textbook are: information, systematisation, coordination, differentiation, guidance education, learning strategy, value education, aesthetical.

  19. Laser induced fusion - theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawande, S.V.; Gunye, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of thermonuclear fusion induced by laser are discussed. After outlining the basic features and the energetics of laser fusion in the chapter 1, various non-linear mechanisms responsible for an enhanced absorption of laser energy into the plasma and the stimulated scattering processes which hinder the absorption are discussed in the second chapter on laser plasma interactions. The third chapter on gas dynamics and the shock phenomena presents the mathematical formulation of the compression to high densities of the core of the pellet for its implosion. A hydrodynamic model developed to stimulate the evolution of laser heated symmetric plasma is outlined in the chapter four on numerichigly relativistic noninteracting particles, regular bouncing states may occur at high densities, or at high temperatures. The latter case is considered in details for the collapse phase of a hot universe; lepton pair creation may completely decelerate the collapse of a hot hadronic plasma, provided the observational parameters, the Hubble constant Hsub(deg), the matter parameter Ωsub(deg) and the deceleration parameter qsub(deg) satisfy certain constraint conditions

  20. Theoretical Approaches to Nuclear Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Tarasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses discussions between representatives of three schools in the theory of international relations - realism, liberalism and constructivism - on the driving factors of nuclear proliferation. The paper examines major theoretical approaches, outlined in the studies of Russian and foreign scientists, to the causes of nuclear weapons development, while unveiling their advantages and limitations. Much of the article has been devoted to alternative approaches, particularly, the role of mathematical modeling in assessing proliferation risks. The analysis also reveals a variety of different approaches to nuclear weapons acquisition, as well as the absence of a comprehensive proliferation theory. Based on the research results the study uncovers major factors both favoring and impeding nuclear proliferation. The author shows that the lack of consensus between realists, liberals and constructivists on the nature of proliferation led a number of scientists to an attempt to explain nuclear rationale by drawing from the insights of more than one school in the theory of IR. Detailed study of the proliferation puzzle contributes to a greater understating of contemporary international realities, helps to identify mechanisms that are most likely to deter states from obtaining nuclear weapons and is of the outmost importance in predicting short- and long-term security environment. Furthermore, analysis of the existing scientific literature on nuclear proliferation helps to determine future research agenda of the subject at hand.

  1. Cyclotron tubes - a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourier, G

    1980-12-01

    The introduction presents a general discussion of electron cyclotron masers (ECM): resonance, relativistic effects, elementary quantum aspects, the classical relativistic bunching and the optimum value of the electric field. The practical structure - in particular that of the gyrotron - is specified only insofar as it is useful for understanding the following chapters. The main parameters are discussed. Section 2 develops a nonlinear adiabatic or orbital theory of electron motion which alleviates calculations considerably while keeping numerical errors low enough for many practical cases. Its results are compared to a rigorous integration in one case. Other cases show the importance of the electric field profile inside the resonant cavity. Section 3 is devoted to space charge phenomena, and, for the most part, to a linear theory with space charge. In its limited range of validity (low-energy electrons), the theory indicates a strong impact of space charge for low a.c. fields and exhibits a pure beam instability. Section 4 is devoted to circuit equations with emphasis on the special features of cavities consisting of a long waveguide near cutoff. The conclusion indicates some trends of gyrotron development and corresponding theoretical problems.

  2. Theoretical foundations for nervous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasslacher, B.; Tilden, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Following three years of study into experimental Nervous Net (Nv) control devices, various successes and several amusing failures have implied some general principles on the nature of capable control systems for autonomous machines and perhaps, we conjecture, even biological organisms. These systems are minimal, elegant, and, depending upon their implementation in a open-quotes creatureclose quotes structure, astonishingly robust. Their only problem seems to be that as they are collections of non-linear asynchronous elements, only complex analysis can adequately extract and explain the emergent competency of their operation. The implications are that so long as Nv non-linear topologies can retain some measure of sub-critically coupled planar stability, the Piexito theorem will guarantee a form of plastic mode-locking necessary for broad-behavior competency. Further experimental evidence also suggests that if Nv topologies are kept in sub-chaotically stable regimes, they can be implemented at any scale and still automatically fall into effective survival strategies in unstructured environments. An explanation for how this is be possible in such minimal structures is presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  4. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  5. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  6. Theoretical aspects of fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.; Craster, R. V.

    1995-03-01

    In this review we try to cover various topics in fracture mechanics in which mathematical analysis can be used both to aid numerical methods and cast light on key features of the stress field. The dominant singular near crack tip stress field can often be parametrized in terms of three parameters K(sub I), K(sub II) and K(sub III) designating three fracture modes each having an angular variation entirely specified for the stress tensor and displacement vector. These results and contact zone models for removing the interpenetration anomaly are described. Generalizations of the above results to viscoelastic media are described. For homogeneous media with constant Poisson's ratio the angular variation of singular crack tip stresses and displacements are shown to be the same for all time and the same inverse square root singularity as occurs in the elastic medium case is found (this being true for a time varying Poisson ratio too). Only the stress intensity factor varies through time dependence of loads and relaxation properties of the medium. For cracks against bimaterial interfaces both the stress singularity and angular form evolve with time as a function of the time dependent properties of the bimaterial. Similar behavior is identified for sharp notches in viscoelastic plates. The near crack tip behavior in material with non-linear stress strain laws is also identified and stress singularities classified in terms of the hardening exponent for power law hardening materials. Again for interface cracks the near crack tip behavior requires careful analysis and it is shown that more than one singular term may be present in the near crack tip stress field. A variety of theory and applications is presented for inhomogeneous elastic media, coupled thermoelasticity etc. Methods based on reciprocal theorems and dual functions which can also aid in getting awkward singular stress behavior from numerical solutions are also reviewed. Finally theoretical calculations of fiber

  7. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  8. Resistance and Renewal in Theoretical Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    psychology, resistance and renewal, form the overall theme for a selection of theoretical papers that is framed — in this iteration of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology's (ISTP) proceedings — by reflections on the 30 year history of the ISTP as well as by considerations of the future....... The diversity and creativity of the work undertaken within theoretical psychology is further exemplified by papers on the history of the ISTP and theoretical psychology, a new paradigm for functional disorders, experimental introspection and techniques of self, the performativity of psychological science......Theoretical psychologists continue to challenge psychology, related disciplines and the work of other theoretical psychologists through a wide variety of activities that include conceptual clarification and creative theorizing. In many cases, these activities are experienced by the relevant...

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Parameters and error of a theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.

    1986-09-01

    We propose a definition for the error of a theoretical model of the type whose parameters are determined from adjustment to experimental data. By applying a standard statistical method, the maximum-likelihoodlmethod, we derive expressions for both the parameters of the theoretical model and its error. We investigate the derived equations by solving them for simulated experimental and theoretical quantities generated by use of random number generators. 2 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using hyperons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotanch, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report details research progress and results obtained during the 12 month period from January 1991 through 31 December 1991. The research project, entitled ''Theoretical Nuclear Reaction and Structure Studies Using Hyperons and Photons,'' is supported by grant DE-FG05-88ER40461 between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Energy. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator, Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, has conducted a research program addressing theoretical investigations of reactions involving hyperons and photons. The new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following sections

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  13. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  14. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Shi-Gang; Gao Jian; Xiao Rui-Juan; Chen Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. (topical review)

  15. Modeling theoretical uncertainties in phenomenological analyses for particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Niess, Valentin [CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6533, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-04-15

    The determination of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (and its extensions) is often limited by the presence of statistical and theoretical uncertainties. We present several models for the latter uncertainties (random, nuisance, external) in the frequentist framework, and we derive the corresponding p values. In the case of the nuisance approach where theoretical uncertainties are modeled as biases, we highlight the important, but arbitrary, issue of the range of variation chosen for the bias parameters. We introduce the concept of adaptive p value, which is obtained by adjusting the range of variation for the bias according to the significance considered, and which allows us to tackle metrology and exclusion tests with a single and well-defined unified tool, which exhibits interesting frequentist properties. We discuss how the determination of fundamental parameters is impacted by the model chosen for theoretical uncertainties, illustrating several issues with examples from quark flavor physics. (orig.)

  16. CO2 price dynamics. The implications of EU emissions trading for the price of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Bakker, S.J.A.; Harmsen, H.W.; Lise, W.; Chen, Y.

    2005-09-01

    The present study analyses the relationship between EU emissions trading and power prices, notably the implications of free allocation of emissions allowances for the price of electricity in countries of North-western Europe. To study this impact, it uses a variety of analytical approaches, including interviews with stakeholders, empirical and statistical analyses, theoretical explorations, and analyses by means of the COMPETES model. The study shows that a significant part of the costs of freely allocated allowances is passed through to power price and discusses its implications in terms of higher electricity prices for consumers and windfall profits for producers. It concludes that free allocation of emission allowances is a highly questionable policy option for a variety of reasons and suggests that auctioning might offer a better perspective

  17. Deferred Action: Theoretical model of process architecture design for emergent business processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Business modelling and ebusiness systems development assumes fixed company resources, structures, and business processes. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that company resources and structures are emergent rather than fixed. Planning business activity in emergent contexts requires flexible ebusiness models based on better management theories and models . This paper builds and proposes a theoretical model of ebusiness systems capable of catering for emergent factors that affect business processes. Drawing on development of theories of the ‘action and design’class the Theory of Deferred Action is invoked as the base theory for the theoretical model. A theoretical model of flexible process architecture is presented by identifying its core components and their relationships, and then illustrated with exemplar flexible process architectures capable of responding to emergent factors. Managerial implications of the model are considered and the model’s generic applicability is discussed.

  18. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  19. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  20. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  1. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  2. A Framework for the Corporate Governance of Data – Theoretical Background and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Dahlberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a modern organization, IT and digital data have transformed from being functional resources to integral elements of business strategy. Against this background, our article addresses corporate governance of digital data in general and that of aging societies in particular. To describe the role of executives and managers in data governance, we first review the corporate and IT governance literature. We then propose a theoretical framework for the governance of data: a novel construct. We apply the framework to the governance of aging societies related data, that is, to answer the question of how best to manage the provision of services to citizens with digital data enablement and support. We also disclose the results from two recent surveys, with 212 and 68 respondents respectively, on the business significance of data governance. The survey results reveal that good governance of data is considered critical to organizations. As concluding remarks, we discuss the significance of our results, our contributions to research, the limitations of our study and its managerial implications.

  3. A Computational and Theoretical Study of Conductance in Hydrogen-bonded Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Michael

    This thesis is devoted to the theoretical and computational study of electron transport in molecular junctions where one or more hydrogen bonds are involved in the process. While electron transport through covalent bonds has been extensively studied, in recent work the focus has been shifted towards hydrogen-bonded systems due to their ubiquitous presence in biological systems and their potential in forming nano-junctions between molecular electronic devices and biological systems. This analysis allows us to significantly expand our comprehension of the experimentally observed result that the inclusion of hydrogen bonding in a molecular junction significantly impacts its transport properties, a fact that has important implications for our understanding of transport through DNA, and nano-biological interfaces in general. In part of this work I have explored the implications of quasiresonant transport in short chains of weakly-bonded molecular junctions involving hydrogen bonds. I used theoretical and computational analysis to interpret recent experiments and explain the role of Fano resonances in the transmission properties of the junction. In a different direction, I have undertaken the study of the transversal conduction through nucleotide chains that involve a variable number of different hydrogen bonds, e.g. NH˙˙˙O, OH˙˙˙O, and NH˙˙˙N, which are the three most prevalent hydrogen bonds in biological systems and organic electronics. My effort here has focused on the analysis of electronic descriptors that allow a simplified conceptual and computational understanding of transport properties. Specifically, I have expanded our previous work where the molecular polarizability was used as a conductance descriptor to include the possibility of atomic and bond partitions of the molecular polarizability. This is important because it affords an alternative molecular description of conductance that is not based on the conventional view of molecular orbitals as

  4. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A course on Theoretical Structural Geology, Crystallography, Mineralogy, Thermodynamics, Exper- imental Petrology and Theoretical Geophysics will be conducted in the Jallahalli Campus under the aegis of Indian Academy of Sciences during 20th November to 4th December, 2017. University lec- turers, Research ...

  5. Basic course in theoretical physics. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, H.D.

    1973-01-01

    This book is the first volume of an edition of two volumes which concern theoretical physics. In this volume the mechanics of a point mass, electric and magnetic fields, and the mechanics of two point, masses, rig: 1 bodies, and deformable 50 lids are considered. This book is suited for students who want to get some fundamental knowledge of theoretical physics. (HSI)

  6. Theoretical aspects of magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic helicity, usually defined as K=integralA.Bdv, where A is the vector potential and B the magnetic field, measures the topological linkage of magnetic fluxes. Helicity manifests itself in the twistedness and knottedness of flux tubes. Its significance is that it is an ideal MHD invariant. While the helicity formalism has proven very useful in understanding reversed field pinch and spheromak behavior, some problems exist in applying the method consistently for complex (e.g., toroidal) conductor geometries or in situations where magnetic flux penetrates conducting walls. Recent work has attempted to generalize K to allow for all possible geometries

  7. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  8. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  9. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  10. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HEALTH LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Nikolina; Arbula Blecich, Andrea; Cerović, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to elaborate the importance of health literacy in cost-effective utilization of health care services which influence the efficiency of the entire health care sector. In order to complement the theoretical framework of the economic implications and the circular influence of health literacy on the economy, an empirical analysis was carried out using S–TOFHLA. The results suggest that the patients’ personal characteristics and the accessibil...

  11. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  12. Theoretical Foundations of Study of Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhofer, Václav; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka

    2018-05-01

    Cartography and geoinformatics are technical-based fields which deal with modelling and visualization of landscape in the form of a map. The theoretical foundation is necessary to obtain during study of cartography and geoinformatics based mainly on mathematics. For the given subjects, mathematics is necessary for understanding of many procedures that are connected to modelling of the Earth as a celestial body, to ways of its projection into a plane, to methods and procedures of modelling of landscape and phenomena in society and visualization of these models in the form of electronic as well as classic paper maps. Not only general mathematics, but also its extension of differential geometry of curves and surfaces, ways of approximation of lines and surfaces of functional surfaces, mathematical statistics and multi-criterial analyses seem to be suitable and necessary. Underestimation of the significance of mathematical education in cartography and geoinformatics is inappropriate and lowers competence of cartographers and professionals in geographic information science and technology to solve problems.

  13. Space Debris Removal: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Klima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse active space debris removal efforts from a strategic, game-theoretical perspective. Space debris is non-manoeuvrable, human-made objects orbiting Earth, which pose a significant threat to operational spacecraft. Active debris removal missions have been considered and investigated by different space agencies with the goal to protect valuable assets present in strategic orbital environments. An active debris removal mission is costly, but has a positive effect for all satellites in the same orbital band. This leads to a dilemma: each agency is faced with the choice between the individually costly action of debris removal, which has a positive impact on all players; or wait and hope that others jump in and do the ‘dirty’ work. The risk of the latter action is that, if everyone waits, the joint outcome will be catastrophic, leading to what in game theory is referred to as the ‘tragedy of the commons’. We introduce and thoroughly analyse this dilemma using empirical game theory and a space debris simulator. We consider two- and three-player settings, investigate the strategic properties and equilibria of the game and find that the cost/benefit ratio of debris removal strongly affects the game dynamics.

  14. Social enterprise: theoretical basis and perespectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Narlev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s the issues of social enterprises have gained particular popularity, practical and applied, as well as scientific significance. For a short period of time - almost half a century - social enterprises have become an integral part of education and academic research; they have turned into factors affecting noticeably the social and economic policy. The formation and development of social enterprises are the consequence of the profound social, demographic, cultural, global and public changes - the result of capitalism and its cornerstone, the enterprise. This contemporary and innovative theory is a natural extension of the strategies for change in societies and the world - both globally, and in response to the non-profit, public and business sectors - in an attempt to solve the topical and important issues of the time. In view of the circumstances given above, the present study aims to study and analyse - in the theoretical plan basis aspects of social enterprises, and on that to draw and systematize their perspectives for development.

  15. Intelligence: new findings and theoretical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Richard E; Aronson, Joshua; Blair, Clancy; Dickens, William; Flynn, James; Halpern, Diane F; Turkheimer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the following: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. (d) "Crystallized" and "fluid" IQ are quite different aspects of intelligence at both the behavioral and biological levels. (e) The importance of the environment for IQ is established by the 12-point to 18-point increase in IQ when children are adopted from working-class to middle-class homes. (f) Even when improvements in IQ produced by the most effective early childhood interventions fail to persist, there can be very marked effects on academic achievement and life outcomes. (g) In most developed countries studied, gains on IQ tests have continued, and they are beginning in the developing world. (h) Sex differences in aspects of intelligence are due partly to identifiable biological factors and partly to socialization factors. (i) The IQ gap between Blacks and Whites has been reduced by 0.33 SD in recent years. We report theorizing concerning (a) the relationship between working memory and intelligence, (b) the apparent contradiction between strong heritability effects on IQ and strong secular effects on IQ, (c) whether a general intelligence factor could arise from initially largely independent cognitive skills, (d) the relation between self-regulation and cognitive skills, and (e) the effects of stress on intelligence.

  16. Examining Asymmetrical Relationships of Organizational Learning Antecedents: A Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ery Tri Djatmika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Global era is characterized by highly competitive advantage market demand. Responding to the challenge of rapid environmental changes, organizational learning is becoming a strategic way and solution to empower people themselves within the organization in order to create a novelty as valuable positioning source. For research purposes, determining the influential antecedents that affect organizational learning is vital to understand research-based solutions given for practical implications. Accordingly, identification of variables examined by asymmetrical relationships is critical to establish. Possible antecedent variables come from organizational and personal point of views. It is also possible to include a moderating one. A proposed theoretical model of asymmetrical effects of organizational learning and its antecedents is discussed in this article.

  17. Some recent developments in the theoretical dynamics of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes recent developments in the theoretical investigation of magnetostatic equilibrium in the presence of gravity, nonequilibrium in hydromagnetics, and classical problems in hydromagnetic stability. The construction of magnetostatic dequilibria has progressed beyond geometrically idealized systems, such as the axisymmetric system, to fully three-dimensional systems capable of modelling realistic solar structures. Nonequilibrium in a magnetic field with an arbitrary interweaving of lines of force due to random footpoint motion is a novel and subtle property with important implications for the solar atmosphere. To the extent quasi-static solar structures are approximated by stable equilibrium, ideal hydromagnetic stability theory provides a first insight into how stability is achieved in the solar environment. A qualitative physical picture based on recent stability analyses is given. The article places emphasis on understanding basic principles and issues rather than detailed results which can be found in the published literature

  18. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade. PMID:21609825

  19. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  20. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b. This paper addresses the following questions: (1 What is the nature of Information Science? and (2 What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on an explication of the processes of human information coordinating behavior and information feedback that facilitate the relationship between human information behavior and human interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies (Web, digital libraries, etc..

  1. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  2. International Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Int'l Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics (TCP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on Theoretical and Computational Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. TCP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of Theoretical and Computational Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  3. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  4. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  5. Environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental concerns typical of the Canadian Arctic and the Beaufort Sea, which impacted on oil and gas exploration were discussed. Environmental regulations and legislation in existence were explained. Most regulations required submission of permit applications that among other things, described the type of equipment to be used and the time and duration of the use. Companies also had to demonstrate that they had the capability to deal with oil spill scenarios. If an oil spill had a significant effect on the numbers of animals, the Inuit would have to be compensated. According to members of the native population, much damage was done initially to wildlife habitats and population, although this improved somewhat later as regulations concerning seismic and explosive activities were strengthened and technology improved, producing fewer harmful environmental impacts. All in all, activity in the Beaufort Sea did not result in any major environmental disasters, but there were many disturbances in the seafloor, permafrost and ice dynamics, as well as an increase in ambient noise levels which resulted in behavioural changes in the organisms close to the drilling activities. 19 figs

  6. ARMA modeling of stochastic processes in nuclear reactor with significant detection noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaljevski, N.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical basis of ARMA modelling of stochastic processes in nuclear reactor was presented in a previous paper, neglecting observational noise. The identification of real reactor data indicated that in some experiments the detection noise is significant. Thus a more rigorous theoretical modelling of stochastic processes in nuclear reactor is performed. Starting from the fundamental stochastic differential equations of the Langevin type for the interaction of the detector with neutron field, a new theoretical ARMA model is developed. preliminary identification results confirm the theoretical expectations. (author)

  7. An Experimental and Theoretical High Energy Physics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipsey, Ian

    2012-07-31

    The Purdue High Energy Physics Group conducts research in experimental and theoretical elementary particle physics and experimental high energy astrophysics. Our goals, which we share with high energy physics colleagues around the world, are to understand at the most fundamental level the nature of matter, energy, space and time, and in order to explain the birth, evolution and fate of the Universe. The experiments in which we are currently involved are: CDF, CLEO-c, CMS, LSST, and VERITAS. We have been instrumental in establishing two major in-house facilities: The Purdue Particle Physics Microstructure Detector Facility (P3MD) in 1995 and the CMS Tier-2 center in 2005. The research efforts of the theory group span phenomenological and theoretical aspects of the Standard Model as well as many of its possible extensions. Recent work includes phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric models, string theory and applications of gauge/gravity duality, the cosmological implications of massive gravitons, and the physics of extra dimensions.

  8. Factors determining early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs: Theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Matiusinaite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study extends the scientific discussion of early internationalization of SMEs. The main purpose of this paper – to develop a theoretical framework to investigate factors determining early internationalization of international new ventures. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework is built on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature. Findings – This paper presents different factors, which determine early internationalization of international new ventures. These factors are divided to entrepreneurial, organizational and contextual factors. We argue that early internationalization of international new ventures is defined by entrepreneurial characteristics and previous experience of the entrepreneur, opportunities recognition and exploitation, risk tolerance, specific of the organization, involvement into networks and contextual factors. Study proved that only interaction between factors and categories has an effect for business development and successful implementation of early internationalization. Research limitations/implications – The research was conducted on the theoretical basis of scientific literature. The future studies could include a practical confirmation or denial of such allocation of factors. Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in the finding that factor itself has limited effect to early internationalization. Only the interoperability of categories and factors gives a positive impact on early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs.

  9. Set-theoretic methods in control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this monograph describes the set-theoretic approach for the control and analysis of dynamic systems, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint.  This approach is linked to fundamental control problems, such as Lyapunov stability analysis and stabilization, optimal control, control under constraints, persistent disturbance rejection, and uncertain systems analysis and synthesis.  Completely self-contained, this book provides a solid foundation of mathematical techniques and applications, extensive references to the relevant literature, and numerous avenues for further theoretical study. All the material from the first edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the field, and a new chapter on switching systems has been added.  Each chapter contains examples, case studies, and exercises to allow for a better understanding of theoretical concepts by practical application. The mathematical language is kept to the minimum level necessary for the adequate for...

  10. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  11. Theoretical clarity is not “Manicheanism”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that in order to establish a new theoretical approach to information science it is necessary to express disagreement with some established views. The “social turn” in information science is not just exemplified in relation to the works of Marcia Bates but in relation to many different...... researchers in the field. Therefore it should not be taken personally, and the debate should focus on the substance. Marcia Bates has contributed considerably to information science. In spite of this some of her theoretical points of departure may be challenged. It is important to seek theoretical clarity...... and this may involve a degree of schematic confrontation that should not be confused with theoretical one-sidedness, “Manicheanism” or lack of respect....

  12. improving utilization of conceptual and theoretical framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS. AKPABIO

    KEYWORDS: Conceptual, Framework, Nursing, Research, Theoretical. INTRODUCTION ... frameworks, define the concepts in the framework and apply them .... abstraction; clinical utility and perspective on the issues of interest. Thus, before ...

  13. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  14. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  15. [Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC

  16. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincini, Stefano; Jhang, Yuna; Buder, Eugene H; Gallagher, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  17. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vincini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  18. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  19. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  20. Department of Theoretical Physics. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The research done at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics concerns various theoretical problems of low, medium and high energy nuclear physics, elementary particle physics, astrophysics, general physics and mathematical physics. Both formal problems as well as more phenomenologically oriented ones are being considered. The details of the results obtained in various fields are summarised in the presented abstracts. (author)

  1. Comments on theoretical foundation of "EM Drive"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.-W.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of EM Drive has attracted much attention and groups of work have been conducted to prove or verify it, of which the published experimental outcome is criticized in great details while the theoretical foundation has not been discussed. The present essay investigates on the theoretical derivations of the net thrust in the "EM drive" and reveals the self-contradiction arising at the very start, when the law of conservation of momentum was utilized and opposed simultaneously.

  2. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  3. The significance of routines in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytterström, Patrik; Unosson, Mitra; Arman, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the significance of routines in nursing practice. Clinical nursing is performed under the guidance of routines to varying degrees. In the nursing literature, routine is described as having both negative and positive aspects, but use of the term is inconsistent, and empirical evidence is sparse. In the research on organisational routines, a distinction is made between routine as a rule and routine as action. A qualitative design using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Data collection from three focus groups focused on nurses' experience of routines. Seventeen individual interviews from a previous study focusing on caring culture were also analysed in a secondary qualitative analysis. All participants were employed as 'qualified nursing pool' nurses. Routines are experienced as pragmatic, obstructive and meaningful. The aim of the pragmatic routine was to ensure that daily working life works; this routine is practised more on the basis of rational arguments and obvious intentions. The obstructive routine had negative consequences for nursing practice and was described as nursing losing its humanity and violating the patient's integrity. The meaningful routine involved becoming one with the routine and for the nurses, it felt right and meaningful to adapt to it. Routines become meaningful when the individual action is in harmony with the cultural pattern on which the nursing work is based. Instead of letting contemporary practice passively become routine, routines can be assessed and developed using research and theoretical underpinnings as a starting point for nursing practice. Leaders have a special responsibility to develop and support meaningful routines. One approach could be to let wards examine their routines from a patient perspective on the basis of the themes of pragmatic, meaningful and obstructive routine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Rational decision making in medicine: Implications for overuse and underuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira; Dale, William

    2018-06-01

    In spite of substantial spending and resource utilization, today's health care remains characterized by poor outcomes, largely due to overuse (overtesting/overtreatment) or underuse (undertesting/undertreatment) of health services. To a significant extent, this is a consequence of low-quality decision making that appears to violate various rationality criteria. Such suboptimal decision making is considered a leading cause of death and is responsible for more than 80% of health expenses. In this paper, we address the issue of overuse or underuse of health care interventions from the perspective of rational choice theory. We show that what is considered rational under one decision theory may not be considered rational under a different theory. We posit that the questions and concerns regarding both underuse and overuse have to be addressed within a specific theoretical framework. The applicable rationality criterion, and thus the "appropriateness" of health care delivery choices, depends on theory selection that is appropriate to specific clinical situations. We provide a number of illustrations showing how the choice of theoretical framework influences both our policy and individual decision making. We also highlight the practical implications of our analysis for the current efforts to measure the quality of care and link such measurements to the financing of health care services. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  6. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737

  7. A theoretical analysis of the feasibility of a singularity-induced micro-electroporation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Troszak

    Full Text Available Electroporation, the permeabilization of the cell membrane lipid bilayer due to a pulsed electric field, has important implications in the biotechnology, medicine, and food industries. Traditional macro and micro-electroporation devices have facing electrodes, and require significant potential differences to induce electroporation. The goal of this theoretical study is to investigate the feasibility of singularity-induced micro-electroporation; an electroporation configuration aimed at minimizing the potential differences required to induce electroporation by separating adjacent electrodes with a nanometer-scale insulator. In particular, this study aims to understand the effect of (1 insulator thickness and (2 electrode kinetics on electric field distributions in the singularity-induced micro-electroporation configuration. A non-dimensional primary current distribution model of the micro-electroporation channel shows that while increasing insulator thickness results in smaller electric field magnitudes, electroporation can still be performed with insulators thick enough to be made with microfabrication techniques. Furthermore, a secondary current distribution model of the singularity-induced micro-electroporation configuration with inert platinum electrodes and water electrolyte indicates that electrode kinetics do not inhibit charge transfer to the extent that prohibitively large potential differences are required to perform electroporation. These results indicate that singularity-induced micro-electroporation could be used to develop an electroporation system that consumes minimal power, making it suitable for remote applications such as the sterilization of water and other liquids.

  8. Medication practice and feminist thought: a theoretical and ethical response to adherence in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren M; Colbert, Alison M; Erlen, Judith A

    2005-08-01

    Accurate self-administration of antiretroviral medication therapy for HIV/AIDS is a significant clinical and ethical concern because of its implications for individual morbidity and mortality, the health of the public, and escalating healthcare costs. However, the traditional construction of patient medication adherence is oversimplified, myopic, and ethically problematic. Adherence relies on existing social power structures and western normative assumptions about the proper roles of patients and providers, and principally focuses on patient variables, obscuring the powerful socioeconomic and institutional influences on behaviour. Some professionals advocate for alternate approaches to adherence, but many of the available alternatives remain conceptually underdeveloped. Using HIV/AIDS as an exemplar, this paper presents medication practice as a theoretical reconstruction and explicates its conceptual and ethical evolution. We first propose that one of these alternatives, medication practice, broadens the understanding of individuals' medication-taking behaviour, speaks to the inherent power inequities in the patient-provider interaction, and addresses the ethical shortcomings in the traditional construal. We then integrate medication practice with feminist thought, further validating individuals' situated knowledge, choices, and multiple roles; more fully recognizing the individual as a multidiminsional, autonomous human being; and reducing notions of obedience and deference to authority. Blame is thus extricated from the healthcare relationship, reshaping the traditionally adversarial components of the interaction, and eliminating the view of adherence as a patient problem in need of patient-centred interventions.

  9. Understanding Decision-Making in Specialized Domestic Violence Courts: Can Contemporary Theoretical Frameworks Help Guide These Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2016-05-22

    This study fills a gap in the literature by exploring the utility of contemporary courtroom theoretical frameworks-uncertainty avoidance, causal attribution, and focal concerns-for explaining decision-making in specialized domestic violence courts. Using data from two specialized domestic violence courts, this study explores the predictors of prosecutorial and judicial decision-making and the extent to which these factors are congruent with theoretical frameworks often used in studies of court processing. Findings suggest that these theoretical frameworks only partially help explain decision-making in the courts under study. A discussion of the findings and implications for future research is provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Theoretical & Experimental Research in Weak, Electromagnetic & Strong Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Babu, Kaladi [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Rizatdinova, Flera [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Khanov, Alexander [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Haley, Joseph [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-09-17

    The conducted research spans a wide range of topics in the theoretical, experimental and phenomenological aspects of elementary particle interactions. Theory projects involve topics in both the energy frontier and the intensity frontier. The experimental research involves energy frontier with the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In theoretical research, novel ideas going beyond the Standard Model with strong theoretical motivations were proposed, and their experimental tests at the LHC and forthcoming neutrino facilities were outlined. These efforts fall into the following broad categories: (i) TeV scale new physics models for LHC Run 2, including left-right symmetry and trinification symmetry, (ii) unification of elementary particles and forces, including the unification of gauge and Yukawa interactions, (iii) supersummetry and mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, (iv) superworld without supersymmetry, (v) general models of extra dimensions, (vi) comparing signals of extra dimensions with those of supersymmetry, (vii) models with mirror quarks and mirror leptons at the TeV scale, (viii) models with singlet quarks and singlet Higgs and their implications for Higgs physics at the LHC, (ix) new models for the dark matter of the universe, (x) lepton flavor violation in Higgs decays, (xi) leptogenesis in radiative models of neutrino masses, (xii) light mediator models of non-standard neutrino interactions, (xiii) anomalous muon decay and short baseline neutrino anomalies, (xiv) baryogenesis linked to nucleon decay, and (xv) a new model for recently observed diboson resonance at the LHC and its other phenomenological implications. The experimental High Energy Physics group has been, and continues to be, a successful and productive contributor to the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Members of the group performed search for gluinos decaying to stop and top quarks, new heavy gauge bosons decaying to top and bottom quarks, and vector-like quarks

  11. Theoretical and observational assessments of flare efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahey, D.M.; Preston, K.; Strosher, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the processing of hydrocarbon materials, gaseous wastes are flared in an effort to completely burn the waste material and therefore leave behind very little by-products. Complete combustion, however is rarely successful because entrainment of air into the region of combusting gases restricts flame sizes to less than optimum values. The resulting flames are often too small to dissipate the amount of heat associated with complete (100 per cent) combustion efficiency. Flaring, therefore, often results in emissions of gases with more complex molecular structures than just carbon dioxide and water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds which are indicative of incomplete combustion are often associated with flaring. This theoretical study of flame efficiencies was based on the knowledge of the full range of chemical reactions and associated kinetics. In this study, equations developed by Leahey and Schroeder were used to estimate flame lengths, areas and volumes as functions of flare stack exit velocity, stoichiometric mixing ratio and wind speed. This was followed by an estimate of heats released as part of the combustion process. This was derived from the knowledge of the flame dimensions together with an assumed flame temperature of 1200 K. Combustion efficiencies were then obtained by taking the ratio of estimated actual heat release values to those associated with complete combustion. It was concluded that combustion efficiency decreases significantly with wind speed increases from 1 to 6 m/s. After that initial increase, combustion efficiencies level off at values between 10 to 15 per cent. Propane and ethane were found to burn more efficiently than methane or hydrogen sulfide. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig., 1 append

  12. Parameter identifiability and redundancy: theoretical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Models for complex biological systems may involve a large number of parameters. It may well be that some of these parameters cannot be derived from observed data via regression techniques. Such parameters are said to be unidentifiable, the remaining parameters being identifiable. Closely related to this idea is that of redundancy, that a set of parameters can be expressed in terms of some smaller set. Before data is analysed it is critical to determine which model parameters are identifiable or redundant to avoid ill-defined and poorly convergent regression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we outline general considerations on parameter identifiability, and introduce the notion of weak local identifiability and gradient weak local identifiability. These are based on local properties of the likelihood, in particular the rank of the Hessian matrix. We relate these to the notions of parameter identifiability and redundancy previously introduced by Rothenberg (Econometrica 39 (1971 577-591 and Catchpole and Morgan (Biometrika 84 (1997 187-196. Within the widely used exponential family, parameter irredundancy, local identifiability, gradient weak local identifiability and weak local identifiability are shown to be largely equivalent. We consider applications to a recently developed class of cancer models of Little and Wright (Math Biosciences 183 (2003 111-134 and Little et al. (J Theoret Biol 254 (2008 229-238 that generalize a large number of other recently used quasi-biological cancer models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that the previously developed concepts of parameter local identifiability and redundancy are closely related to the apparently weaker properties of weak local identifiability and gradient weak local identifiability--within the widely used exponential family these concepts largely coincide.

  13. Review of Experimental and Theoretical Status of the Proton Radius Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard J. [TRIUMF

    2017-01-01

    The discrepancy between the measured Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen and expectations from electron-proton scattering and regular hydrogen spectroscopy has become known as the proton radius puzzle, whose most “mundane” resolution requires a > 5σ shift in the value of the fundamental Rydberg constant. I briefly review the status of spectroscopic and scattering measurements, recent theoretical developments, and implications for fundamental physics.

  14. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupac-Ulici Maria-Lenuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial liberalization process and its implications on financial emerging markets have been multidisciplinary research since 1970. Reform of financial liberalization is a complex and long phenomena. This implies that the impact of this reform on financial markets should not be immediate, but rather gradually during a long time period. It is also important to note that liberalization does not occur in the same way on all financial markets. Each country, according to his specification regarding the economic climate and the specificity of financial markets, has differently set its progress of liberalization process. It is generally accepted that the process of financial liberalization is not composed of a single event, but a series of events. The idea is that market reform is a gradual process where the data identified above only refers to the most significant events. Regarding the effect of liberalization reform on emerging markets has been shown; on the one hand, that liberalization helps to reduce the cost of capital, helps to integrate the emerging markets in the global market, enhances economic growth and allows emerging markets to become more mature. On the other hand, financial liberalization process has a very ambiguous and inconclusive impact on informational efficiency and volatility in emerging markets. Launching liberalization reforms provided an analytical framework for studies that attempt to investigate the effectiveness of emerging markets and empirical links between liberalization and efficiency. The first reason is that with liberalization, the authors believe that emerging markets have become more speculative and more competitive. So there is a chance to see if the weak form market efficiency is verified. The second reason is that the authors explore the relationship between liberalization and efficiency. Researchers and regulators seek an answer to the fundamental question: financial liberalization helps the stock market

  15. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  16. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatha J. Wallington

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  17. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  18. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  19. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  20. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of the "My School" Website for Disadvantaged Communities: A Bourdieuian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…

  2. Basic theoretical physics a concise overview

    CERN Document Server

    Krey, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.

  3. THEORETICAL PRESSUPOSITIONS OF EDUCATION: SOME HISTORICAL REFLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Regert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education has always been a much discussed theme and continues to be so. Based on this idea, the goal of this article is to discuss the theoretical pressupositions of education, beginning with the idea itself of human intellectual development and passing through the Ancient, Medieval, Modern and Contemporary Ages. It is important to point out that the article does not have the intention of covering the whole of this theme, nor even all of the theoretical pressupositions, which would be impossible. But it intends to begin or at least continue this discussion. For this the research made use of the descriptive method and its technical procedures took place in a bibliographic way. We conclude that it is important to discuss the theoretical pressupositions of education in history since, without this, it is not even possible to understand current education.

  4. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Durham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  5. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  6. Theoretical isochrones with decreasing gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Van Flandern has postulated a variation of the gravitational constant at the rate approximately -8 x 10 -11 /yr. This variation, consistent with Hoyle-Narlikar and Dirac cosmologies, has been assumed in the computation of a 5 x 10 9 yr theoretical isochrone. Present results show that, even for this age, theory predicts a cluster turn-off luminosity approximately 0.5 to 1.0 mag fainter than the observed turn-offs of globular clusters. Unsatisfactory agreement between theoretical and observed luminosity functions is also indicated. (author)

  7. Theoretical foundations of learning through simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Jason J; Kappus, Liana J; Sudikoff, Stephanie N

    2011-04-01

    Health care simulation is a powerful educational tool to help facilitate learning for clinicians and change their practice to improve patient outcomes and safety. To promote effective life-long learning through simulation, the educator needs to consider individuals, their experiences, and their environments. Effective education of adults through simulation requires a sound understanding of both adult learning theory and experiential learning. This review article provides a framework for developing and facilitating simulation courses, founded upon empiric and theoretic research in adult and experiential learning. Specifically, this article provides a theoretic foundation for using simulation to change practice to improve patient outcomes and safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Strandskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying...... assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential for integration of partial theories and fragments in a more logically connected theoretical area, this article offers a meta-theoretical overview of four perspectives within international business economics: Research and its related background, basic...

  9. Theoretical aspects of light meson spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    1995-01-01

    In this pedagogical review the authors discuss the theoretical understanding of light hadron spectroscopy in terms of QCD and the quark model. They begin with a summary of the known and surmised properties of QCD and confinement. Following this they review the nonrelativistic quark potential model for q anti q mesons and discuss the quarkonium spectrum and methods for identifying q anti q states. Finally, they review theoretical expectations for non-q anti q states (glueballs, hybrids and multiquark systems) and the status of experimental candidates for these states

  10. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  11. Elements of theoretical mechanics for electronic engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Bultot, Franz

    1965-01-01

    Elements of Theoretical Mechanics for Electronic Engineers deals with theoretical mechanics, which is considered one of the fundamental branches of instruction essential to training an engineer. This book discusses the oscillatory motions and their counterparts in electrical circuits and radio, and provides an introduction to differential operators of vector field theory. Other topics covered include systems and functions of vectors; dynamics of a free point; vibrations and waves; and statics. Worked examples and many notes on the application of most sections of the theories to electrical deve

  12. Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Harriman, John E

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f

  13. The national conference on theoretical physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, Dan; Visinescu, Anca;

    2002-01-01

    The first edition of the National Conference on Theoretical Physics held on September 13-16, 2002 in Bucharest, Romania was organized by the Theoretical Physics Department of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in cooperation with the Physics Department of the University of Bucharest . There were presented 51 communications grouped in five sections as follows: 1. Quantum Field Theory, Elementary Particles, Gravitation; 2. Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Theory, Astrophysics; 3. Condensed Matter Theory, Statistical Physics; 4. Computational and Mathematical Physics, Nonlinear Phenomena; 5. Interdisciplinary Fields

  14. A Theoretical Framework for Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex systems is de-scribed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), suggests a set of principles for designing interfaces in a way that supports the funda-mental properties of human cognition. The basis of EID is the skills...... of the task require. The EID approach extends the concept of direct manipulation inter-faces by taking into account the added complications introduced by complex systems. In this paper, we describe the development of the framework, its theoretical foundations, and examples of its application to various work...

  15. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  16. Set theoretical aspects of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kharazishvili, Alexander B

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses a number of questions in real analysis and classical measure theory that are of a set-theoretic flavor. Accessible to graduate students, the beginning of the book presents introductory topics on real analysis and Lebesque measure theory. These topics highlight the boundary between fundamental concepts of measurability and non-measurability for point sets and functions. The remainder of the book deals with more specialized material on set-theoretical real analysis. Problems are included at the end of each chapter.

  17. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  18. Theoretical and quantum mechanics fundamentals for chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Provides the basics of theoretical and quantum mechanics in one place and emphasizes the continuity between themUniquely presented to be used for self-taught courses covering theoretical and quantum mechanicsEach chapter includes a detailed outline, a summary, self-assessment questions for which answers can be found in the textInvaluable for chemistry undergraduate and graduate students, chemists, other non-physical scientists, engineering students of modern techniques and technology, specialists who need a better understanding of quantum mechanics.

  19. Theoretical basis of the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujula, A.

    1977-01-01

    The four-quark standard gauge field theory of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions is reviewed and placed into a historical perspective since as early as 1961. Theoretical predictions of the model are compared to experimental observations available as of the Conference date, charm production in e + e - annihilation being in the spotlight. Virtues and shortcomings of the standard model are discussed. The model is concluded to have been an incredibly successful predictive tool. Some theoretical developments around the standard model are also discussed in view of CP violation in SU(2)xU(1) gauge theories, the Higgs' bosons and superunification of weak, strong and electromagnetic interactions

  20. Theoretical models for recombination in expanding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avron, Y.; Kahane, S.

    1978-09-01

    In laser isotope separation of atomic uranium, one is confronted with the theoretical problem of estimating the concentration of thermally ionized uranium atoms. To investigate this problem theoretical models for recombination in an expanding gas and in the absence of local thermal equilibrium have been constructed. The expansion of the gas is described by soluble models of the hydrodynamic equation, and the recombination by rate equations. General results for the freezing effect for the suitable ranges of the gas parameters are obtained. The impossibility of thermal equilibrium in expanding two-component systems is proven

  1. Employing the Mathcad program within the course of Theoretical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilin Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author shares his experience in using the «Mathcad» software for conducting classes on «Theoretical Mechanics» in the University course. The program «Mathcad» combines a simple user interface and powerful mathematical tools which can be employed for different mechanical problems. It gives invaluable help in evaluating analytically and numerically many difficult integrals, in solving differential equations, in picturing graphics and can also simulate different mechanical phenomena with the computer. This allows significantly to expand the range of topics that can be considered in the standard University course of «Theoretical Mechanics» and gives students an opportunity to concentrate on practical problems, avoiding unnecessary routine of mathematical calculations. As an example the author considers one famous problem of the Lagrange analytical mechanics associated with the body motion in the field of gravity in the presence of stationary holonomic constraints.

  2. Close relationship processes and health: implications of attachment theory for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; Uchino, Bert; Dunkel Schetter, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Health psychology has contributed significantly to understanding the link between psychological factors and health and well-being, but it has not often incorporated advances in relationship science into hypothesis generation and study design. We present one example of a theoretical model, following from a major relationship theory (attachment theory) that integrates relationship constructs and processes with biopsychosocial processes and health outcomes. We briefly describe attachment theory and present a general framework linking it to dyadic relationship processes (relationship behaviors, mediators, and outcomes) and health processes (physiology, affective states, health behavior, and health outcomes). We discuss the utility of the model for research in several health domains (e.g., self-regulation of health behavior, pain, chronic disease) and its implications for interventions and future research. This framework revealed important gaps in knowledge about relationships and health. Future work in this area will benefit from taking into account individual differences in attachment, adopting a more explicit dyadic approach, examining more integrated models that test for mediating processes, and incorporating a broader range of relationship constructs that have implications for health. A theoretical framework for studying health that is based in relationship science can accelerate progress by generating new research directions designed to pinpoint the mechanisms through which close relationships promote or undermine health. Furthermore, this knowledge can be applied to develop more effective interventions to help individuals and their relationship partners with health-related challenges. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Lithostratigraphic development and neotectonic significance of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by debris flows and sediment gravity flows, as small coalescing alluvial fans in front of the scarps. These deposits suggest ..... ble size clasts embedded in matrix of medium to fine sand. ...... sequences of the Golmud River and their environmental implications; Quat. ... human-induced changes in the Bolivian Chaco?; Proc.

  4. Experimental and theoretical requirements for fuel modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatesoupe, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    From a scientific point of view it may be considered that any event in the life of a fuel pin under irradiation should be perfectly well understood and foreseen from that deterministic point of view, the whole behaviour of the pin maybe analysed and dismantled with a specific function for every component part and each component part related to one basic phenomenon which can be independently studied on pure physical grounds. When extracted from the code structure the subroutine is studied for itself by specialists who try to keep as close as possible to the physics involved in the phenomenon; that often leads to an impressive luxury in details and a subsequent need for many unavailable input data. It might seem more secure to follow that approach since it tries to be firmly based on theoretical grounds. One should think so if the phenomenological situation in the pin were less complex than it is. The codes would not be adequate for off-normal operating conditions since for the accidental transient conditions the key-phenomena would not be the same as for steady-state or slow transient conditions. The orientation given to fuel modelling is based on our two main technological constraints which are: no fuel melting; no cladding failure; no excessive cladding deformation. In this context, the only relevant models are those which have a significant influence on the maximum temperatures in the fuel or on the cladding damage hence the selection between key models and irrelevant models which will next be done. A rather pragmatic view is kept on codification with a special focus on a few determinant aspects of fuel behaviour and no attention to models which are nothing but decorative. Fuel modeling is merely considered as a link between experimental knowledge; it serves as a guide for further improvements in fuel design and as so happens to be quite useful. On this basis the main lacks in of fuel behaviour is described. These are mainly concerning: thermal transfer through

  5. Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-04

    Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities

  6. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in nuclear astrophysics by means of quantitative supernova spectroscopy is discussed with special concentration on type Ia, Ib and Ic and on SN 1987A. Spectral calculations continue to support an exploding C/O white dwarf as the best model of a SN Ia. Deflagration model W7 produces good maximum light spectra of SN Ia and seems to have a better composition distribution compared to delayed detonation models, but proper treatment of opacity remains a problem and the physical basis of SN Ia explosions is still not completely understood. All models for SN Ia predict large quantities of 56Co in the ejecta, but it is not clear that observations confirm this. Although the evolutionary origin of SN Ia remains uncertain, there is recent evidence that transfer of hydrogen in a binary system may be involved, as long suspected. There has been progress in comparing dynamical models with the optical/IR spectra of SN 1987A. The evolution of the [OI] λλ6300, 6364 feature and the presence of strong persistent HeI λ10 830 indicate that both the envelope and core material contribute substantially to the formation of emission lines in the nebular phase and that neither the core nor the envelope can be neglected. Blending with nearby hydrogen lines may affect both of these spectral features, thereby complicating the analysis of the lines. The effects of continuum transfer and photoionization have been included and are under study. The discrepancies between theoretical and observed spectra are due primarily to the one-dimensional hydrodynamic models. The spectral data are not consistent with the high density ``spike'' (in radial coordinate) of the core material that is predicted by all such models. Analysis of the light curves of SN Ib and SN Ic supernovae implies that there are significant differences in their physical properties. Some SN Ib have considerably more ejecta mass than SN Ic events. SN Ib require He-rich atmospheres to produce the observed strong optical lines of

  7. Wireless Information-Theoretic Security in an Outdoor Topology with Obstacles: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagiuklas Tasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.

  8. Surfactants, interfaces and pores : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of surfactants in porous media by theoretical means. The influence of curvature of a surface on the adsorption has been studied with a mean field lattice (MFL) model, as developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. An analytical theory has been

  9. Theoretical Status of the RHIC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of its operation, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Lab has produced a wealth of exciting and interesting results. I give a brief overview of the theoretical aspects of the main results from the RHIC program

  10. Search for the Higgs boson theoretical perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ridolfi, G

    2001-01-01

    We present a short review of experimental and theoretical constraints on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. We briefly illustrate the unsatisfactory aspects of the standard theory, and we present some general considerations about possible non-standard scenarios.

  11. System identification with information theoretic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Stoorvogel; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAttention is focused in this paper on the approximation problem of system identification with information theoretic criteria. For a class of problems it is shown that the criterion of mutual information rate is identical to the criterion of exponential-of-quadratic cost and to

  12. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  13. Theoretical origin of quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical origin of specific quark mass matrices in the grand unified theories. The author discusses the first natural derivation of the Stech-type mass matrix in unified gauge theories. A solution to the strong CP-problem is provided

  14. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.; Ruddick, K.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: The Soudan enterprise; study of strange quarks at Fermilab; direct photons at Fermilab; the Brookhaven programs; AMY and CLEO: studies of e + e - annihilations; cosmic ray studies with the DO muon chamber; progress report on HEP computer upgrade; muon triggering and reconstruction at SSC; and, theoretical high energy physics

  15. Some Model Theoretic Remarks on Bass Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Momtahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study Bass modules, Bass rings, and related concepts from a model theoretic point of view. We observe that the class of Bass modules (over a fixed ring is not stable under elementary equivalence. We observe that under which conditions the class of Bass rings are stable under elementary equivalence.

  16. Marketing services of higher education: theoretical aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Evgenyi Polonskyi

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to theoretical aspects of the use of marketing activities in institutions of higher education. The author analyzes of education from the standpoint of the marketing mix. The main factors of the external and internal environments affecting the educational institution.

  17. Hybrid quantum teleportation: A theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    Hybrid quantum teleportation – continuous-variable teleportation of qubits – is a promising approach for deterministically teleporting photonic qubits. We propose how to implement it with current technology. Our theoretical model shows that faithful qubit transfer can be achieved for this teleportation by choosing an optimal gain for the teleporter’s classical channel.

  18. EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST BEAM-SLAB. CONSTRUCTION. Girma Zerayohannes and Adil Zekaria. Department of Civil Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The use of partially precast beam elements ivith shear connectors in slab construction relieves the requirement of ...

  19. A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A combined theoretical and experimental study was also performed, which demonstrated that the clus- ters 1–3 with ... silica gel TLC plates (MERCK TLC Plates). The NMR .... tronic μ3-Se and maintains the same number of clus- ter valance ...

  20. Theoretical perspectives on factors affecting the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain student retention theories like those of Tinto, Spady and Bean have described the type of students entering higher education, but have failed to describe some real attributes and life-worlds of these students. The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical model describing the 'circles of progression' of a ...

  1. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Marian A.; Lindemann, Hilde

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical

  2. Introduction: theoretical framework and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Zeitlin, J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the theoretical framework and research agenda of the book. It provides an overview of the three contemporaneous trends from which the book departs: the development of experimentalist governance within the EU; the EU’s efforts to extend its rules, norms, standards, and

  3. A theoretical framework of organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, G.; Polos, L.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Christe-Zyse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Organizational change is a risky endeavour. Most change initiatives fall short on their goals and produce high opportunity and process costs, which at times outweigh the content benefits of organizational change. This paper seeks to develop a framework, offering a theoretical toolbox to

  4. Fluxless furnace brazing and its theoretical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lison, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical fundamental of fluxless furnace brazing are described. The necessary conditions for a wetting in the vacuum, under a inert-gas and with a reducing gas are discussed. Also other methods to reduce the oxygen partial pressure are described. Some applications of fluxless furnace brazing are outlined. (orig.) [de

  5. Theoretical Studies of Nanoclusters (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    nanoclusters. However, scanning transmission electron microscopy ( STEM ) measures show cluster inversion occurred to produce MgyCux(!) a) copper atoms b...methane (née CLL -1) as a potential explosive ingredient: a theoretical study”, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 38, 9-13 (2013). Jesus Paulo L

  6. Theoretical analyses of superconductivity in iron based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the theoretical analysis of superconductivity in iron based superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2. After reviewing the current findings on this system, we suggest that phononexciton combined mechanism gives a right order of superconducting transition temperature (TC) for Ba1−xKxFe2As2 . By developing ...

  7. Department of Theoretical Physics. Annual Report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts of studies done in 1989 at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are given together with the lists of personnel, guests, conference papers, lectures, habilitations, ph.d. theses and publications. 45 refs. (A.S.)

  8. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.

    2004-03-28

    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  9. Information theoretic quantification of diagnostic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M Brandon; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Bianchi, Matt T

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic test interpretation remains a challenge in clinical practice. Most physicians receive training in the use of Bayes' rule, which specifies how the sensitivity and specificity of a test for a given disease combine with the pre-test probability to quantify the change in disease probability incurred by a new test result. However, multiple studies demonstrate physicians' deficiencies in probabilistic reasoning, especially with unexpected test results. Information theory, a branch of probability theory dealing explicitly with the quantification of uncertainty, has been proposed as an alternative framework for diagnostic test interpretation, but is even less familiar to physicians. We have previously addressed one key challenge in the practical application of Bayes theorem: the handling of uncertainty in the critical first step of estimating the pre-test probability of disease. This essay aims to present the essential concepts of information theory to physicians in an accessible manner, and to extend previous work regarding uncertainty in pre-test probability estimation by placing this type of uncertainty within a principled information theoretic framework. We address several obstacles hindering physicians' application of information theoretic concepts to diagnostic test interpretation. These include issues of terminology (mathematical meanings of certain information theoretic terms differ from clinical or common parlance) as well as the underlying mathematical assumptions. Finally, we illustrate how, in information theoretic terms, one can understand the effect on diagnostic uncertainty of considering ranges instead of simple point estimates of pre-test probability.

  10. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  11. 5. Brazilian Symposium on theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.

    1975-01-01

    Some aspects of several fields of theoretical physics are discussed, such as atomic nucleus, solid state, nuclear theory, elementary particles and others, some of the theories presented are treated quantum mechanically, and other classically. Most of the papers are of a didatic character [pt

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Heterojunction Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    every two surface atoms at the junction. In terms of our theoretical alchemy one proton must be added for every two surface atoms. Note that this...Chye. I. Lindau. P PianetU, C. M. Gamer , and W E Spicer, Phys Rev. B 17, 2682 11978|. "J. R. Waldrop and R W. Grant. Appl. Phys. Lett. 34. 630

  13. A game theoretic approach to assignment problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.

    2000-01-01

    Game theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of conflict and cooperation in the interaction of multiple decision makers. This thesis adopts two game theoretic methods to analyze a range of assignment problems that arise in various economic situations. The first method has as

  14. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Ruddick, K.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses experimental and theoretical work in High Energy Physics. Some topics discussed are: quantum field theory; supersymmetry; cosmology; superstring model; relic photinos; inflationary universe; dark matter; standard model; supernovae; semileptonic decay; quantum Langevin equation; underground neutrino detection at Soudan; strange quark systems; cosmic ray detection; superconducting super collider detectors; and studies of direct photon production

  15. Sampling from a system-theoretic viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a system-theoretic approach to the problem of reconstructing an analog signal from its samples. The idea, borrowed from earlier treatments in the control literature, is to address the problem as a hybrid model-matching problem in which performance is measured by system norms. The

  16. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamilya F. Ismailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of internal financial control, summarizes the definition formulated by scientists and experts, analyzed for differences between incompany and intrafarm control. The article discusses the collapse of Enron, notes the general provisions of various types of financial control.

  17. Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

    2013-04-01

    This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

  18. Transport at basin scales: 1. Theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rinaldo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the theoretical framework for a class of general continuous models of the hydrologic response including both flow and transport of reactive solutes. The approach orders theoretical results appeared in disparate fields into a coherent theoretical framework for both hydrologic flow and transport. In this paper we focus on the Lagrangian description of the carrier hydrologic runoff and of the processes embedding catchment-scale generation and transport of matter carried by runoff. The former defines travel time distributions, while the latter defines lifetime distributions, here thought of as contact times between mobile and immobile phases. Contact times are assumed to control mass transfer in a well-mixed approximation, appropriate in cases, like in basin-scale transport phenomena, where the characteristic size of the injection areas is much larger than that of heterogeneous features. As a result, we define general mass-response functions of catchments which extend to transport of matter geomorphologic theories of the hydrologic response. A set of examples is provided to clarify the theoretical results towards a computational framework for generalized applications, described in a companion paper.

  19. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Electromagnetic nuclear life time - theoretical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niez, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    One describes here the theoretical tools which are needed for evaluating the nuclear lifetime of a nucleus dipped into electromagnetic surroundings which are composed of electrons and photons. The case where this environment is a material or a cavity will be treated in a following report. (Author)