Basow, Susan A.; Crawley, Donna M.
Male and female experimenters requested adult shoppers (N=178) to fill out a questionnaire. Refusal data showed shoppers helping other-sex more than same-sex experimenters. Other results showed a significant three-way interaction among helper and helpee sex and sex-typing and situation sex-typing and that helper sex-typing did not have significant…
Babichev, V N
The paper provides a generalization of data and the results of own experiments on influence ovarian steroids on the hypothalamus and other brain areas related to reproduction. Ovarian hormones have widespread effects throughout the brain: on catecholaminergic neurons and serotonergic pathways and the basal forebrain cholinergic system, as well as the hipocampus, spinal cord, nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system, in addition to glial cells and blood-brain barrier. The widespread influences of these various neuronal systems ovarian steroids have measurable effects on mood and affect as well as on cognition, with implications for dementia. There are developmentally programmed sex differenced in hippocampal structure that may help to explain differences in the strategies which male and female rats use to solve spatial navigation problems. The multiple sites and mechanisms of estrogen action in brain underlie a variety of importants effects on cognitive and other brain functions--coordination of movement, pain, affective state, as well as possible protection in Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen withdrawal after natural or surgical menopause can lead to a host of changes in brain function and behavior.
Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W
Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships.
Song Qingzhang; Zhang Min
Objective: To investigate the relationships between changes of serum sex hormones levels and protein-lipid metabolism in patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods: Serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ) pregnenedione (P), prolactin(PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (with CLIA), sree testos (T, with RIA) and total-protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (G), albumin/globulinratio (A/G) total-cholesterd (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterols (LDL-C) (with biochemistry were determined in 72 patients) with ulcerative colitis and 72 controls. Results: The serum levels of T, LH, FSH, TP, Alb, A/G, TC, LDL-C in patients with ulcerative colitis were significantly lower than those in controls (P 2 , PRL in patients with ulcerative colitis were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 were negatively correlated with TP, A/G and TC (P 2 levels in the female sex (P>0.05) as well as between LH, FSH and T levels in the male sex (P>0.05). Conclusion: The abnormal serum levels of sex hormone might contribute to the development of hypoproteinaemia and lowered lipid levels in patients with ulcerative colitis. Treatment with correction of serum sex hormones levels might be beneficial to the patients. (authors)
Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten
Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.
Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.
Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana i...
Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin
Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover
Chen Boxun; Chen Yue; Gan Xilun
Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E 2 )-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P 2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)
Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum sex hormones levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum levels of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL and P were detected with RIA in 33 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 30 controls. Results: In the patients, the serum E 2 levels were significantly lower and FSH, LH, PRL and P levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 , FSH, LH, PRL and P levels is of help for assessment of severity of secondary amenorrhea as well as outcome prediction. (authors)
Reynolds Lina M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology responsible for the significant outcome disparities between men and women with cardiac disease is largely unknown. Further investigation into basic cardiac physiological differences between the sexes is needed. This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis to search for sex-based differences in regional myocardial contractile function. Methods End-systolic strain (circumferential, longitudinal, and radial was interpolated from MRI-based radiofrequency tissue tagging grid point displacements in each of 60 normal adult volunteers (32 females. Results The average global left ventricular (LV strain among normal female volunteers (n = 32 was significantly larger in absolute value (functionally better than in normal male volunteers (n = 28 in both the circumferential direction (Male/Female = -0.19 ± 0.02 vs. -0.21 ± 0.02; p = 0.025 and longitudinal direction (Male/Female = -0.14 ± 0.03 vs. -0.16 ± 0.02; p = 0.007. Conclusions The finding of significantly larger circumferential and longitudinal LV strain among normal female volunteers suggests that baseline contractile differences between the sexes may contribute to the well-recognized divergence in cardiovascular disease outcomes. Further work is needed in order to determine the pathologic changes that occur in LV strain between women and men with the onset of cardiovascular disease.
Tellioglu, A Metin; Durum, Y; Gok, M; Karakas, S; Polat, A G; Karaman, C Z
The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders. As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons' sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99-104).
Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin
The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...... semeiotics and his theory of communication, we account for the formal conditions that have to be present for the release of the significance-effect....
Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong
Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments
Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.
Jespers, Vicky; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Cools, Piet; Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Mandaliya, Kishor; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Crucitti, Tania
Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associated with HIV infection. Risk factors related to potentially protective or harmful microbiota species are not known. We present cross-sectional quantitative polymerase chain reaction data of the Lactobacillus genus, five Lactobacillus species, and three BV-related bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia) together with Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in 426 African women across different groups at risk for HIV. We selected a reference group of adult HIV-negative women at average risk for HIV acquisition and compared species variations in subgroups of adolescents, HIV-negative pregnant women, women engaging in traditional vaginal practices, sex workers and a group of HIV-positive women on combination antiretroviral therapy. We explored the associations between presence and quantity of the bacteria with BV by Nugent score, in relation to several factors of known or theoretical importance. The presence of species across Kenyan, South African and Rwandan women was remarkably similar and few differences were seen between the two groups of reference women in Kenya and South Africa. The Rwandan sex workers and HIV-positive women had the highest G. vaginalis presence (p = 0.006). Pregnant women had a higher Lactobacillus genus mean log (7.01 genome equivalents (geq)/ml) compared to the reference women (6.08 geq/ml). L. vaginalis (43%) was second to L. iners (81.9%) highly present in women with a normal Nugent score. Recent sexual exposure negatively affected the presence of L. crispatus (studied African countries was similar, the presence of protective species i.e. L. crispatus and L. vaginalis in women with a normal Nugent score appeared lower compared to non-African studies. Furthermore, Lactobacillus species were negatively
Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Seroepidemiological investigations after the administration of hepatitis B vaccine have shown that even 15% of vaccinated healthy persons do not generate immune response to the vaccines currently in use. OBJECTIVE The aim of the research is to test the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in different age groups on the adult vaccinated population sample in Serbia. METHOD The tested general population sample consisted of 154 adult subjects. Immunization was done using the recombinant fungal vaccine obtained by genetic engineering (Euvax B vaccine, manufacturer LG, distributor Sanofi Pasteur. All tested subjects in the research received 1 ml of hepatitis B vaccine administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle by 0, 1, 6 schedule. RESULTS In the tested sample, 3.13% of persons aged up to 29 years, 6.25% aged 30-35 year and 19.23% of the tested persons aged 40 years and older had no immune response. The relative risk of “no response" findings was twice higher in the group aged 30-39 as compared to the population aged up to 29 years. The detected risk was six times higher for the population of 40 years and older in comparison to the population aged up to 29 years. Also, the relative risk of “no response" findings for the population of 40 years and older was more than three times higher than for the group aged 30-39. Absent immune response in relation to sex was found to be higher in male subjects. CONCLUSION The rates of “no response" finding was the following: 3.13% in the group aged up to 29 years, 6.25% in the group aged 30-39, as well as in the group aged 40 years and older (19.23%. Immune response in relation to age groups was statistically significantly different (p<0.001, while there was a statistically significant correlation (C=0.473; p<0.001 between the age of the subjects and the immune response. In relation to sex, the “no response" finding was found to be increased in the males, but without any statistically
To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.
Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif
Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.
Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu; Wang Youji
The objective of this study was to detect testosterone(T), free testosterone (FT) and sex hormone-binding globulin(SHBG) in serum and semen of patients with idiopathic oligospermia, and further analyze the relationship between T, FT, SHBG and idiopathic oligospermia. Blood and semen samples were collected from males of a normal control group and an idiopathic oligospermia group at 8:00-10:00 am. The sperm density in semen was detected by routine semen analysis, while T, FT, SHBG in serum and semen were detected by RIA. There were no significant differences in serum concentrations of T, FT, SHBG between normal control group [(30.03±13.07)nmol/L,(97.50±46.96)pmol/L, (40.37±16.73)nmol/L, respectively] and idiopathic oligspermia group [(28.11±11.54) nmol/L, (94.88±42.04) pmol/L, (41.61± 18.86)noml/LJ(all P>0. 05). There were significant differences in semsn concentrations of FT and SHBG between normal control group[(2.01±0.32) pmol/L, (0.17±0.21)nmol/L] and idiopathic oligspermia group [ (0.52±0.44) pmol/L, (0.22±0.15) nmol/LJ (P 0.05). Therefore, measurement of semsn FT, SHBG concentration could early reflect the function of tesis, which is useful for early diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic oligospermia. (authors)
Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga
Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naive cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes
Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kovalchuk, Olga [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)], E-mail: email@example.com
Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naive cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes.
Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga
Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naïve cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes.
Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K
This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rizzo, Giuseppe; Prefumo, Federico; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Zanardini, Cristina; Di Martino, Daniela; Boito, Simona; Aiello, Elisa; Ghi, Tullio
To evaluate the effect of fetal sex on singleton pregnancy growth charts customized for parental characteristics, race, and parity Methods: In a multicentric cross-sectional study, 8070 ultrasonographic examinations from low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation were considered. The fetal measurements obtained were biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL). Quantile regression was used to examine the impact of fetal sex across the biometric percentiles of the fetal measurements considered together with parents' height, weight, parity, and race. Fetal gender resulted to be a significant covariate for BDP, HC, and AC with higher values for male fetuses (p ≤ 0.0009). Minimal differences were found among sexes for FL. Parity, maternal race, paternal height and maternal height, and weight resulted significantly related to the fetal biometric parameters considered independently from fetal gender. In this study, we constructed customized biometric growth charts for fetal sex, parental, and obstetrical characteristics using quantile regression. The use of gender-specific charts offers the advantage to define individualized normal ranges of fetal biometric parameters at each specific centile. This approach may improve the antenatal identification of abnormal fetal growth.
Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.
Fagot, B I; Hagan, R
To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.
Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…
Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret
Preclinical studies demonstrate that cannabinoid-mediated antinociceptive effects vary according to sex; it is unknown if these findings extend to humans. This retrospective analysis compared the analgesic, subjective and physiological effects of active cannabis (3.56-5.60% THC) and inactive cannabis (0.00% THC) in male (N=21) and female (N=21) cannabis smokers under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Pain response was measured using the Cold-Pressor Test (CPT). Participants immersed their hand in cold water (4°C); times to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective drug ratings were also measured. Among men, active cannabis significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to inactive cannabis (pcannabis failed to decrease pain sensitivity relative to inactive. Active cannabis increased pain tolerance in both men women immediately after smoking (pcannabis also increased subjective ratings of cannabis associated with abuse liability ('Take again,' 'Liking,' 'Good drug effect'), drug strength, and 'High' relative to inactive in both men and women (pcannabis smokers, men exhibit greater cannabis-induced analgesia relative to women. These sex-dependent differences are independent of cannabis-elicited subjective effects associated with abuse-liability, which were consistent between men and women. As such, sex-dependent differences in cannabis's analgesic effects are an important consideration that warrants further investigation when considering the potential therapeutic effects of cannabinoids for pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria Julia Scerbo
Full Text Available The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the hypothesis of that cell-autonomous action of sex chromosomes can differentially regulate the expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3 in male and female hypothalamic neurons, generating sex differences in neuronal development. Neuronal cultures were prepared from male and female E14 mouse hypothalami, before the fetal peak of testosterone. Female neurons showed enhanced neuritogenesis and higher expression of Ngn3 than male neurons. The silencing of Ngn3 abolished sex differences in neuritogenesis, decreasing the differentiation of female neurons. The sex difference in Ngn3 expression was determined by sex chromosomes, as demonstrated using the four core genotypes mouse model, in which a spontaneous deletion of the testis-determining gene Sry from the Y chromosome was combined with the insertion of the Sry gene onto an autosome. In addition, the expression of Ngn3, which is also known to mediate the neuritogenic actions of estradiol, was increased in the cultures treated with the hormone, but only in those from male embryos. Furthermore, the hormone reversed the sex differences in neuritogenesis promoting the differentiation of male neurons. These findings indicate that Ngn3 mediates both cell-autonomous actions of sex chromosomes and hormonal effects on neuritogenesis.
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical...... to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988–2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different......-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995–2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings...
This essay will study leadership by critically analysing several key theories; it will begin with the concept of leadership to facility an understanding of the subject. Initially, the description of leadership in organisations will be explored to present the development of leadership, and simultaneously identify the purpose of effective leadership. Subse-quently, the demand for good leaders in current business environment will be discussed in order to identify the importance of effective lead-ership. Finally, an empirical case will be discussed to reveal how well the key theories help leaders to address various issues in organisations.
de Boer, B.
This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between
Jimenez, Emmanuel; Lockheed, Marlaine E.
This paper provides evidence regarding the relative effects of single-sex and coeducational school in enhancing eighth grade mathematics achievement in Thailand. It uses pre and post eighth grade test scores to estimate value added equations for single-sex and coeducational schools. The preliminary conclusions are the following. First, girls in single-sex schools do significantly better than their coeducational school counterparts, while boys in coeducational schools do better. Thus there is ...
Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C
Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).
Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K
A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are
Full Text Available Ghada Khoury,1 Marwan Sheikh-Taha2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Objective: We examined the potential effect of sex and age on warfarin dosing in ambulatory adult patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients attending an anticoagulation clinic. We included patients anticoagulated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism who had a therapeutic international normalized ratio of 2–3 for 2 consecutive months. We excluded patients who had been on any drug that is known to have a major interaction with warfarin, smokers, and heavy alcohol consumers. Out of 340 screened medical records, 96 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome assessed was warfarin total weekly dose (TWD. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the TWD among the ages (P<0.01; older patients required lower doses. However there was no statistically significant difference in the TWD between sexes (P=0.281. Conclusion: Age was found to have a significant effect on warfarin dosing. Even though women did require a lower TWD than men, this observation was not statistically significant. Keywords: warfarin, INR, anticoagulation, vitamin K antagonists, age
Moore, Fhionna R.
Mate preferences provide an opportunity to explore the validity of evolutionary and social role origin theories of sex differences in human behaviour. In evolutionary models, preferences are sex-specific adaptive responses to constraints to reproductive success. In social role models, sex differences arise from the allocation of men and women to different gender roles. I explored the effects of the status of women on preferences to assess the validity of the origin theories....
Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J.; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L.
Background Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioral intervention among female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use among FSWs randomized to this intervention. Methods FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana’s Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioral intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Results Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Registration predicted increased condom use among FSWs enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Public health programs designed to improve condom use among FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviors. PMID:20956076
Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L
Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioural intervention amongst female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use amongst FSWs randomized to this intervention. FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana's Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioural intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Registration predicted increased condom use amongst FSWs enrolled in a behavioural intervention. Public health programmes designed to improve condom use amongst FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhu, J; Weir, B S
Genetic models including sex-linked and maternal effects as well as autosomal gene effects are described. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to compare efficiencies of estimation by minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methods. MINQUE(1), which has 1 for all prior values, has a similar efficiency to MINQUE(θ), which requires prior estimates of parameter values. MINQUE(1) has the advantage over REML of unbiased estimation and convenient computation. An adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) method is developed for predicting random genetic effects. AUP is desirable for its easy computation and unbiasedness of both mean and variance of predictors. The jackknife procedure is appropriate for estimating the sampling variances of estimated variances (or covariances) and of predicted genetic effects. A t-test based on jackknife variances is applicable for detecting significance of variation. Worked examples from mice and silkworm data are given in order to demonstrate variance and covariance estimation and genetic effect prediction.
Do Won Kwak; Hyejin Ku
To separately identify the effects of single-sex â€œschoolingâ€ versus single- sex â€œschoolsâ€ , we exploit two unusual experiments in South Korea: students are randomly assigned to academic high schools within districts regardless of school types, and some schools changed their types from single-sex to coeducational over time. While the overall effects of attending a single-sex school are positive for both boys and girls, these are driven by the differences in resources between school types...
Son preference remains common in countries from East Asia through South Asia to the Middle East and North Africa. Where sex selective technology and abortion are readily available, such as in China, South Korea and India, this has led to a marked excess in male births. Worst excesses are seen in parts of rural China where there are 140 male births for every 100 female. This leads to large numbers of unmarriageable men. Concerns about the consequences centre around the propensity to aggression and violence of these men with increased levels of crime and antisocial behaviour, threatening societal stability and security. But recent studies do not support these assumptions, but rather suggest that these men are marginalised, lonely, withdrawn and prone to psychological problems. Measures to reduce sex selection should include enforcement of existing legislation on sex-selection, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of late abortion and gender imbalance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Craft, Rebecca M.; Clark, James L.; Hart, Stephen P.; Pinckney, Megan K.
Sex differences in reinforcing, analgesic and other effects of opioids have been demonstrated; however, the extent to which sex differences in motoric effects of opioids contribute to apparent sex differences in their primary effects is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the prototypic mu opioid agonist morphine on locomotor activity in male vs. female rats. Saline or morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into ...
A total of 18 Qinchuan cattle, six intact males (IM), six castrated males (CM) and six females (FM), were used to investigate the effect of sex on the physicochemical characteristics (PCC) and fatty acid (FA) composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Obvious sex differences were found in the PCC of LDM: the IM ...
The gonadal doses following the 131 I treatment of 6 male and 14 female patients with hyperthyroidism were calculated by the method of MIRD, measuring daily radioactivity in the thyroid gland and circulating blood. The testicular dose was 0.52 +- 0.256 rads and the ovarian dose was 0.632 +- 0.488 rads per mCi. In 1965, the genetically significant dose from 131 I treatment of 925 patients with hyperthyroidism was estimated to be 0.0136 mrads/person/year. The genetically significant dose would amount to 0.0613 mrads/person/year, assuming that the total amount of 131 I supplied for treatment in 1965 was administered to treat the hyperthyroid patients with an age-and sex distribution similar to that of the above mentioned group of patients. Sex ratios of the offspring of male and female patients treated with 131 I from 1953 to 1966 were compared with those of offspring born to male and female patients before the treatment. The proportion of males was higher among the offspring of male patients after 131 I treatment than among the offspring of the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. The sex ratio of the offspring of female patients was not different from that of controls. The mean age of the parents at the times of their children's birth after 131 I treatment was 2.6 - 6.0 year older in male patients and 2.8 - 2.9 year older in female patients than that of controls. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.
Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Filbey, Francesca
Background Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of ?9-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. Methods We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of ?9-THC on neural structure and functioning. Results The literature demonstrates differences in male and female marijuana users on brain str...
Shaw, Allison K; Kokko, Hanna; Neubert, Michael G
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life-history traits (e.g. growth, survival and dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density. Most models of population spread are based on one sex, or include limited aspects of sex differences. Here we ask whether and how the dynamics of finding mates interact with sex-specific life-history traits to influence the rate of population spread. We present a hybrid approach for modelling invasions of populations with two sexes that links individual-level mating behaviour (in an individual-based model) to population-level dynamics (in an integrodifference equation model). We find that limiting the amount of time during which individuals can search for mates causes a demographic Allee effect which can slow, delay, or even prevent an invasion. Furthermore, any sex-based asymmetries in life history or behaviour (skewed sex ratio, sex-biased dispersal, and sex-specific mating behaviours) amplify these effects. In contrast, allowing individuals to mate more than once ameliorates these effects, enabling polygynandrous populations to invade under conditions where monogamously mating populations would fail to establish. We show that details of individuals' mating behaviour can impact the rate of population spread. Based on our results, we propose a stricter definition of a mate-finding Allee effect, which is not met by the commonly used minimum mating function. Our modelling approach, which links individual- and population-level dynamics in a single model, may be useful for exploring other aspects of individual behaviour that are thought to impact the
In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.
Calkins, Monica E.; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Gur, Raquel E.
Background Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Methods Participants (n=1,967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1,072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Results Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable, across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in 6 of 7 domains, probands’ score predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, probands’ performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Conclusions Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male probands’ performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. PMID:23395246
Calkins, Monica E; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Gur, Raquel E
Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Participants (n=1967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in six of seven domains, proband scores predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, proband performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives' (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male proband performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fazal, Loubina; Azibani, Feriel; Vodovar, Nicolas; Cohen Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Samuel, Jane-Lise
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in men and women in industrialized countries. While the effects of biological sex on cardiovascular pathophysiology have long been known, the sex-specific mechanisms mediating these processes have been further elucidated over recent years. This review aims at analysing the sex-based differences in cardiac structure and function in adult mammals, and the sex-based differences in the main molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the heart to pathological situations. It emerged from this review that the sex-based difference is a variable that should be dealt with, not only in basic science or clinical research, but also with regards to therapeutic approaches. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Ulubaev, A; Lee, D M; Purandare, N; Pendleton, N; Wu, F C W
Changing world demographic patterns, such as the increasing number of older people and the growing prevalence of cognitive impairment, present serious obstacles to preserving the quality of life and productivity of individuals. The severity of dementia varies from subclinical, mild cognitive impairment to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. In normally ageing men, these age-related cognitive declines are accompanied by gradual but marked decreases in androgen levels and changes in other hormone profiles. While developmental effects of sex hormones on cognition in the pre- and early postnatal period have been demonstrated, their activational effects in later life are still a focus of contemporary research. Although there is a plethora of published research on the topic, results have been inconsistent with different studies reporting positive, negative or no effects of sex hormones on various aspects of mental agility. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the biological plausibility of the activational effects of sex hormones upon cognition and describes the mechanisms of their actions. It offers a comprehensive summary of the studies of the effects of sex hormones on fluid intelligence in men utilizing elements from the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines for Reviews. The results of both observational (cross-sectional and longitudinal) and interventional studies published to date are collated in table form and further discussed in the text. Factors contributing to the difficulties in understanding the effects of sex hormones on cognition are also examined. Although there is convincing evidence that steroid sex hormones play an organizational role in brain development in men, the evidence for activational effects of sex hormones affecting cognition in healthy men throughout adult life remains inconsistent. To address this issue, a new multifactorial approach is proposed which takes into account the status of other elements of the sex hormones axis
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.
Singh, Garima; Singh, Vikrant; Sobolewski, Marissa; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Schneider, Jay S.
The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies. Unfortunately, only a limited number of human epidemiological studies have included both sexes in independent outcome analyses limiting our ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding sex-differentiated outcomes. Additionally, due to various methodological differences across studies, there is still not a good mechanistic understanding of the molecular effects of lead on the brain and the factors that influence differential responses to Pb based on sex. In this review, focused on prenatal and postnatal Pb exposures in humans and animal models, we discuss current literature supporting sex differences in outcomes in response to Pb exposure and explore some of the ideas regarding potential molecular mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. The sex-dependent variability in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure may arise from a combination of complex factors, including, but not limited to, intrinsic sex-specific molecular/genetic mechanisms and external risk factors including sex-specific responses to environmental stressors which may act through shared epigenetic pathways to influence the genome and behavioral output. PMID:29662502
Full Text Available The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies. Unfortunately, only a limited number of human epidemiological studies have included both sexes in independent outcome analyses limiting our ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding sex-differentiated outcomes. Additionally, due to various methodological differences across studies, there is still not a good mechanistic understanding of the molecular effects of lead on the brain and the factors that influence differential responses to Pb based on sex. In this review, focused on prenatal and postnatal Pb exposures in humans and animal models, we discuss current literature supporting sex differences in outcomes in response to Pb exposure and explore some of the ideas regarding potential molecular mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. The sex-dependent variability in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure may arise from a combination of complex factors, including, but not limited to, intrinsic sex-specific molecular/genetic mechanisms and external risk factors including sex-specific responses to environmental stressors which may act through shared epigenetic pathways to influence the genome and behavioral output.
... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...
Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…
Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M
The effects of interracial crossing on the human sex ratio at birth were investigated using United States birth-certificate data for 1972-1979. The sex ratio was 1.059 for approximately 14 million singleton infants born to white couples, 1.033 for 2 million born to black couples, and 1.024 for 64,000 born to American Indian couples. Paternal and maternal race influences on the observed racial differences in sex ratio were analyzed using additional data on approximately 97,000 singleton infants born to white-black couples and 60,000 born to white-Indian couples. After adjustment for mother's race, white fathers had significantly more male offspring than did black fathers (ratio of sex ratios [RSR] = 1.027) and Indian fathers (RSR = 1.022). On the other hand, after adjustment for father's race, white mothers did not have more male offspring than did black mothers (RSR = 0.998) or Indian mothers (RSR = 1.009). The paternal-race effect persisted after adjustment for parental ages, education, birth order, and maternal marital status. The study shows that the observed racial differences in the sex ratio at birth are due to the effects of father's race and not the mother's. The study points to paternal determinants of the human sex ratio at fertilization and/or of the prenatal differential sex survival. PMID:6496474
Lungu, Ovidiu; Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna
In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing. Forty-six healthy individuals (25 women, 21 men) viewed negative, positive and neutral images during an fMRI session. Effective connectivity between significantly activated regions was examined using Granger causality and psychophysical interaction analyses. Sex steroid hormones and feminine-masculine traits were also measured. Subjective ratings of negative emotional images were higher in women than in men. Across sexes, significant activations were observed in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right amygdala. Granger connectivity from right amygdala was significantly greater than that from dmPFC during the 'high negative' condition, an effect driven by men. Magnitude of this effect correlated negatively with highly negative image ratings and feminine traits and positively with testosterone levels. These results highlight critical sex differences in brain connectivity during negative emotion processing and point to the fact that both biological (sex steroid hormones) and psychosocial (gender role and identity) variables contribute to them. As the dmPFC is involved in social cognition and action planning, and the amygdala-in threat detection, the connectivity results suggest that compared to women, men have a more evaluative, rather than purely affective, brain response during negative emotion processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex information on romantic love levels among Jimma university students. ... Socio-demographic factors including gender, religion, ethnicity, place of origin (urban/rural), and level of education did not have a statistically significant effect on the romantic love level of the ...
Robin S S Kramer
Full Text Available In perceptual decision-making, a person's response on a given trial is influenced by their response on the immediately preceding trial. This sequential effect was initially demonstrated in psychophysical tasks, but has now been found in more complex, real-world judgements. The similarity of the current and previous stimuli determines the nature of the effect, with more similar items producing assimilation in judgements, while less similarity can cause a contrast effect. Previous research found assimilation in ratings of facial attractiveness, and here, we investigated whether this effect is influenced by the social categories of the faces presented. Over three experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of own- (White and other-race (Chinese faces of both sexes that appeared successively. Through blocking trials by race (Experiment 1, sex (Experiment 2, or both dimensions (Experiment 3, we could examine how sequential judgements were altered by the salience of different social categories in face sequences. For sequences that varied in sex alone, own-race faces showed significantly less opposite-sex assimilation (male and female faces perceived as dissimilar, while other-race faces showed equal assimilation for opposite- and same-sex sequences (male and female faces were not differentiated. For sequences that varied in race alone, categorisation by race resulted in no opposite-race assimilation for either sex of face (White and Chinese faces perceived as dissimilar. For sequences that varied in both race and sex, same-category assimilation was significantly greater than opposite-category. Our results suggest that the race of a face represents a superordinate category relative to sex. These findings demonstrate the importance of social categories when considering sequential judgements of faces, and also highlight a novel approach for investigating how multiple social dimensions interact during decision-making.
Ganong, L H; Coleman, M
The predominant theories of gender-role development have focused primarily on childhood; socialization processes for gender roles are explained from birth through adolescence. The assumption appears to be that gender roles are developed in childhood and implemented, basically unchanged, in adulthood. There is evidence, however, that gender-role self-perceptions change in adulthood. This study investigates the effects of sex of children on parental sex-role orientation. More specifically, an attempt is made to determine if the presence of sons affects sex-role self-concept of parents more than the presence of daughters. The Bem Sex Role Inventory was administered to 153 parental dyads who had daughters only (n=41), sons only (n=41), or an equal number of both sons and daughters (n=71). Sex of child, especially sons, did appear to have an effect on parents' femininity. Fathers with sons have lower femininity scores than fathers with daughters only, and mothers with sons have higher femininity scores than mothers with daughters only.
Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T
Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory. The focus is on the available human data on sex differences and the impact sex hormones have on the stress effects on emotional learning and memory. It will become apparent that the menstrual cycle but also the intake of hormonal contraceptives modulates the impact of stress on brain and behavior. Additional basic research is needed for a deeper insight regarding the interplay between stress and sex hormones in emotion and cognition. In addition, new treatment options might be derived to optimize existing strategies such as exposure therapy, which relies on the principles of fear conditioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The sexual domain is unified only by the phenomenal quality of the occurrence of the desires, activities, and pleasures it includes. There is no conceptual restriction on the range of intentional objects those desires, activities, and pleasures can take. Neither is there good conceptual reason to privilege any class of them as paradigmatic. Since the quality unifying the sexual is not morally significant, the morality of sexuality is no different from morality in general. The view that partic...
Maga-Nteve, Christoniki; Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Margarity, Marigoula; Klapa, Maria I
A systematic data quality validation and normalization strategy is an important component of the omic profile meta-analysis, ensuring comparability of the profiles and exclusion of experimental biases from the derived biological conclusions. In this study, we present the normalization methodology applied on the sets of cerebellum gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles of 124days old male and female animals in an adult-onset-hypothyroidism (AOH) mouse model before combining them into a sex-comparative analysis. The employed AOH model concerns the monitoring of the brain physiology of Balb/cJ mice after eight-week administration of 1%w/v KClO 4 in the drinking water, initiated on the 60th day of their life. While originating from the same animal study, the tissues of the two sexes were processed and their profiles acquired and analyzed at different time periods. Hence, the previously published profile set of male mice was first re-annotated based on the presently available resources. Then, after being validated as acquired under the same analytical conditions, both profiles sets were corrected for derivatization biases and filtered for low-confidence measurements based on the same criteria. The final normalized 73-metabolite profiles contribute to the currently few available omic datasets of the AOH effect on brain molecular physiology, especially with respect to sex differentiation. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated one (unknown) and three (succinate, benzoate, myristate) metabolites with significantly higher and lower, respectively, cerebellum concentration in the hypothyroid compared to the euthyroid female mice. The respective numbers for the males were two and 24. Comparison of the euthyroid cerebellum metabolic profiles between the two sexes indicated 36 metabolites, including glucose, myo- and scyllo-inositol, with significantly lower concentration in the females versus the males. This implies that the female mouse cerebellum has
Duncan, Lesley A; Park, Justin H; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T
We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in reaction times served as indicators of selective attention. Results revealed a Sex X Sociosexuality interaction: Compared with sociosexually restricted men, unrestricted men selectively allocated attention to attractive opposite-sex others; no such effect emerged among women. This finding was specific to opposite-sex targets and did not occur in attention to same-sex others. These results contribute to a growing literature on the adaptive allocation of attention in social environments.
Luine, Victoria; Gomez, Juan; Beck, Kevin; Bowman, Rachel
Chronic stress causes deleterious changes in physiological function in systems ranging from neural cells in culture to laboratory rodents, sub-human primates and humans. It is notable, however, that the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in males. In this review, we provide information about chronic stress effects on cognition in female rodents and contrast it with responses in male rodents. In general, females show cognitive resilience to chronic stressors which impair male cognitive function using spatial tasks including the radial arm maze, radial arm water maze, Morris water maze, Y-maze and object placement. Moreover, stress often enhances female performance in some of these cognitive tasks. Memory in females is not affected by stress in non-spatial memory tasks like recognition memory and temporal order recognition memory while males show impaired memory following stress. We discuss possible bases for these sex-dependent differences including the use of different strategies by the sexes to solve cognitive tasks. Whether the sex differences result from changes in non-mnemonic factors is also considered. Sex-dependent differences in alcohol and drug influences on stress responses are also described. Finally, the role of neurally derived estradiol in driving sex differences and providing resilience to stress in females is shown. The importance of determining the nature and extent of sex differences in stress responses is that such differences may provide vital information for understanding why some stress related diseases have different incidence rates between the sexes and for developing novel therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Effect of sex and three different oil supplementations on main production traits, and fatty acid composition of the fillet and gonads was investigated in Nile tilapia. Males and females had significantly different final weights owing to the occasional reproduction of fish. Diets had no significant effects on the main production traits. The percentage of ALA in the fillet was significantly higher in the males in all diets. Significant differences were found between the two sexes in the n-3 PUFA, resulting in a higher n-3/ n-6 ratio in the males. MUFA and n-6 PUFA percentages and EPA/DHA ratio in the fillet were affected by the fat sources in the diet. The proportion of the main fatty acids showed significant changes in the gonads. Both sex and the diet had a significant effect on LA, AA, and DHA percentages. In case of EPA the males had significantly higher values than the females. ALA was affected by the different diets, the fillets of the LO group containing the highest percentage Regarding the main FA groups, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, n-3/n-6 ratio and the DHA/EPA ratio were affected by sex and diets.
Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for
Gibbons, E S; Rust, D M; Blassingame, C L; Reed, J L
The relationship of sex composition of class and instructor's sex to Physical Self-efficacy has yielded conflicting results in several studies. This study examined the relationship of sex composition of class and instructor's sex to scores on Physical Self-efficacy, Perceived Physical Ability, and Physical Self-presentation Confidence of 80 male students enrolled in one of four sections of a strength training class. Analysis indicated no significant difference on Physical Self-efficacy between male students who were enrolled in all male classes or in coeducational classes; improvements in scores on Physical Self-efficacy were not specific to the sex composition of the class or sex of the instructor and no significant difference on Perceived Physical Ability and Physical Self-presentation Confidence between male students who joined an all male class or a coeducational class. Perceived Physical Ability improved from the pretest to the posttest in all classes; and no improvement in scores for Physical Self-presentation Confidence was found in all classes. In conclusion, the analysis showed sex composition of the class and sex of the instructor were not significantly related to scores for self-efficacy.
Duncan, Lesley A.; Park, Justin H.; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.
We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the
Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.
Diego, Vincent P; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Blangero, John; de Souza, Michele Caroline; Santos, Daniel; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Garganta, Rui; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José A R
The objective of this study is to present a model to estimate sex-specific genetic effects on physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB) using three generation families. The sample consisted of 100 families covering three generations from Portugal. PA and SB were assessed via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF). Sex-specific effects were assessed by genotype-by-sex interaction (GSI) models and sex-specific heritabilities. GSI effects and heterogeneity were tested in the residual environmental variance. SPSS 17 and SOLAR v. 4.1 were used in all computations. The genetic component for PA and SB domains varied from low to moderate (11% to 46%), when analyzing both genders combined. We found GSI effects for vigorous PA (p = 0.02) and time spent watching television (WT) (p < 0.001) that showed significantly higher additive genetic variance estimates in males. The heterogeneity in the residual environmental variance was significant for moderate PA (p = 0.02), vigorous PA (p = 0.006) and total PA (p = 0.001). Sex-specific heritability estimates were significantly higher in males only for WT, with a male-to-female difference in heritability of 42.5 (95% confidence interval: 6.4, 70.4). Low to moderate genetic effects on PA and SB traits were found. Results from the GSI model show that there are sex-specific effects in two phenotypes, VPA and WT with a stronger genetic influence in males.
Jan B. Rosen
Full Text Available Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM, which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet.One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female, aged 19 to 86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice everyday life situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships.A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision-making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM.Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called positivity effect and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological
Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke
Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.
There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,
Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.
Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…
Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol
Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Vess, James D.; And Others
Examined the long-term effects of early parental divorce on sex role development in 219 college students. No significant differences were found between subjects from intact and divorced parents. However, children's age at the time of divorce, siblings, and post-divorce parental conflict were mediating factors. (JAC)
Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L
Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.
Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke
Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects
Sprecher, Susan; Harris, Gardenia; Meyers, Adena
As part of a larger survey study on young adult sexuality conducted over a 17-year period at a Midwest U.S. university, more than 6,000 college students completed questions on the sources of their sex education and the degree to which they have communicated about sex with various types of individuals. Participants reported receiving more sex education from peers and media than from parents (and mothers more than fathers). Respondents also reported communicating more about sex with peers than with parents or any other categories of individuals. Differences were found in the degree of sex education from various sources and in communication with various targets based on gender, ethnic background, and social class. Furthermore, changes were found over the 17-year period. More recent cohorts of students perceived that they received more sex education from media, peers, and professionals, and communicated more about sex with professionals, relative to earlier cohorts.
Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément
An increasing number of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from bacteria to animals have been reported in the past years, many of which involve Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts. Most transferred Wolbachia genes are neutrally-evolving fossils embedded in host genomes. A remarkable case of Wolbachia HGT for which a clear evolutionary significance has been demonstrated is the " f element", a nuclear Wolbachia insert involved in female sex determination in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare . The f element represents an instance of bacteria-to-animal HGT that has occurred so recently that it was possible to infer the donor (feminizing Wolbachia closely related to the w VulC Wolbachia strain of A. vulgare ) and the mechanism of integration (a nearly complete genome inserted by micro-homology-mediated recombination). In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the f element and discuss arising perspectives regarding female sex determination, unstable inheritance, population dynamics and the molecular evolution of the f element. Overall, the f element unifies three major areas in evolutionary biology: symbiosis, HGT and sex determination. Its characterization highlights the tremendous impact sex ratio distorters can have on the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes in animals and plants.
Full Text Available An increasing number of horizontal gene transfer (HGT events from bacteria to animals have been reported in the past years, many of which involve Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts. Most transferred Wolbachia genes are neutrally-evolving fossils embedded in host genomes. A remarkable case of Wolbachia HGT for which a clear evolutionary significance has been demonstrated is the “f element”, a nuclear Wolbachia insert involved in female sex determination in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. The f element represents an instance of bacteria-to-animal HGT that has occurred so recently that it was possible to infer the donor (feminizing Wolbachia closely related to the wVulC Wolbachia strain of A. vulgare and the mechanism of integration (a nearly complete genome inserted by micro-homology-mediated recombination. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the f element and discuss arising perspectives regarding female sex determination, unstable inheritance, population dynamics and the molecular evolution of the f element. Overall, the f element unifies three major areas in evolutionary biology: symbiosis, HGT and sex determination. Its characterization highlights the tremendous impact sex ratio distorters can have on the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes in animals and plants.
Hong, S M; Giannakopoulos, E
Diener, et al.'s 1985 Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to 1749 adult Australians to examine differences between men and women, university students and nonuniversity students, and among 17- to 22-, 23- to 29-, and 30- to 40-yr.-olds. No significant differences in life-satisfaction emerged in relation to sex or university status, but age showed a significant effect as higher life-satisfaction characterized older subjects. No interactions were found for any combination of the three variables. The results are interpreted in terms of egalitarian sex-role ideologies regarding sex, status-specific criteria in the assessment and conceptualisation of life-satisfaction for university status, and maturity trends in viewing life events concerning age.
This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…
The purpose of the article is to review the statistical significance reporting practices in reading instruction studies and to provide guidelines for when to calculate and report effect sizes in educational research. A review of six readily accessible (online) and accredited journals publishing research on reading instruction ...
Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.
The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.
Li, YunShuan; Ren, Quan; Zhou, Yali; Li, Pingping; Lin, Wanhua; Yin, Xiaolin
To investigate the effect of thalidomide in patients with thalassemia intermedia. We observed the effect of thalidomide in seven patients with thalassemia intermedia requiring blood transfusion. Four of the patients were transfusion-independent, and three patients were transfusion-dependent. For the four transfusion-independent patients, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (≥2 g/dl) in three and moderately (1-2 g/dl) in one. After 3 months of treatment, hemoglobin concentration increased 3.2 ± 1.2 g/dl compared to pretreatment. Among the three transfusion-dependent patients, transfusion was terminated after one month of treatment in one patient and decreased >50% in the other two patients, accompanied by an increase in the average hemoglobin concentration. Thalidomide had a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia. Further studies of a larger scale and more rigorous design are warranted.
Participants were presented with target words on two occasions, and were asked each time to generate a memory of a past episode associated with the targets. Participants were also instructed to rate the importance (significance elaboration) or pleasantness of the pisode (pleasantness elaboration) in an orienting task, followed by an unexpect d recall test. Significance elaboration led to better recall than pleasantness elaboration, but only in the spaced presentation. The spaced presentation led to better tree recall than massed presentation with significance elaboration, but the difference between the two types of presentation was not observed with pleasantness elaboration. These results suggest that the significance of an episode is more critical than the pleasantness of an episode in determining the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration in facilitating recall.
Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung
Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.
Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung
Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751
Poirier, Christophe; Qin, Yangjun; Adams, Carolyn P; Anaya, Yanett; Singer, Jonathan B; Hill, Annie E; Lander, Eric S; Nadeau, Joseph H; Bishop, Colin E
The transgenic insertional mouse mutation Odd Sex (Ods) represents a model for the long-range regulation of Sox9. The mutation causes complete female-to-male sex reversal by inducing a male-specific expression pattern of Sox9 in XX Ods/+ embryonic gonads. We previously described an A/J strain-specific suppressor of Ods termed Odsm1(A). Here we show that phenotypic sex depends on a complex interaction between the suppressor and the transgene. Suppression can be achieved only if the transgene is transmitted paternally. In addition, the suppressor itself exhibits a maternal effect, suggesting that it may act on chromatin in the early embryo.
David Neumark; Wendy A. Stock
The question of the effects of race and sex discrimination laws on relative economic outcomes for blacks and women has been of interest at least since the Civil Rights and Equal Pay Acts passed in the 1960s. We present new evidence on the effects of these laws based on variation induced first by state anti-discrimination statutes passed prior to the federal legislation and then by the extension of anti-discrimination prohibitions to the remaining states with the passage of federal legislation...
Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor; Husted, Victoria L.
Although partially caused by sex differences in aspirations and qualifications, the underrepresentation of women in professional and managerial positions also reflects the persistence of sex discrimination at the entry level. Discrimination against women applying for traditionally male jobs seems to increase with ambiguity about the fit between…
The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns.
Marta de Castro-Catala
Full Text Available Schizotypy phenotypes in the general population share etiopathogenic mechanisms and risk factors with schizophrenia, supporting the notion of psychosis as a continuum ranging from nonclinical to clinical deviance. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that is involved in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. Several recent studies have reported a sex difference in the impact of COMT genotype on psychiatric and cognitive phenotypes and personality traits. The present study investigated the association of COMT Val158Met (rs4680 with psychometric positive and negative schizotypy and psychotic experiences in a sample of 808 nonclinical young adults. The main finding was that sex moderates the association of COMT genotype with the negative dimension of both schizotypy and psychotic experiences. Male subjects carrying the Val allele tended to score higher on the negative dimension of both trait and symptom-like measures. The results from the present study are consistent with recent work suggesting an association between negative schizotypy and diminished prefrontal dopamine availability. They support the idea that a biological differentiation underlies the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. Additionally, these findings contribute to the growing literature on sex-specific effects of COMT on the predisposition to psychiatric disorders and personality traits.
Kurbatova Margarita, V.
Full Text Available The state policy regarding higher education has changed in the last decade. These changes were part of the efficiency programs of the public sector. Governments of different countries ruined previously existing system of higher education state regulation and attempted to build the quasi-market structure in the higher education industry. Such transformations served as timely and progressive reforms in the recent studies of the economics of education. Substitution of bureaucratic management mechanisms and modern competition managerial tools are articulated. Economic and institutional and sociological studies on the effects of the introduction of quasi-markets and managerial tools in higher education governance oppose to orthodox market approach. They drew attention to the fact that evaluation methods and improve the effectiveness of organizations and employees that are typical of the private sector often produce results that differ from those in the public sector. To assess the consequences of the introduction of managerial tools of external control activities of university lecturers used a methodology based on the allocation of the individual structural components (effects and building on their basis of a multi-level hierarchical model in the research. Each component of the model (single effect is characterized by a degree of significance (importance and the degree of severity. The results of the systematization and assessment of the significance of the effects of external control activity of lecturers of Russian universities implemented in conditions of quasi-market mechanisms of the higher education system are highlighted in the paper.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.
DUNCAN, LESLEY A.; PARK, JUSTIN H.; FAULKNER, JASON; SCHALLER, MARK; NEUBERG, STEVEN L.; KENRICK, DOUGLAS T.
We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in r...
Gilsanz, V.; Roe, T.F.; Wells, T.R.; Senac, M.O. Jr.; Landing, B.; Libaneti, C.; Cann, C.E.; Schulz, E.
The development of special phantoms permitted precise measurement of vertebral mineral content by CT in the very young. The normal standards for spinal trabecular bone of children aged 0-18 years are presented. Although there is no age-related difference in bone density before puberty, there is a significant increase in bone mineral content after puberty. The increase in sex hormones during puberty accounts for the increased density. Longitudinal studies analyzing vertebral density changes in castrated rabbits after testosterone and estradiol administration are discussed
Luke, Steven G
Mixed-effects models are being used ever more frequently in the analysis of experimental data. However, in the lme4 package in R the standards for evaluating significance of fixed effects in these models (i.e., obtaining p-values) are somewhat vague. There are good reasons for this, but as researchers who are using these models are required in many cases to report p-values, some method for evaluating the significance of the model output is needed. This paper reports the results of simulations showing that the two most common methods for evaluating significance, using likelihood ratio tests and applying the z distribution to the Wald t values from the model output (t-as-z), are somewhat anti-conservative, especially for smaller sample sizes. Other methods for evaluating significance, including parametric bootstrapping and the Kenward-Roger and Satterthwaite approximations for degrees of freedom, were also evaluated. The results of these simulations suggest that Type 1 error rates are closest to .05 when models are fitted using REML and p-values are derived using the Kenward-Roger or Satterthwaite approximations, as these approximations both produced acceptable Type 1 error rates even for smaller samples.
Korczeniewska, Olga Anna; Khan, Junad; Tao, Yuanxiang; Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael
To investigate the effects and interactions of sex and stress (provoked by chronic restraint [RS]) on pain-like behavior in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. The effects of sex and RS (carried out for 14 days as a model for stress) on somatosensory measures (reaction to pinprick, von Frey threshold) in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain were examined. The study design was 2 × 4, with surgery (pain) and sham surgery (no pain) interacting with male restrained (RS) and unrestrained (nRS) rats and female RS and nRS rats. A total of 64 Sprague Dawley rats (32 males and 32 females) were used. Half of the animals in each sex group underwent RS, and the remaining half were left unstressed. Following the RS period, trigeminal neuropathic pain was induced by unilateral infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IOCCI). Half of the animals in the RS group and half in the nRS group (both males and females) were exposed to IOCCI, and the remaining halves to sham surgery. Elevated plus maze (EPM) assessment and plasma interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels were used to measure the effects of RS. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effects of stress, sex, and their interactions on plasma IFN-γ levels, changes in body weight, EPM parameters, tactile allodynia, and mechanohyperalgesia. Pairwise comparisons were performed by using Tukey post hoc test corrected for multiple comparisons. Both male and female RS rats showed significantly altered exploratory behavior (as measured by EPM) and had significantly lower plasma IFN-γ levels than nRS rats. Rats exposed to RS gained weight significantly slower than the nRS rats, irrespective of sex. Following RS but before surgery, RS rats showed significant bilateral reductions in von Frey thresholds and significantly increased pinprick response difference scores compared to nRS rats, irrespective of sex. From 17 days postsurgery, RSIOCCI rats showed significantly reduced von Frey thresholds and
Núñez, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Barajas, Ana; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Del Cacho, Núria; Usall, Judith
Substance use in psychosis is an important field of study given that it can be a risk factor for the development of psychosis and can give rise to psychotic symptoms. Studies of substance use in first episode psychosis patients do not frequently assess non-pathological substance consumption among patients, but rather the prevalence of substance abuse or dependence disorders. Moreover, most of these studies do not address the effects of sex in sufficient depth, and the consumption of caffeine or tobacco, which are two of the most frequently used substances, is often not assessed. The aim of this study was to compare patterns and quantities of substance use between first episode psychosis patients and healthy controls and between men and women, and explore the potential interactive effects between group (patients or controls) and sex. A total of 158 participants (82 first episode psychosis patients and 76 healthy controls) were included in the study. Both adults and adolescents were included in the study. Frequency and amount of use of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, and opiates were gathered. A significant main effect of sex was found for the frequency of use of tobacco (p=.050). Main effects of group were found for the quantity of tobacco (pcannabis (pcannabis (p=.017) consumed. There were also interaction effects between group and sex for the frequency of use of tobacco (p=.005) and cannabis (p=.009), and for the amount of cannabis consumed (p=.049). Qualitative differences between males and females regarding combined substance use are also reported. Among patients, men used tobacco more frequently than women, but this sex difference was not the same for the control group, in which women smoked more often than men. Regarding cannabis, men smoked cannabis more frequently and in larger amounts than women, but only in the patients group, whereas no sex differences for cannabis were found for the controls. Main effects of
Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.
Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M
Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...
Li, Chih-Ying; Karmarkar, Amol; Adhikari, Deepak; Ottenbacher, Kenneth; Kuo, Yong-Fang
To investigate the effects of age and sex on 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission after acute hospital discharge for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals and postacute discharge settings. Individuals (N=52,877) with Diagnosis Related Group codes of TBI, who were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65, 66 to 75, and ≥76 years. Not applicable. All-cause hospital readmission. Sex differences in 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission were found among all age groups (Preadmission were in the 2 oldest groups (66-75 and ≥76y). For both sexes, the oldest group (≥76y) had the highest adjusted 90-day readmission risk (eg, 90-d readmission: odds ratio, 2.32 [95% confidence interval, 2.01-2.69] for men; odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.43] for women). Among those readmitted within 90 days, the youngest group (18-40y) had the highest cumulative readmission percentage (35% for both sexes) within the first week of hospital discharge. Age and sex were significantly associated with hospital readmission during the first 90 days postdischarge in our TBI sample. Specifically, those aged 66 to 75 or ≥76 years had the highest readmission risk over 90 days for both sexes. The findings suggest that clinicians should consider age and sex in discharge planning and for the entire episode of care for the population with TBI. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keutmann, Michael K; Gonzalez, Raul; Maki, Pauline M; Rubin, Leah H; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M
HIV's effects on episodic memory have not been compared systematically between male and female substance-dependent individuals. We administered the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) to 280 substance-dependent HIV+ and HIV- men and women. Groups were comparable on demographic, substance use, and comorbid characteristics. There were no significant main effects of sex or HIV serostatus on BVMT-R performance, but HIV+ women performed significantly more poorly on delayed recall. This effect was most prominent among cocaine-dependent HIV+ women. Our findings are consistent with recent speculation that memory impairment may be more common among HIV+ women, particularly those with a history of cocaine dependence.
Li, M. X.; Luo, P.; Sun, Y. T.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, W. H.
The state of metastable equilibrium glass can carry an imprint of the past and exhibit memory effect. As a hallmark of glassy dynamics, memory effect can affect glassy behavior as it evolves further upon time. Even though the physical picture of the memory effect has been well studied, it is unclear whether a glass can recall as many pieces of information as possible, and if so, how the glass will accordingly behave. We report that by fractionizing temperature interval, inserting multistep aging protocols, and optimizing the time of each temperature step, i.e., by imposing a multistep "training" on a prototypical P d40N i10C u30P20 metallic glass, the memory of the trained glass can be significantly strengthened, marked by a pronounced augment in potential energy. These findings provide a new guide for regulating the energy state of glass by enhancing the nonequilibrium behaviors of the memory effect and offer an opportunity to develop a clearer physical picture of glassy dynamics.
Full Text Available Bone mineral density (aBMD is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change.
Sarkar, A.K.; Mukherji, R.N.
A single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg of cadmium chloride per 100 g body weight was followed by a significant decrease in the level of progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estriol in the gonadal tissues two days after treatment. In the adrenals cadmium chloride was not so effective as in the gonads. The concentration of sex-steroids and cholesterol returned to normal within ten days after treatment. It is supposed that cadmium chloride temporarily inhibits the 3-..beta..dehydrogenase system.
Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.
Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p 0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.
Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David
Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development.
Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M; Mustanski, Brian
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in the United States each year, and young MSM (ages 13-24) have the highest increases in new infections. Identifying which young MSM engage in sexual risk-taking in which contexts is critical in developing effective behavioral intervention strategies for this population. While studies have consistently found positive associations between the use of certain drugs and sexual risk, research on alcohol use as a predictor of risk has been less consistent. Participants included 114 young MSM from a longitudinal study of LGBT youth (ages 16-20 at baseline). Participants reported number of unprotected sex acts with up to nine partners across three waves of data collection spanning a reporting window of 18 months, for a total of 406 sexual partners. Sensation seeking was evaluated as a moderator of the effects of both alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk. Higher levels of sensation seeking were found to significantly increase the positive associations between frequency of unprotected sex and frequency of both alcohol use and drug use with partners. Follow-up analysis found that average rates of alcohol use moderated the association between alcohol use prior to sex and sexual risk, such that decreases in average alcohol use increased the positive association between these variables. Results suggest that while drug use with partners increased sexual risk for all young MSM, the effects of alcohol use prior to sex were limited in low sensation-seeking young MSM as well as those who are high alcohol consumers on average. Implications for future research and behavioral interventions are discussed.
Piber, Dominique; Nowacki, Jan; Mueller, Sven C; Wingenfeld, Katja; Otte, Christian
Sex differences have been found in spatial learning and spatial memory, with several studies indicating that males outperform females. We tested in the virtual Morris Water Maze (vMWM) task, whether sex differences in spatial cognitive processes are attributable to differences in spatial learning or spatial memory retrieval in a large student sample. We tested 90 healthy students (45 women and 45 men) with a mean age of 23.5 years (SD=3.5). Spatial learning and spatial memory retrieval were measured by using the vMWM task, during which participants had to search a virtual pool for a hidden platform, facilitated by visual cues surrounding the pool. Several learning trials assessed spatial learning, while a separate probe trial assessed spatial memory retrieval. We found a significant sex effect during spatial learning, with males showing shorter latency and shorter path length, as compared to females (all pretrieval (p=0.615). Furthermore, post-hoc analyses revealed significant sex differences in spatial search strategies (pretrieval. Our study raises the question, whether men and women use different learning strategies, which nevertheless result in equal performances of spatial memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S
The definition of family in Australia has been continuously changing over the past four decades. The 21 st century has brought with it various images of family, with an increase of awareness to same-sex families; however, the acceptance of such family structures does not appear to be widespread and is often determined by sex. Substantive literature demonstrates differences between men and women in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, with theory suggesting that gender role norms may explain this. Despite large efforts to determine sex differences in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, little research, and even less in Australia, has been done to investigate whether there are differences in reasons behind negative attitudes toward same-sex parenting between men and women. To further this understanding, an Australian sample (N= 790) ranging in age from 18-78 completed a survey regrading attitudes toward same-sex parenting, in addition to relevant demographic information. Participants reported more positive attitudes about parenting by lesbians as compared to parenting by gay men. Reasons behind attitudes toward same-sex parenting also differed between males and females. Results suggested that the impact of socially prescribed gender norms may affect prejudice toward same-sex families. Despite an increase in tolerance for sexual minorities recently, policies that continue to discriminate against same-sex parenting rights demonstrates the importance of continuing to identify potential influences of same-sex family prejudice to reduce the potentially negative impacts associated with the prejudice.
Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Schou, Toke M.; Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe
Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra-red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but th...
Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.
This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195
Vieira-Marques, Claudia; Arbo, Bruno Dutra; Cozer, Aline Gonçalves; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Zanini, Priscila; Niches, Gabriela; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M
DHEA is a neuroactive steroid, due to its modulatory actions on the central nervous system (CNS). DHEA is able to regulate neurogenesis, neurotransmitter receptors and neuronal excitability, function, survival and metabolism. The levels of DHEA decrease gradually with advancing age, and this decline has been associated with age related neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of endogenous DHEA. There are significant sex differences in the pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of many neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether DHEA can alter glucose metabolism in different structures of the CNS from male and female rats, and if this effect is sex-specific. The results showed that DHEA decreased glucose uptake in some structures (cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb) in males, but did not affect glucose uptake in females. When compared, glucose uptake in males was higher than females. DHEA enhanced the glucose oxidation in both males (cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and females (cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb), in a sex-dependent manner. In males, DHEA did not affect synthesis of glycogen, however, glycogen content was increased in the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb. DHEA modulates glucose metabolism in a tissue-, dose- and sex-dependent manner to increase glucose oxidation, which could explain the previously described neuroprotective role of this hormone in some neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lee, Valerie E.; Bryk, Anthony S.
This study compares the effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling. Results indicate that single-sex schools deliver specific advantages to their students, especially female students. Single-sex schools may facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment where social and academic concerns are separated.…
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru
Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…
Straaten, I. van; Holland, R.W.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.
Teresa G. Valencak
Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a complex and multi-faceted organ. It responds dynamically to internal and external stimuli, depending on the developmental stage and activity of the organism. The most common functional subunits of adipose tissue, white and brown adipocytes, regulate and respond to endocrine processes, which then determine metabolic rate as well as adipose tissue functions. While the molecular aspects of white and brown adipose biology have become clearer in the recent past, much less is known about sex-specific differences in regulation and deposition of adipose tissue, and the specific role of the so-called pink adipocytes during lactation in females. This review summarises the current understanding of adipose tissue dynamics with a focus on sex-specific differences in adipose tissue energy metabolism and endocrine functions, focussing on mammalian model organisms as well as human-derived data. In females, pink adipocytes trans-differentiate during pregnancy from subcutaneous white adipocytes and are responsible for milk-secretion in mammary glands. Overlooking biological sex variation may ultimately hamper clinical treatments of many aspects of metabolic disorders. Keywords: Body fatness, Adipose tissue, Sex-specific differences, Adipokines, Adipocytes, Obesity, Energy metabolism
Elizabeth E Manning
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, yet its role in the development of specific symptoms is unclear. Methamphetamine (METH users have an increased risk of psychosis and schizophrenia, and METH-treated animals have been used extensively as a model to study the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether METH treatment in BDNF heterozygous mutant mice (HET has cumulative effects on sensorimotor gating, including the disruptive effects of psychotropic drugs. BDNF HETs and WT littermates were treated during young-adulthood with METH and, following a two-week break, prepulse inhibition (PPI was examined. At baseline, BDNF HETs showed reduced PPI compared to WT mice irrespective of METH pre-treatment. An acute challenge with amphetamine (AMPH disrupted PPI but male BDNF HETs were more sensitive to this effect, irrespective of METH pre-treatment. In contrast, female mice treated with METH were less sensitive to the disruptive effects of AMPH, and there were no effects of BDNF genotype. Similar changes were not observed in the response to an acute apomorphine or MK-801 challenge. These results show that genetically-induced reduction of BDNF caused changes in a behavioural endophenotype relevant to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, major sex differences were observed in the effects of a psychotropic drug challenge on this behaviour. These findings suggest sex differences in the effects of BDNF depletion and METH treatment on the monoamine signaling pathways that regulate PPI. Given that these same pathways are thought to contribute to the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia, this work suggests that there may be significant sex differences in the pathophysiology underlying these symptoms. Elucidating these sex differences may be important for our understanding of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and developing better treatments strategies for the
Foley, B R; Rose, C G; Rundle, D E; Leong, W; Edmands, S
Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate only once. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was conducted on reciprocal F2 hybrids between two strongly differentiated populations, using a saturated linkage map spanning all 12 autosomes and the mitochondrion. By comparing sexes, a possible sex ratio distorter was found but no sex chromosomes. Although studies of standard models often find an excess of hybrid male sterility factors, we found no QTL for sterility and multiple QTL for hybrid viability (indicated by non-Mendelian adult ratios) and other characters. Viability problems were found to be stronger in males, but the usual explanations for weaker hybrid males (sex chromosomes, sensitivity of spermatogenesis, sexual selection) cannot fully account for these male viability problems. Instead, higher metabolic rates may amplify deleterious effects in males. Although many studies of standard speciation models find the strongest genetic incompatibilities to be nuclear-nuclear (specifically X chromosome-autosome), we found the strongest deleterious interaction in this system was mito-nuclear. Consistent with the snowball theory of incompatibility accumulation, we found that trigenic interactions in this highly divergent cross were substantially more frequent (>6×) than digenic interactions. This alternative system thus allows important comparisons to studies of the genetics of reproductive isolation in more standard model systems.
Shin, YunHee; Chun, YoungKyung; Cho, SungMi; Cho, YeRyung
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sex education program, which was based on the Health Belief Model, on knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy among university students. A non-equivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The four session program was delivered to 18 students during 4 weeks; the control group consisted of 23 students. The theme of the first session was "sex, gender, and sexuality: all our concern", "dangerous sex" for the second session, "safe sex" for the third session, and "right sex for you and me" for the fourth session. At follow-up, the knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A sex education program with several sessions within the theoretical frame of HBM was effective to improve knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy. The results suggest the potential of a systematic sexual education program to teach healthy sex and to extend the program for other various populations.
Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; LoLordo, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf
Social modeling is a process by which pain behaviors are learned, and research has found parents act as models for their children's behavior. Despite social learning theory predicting that same-sex models have greater effect, no experimental investigation to date has examined the role of sex of the model or observer in social learning of pediatric pain. The present study recruited 168 parent-child dyads (equal father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads) in which children were generally healthy and 6 to 8 years old. Unbeknownst to their child, parents were randomly assigned to exaggerate their expression of pain, minimize their expression of pain, or act naturally during the cold pressor task (CPT). Parents completed the CPT while their child observed, then children completed the CPT themselves. Children whose parents were in the exaggerate condition reported higher anxiety than children of parents in the minimize condition. Additionally, girls in the exaggerate condition rated their overall pain intensity during the CPT significantly higher than boys in the same condition. No child sex differences were observed in pain intensity for the control or minimize conditions. Parent expressions of pain affects children's anxiety, and sex-specific effects of parental exaggerated pain expression on children's own subsequent pain experience are present. This article describes how parental expressions of pain influence children's pain and anxiety, specifically examining the relevance of parent and child sex in this process. These findings have implications for children of parents with chronic pain, or situations in which parents experience pain in the presence of their child (eg, vaccinations). Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M
We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Speed, Traci J; Richards, Jessica M; Finan, Patrick H; Smith, Michael T
Sex differences in clinical pain severity and response to experimental pain are commonly reported, with women generally showing greater vulnerability. Affect, including state (a single rating) and stable (average daily ratings over two weeks) positive affect and negative affect has also been found to impact pain sensitivity and severity, and research suggests that affect may modulate pain differentially as a function of sex. The current study aimed to examine sex as a moderator of the relationships between affect and pain-related outcomes among participants with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred and seventy-nine participants (59 men) with KOA completed electronic diaries assessing clinical pain, positive affect, and negative affect. A subset of participants (n=120) underwent quantitative sensory testing, from which a single index of central sensitization to pain was derived. We used multiple regression models to test for the interactive effects of sex and affect (positive versus negative and stable versus state) on pain-related outcomes. We used mixed effects models to test for the moderating effects of sex on the relationships between state affect and pain over time. Sex differences in affect and pain were identified, with men reporting significantly higher stable positive affect and lower central sensitization to pain indexed by quantitative sensory testing, as well as marginally lower KOA-specific clinical pain compared to women. Moreover, there was an interaction between stable positive affect and sex on KOA-specific clinical pain and average daily non-specific pain ratings. Post hoc analyses revealed that men showed trends towards an inverse relationship between stable positive affect and pain outcomes, while women showed no relationship between positive affect and pain. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stable negative affect and sex on KOA-specific pain such that men showed a significantly stronger positive relationship between
Bramble, Matthew S; Lipson, Allen; Vashist, Neerja; Vilain, Eric
Sex differences in brain development and postnatal behavior are determined largely by genetic sex and in utero gonadal hormone secretions. In humans however, determining the weight that each of these factors contributes remains a challenge because social influences should also be considered. Cases of disorders of sex development (DSD) provide unique insight into how mutations in genes responsible for gonadal formation can perturb the subsequent developmental hormonal milieu and elicit changes in normal human brain maturation. Specific forms of DSDs such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and 5α-reductase deficiency syndrome have variable effects between males and females, and the developmental outcomes of such conditions are largely dependent on sex chromosome composition. Medical and psychological works focused on CAH, CAIS, and 5α-reductase deficiency have helped form the foundation for understanding the roles of genetic and hormonal factors necessary for guiding human brain development. Here we highlight how the three aforementioned DSDs contribute to brain and behavioral phenotypes that can uniquely affect 46,XY and 46,XX individuals in dramatically different fashions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
It has been widely reported that sex steroids affect carbohydrate metabolism and may have influences on hepatic enzymes. There have also been reports that glucocorticoids and sex steroids sometimes bind to similar receptors. All these suggest possible functional similarities or antagonism between glucocorticoids and ...
Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker
Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
• Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi usually enhance overall plant performance, yet their effects on seed germination and early plant establishment, crucial steps in plant cycles, are generally overlooked. In gynodioecious species, sexual dimorphism in these traits has been reported, with females producing seeds that germinate at a faster rate than seeds from hermaphrodites.• Using the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum, I investigated in a greenhouse experiment whether the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores affects seed germination and early plant establishment, examining at the same time whether the sex of the mother producing the seeds also influences these parameters and whether sex-specific interactions between these two factors exist.• The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores in the soil decreased seed germination, did not affect plant survival, but did increase plant growth. Moreover, no significant differences in seed traits were detected between the sexes of the plants producing the seeds.• This study demonstrates that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may have contrasting effects for plants during early life stages and that mycorrhizal effects can take place even at the precolonization stage. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Peterson, Bethany L; Won, Soonmi; Geddes, Rastafa I; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G
There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Progesterone is known to be effective in treating traumatic brain injury in adult animals but its effects in neonatal brains have not been reported. Brain injuries were induced by a unilateral common carotid artery ligation plus hypoxia exposure. Progesterone was administered immediately after hypoxia and daily for 5 days at 8 mg/kg, followed by a tapered dose for two days. At six weeks post-injury, lesion size and inflammatory factors were evaluated. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male animals, but not females, showed significant long-term tissue protection compared to vehicle, suggesting an important sex difference in neuroprotection. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male rats had fewer activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus compared to controls. The rats were tested for neurological reflexes, motor asymmetry, and cognitive performance at multiple time points. The injured animals exhibited few detectable motor deficits, suggesting a high level of age- and injury-related neuroplasticity. There were substantial sex differences on several behavioral tests, indicating that immature males and females should be analyzed separately. Progesterone-treated animals showed modest beneficial effects in both sexes compared to vehicle-treated injured animals. Sham animals given progesterone did not behave differently from vehicle-treated sham animals on any measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takizawa, Shoichi; Terada, Yoritake; Naito, Masashi; Naito, Yukiko
The effects of sex differences and ovarian resection on induction of intestinal metaplasia in x-ray irradiated mice were discussed. 1,000 rad of x-ray was irradiated to the stomach of female and male mice twice at intervals of 3 days. The range of intestinal metaplasia in male mice was wider than that in female mice. A total of 400 rad was irradiated to the whole body of mice which underwent ovarian resection (group 1), mice which underwent autotransplantation of the ovary after ovarian resection (group 2), and mice which underwent sham-ovarian resection (group 3). The incidence of intestinal metaplasia in the group 1 was significantly higher than that in the group 3. The weight of the uterus decreased gradually in order of the group 3, group 2, and group 1. It was suggested from above-mentioned results that disappearance or lowering of femal sex hormones, that is, male or androphacy, induced intestinal metaplasia. (Tsunoda, M.)
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth.
Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of duration and frequency of daytime naps and DCRF on VWM and VSWM differed according to sex. We assessed 779 healthy right-handed individuals (434 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.7 ± 1.8 years) using a digit span forward and backward VWM task, a forward and backward VSWM task, and sleep habits scales. A correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between VWM capacity (VWMC) and VSWM capacity (VSWMC) scores and sleep duration, nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with VWMC and VSWMC scores and to identify sex-related differences. We found significant positive correlations between VSWMC and nap duration and DCRF, and between VWMC and sleep duration in all subjects. Furthermore, we found that working memory capacity (WMC) was positively correlated with nap duration in males and with sleep duration in females, and DCRF was positively correlated with VSWMC in females. Our finding of sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on WMC has not been reported previously. The associations between WMC and sleep habits differed according to sex because of differences in the underlying neural correlates of VWM and VSWM, and effectiveness of the sleep habits in males and females.
Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values
Young, R L; Badyaev, A V
Females in species that produce broods of multiple offspring need to partition resources among simultaneously growing ova, embryos or neonates. In birds, the duration of growth of a single egg exceeds the ovulation interval, and when maternal resources are limited, a temporal overlap among several developing follicles in the ovary might result in a trade-off of resources among them. We studied growth of oocytes in relation to their future ovulation order, sex, and overlap with other oocytes in a population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) where strongly sex-biased maternal effects are favoured by natural selection. We found pronounced differences in growth patterns between oocytes that produced males and females. Male oocytes grew up to five times faster and reached their ovulation size earlier than female oocytes. Early onset and early termination of male oocytes' growth in relation to their ovulation resulted in their lesser temporal overlap with other growing ova compared with female oocytes. Consequently, ovulation mass of female but not male oocytes was strongly negatively affected by temporal overlap with other oocytes. In turn, mass of male oocytes was mostly affected by the order of ovulation and by maternal incubation strategy. These results provide a mechanism for sex-biased allocation of maternal resources during egg formation and provide insights into the timing of the sex-determining meiotic division in relation to ovulation in this species.
Since 1994, a Phase I/II clinical study and radiotherapy have carried out using carbon-ion beams produced with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Now we constructed the new treatment facility for the advanced carbon-ion therapy at HIMAC applying a 3D fast spot scanning system with pencil beams. In the field of fundamental biological studies for high-LET heavy ions, there are some reports regarding bystander effects after exposure to alpha particles derived from 238 Pu or He-ion microbeams. However, only limited sets of studies have examined bystander effects after exposure to different ion species heavier than helium, such as carbon ions. We have been investigating bystander cellular responses in both normal human and human tumor cells irradiated with the HIMAC carbon ions. Bystander cell-killing effect was observed in the cells harboring wild-type P53 gene, but not in the P53-mutated cells. Moreover, observed bystander effect was suppressed by treating with a specific inhibitor of gap-junction mediated cell-cell communication. There is clear evidence that the carbon-ion irradiation enables the enhanced cell killing in cells with wild-type P53 gene via gap-junction mediated bystander effect. (author)
In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.
The data on 217 elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and 209 middleaged postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, from 1976 to 1985 were analysed to determine the effect of age on survival. When considered as a group, the elderly have a more ...
Comfort, Nicole; Re, Diane B
This review discusses the sex-specific effects of exposure to various organophosphate (OP) pesticides throughout the life course and potential reasons for the differential vulnerabilities observed across sexes. Sex is a crucial factor in the response to toxicants, yet the sex-specific effects of OP exposure, particularly in juveniles and adults, remain unresolved. This is largely due to study design and inconsistencies in exposure and outcome assessments. Exposure to OPs results in multiple adverse outcomes influenced by many factors including sex. Reported sex-specific effects suggest that males are more susceptible to OPs, which reflects the sex-dependent prevalence of various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), in which males are at greater risk. Thus, this review proposes that the biological sex-specific effects elicited by OP exposure may in part underlie the dimorphic susceptibilities observed in neurological disorders. Understanding the immediate and long-term effects of OP exposure across sexes will be critical in advancing our understanding of OP-induced neurotoxicity and disease.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.
Permar, P.H.; McDonell, W.R.
Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10 12 rads, by alpha radiation up to 10 19 particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established
Hemmatian, Behrouz; Abdolhamidzadeh, B; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim
A historical survey was performed on 330 accidents involving domino effect, occurred in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials; only accidents occurred after 1st-January-1961 have been considered. The main features – geographical location, type of accident, materials involved, origin and causes, consequences, domino sequences – were analyzed, with special consideration to the situation in the developing countries and compared to those from other previous surve...
Dudley, Gary E.
Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…
Smith, Thomas Ewin
Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)
Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.
A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male but not in female patients. This sex difference explains some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked.
Esere, Mary Ogechi
Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.
Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Loehr, Laura; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kitzman, Dalane; Couper, David; Soliman, Elsayed Z
Race and sex differences in silent myocardial infarction (SMI) are not well established. The analysis included 9498 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989). Incident SMI was defined as ECG evidence of MI without clinically documented MI (CMI) after the baseline until ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Coronary heart disease and all-cause deaths were ascertained starting from ARIC visit 4 until 2010. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 317 participants (3.3%) developed SMI and 386 (4.1%) developed CMI. The incidence rates of both SMI and CMI were higher in men (5.08 and 7.96 per 1000-person years, respectively) than in women (2.93 and 2.25 per 1000-person years, respectively; Prace were detected. SMI represents >45% of incident MIs and is associated with poor prognosis. Race and sex differences in the incidence and prognostic significance of SMI exist that may warrant considering SMI in personalized assessments of coronary heart disease risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Boddu, Ravindra; Fan, Chunlan; Rangarajan, Sunil; Sunil, Bhuvana; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Curtis, Lisa M
Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age-based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, whereas in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr. Notably, Aged Females showed significantly greater mortality, whereas Young Females exhibited none. Tissue KIM-1 and plasma NGAL were significantly lower in Young Females than all others. IGFBP7 levels were modestly increased in both Young groups. IGFBP7 levels in Aged Females were significantly elevated at baseline relative to Aged Males, and increased linearly through day 3 , when these levels were comparable in both Aged groups. Plasma cytokine levels similarly showed a pattern of protective effects preferentially in Young Females. Expression of the drug transporter MATE2 did not explain the sex/age distinctions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels (~28-kDa species) showed elevation at day 1 in all groups with highest levels seen in Young Males. Exclusively in Young Females, these levels returned to baseline on day 3 , suggestive of a more efficient recovery. In aggregate, we demonstrate, for the first time, a distinctive pattern of response to AKI in Young Females relative to males which appears to be significantly altered in aging. These distinctions may offer novel targets to exploit therapeutically in both females and males in the treatment of AKI.
This study investigates the concurrent validity of a recall test as a measure of reading comprehension and the effects of the level of reading ability and sex difference on the written recalls of 70 Japanese EFL university students. Results showed that there were moderate significant correlations between a recall test and a standardized reading test (i.e., FCE): for all the students, r = .64, p < .01; for males, r = .61, p < .01; for females, r = .67, p < .01, suggesting that a recall test is...
Full Text Available Background: Over the last years, the use of oral anticoagulant treatment has increased dramatically, principally for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombembolic events. This treatment is demanding, especially among the elderly with concommitant diseases and different medication. Aim of the study to evaluate the rate of serious complications, clinically significant hemorrhage from upper gastointestinal tract in patients treated with oral antiocoagulants in a prospective cohort study.Patients and methods: Included were patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003 due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Emergency endoscopy and laboratory testing was performed in all patients.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %, mean age 59.1 years, SD 17.2. Among our patients, 55 % were aged over 60 years. In 86.4 % of patients the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the last week prior to bleeding, 20.4 % (1309/6416 of all patients were regularly taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agents in single daily doses at least. 6.3 % of patients (82/1309 with abundant hemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract were using oral anticoagulant therapy and had INR > 5 at admission, 25.6 % of them had INR > 10. The mortality of patients using oral anticoagulants and INR > 5 was 17.1 %.Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a serious complication of different medications, particularly in elderly patients. Safe use of anticoagulant therapy is based on careful selection of patients and correct intake of the prescribed drugs.
Boos, Christopher John; Vincent, Emma; Mellor, Adrian; O'Hara, John; Newman, Caroline; Cruttenden, Richard; Scott, Phylip; Cooke, Mark; Matu, Jamie; Woods, David Richard
There is evidence suggesting that high altitude (HA) exposure leads to a fall in heart rate variability (HRV) that is linked to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effects of sex on changes in HRV at HA and its relationship to AMS are unknown. HRV (5-min single-lead ECG) was measured in 63 healthy adults (41 men and 22 women) 18-56 yr of age at sea level (SL) and during a HA trek at 3619, 4600, and 5140 m, respectively. The main effects of altitude (SL, 3619 m, 4600 m, and 5140 m) and sex (men vs women) and their potential interaction were assessed using a factorial repeated-measures ANOVA. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the ability of HRV to predict AMS. Men and women were of similar age (31.2 ± 9.3 vs 31.7 ± 7.5 yr), ethnicity, and body and mass index. There was main effect for altitude on heart rate, SD of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), number of pairs of successive NN differing by >50 ms (NN50), NN50/total number of NN, very low-frequency power, low-frequency (LF) power, high-frequency (HF) power, and total power (TP). The most consistent effect on post hoc analysis was reduction in these HRV measures between 3619 and 5140 m at HA. Heart rate was significantly lower and SDNN, RMSSD, LF power, HF power, and TP were higher in men compared with women at HA. There was no interaction between sex and altitude for any of the HRV indices measured. HRV was not predictive of AMS development. Increasing HA leads to a reduction in HRV. Significant differences between men and women emerge at HA. HRV was not predictive of AMS.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking (PST on sexually transmitted disease (STD infections among South Korean female sex workers (FSWs working at prostitution blocks. Research data were collected twice through the Korean government-sanctioned survey for female sex workers (1st wave = 1,083; 2nd wave = 926. We examined the associations among health behavior, working conditions, and the effect of PST act via hierarchical logistic regression analyses using propensity score matching. After adjusted covariates, the risk probability was 0.288 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act enforcement compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Similarly, the risk probability for a gonorrhea infection was 0.219 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Therefore, this study showed that, besides already known factors, the implementation and establishment of the PST Act was a strong factor that suppressed STD infections among FSWs.
López, K P; Schilling, M W; Corzo, A
A randomized complete block design within a factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate the effect of strain and sex on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and sensory acceptability. Two broiler strains were reared: a commercially available strain (strain A) and a strain currently in the test phase (strain B) that has been genetically selected to maximize breast yield. Broilers were harvested in a pilot scale processing plant using commercial prototype equipment at 42 d of age. Carcasses were deboned at 4 h postmortem. The left half of each breast was evaluated for pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and proximate analysis. The right side of each breast was used for consumer acceptability testing. Thigh meat was evaluated for proximate composition. No interactions were observed throughout the study. Male broilers had a higher (P dressing percentage and breast meat yield when compared with females. Broilers from strain B presented a higher (P dressing percentage than those broilers corresponding to the commercially available broiler strain. At 24 h postmortem, female broilers presented a lower ultimate pH and higher Commission internationale de l'éclairage yellowness values (ventral side of the pectoralis major) when compared with male broilers. On average, no differences existed (P > 0.05) among treatments with respect to pH decline, cooking loss, shear values, and proximate composition. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) existed among breast meat from the different strains with respect to consumer acceptability of appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability, but breast meat from strain B was slightly preferred (P < 0.05) over that of strain A with respect to aroma. However, breast meat from both strains received scores in the range of "like slightly to like moderately." Overall data suggest that all treatments yielded high quality breast and thigh meat and strain cross did not present variability in terms of consumer acceptability.
Gao, Bei; Bian, Xiaoming; Mahbub, Ridwan; Lu, Kun
There is growing recognition of the significance of the gut microbiome to human health, and the association between a perturbed gut microbiome with human diseases has been established. Previous studies also show the role of environmental toxicants in perturbing the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. The wide agricultural use of diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, has raised serious environmental health concerns since it is a potent neurotoxicant. With studies demonstrating the presence of a microbiome-gut-brain axis, it is possible that gut microbiome perturbation may also contribute to diazinon toxicity. We investigated the impact of diazinon exposure on the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic functions in C57BL/6 mice. We used a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling in a mouse model to examine the functional impact of diazinon on the gut microbiome. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that diazinon exposure significantly perturbed the gut microbiome, and metagenomic sequencing found that diazinon exposure altered the functional metagenome. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed an altered metabolic profile arising from exposure. Of particular significance, these changes were more pronounced for male mice than for female mice. Diazinon exposure perturbed the gut microbiome community structure, functional metagenome, and associated metabolic profiles in a sex-specific manner. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and its functions as a potential new mechanism contributing to diazinon neurotoxicity and, in particular, its sex-selective effects. Citation: Gao B, Bian X, Mahbub R, Lu K. 2017. Sex-specific effects of organophosphate diazinon on the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. Environ Health Perspect 125:198-206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP202.
Lachapelle, Josianne; Colegrave, Nick
The adaptive function of sex has been extensively studied, while less consideration has been given to the potential downstream consequences of sex on evolution. Here, we investigate one such potential consequence, the effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution. By affecting the repeatability of evolution, sex could have important implications for biodiversity, and for our ability to make predictions about the outcome of environmental change. We allowed asexual and sexual populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to evolve in novel environments and monitored both their change in fitness and variance in fitness after evolution. Sex affected the repeatability of evolution by changing the importance of the effect of selection, chance, and ancestral constraints on the outcome of the evolutionary process. In particular, the effects of sex were highly dependent on the initial genetic composition of the population and on the environment. Given the lack of a consistent effect of sex on repeatability across the environments used here, further studies to dissect in more detail the underlying reasons for these differences as well as studies in additional environments are required if we are to have a general understanding of the effects of sex on the repeatability of evolution. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Full Text Available Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but is vital to improving strategic management of their populations. We assessed the effects of sex and reproductive state on short-term activity patterns and contact rates of free-roaming dogs living in an Australian Indigenous community. Population, social group sizes and rates of contact were estimated from structured observations along walked transects. Simultaneously, GPS telemetry collars were used to track dogs' movements and to quantify the frequency of contacts between individual animals. We estimated that the community's dog population was 326 ± 52, with only 9.8 ± 2.5% confined to a house yard. Short-term activity ranges of dogs varied from 9.2 to 133.7 ha, with males ranging over significantly larger areas than females. Contacts between two or more dogs occurred frequently, with entire females and neutered males accumulating significantly more contacts than spayed females or entire males. This indicates that sex and reproductive status are potentially important to epidemiology, but the effect of these differential contact rates on disease transmission requires further investigation. The observed combination of unrestrained dogs and high contact rates suggest that contagious disease would likely spread rapidly through the population. Pro-active management of dog populations and targeted education programs could help reduce the risks associated with disease spread.
Sparkes, Jessica; Körtner, Gerhard; Ballard, Guy; Fleming, Peter J S; Brown, Wendy Y
Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but is vital to improving strategic management of their populations. We assessed the effects of sex and reproductive state on short-term activity patterns and contact rates of free-roaming dogs living in an Australian Indigenous community. Population, social group sizes and rates of contact were estimated from structured observations along walked transects. Simultaneously, GPS telemetry collars were used to track dogs' movements and to quantify the frequency of contacts between individual animals. We estimated that the community's dog population was 326 ± 52, with only 9.8 ± 2.5% confined to a house yard. Short-term activity ranges of dogs varied from 9.2 to 133.7 ha, with males ranging over significantly larger areas than females. Contacts between two or more dogs occurred frequently, with entire females and neutered males accumulating significantly more contacts than spayed females or entire males. This indicates that sex and reproductive status are potentially important to epidemiology, but the effect of these differential contact rates on disease transmission requires further investigation. The observed combination of unrestrained dogs and high contact rates suggest that contagious disease would likely spread rapidly through the population. Pro-active management of dog populations and targeted education programs could help reduce the risks associated with disease spread.
Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A
The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.
Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the
The effect of coeducational and single-sex secondary schooling on female students' academic achievement was examined. Reexamination of earlier survey data from Northern Ireland studied six outcomes related to student performance on public examinations. Results indicated a small achievement advantage for single-sex schooling (not significant…
Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...
Examined the moderating effect of sex on the contribution of specific job characteristics as sources of general job satisfaction. A survey of over 2,000 public employees showed only minimal sex differences. Supervision was more important to females. Females also tended to be more satisfied with their salaries. (JAC)
DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) has been widely used in examinations of sex differences in global self-esteem. However, previous examinations of sex differences have not accounted for method effects associated with item wording, which have consistently been reported by researchers using the RSE. Accordingly, this study examined the…
Nystul, Michael S.
Subjects (N=106) from families of two or three children were analyzed in terms of various sibling sex configurations and administered the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Results were discussed in terms of a "special place in the family." (Author/CM)
Swain, Sandra L.; Harvey, Douglas M.
Advocates single-sex computer instruction as a temporary alternative educational program to provide middle school and secondary school girls with access to computers, to present girls with opportunities to develop positive attitudes towards technology, and to make available a learning environment conducive to girls gaining technological skills.…
Mitchell, Thomas; Henning, Jane
Despite legislative and judicial attempts to remedy sex discrimination in the workplace, women continue to earn 60% less than their male counterparts. One factor that could influence an employer's evaluation of an applicant is the knowledge of that applicant's salary on his or her present job. A study was conducted to determine the influence of an…
least that much time to the study of body changes during puberty . More controversial topics such as masturbation , homosexuality, and sexual pleasure...menstruation, conception, pregnancy, and contraception. The second hour covered commonly asked questions about sex, ranging from orgasms to masturbation ...Abortion was defined briefly and sexually transmitted diseases were discussed. Emotional and physical changes in puberty were considered, and the last
Fogel, Jessica S; Kelly, Thomas H; Westgate, Philip M; Lile, Joshua A
Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F) who completed previous Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) discrimination studies were combined for this retrospective analysis. In each study, subjects learned to discriminate between oral Δ 9 -THC and placebo and then received a range of Δ 9 -THC doses (0, 5, 15 and a "high" dose of either 25 or 30mg). Responses on a drug-discrimination task, subjective effects questionnaire, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiological measures were assessed. Δ 9 -THC dose-dependently increased drug-appropriate responding, ratings on "positive" Visual Analog Scale (VAS) items (e.g., good effects, like drug, take again), and items related to intoxication (e.g., high, stoned). Δ 9 -THC also dose-dependently impaired performance on psychomotor tasks and elevated heart rate. Sex differences on VAS items emerged as a function of dose. Women exhibited significantly greater subjective responses to oral drug administration than men at the 5mg Δ 9 -THC dose, whereas men were more sensitive to the subjective effects of the 15mg dose of Δ 9 -THC than women. These results demonstrate dose-dependent separation in the subjective response to oral Δ 9 -THC administration by sex, which might contribute to the differential development of problematic cannabis use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyunlye
This study was done to develop a children's sex education program for the parents of lower elementary grade students and to evaluate its effects on sexual knowledge, gender role attitude, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency. A quasi-experimental with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 29 couples (58 parents, experimental group=28, control group=30) from G city. The 5-week (5-session) program was developed based on 'A theory of protection: parents as sex educators' and used the case-based small group learning method. Data were collected during July and August 2015. The characteristics of the program developed in the present study were a theoretical-based, client-centered, multi-method. After the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in sexual knowledge, gender role attitudes, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency, compared to the control group. The effect sizes of the program were .64 (knowledge), .65 (gender role attitudes), and .68 (parent efficacy). The results of this study provided implications for the parents as effective sex educator and the role expansion of school health nurses. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia J.; Andersen, Andreas
derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide. There were no differences between the two doses of NVAS, and thus they were analysed combined as NVAS (any dose) v. placebo. All analyses were performed unstratified and by sex. NVAS increased the chance of having a scar after BCG vaccination...... in females (NVAS v. placebo: 96 v. 71 %, proportion ratio: 1·24; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·42), but not in males (Pfor interaction=0·012). NVAS was associated with significant sex-differential effects on the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios (TNF-α:IL-10) to PPD, tetanus toxoid and medium alone, which were...
Bolnick, Daniel I.; Snowberg, Lisa K.; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Lauber, Christian L.; Org, Elin; Parks, Brian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard
Vertebrates harbour diverse communities of symbiotic gut microbes. Host diet is known to alter microbiota composition, implying that dietary treatments might alleviate diseases arising from altered microbial composition (‘dysbiosis’). However, it remains unclear whether diet effects are general or depend on host genotype. Here we show that gut microbiota composition depends on interactions between host diet and sex within populations of wild and laboratory fish, laboratory mice and humans. Within each of two natural fish populations (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch), among-individual diet variation is correlated with individual differences in gut microbiota. However, these diet–microbiota associations are sex dependent. We document similar sex-specific diet–microbiota correlations in humans. Experimental diet manipulations in laboratory stickleback and mice confirmed that diet affects microbiota differently in males versus females. The prevalence of such genotype by environment (sex by diet) interactions implies that therapies to treat dysbiosis might have sex-specific effects. PMID:25072318
Cubellis, Michelle A; Walfield, Scott M; Harris, Andrew J
A growing body of research has examined the collateral effects of sex offender registration and notification (SORN), particularly those related to offenders' social and economic reintegration into society. Although studies have examined public, offender, treatment provider, and other criminal justice perspectives on SORN's collateral impacts, few have elicited the views of law enforcement (LE) professionals who have contact with registered offenders. This study presents results from a mixed method study examining LE perspectives on collateral consequences and effectiveness of SORN. Results indicate that, although overall LE concern regarding collateral impacts is limited, those who are most engaged in SORN-related duties are significantly more likely to indicate such concern, and also more likely to believe that SORN was an effective public safety tool. Importantly, respondents in states with larger registries expressed greater concern over collateral consequences, and less belief in SORN's public safety efficacy. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Hjalmar S Kühl
Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.
Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Ackerman, Joshua M; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E; White, Andrew E
The ratio of males to females in a population is an important factor in determining behavior in animals. We propose that sex ratio also has pervasive effects in humans, such as by influencing economic decisions. Using both historical data and experiments, we examined how sex ratio influences saving, borrowing, and spending in the United States. Findings show that male-biased sex ratios (an abundance of men) lead men to discount the future and desire immediate rewards. Male-biased sex ratios decreased men's desire to save for the future and increased their willingness to incur debt for immediate expenditures. Sex ratio appears to influence behavior by increasing the intensity of same-sex competition for mates. Accordingly, a scarcity of women led people to expect men to spend more money during courtship, such as by paying more for engagement rings. These findings demonstrate experimentally that sex ratio influences human decision making in ways consistent with evolutionary biological theory. Implications for sex ratio effects across cultures are discussed.
Jenkins, L M; Kendall, A D; Kassel, M T; Patrón, V G; Gowins, J R; Dion, C; Shankman, S A; Weisenbach, S L; Maki, P; Langenecker, S A
Sex differences in emotion processing may play a role in women's increased risk for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, studies of sex differences in brain mechanisms involved in emotion processing in MDD (or interactions of sex and diagnosis) are sparse. We conducted an event-related fMRI study examining the interactive and distinct effects of sex and MDD on neural activity during a facial emotion perception task. To minimize effects of current affective state and cumulative disease burden, we studied participants with remitted MDD (rMDD) who were early in the course of the illness. In total, 88 individuals aged 18-23 participated, including 48 with rMDD (32 female) and 40 healthy controls (HC; 25 female). fMRI revealed an interaction between sex and diagnosis for sad and neutral facial expressions in the superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. Results also revealed an interaction of sex with diagnosis in the amygdala. Data was from two sites, which might increase variability, but it also increases power to examine sex by diagnosis interactions. This study demonstrates the importance of taking sex differences into account when examining potential trait (or scar) mechanisms that could be useful in identifying individuals at-risk for MDD as well as for evaluating potential therapeutic innovations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jones, Jermaine D; Busse, Gregory D; Riley, Anthony L
Research using the conditioned taste aversion procedure has reported that a cocaine/alcohol combination induces a significantly stronger taste aversion than either cocaine or alcohol alone. These findings suggest that the co-administration of alcohol intensifies the aversive effects of cocaine. Although the behavioral interaction of cocaine and alcohol is well established, little is known about how the effects of this drug combination might be modulated by a variety of subject variables. The current investigation addressed this by assessing if the ability of alcohol to potentiate cocaine-induced taste aversions is dependent upon the strain and/or sex of the subject. In this series of studies, male and female rats of Long-Evans (Experiment 1) and Sprague-Dawley (Experiment 2) descent were given limited access to a novel saccharin solution to drink and were then injected with either vehicle, cocaine (20 mg/kg), alcohol (0.56 g/kg) or the alcohol/cocaine combination. This procedure was repeated every fourth day for a total of four conditioning trials. All subjects were then compared on an Aversion Test that followed the fourth conditioning cycle. In three of the groups tested (male Long-Evans; male and female Sprague-Dawley), cocaine induced a significant taste aversion that was unaffected by the co-administration of alcohol. However, in female Long-Evans subjects, the addition of alcohol significantly strengthened the avoidance of the saccharin solution. Although the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions are dependent upon an interaction of sex and strain, the basis for this SexxStrain interaction is not known. That such an interaction is evident suggests that attention to such factors in assessing the effects of drug combinations is important to understanding the likelihood of the use and abuse of such drugs.
Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes
There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P
Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. ....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.......Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated...
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. Methods The experiment was carried out on 160 birds of two genotypes of geese: the Czech Goose (CG breed and a Eskildsen Schwer (ES hybrid. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering (at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings were undertaken. Results The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight (p<0.001 and cold carcass weight (p = 0.004. The pH was not affected by any of studied factors, whereas in terms of meat colour parameters there were observed significant effects of age on L* and b* value and a significant effect of sex on a* value. The meat fat content was higher (p = 0.002 in ES. Higher score for overall acceptance of goose meat was recorded for ES at both ages compared to CG. Conclusion ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat.
Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M
The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tylš, Filip; Páleníček, Tomáš; Kadeřábek, Lukáš; Lipski, Michaela; Kubešová, Anna; Horáček, Jiří
Psilocybin has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a clinical research and therapeutic tool. The aim of this paper is to bridge two major knowledge gaps regarding its behavioural pharmacology - sex differences and the underlying receptor mechanisms. We used psilocin (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg), an active metabolite of psilocybin, in two behavioural paradigms - the open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reaction. Sex differences were evaluated with respect to the phase of the female cycle. The contribution of serotonin receptors in the behavioural action was tested in male rats with selective serotonin receptor antagonists: 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY100635 1 mg/kg), 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100907 0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (SB215505 1 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB242084 1 mg/kg). Psilocin induced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotion and suppression of normal behaviour in rats (behavioural serotonin syndrome, impaired PPI). The effects were more pronounced in male rats than in females. The inhibition of locomotion was normalized by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B/C antagonists; however, PPI was not affected significantly by these antagonists. Our findings highlight an important issue of sex-specific reactions to psilocin and that apart from 5-HT2A-mediated effects 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C/B receptors also play an important role. These findings have implications for recent clinical trials.
Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E
This study was conducted to examine the effects of sex and grade-point average (GPA) on emotional intelligence on secondary students as measured by the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EII). The EII is a 41-item Likert scale based on the original theoretical model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer. An exploratory factor analysis identified four factors, which were named Empathy, Utilization of Feelings, Handling Relationships, and Self-control. The sample consisted of 319 students, 162 males and 157 females, who attended school at a bilingual (English and Spanish) college preparatory school. General linear analysis revealed significant differences in empathy scores when grouped by gender. There were significant differences in self-control when grouped by GPA levels.
Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ... that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). ... The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health ...
Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.
Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few
Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino
Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra......-red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but the circadian rhythm of the two sexes was not constant over time and changed during the light period...... of the behavioral interactions between houseflies and highlight the importance of these factors when designing behavioral experiments using M. domestica....
Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Tarman, Guliz Zeynep; Fontaine, Charlotte; Harrison, Richard; Johnstone, Tom; Salomons, Tim
Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies show sex differences in pain responses, with women more sensitive to nociceptive stimulation and more vulnerable to long-term pain conditions than men. Because of evidence that men are culturally reinforced for the ability to endure (or under-report) pain, some of these findings might be explained by sociocultural beliefs about gender-appropriate behavior. One potential manifestation of these effects might be differential participation in pain studies, with men adhering to stereotypical masculine roles viewing participation as a way to demonstrate their masculinity. To test this possibility, we assessed gender identification in 137 healthy participants. At the end of the assessment, they were asked if they would like to participate in other research studies. Interested participants were then asked to participate in a study involving administration of pain-evoking stimulation. We compared individuals who agreed to participate in the pain study with those who declined. We observed a significant Sex × Participation interaction in masculine gender identification, such that men (but not women) who agreed to participate identified significantly more with masculine gender. Among masculine gender traits examined, we found that high levels of aggression and competitiveness were the strongest predictors of pain study participation. Our results suggest that men in pain studies might have higher levels of masculine gender identification than the wider male population. Taken together with previous findings of lower levels of pain sensitivity (or reporting) in masculine-identifying male participants, these results suggest an explanation for some of the sex-related differences observed in pain responses. To examine whether sex and gender affect willingness to participate in pain studies, we assessed gender identification in men and women, then attempted to recruit them to participate in a pain study. Men who agree to participate
Kerrigan, Deanna; Barrington, Clare; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Galai, Noya
Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Yet, few interventions address the needs of FSW living with HIV. We developed a multi-level intervention, Abriendo Puertas (Opening Doors), and assessed its feasibility and effectiveness among a cohort of 250 FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. We conducted socio-behavioral surveys and sexually transmitted infection and viral load testing at baseline and 10-month follow-up. We assessed changes in protected sex and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. Significant pre-post intervention changes were documented for adherence (72-89 %; p sex (71-81 %; p sex (AOR 1.76; 95 % CI 1.09-2.84). Illicit drug use was negatively associated with both ART adherence and protected sex. Abriendo Puertas is feasible and effective in improving behavioral HIV outcomes in FSW living with HIV.
Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru
School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness. This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups. In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys. Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Slapničková, Martina; Volkova, Valeriya; Čepičková, Marie; Kobets, Tetyana; Šíma, Matyáš; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie
Roč. 7, podzim (2016), č. článku 59. ISSN 2042-6410 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30186S; GA ČR GP13-41002P; GA MŠk LH12049; GA ČR GA16-22346S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leishmania major * Mouse model * Eosinophii infiltration * Genetic control * QTL * Sex influence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.635, year: 2016
Ricardo S Ramiro
Full Text Available Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies. Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex ratios in response to infection genetic diversity, precisely as predicted. Theory also predicts that parasites should adjust sex allocation in response to host immunity. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction - that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females - have not yet been tested. Here, we combine experimental work with theoretical models in order to investigate whether the development and fertility of male and female parasites is affected by innate immune factors and develop new theory to predict how parasites' sex allocation strategies should evolve in response to the observed effects. Specifically, we demonstrate that reactive nitrogen species impair gametogenesis of males only, but reduce the fertility of both male and female gametes. In contrast, tumour necrosis factor-α does not influence gametogenesis in either sex but impairs zygote development. Therefore, our experiments demonstrate that immune factors have complex effects on each sex, ranging from reducing the ability of gametocytes to develop into gametes, to affecting the viability of offspring. We incorporate these results into theory to predict how the evolutionary trajectories of parasite sex ratio strategies are shaped by sex differences in gamete production, fertility and offspring development. We show that medical interventions targeting offspring development are more likely
Hernández-Bello, R; Nava-Castro, K; Muñiz-Hernández, S; Nava-Luna, P; Trejo-Sánchez, Itztli; Tiempos-Guzmán, N; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Y; Morales-Montor, J
During the helminth infections, the immune system tends to be modulated by host's sex hormones. Actually, many studies show the reciprocal relationship between sex steroids, the immune system and the elimination or establishment of helminth parasites. Is well known that innate immune response determines the type of adaptive immune response, so the effects in the innate immune response by hormones may affect subsequent adaptive immunity. The sex steroids as estrogens, progesterone and testosterone regulate growth, differentiation, survival and function of many cell types that could be involved in process like homeostasis and immunity, but also have a direct effect on the helminthes, that may probably be mediated by specific receptors on these parasites. Sex steroids, parasites and immunity are closely connected, and their interconnection is involved in the maintenance of elimination or establishment of helminthes in an immunocompetent host. For that reason, understanding the action's mechanisms of sex steroids on immune cells and its direct effect on helminth parasites is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic helminth diseases associated to immune dysregulation. In this review, we will describe the effects of sex steroids on the immune response during helminth infections as well as the direct effect in these parasites, and the possible implications of these effects on the incidence of several helminth infections.
Myhre, A M; Engen, S; SAEther, B-E
Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare N e in short-lived, density-dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density-dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment. We find a negative relationship between annual N e /N and adult population size N due to density dependence, suggesting that loss of genetic variation is reduced at small densities. The magnitude of this decrease was affected by mating system and life history. A male-biased, density-dependent sex ratio reduces the rate of genetic drift compared to an equal, density-independent sex ratio, but a stochastic change towards male bias reduces the N e /N ratio. Environmental stochasticity amplifies temporal fluctuations in population size and is thus vital to consider in estimation of effective population sizes over longer time periods. Our results on the reduced loss of genetic variation at small densities, particularly in polygamous populations, indicate that density regulation may facilitate adaptive evolution at small population sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Lirgg, C D
The purpose of this field experiment was to investigate the effects of attending either a coeducational or a same-sex physical education class on several self-perception variables. Middle and high school youth who had previously been in coeducational classes were assigned to either a same-sex or a new coeducational physical education class for a 10-lesson unit of basketball. Analyses were conducted at both the group and the individual levels. Self-perception variables examined included perceived self-confidence of learning basketball, perceived usefulness of basketball, and perceived gender-appropriateness of basketball. Results of hierarchical linear model group level analyses indicated that the variability in groups for self-confidence could be explained by grade, class type, and the interaction between gender and class type. At the individual level, multivariate results showed that, after the unit, males in coeducational classes were significantly more confident in their ability to learn basketball than males in same-sex classes. Also, males in same-sex classes decreased in confidence from pretreatment to posttreatment. Perceived usefulness of basketball emerged as the strongest predictor of self-confidence for learning basketball for both genders. In general, middle school students preferred same-sex classes, whereas high school students preferred coeducational classes.
Mosca, E V; Rousseau, J P; Gulemetova, R; Kinkead, R; Wilson, R J A
What is the central question of this study? Does sex or neonatal stress affect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors? What is the main finding and its importance? Neonatal-maternal separation stress has little long-lasting effect on the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors, but sex differences exist in these genes between males and females at baseline. Sex differences in classic stress hormones have been studied in depth, but pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), recently identified as playing a critical role in the stress axes, has not. Here we studied whether baseline levels of PACAP differ between sexes in various stress-related tissues and whether neonatal-maternal separation stress has a sex-dependent effect on PACAP gene expression in stress pathways. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found sex differences in PACAP and PACAP receptor gene expression in several respiratory and/or stress-related tissues, while neonatal-maternal separation stress did little to affect PACAP signalling in adult animals. We propose that sex differences in PACAP expression are likely to contribute to differences between males and females in responses to stress. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.
Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid
The sex lives of women are strongly affected by menopause. Non-pharmacologic approaches to improving the sexual function of postmenopausal women might prove effective. To compare two methods of intervention (formal sex education and Kegel exercises) with routine postmenopausal care services in a randomized clinical trial. A randomized clinical trial was conducted of 145 postmenopausal women residing in Chalus and Noshahr, Iran. Their sexual function statuses were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. After obtaining written informed consents, they were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (i) formal sex education, (ii) Kegel exercises, or (iii) routine postmenopausal care. After 12 weeks, all participants completed the FSFI again. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the participants' sexual function before and after the interventions, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors for variation in FSFI scores in the postintervention stage. Sexual function was assessed using the FSFI. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and FSFI total scores among the three study groups at the outset of the study. After 12 weeks, the scores of arousal in the formal sex education and Kegel groups were significantly higher compared with the control group (3.38 and 3.15 vs 2.77, respectively). The scores of orgasm and satisfaction in the Kegel group were significantly higher compared with the control group (4.43 and 4.88 vs 3.95 and 4.39, respectively). Formal sex education and Kegel exercises were used as two non-pharmacologic approaches to improve the sexual function of women after menopause. The main strength of this study was its design: a well-organized randomized trial using precise eligibility criteria with a small sample loss. The second strength was the methods of intervention used, namely non-pharmacologic approaches that are
Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J
The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Madelyn C.; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A.; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R. Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C.; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav
Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex-specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation. PMID:26883664
Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Junque, Carme; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Guillamon, Antonio
Untreated transsexuals have a brain cortical phenotype. Cross-sex hormone treatments are used to masculinize or feminize the bodies of female-to-male (FtMs) or male-to-female (MtFs) transsexuals, respectively. A longitudinal design was conducted to investigate the effects of treatments on brain cortical thickness (CTh) of FtMs and MtFs. This study investigated 15 female-to-male (FtMs) and 14 male-to-female (MtFs) transsexuals prior and during at least six months of cross-sex hormone therapy treatment. Brain MRI imaging was performed in a 3-Tesla TIM-TRIO Siemens scanner. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software to obtain CTh as well as subcortical volumetric values. Changes in brain CTh thickness and volumetry associated to changes in hormonal levels due to cross-sex hormone therapy. After testosterone treatment, FtMs showed increases of CTh bilaterally in the postcentral gyrus and unilaterally in the inferior parietal, lingual, pericalcarine, and supramarginal areas of the left hemisphere and the rostral middle frontal and the cuneus region of the right hemisphere. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum testosterone and free testosterone index changes and CTh changes in parieto-temporo-occipital regions. In contrast, MtFs, after estrogens and antiandrogens treatment, showed a general decrease in CTh and subcortical volumetric measures and an increase in the volume of the ventricles. Testosterone therapy increases CTh in FtMs. Thickening in cortical regions is associated to changes in testosterone levels. Estrogens and antiandrogens therapy in MtFs is associated to a decrease in the CTh that consequently induces an enlargement of the ventricular system. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Seal, Leighton J
This review focuses on the effect that cross-gender sex steroid therapy has on metabolic and hormonal parameters. There is an emphasis on those changes that result in significant clinical effects such as the positive effects of the development of secondary sexual characteristics and negative effects such as haemostatic effects and thromboembolism in transwomen or dyslipidaemia in transmen. There is also a description of the current hormonal regimens used at the largest UK gender identity clinic. The overall safety of these treatments in the context of long-term outcome data is reviewed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The main aim of the study was the evaluation of the effects of breed (Suffolk, Merinoladschaf, Oxford Down and Charollais, sex and litter size (singles, twins and triplets on growth. The study was carried out on the farm in Žabčice in 2007. Within the frame of evaluation of meatiness and fattiness in vivo in lambs the following ultrasound measurements were carried out: depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (Dm.l.l.t. and fat thickness (FT. Ultrasound measurements was done between last pectoral and first lumbar vertebrae after tease out of wool, by ultrasound Aloka SSD 500 with 5 MHz linear probe. The breed had not a significant effect on all growth parameters under study. On the other hand the sex and the litter size had a significant effect on some growth parameters under study, whereas both these factors had a significant effect on live body weight at 100 days of age of lambs and on daily gain in the period from 30 to 70 days of age. The litter size had a significant effect on Dm.l.l.t. of lambs at the age of 70 and 100 days. On the other hand the breed had a signifcant effect on Dm.l.l.t. only at the age of 100 days. The breed, sex and litter size had a significant effect on FT of lambs at the age of 70 days. On the other hand all the factors under study had not significant effect on FT of lambs at the age of 100 days.
Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.
Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung
Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...
Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sharp, Teresa A; Stotz, Sarah A; Bessesen, Daniel H; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Horton, Tracy J
Exercise has been suggested to have cardioprotective benefits due to a lowering of postprandial triglycerides (PPTG). We hypothesized that a morning exercise bout would significantly lower PPTG measured over a full day, in response to moderate fat meals (35% energy) in men more so than women, and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) relative to normal weight (NW) individuals. Participants completed two randomized study days; one control and one exercise day (60 min of morning exercise, 60% VO(2peak)). Meals were consumed at breakfast, lunch and dinner with the energy expended during exercise replaced on the active day. The areas (AUC) and incremental areas (IAUC) under the curve were calculated for total triglycerides, total cholesterol and other metabolites. Exercise did not significantly change the PPTG AUC & IAUC overall, or within, or between, each sex or group (NW and MetS). Exercise induced a 30% decrease in total cholesterol IAUC (p=0.003) in NW subjects. Overall, women had a lower IAUC for PPTG compared to men (p=0.037), with the greatest difference between MetS women and MetS men, due to a sustained drop in TG after lunch in the women. This suggests that PP, rather than fasting, lipid analyses may be particularly important when evaluating sex differences in metabolic risk. With energy replacement, moderate morning exercise did not result in a significant decrease in PPTG excursions. Exercise did elicit a significant decrease in PP cholesterol levels in NW subjects, suggesting a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna
Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex
Laura Jean Wells
Full Text Available The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal. Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.
Wells, Laura Jean; Gillespie, Steven Mark; Rotshtein, Pia
The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise), each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal). Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.
Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge
Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.
Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra
Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.
Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Simon Rosser, B. R.
Introduction Researchers have proposed that consumption of Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) may not only adversely influence sexual attitudes and behaviors of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) but (also) play a positive role in the development and sexual education of MSM, be a major source of sexual information for MSM, and provide validation, understanding, and confirmation of MSM’s sexual orientation. However, such claims are in urgent need of empirical validation as is the development of psychometrically sound and easily implemented instruments able to reliably assist such validations. Aim To investigate how MSM who consume SEM self-perceive the impact of SEM on their STI-related sexual risk behaviors (i.e. anal intercourse), sexual knowledge, enjoyment of sex, interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Further, to provide a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale. Main Outcomes Measures A revised version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale (PCES) by Hald and Malamuth (2008). Results This study found that 97% of MSM reported positive effects of SEM consumption on their sexual knowledge, enjoyment of and interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Only 3 % reported any negative effects of their SEM consumption. SEM consumption was found to significantly increase consumers’ interest in having protected anal intercourse while not significantly influencing their interests in having unprotected anal intercourse. The revised version of the PCES showed excellent psychometric performance. Conclusion The study found that MSM generally report positive effects of their consumption of sexually explicit materials in areas related to their sexual knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and orientation. This finding could have important implications for the sexual health and well-being of MSM by suggesting that SEM
Cutler, Scott V.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of attributional style, sex roles, and sex-role self-discrepancy in the relationship between gender and depression. Epidemiological studies report a higher incidence of depression among women then men (approximately 2:1). Among the various theories suggested to explain this gender difference, sex roles, attributional style, and self-discrepancy have been conceived as possible explanations. The relationship between gender and depression ma...
Full Text Available Women are at lower risk of stroke, and appear to benefit less from carotid endarterectomy (CEA than men. We hypothesised that this is due to more benign carotid disease in women mediating a lower risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. To test this, we investigated sex differences in the prevalence of MRI detectable plaque hemorrhage (MRI PH as an index of plaque instability, and secondly whether MRI PH mediates sex differences in the rate of cerebrovascular recurrence.Prevalence of PH between sexes was analysed in a single centre pooled cohort of 176 patients with recently symptomatic, significant carotid stenosis (106 severe [≥70%], 70 moderate [50-69%] who underwent prospective carotid MRI scanning for identification of MRI PH. Further, a meta-analysis of published evidence was undertaken. Recurrent events were noted during clinical follow up for survival analysis.Women with symptomatic carotid stenosis (50%≥ were less likely to have plaque hemorrhage (PH than men (46% vs. 70% with an adjusted OR of 0.23 [95% CI 0.10-0.50, P<0.0001] controlling for other known vascular risk factors. This negative association was only significant for the severe stenosis subgroup (adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.067-0.50 not the moderate degree stenosis. Female sex in this subgroup also predicted a longer time to recurrent cerebral ischemic events (HR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.98, P = 0.045. Further addition of MRI PH or smoking abolished the sex effects with only MRI PH exerting a direct effect. Meta-analysis confirmed a protective effect of female sex on development of PH: unadjusted OR for presence of PH = 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67, p<0.00001.MRI PH is significantly less prevalent in women. Women with MRI PH and severe stenosis have a similar risk as men for recurrent cerebrovascular events. MRI PH thus allows overcoming the sex bias in selection for CEA.
Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis
Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Junze; Liu, Tao; Qu, Jianqiang
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of orbital implantation on peripheral blood melatonin and sex hormone levels in pediatric patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia. A total of 28 cases of pediatric patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia diagnosed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from June 2014 to December 2014 were selected for the study. The patients included those that received orbital implantation, and the melatonin levels in the peripheral blood in patients before and after operation was observed. In addition, the sex hormone levels and T lymphocytes, plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) and VEGF levels, urine 8-OHdG and 8-isoPGF2α levels in patients before and after treatment were detected, followed by statistical analysis. As a result, after 3 months of orbital implantation, the sex hormone levels in peripheral blood in child patients fluctuated significantly, and differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The peripheral blood T lymphocytes and ROS levels were significantly lower than those before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant (Peyeball dysplasia. The hydroxyapatite orbital implantation can achieve more satisfactory curative effects, and there are fewer postoperative complications. It does not affect the appearance of the eye, and therefore, it is suitable for patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia.
Cross, Catharine P; Tee, William; Campbell, Anne
Men's greater use of direct aggression is not evident in studies of intimate partner aggression. In previous research, the effects of target sex and relationship intimacy have frequently been confounded. This study sought to examine these effects separately. One hundred and seventy-four participants (59 male and 115 female) read vignette scenarios in which they were provoked by a same-sex best friend, an opposite-sex best friend, and a partner. For each target, participants estimated their likely use of direct physical and verbal aggression as well as noninjurious forms of anger expression. Results showed that men lower their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and that this is an effect of the target's sex. In contrast, women raise their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and this is an effect of intimacy with the target. The use of noninjurious angry behavior did not vary between targets for either sex of the participant, which suggests that the effects of target are confined to behaviors which carry an intention to harm. Possible effects of social norms and oxytocin-mediated emotional disinhibition on intimate partner aggression are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Decker, Michele R; Crago, Anna-Louise; Chu, Sandra K H; Sherman, Susan G; Seshu, Meena S; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris
We reviewed evidence from more than 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV implications of human rights violations against sex workers. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations directly and indirectly increase HIV susceptibility, and undermine effective HIV-prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide; physical and sexual violence, from law enforcement, clients, and intimate partners; unlawful arrest and detention; discrimination in accessing health services; and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, although most profoundly where sex work is criminalised through punitive law. Protection of sex workers is essential to respect, protect, and meet their human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Research findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalised population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pellkofer, Julia; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin
Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition. Many theories suggest that this effect should be accompanied by a sex difference in functional cerebral asymmetry, but empirical data are more than equivocal probably because of (a) the use of inappropriate stimuli and (b) insufficient power of most neurophysiological studies. Therefore, sex differences in mental rotation of polygons were investigated in 122 adults. Men outperformed women on mental rotation speed (as well as on response time and accuracy). On the basis of the electrophysiological brain correlates of mental rotation, we observed a bilateral brain activity for men, whereas women's brain activity was clearly lateralized toward the left hemisphere if and only if mental rotation was involved. Thus, sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry can indeed be observed if appropriate stimuli are used in a sufficiently large sample.
Cereals, especially maize and sorghum are the most important field crops in Africa. classical biological Control is a management strategy that employs natural enemies against exotic pests on cereal crops. The method has been used against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an introduced pest of maize, using the larval parasitoid cotesia flavipes (Cameron). However, C. flavipes is not able to attack all stem borer species in targeted areas. to complement its work, Xanthopimpla stemmator has successfully been established in Mauritius on Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer). It is a common phenomenon for haplo-diploid parasitoids to give rise to male progeny when insemination does not take place. Mating becomes important to the parasitoid population since a male biased sex ratio can bring about collapse of the population. The aim of this study was to determine wether xanthopimpla stemmator females mat more than once and wether sex ratio of progeny is affected by multiple mating in female X. stemmator. The female showed a tendency to mate once. Multiple mating did not have any significant effect on either sex ratio or longevity. More males were produced in multiple mated females than once mated females.The effect of multiple mating in X. stemmator on sex ratio in relation to biocontrol programmes are discussed
McHugh, John C
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.
Karl Andrew Rodriguez
Full Text Available Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24mg/kg (14 ppm rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome.
Osunde, Otasowie D; Saheeb, Birch D
Patients' factors such as age and sex and surgical variables such as level of difficulty have been linked with surgical outcome in third molar surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these variables on inflammatory complications in patients undergoing third molar surgery. Patients referred to our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted lower third molar between January 2007 and December 2008 were the subjects of the study. Patients' demographics as well as types of impaction, indication and level of difficulty based on Pederson criteria were obtained. Post operative pain, swelling and mouth opening limitation were evaluated at day 1, day 2, day 3, day 5 and 1 week after the surgery and analyzed. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 150 patients aged 16-38 years (25.9 ± 4.47) met the inclusion criteria. Male accounted for 66 (44.0 %) while females were 84 (56.0 %), giving male to female ratio of 1:1.3. Age, sex and difficulty index had no effect on pain and trismus throughout the periods of postoperative evaluation (p > 0.05). Postoperative swelling was not affected by gender but patients above 25 years who had high scores of difficulty index had more facial swelling. The results of this study shows that age, gender and the level of surgical difficulty have no effect on pain and mouth opening limitation after third molar surgery.
Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.
Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P M; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M
1. An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. 2. In sexual size dimorphic species, two main contradictory mechanisms are proposed regarding sex-specific effects of competition on nestling performance assuming that parents do not feed their chicks differentially: (i) the larger sex requires more resources to grow and is more sensitive to a deterioration of the rearing conditions ('costly sex hypothesis'); (ii) the larger sex has a competitive advantage in intra-brood competition and performs better under adverse conditions ('competitive advantage hypothesis'). 3. In the present study, we manipulated the level of sex-specific sibling competition in a great tit population (Parus major) by altering simultaneously the brood size and the brood sex ratio on two levels: the nest (competition for food among nestlings) and the woodlot where the parents breed (competition for food among adults). We investigated whether altered competition during the nestling phase affected nestling growth traits and survival in the nest and whether the effects differed between males, the larger sex, and females. 4. We found a strong negative and sex-specific effect of experimental brood size on all the nestling traits. In enlarged broods, sexual size dimorphism was smaller which may have resulted from biased mortality towards the less competitive individuals i.e. females of low condition. No effect of brood sex ratio on nestling growth traits was found. 5. Negative brood size effects on nestling traits were stronger in natural high-density areas but we could not confirm this experimentally. 6. Our results did not support the 'costly sex hypothesis' because males did not suffer from higher mortality under harsh conditions. The 'competitive advantage hypothesis' was
Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...
Feng, Chunliang; Hackett, Patrick D; DeMarco, Ashley C; Chen, Xu; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Ditzen, Beate; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Rilling, James K
Recent research has examined the effects of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on human social behavior and brain function. However, most participants have been male, while previous research in our lab demonstrated sexually differentiated effects of OT and AVP on the neural response to reciprocated cooperation. Here we extend our previous work by significantly increasing the number of participants to enable the use of more stringent statistical thresholds that permit more precise localization of OT and AVP effects in the brain. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 men and 151 women were randomized to receive 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU intranasal AVP or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Sex differences were observed for effects of OT on the neural response to reciprocated cooperation, such that OT increased the caduate/putamen response among males, whereas it decreased this response among females. Thus, 24 IU OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions among men, while decreasing their reward or salience among women. Similar sex differences were also observed for AVP effects within bilateral insula and right supramarginal gyrus when a more liberal statistical threshold was employed. While our findings support previous suggestions that exogenous nonapeptides may be effective treatments for disorders such as depression and autism spectrum disorder, they caution against uniformly extending such treatments to men and women alike.
Morris, Michael L
Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J
Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A + ) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included. All had baseline florbetapir PET measured, and 526 had screening visit HV measured. Regression moderation models were used to examine whether A + effects on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test learning and delayed recall and right and left HV (adjusted for total intracranial volume) were moderated by diagnosis and sex. Age, cognition at screening, education, and apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status were controlled. Women with A + , but not those with florbetapir PET amyloid negative (A-),eMCI showed poorer learning. For women with NC, there was no relationship of A + with learning. In contrast, A + men trended toward poorer learning regardless of diagnosis. A similar trend was found for verbal delayed recall: Women with A + , but not A-, eMCI trended toward reduced delayed recall; no effects were observed for women with NC or for men. Hippocampal analyses indicated that women with A + , but not those with A - , eMCI, trended toward smaller right HV; no significant A + effects were observed for women with NC. Men showed similar, though nonsignificant, patterns of smaller right HV in A + eMCI, but not in men with A - eMCI or NC. No interactive effects of sex were noted for left HV. Women with NC showed verbal learning and memory scores robust to A + , and women with A + eMCI lost this advantage. In contrast, A + impacted men's scores less significantly or not at all, and
Dietsch, Angela M; Cirstea, Carmen M; Auer, Ed T; Searl, Jeff P
Fine control of orofacial musculature is necessary to precisely accelerate and decelerate the articulators across exact distances for functional speech and coordinated swallows (Amerman & Parnell, 1990; Benjamin, 1997; Kent, Duffy, Slama, Kent, & Clift, 2001). Enhanced understanding of neural control for such movements could clarify the nature of and potential remediation for some dysarthrias and other orofacial myofunctional impairments. Numerous studies have measured orolingual force and accuracy during speech and nonspeech tasks, but have focused on young adults, maximum linguapalatal pressures, and upright positioning (O'Day, Frank, Montgomery, Nichols, & McDade, 2005; Solomon & Munson, 2004; Somodi, Robin, & Luschei, 1995; Youmans, Youmans, & Stierwalt, 2009). Patients' medical conditions or testing procedures such as concurrent neuroimaging may preclude fully upright positioning during oral motor assessments in some cases. Since judgments about lingual strength and coordination can influence clinical decisions regarding the functionality of swallowing and speech, it is imperative to understand any effects of body positioning differences. In addition, sex differences in the control of such tasks are not well defined. Therefore, this study evaluated whether pressures exerted during tongue movements differ in upright vs. supine body position in healthy middle-aged men and women. Twenty healthy middle-aged adults compressed small air-filled plastic bulbs in the oral cavity at predetermined fractions of task-specific peak pressure in a randomized block design. Tasks including phoneme repetitions and nonspeech isometric contractions were executed in upright and supine positions. Participants received continuous visual feedback regarding targets and actual exerted pressures. Analyses compared average pressure values for each subject, task, position, and effort level. Speech-like and nonspeech tongue pressures did not differ significantly across body position or sex
Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.
Full Text Available Objective. To document sex differences in the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet on glucose/insulin homeostasis and to verify whether these sex-related effects were associated with changes in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA. Methods. All foods were provided to 38 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 y during 4 weeks. Variables were measured during a 180 min OGTT before and after the MedDiet. Results. A sex-by-time interaction for plasma insulin iAUC was found (men: −17.8%, P=0.02; women: +9.4%, P=0.63; P for sex-by-time interaction = 0.005. A sex-by-time interaction was also observed for insulin sensitivity (Cederholm index, P=0.03, for which only men experienced improvements (men: +8.1%, P=0.047; women: −5.9%, P=0.94. No sex difference was observed for glucose and C-peptide responses. Trends toward a decrease in NEFA AUC (P=0.06 and an increase in NEFA suppression rate (P=0.06 were noted, with no sex difference. Changes in NEFA were not associated with change in insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Results suggest that the more favorable changes in glucose/insulin homeostasis observed in men compared to women in response to the MedDiet are not explained by sex differences in NEFA response. This clinical trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT01293344.
Bédard, Alexandra; Corneau, Louise; Lamarche, Benoît; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone
Objective. To document sex differences in the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on glucose/insulin homeostasis and to verify whether these sex-related effects were associated with changes in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Methods. All foods were provided to 38 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 y) during 4 weeks. Variables were measured during a 180 min OGTT before and after the MedDiet. Results. A sex-by-time interaction for plasma insulin iAUC was found (men: −17.8%, P = 0.02; women: +9.4%, P = 0.63; P for sex-by-time interaction = 0.005). A sex-by-time interaction was also observed for insulin sensitivity (Cederholm index, P = 0.03), for which only men experienced improvements (men: +8.1%, P = 0.047; women: −5.9%, P = 0.94). No sex difference was observed for glucose and C-peptide responses. Trends toward a decrease in NEFA AUC (P = 0.06) and an increase in NEFA suppression rate (P = 0.06) were noted, with no sex difference. Changes in NEFA were not associated with change in insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Results suggest that the more favorable changes in glucose/insulin homeostasis observed in men compared to women in response to the MedDiet are not explained by sex differences in NEFA response. This clinical trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT01293344. PMID:25371817
Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; El-Seify, S.; Megahed, Y.M.; El-Arab, A.
This work aims to estimate total serum levels of thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) as well as the pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) in different categories of normal egyptian individuals classified according to age and sex. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometritassay (IRMA) techniques were used. Results of this study indicate that T 3 and T 4 concentrations decreased significantly with advancing age. This decrement was statistically significant in both sexes and could be attributed to the decline in TBG concentration in the elderly. TSH level was not influenced by sex, however, a slight decrease was observed in the elderly perhaps due to decreased TSH receptors and or cyclic AMP activity. 3 figs., 2 tabs
Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G
, villous maturity, extent of maternal intervillous space and thickness of intervascular tissue layers. Placentae were from pregnancies (37-42 wk) which were either uncomplicated (control group) or complicated by diabetes mellitus (diabetic group, White class D) which was reasonably well controlled in terms......) and an interaction effect on fetal capillary volume. Sex had significant main effects on the maternal plasma distance (21% greater in males) and capillary volume (30% bigger in males) and an interaction effect on placental weight and mean capillary diameter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...
Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A; Hurst, Charlice
Sex and agreeableness were hypothesized to affect income, such that women and agreeable individuals were hypothesized to earn less than men and less agreeable individuals. Because agreeable men disconfirm (and disagreeable men confirm) conventional gender roles, agreeableness was expected to be more negatively related to income for men (i.e., the pay gap between agreeable men and agreeable women would be smaller than the gap between disagreeable men and disagreeable women). The hypotheses were supported across 4 studies. Study 1 confirmed the effects of sex and agreeableness on income and that the agreeableness-income relationship was significantly more negative for men than for women. Study 2 replicated these results, controlling for each of the other Big Five traits. Study 3 also replicated the interaction and explored explanations and paradoxes of the relationship. A 4th study, using an experimental design, yielded evidence for the argument that the joint effects of agreeableness and gender are due to backlash against agreeable men.
Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G.; Nijssen, A.
The present study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of preventive group training and sex differences in types of work stressors, coping strategies, and training effects. Sixty-eight trainees of stress prevention courses of Regional Institutions for Ambulatory Mental Health Care (RIAGGs) in
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data fo...
Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.
Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)
Martin, A K; Huang, J; Hunold, A; Meinzer, M
Sex differences in social cognitive ability are well established, including measures of Theory of Mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to investigate if sex mediates the effects of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to a key hub of the social brain (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dmPFC) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Forty healthy young adults (18-35 years) were randomly allocated to receive either anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS in sham HD-tDCS controlled, double blind designs. In each of the two sessions, subjects completed the RMET. Anodal stimulation to the dmPFC increased accuracy on the RMET in females only. To assure regional specificity we performed a follow-up study stimulating the right temporoparietal junction and found no effect in either sex. The current study is the first to show improved performance on the RMET after tDCS to the dmPFC in females only. The polarity-specific effects and use of focal HD-tDCS provide evidence for sex-dependent differences in dmPFC function in relation to the RMET. Future studies using tDCS to study or improve ToM, need to consider sex. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Francis, Reynold; MacDonald, Andrea; Keistler, Colby; O'Neill, Lauren; Kuhn, Cynthia M
Vulnerability to alcoholism is determined by many factors, including the balance of pleasurable vs. aversive alcohol-induced sensations: pleasurable sensations increase intake, while aversive sensations decrease it. Female sex and adolescent age are associated with lower sensitivity to intake-reducing effects and more rapid development of alcohol abuse. This study assessed voluntary drinking and the aversive effects of alcohol to determine whether these measures are inversely related across the sexes and development. Voluntary drinking of 20 % ethanol in an every-other-day (EOD) availability pattern and the dose-response relationship of ethanol conditioned taste aversion (CTA) were assessed in male and female adolescent and adult rats. CTA was sex specific in adult but not adolescent rats, with adult females exhibiting less aversion. Voluntary ethanol consumption varied according to age and individual differences but was not sex specific. Adolescents initially drank more than adults, exhibited greater day-to-day variation in consumption, were more susceptible to the alcohol deprivation effect, and took longer to establish individual differences in consumption patterns. These results show that the emergence of intake patterns differs between adolescents and adults. Adolescents as a group initiate drinking at high levels but decrease intake as they mature. A subset of adolescents maintained high drinking levels into adulthood. In contrast, most adults consumed at steady, low levels, but a small subset quickly established and maintained high-consumption patterns. Adolescents also showed marked deprivation-induced increases. Sex differences were not observed in EOD drinking during either adolescence or adulthood.
Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.
Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)
Carrier-Toutant, Frédérike; Guay, Samuel; Beaulieu, Christelle; Léveillé, Édith; Turcotte-Giroux, Alexandre; Papineau, Samaël D; Brisson, Benoit; D'Hondt, Fabien; De Beaumont, Louis
Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, and an Emotional Facial Expression Identification Task. Pictures of male and female faces expressing neutral, angry, and happy emotions were randomly presented and the emotion depicted had to be identified as fast as possible during EEG acquisition. Relative to controls, concussed athletes of both sex exhibited a significant suppression of P1 amplitude recorded from the dominant right hemisphere while performing the emotional face expression identification task. The present study also highlighted a sex-specific suppression of the N1 component amplitude after concussion which affected male athletes. These findings suggest that repeated concussions alter the typical pattern of right-hemisphere response dominance to EFE in early stages of EFE processing and that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional stimuli are distinctively affected across sex. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1-11).
Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.
Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)
Zoladz, Phillip R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah L; Fry, Megan E; Johnson, Brandon L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R
Sleep deprivation is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether the effects of sleep deprivation are limited to increasing the likelihood of experiencing a myocardial infarction or if sleep deprivation also increases the extent of myocardial injury. In this study, rats were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 96 h using the platform-over-water method. Control rats were subjected to the same condition except the control platform was large enough for the rats to sleep. Hearts from sleep deprived and control rats were subjected to 20 min ischemia on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Infarct size and post ischemic recovery of contractile function were unaffected by sleep deprivation in male hearts. In contrast, hearts from sleep-deprived females exhibited significantly larger infarcts than hearts from control females. Post ischemic recovery of rate pressure product and + dP/dT were significantly attenuated by sleep deprivation in female hearts, and post ischemic recovery of end diastolic pressure was significantly elevated in hearts from sleep deprived females compared to control females, indicating that post ischemic recovery of both systolic and diastolic function were worsened by sleep deprivation. These data provide evidence that sleep deprivation increases the extent of ischemia-induced injury in a sex-dependent manner.
McIntosh, Victoria J.; Chandrasekera, P. Charukeshi
The presence of sex differences in myocardial β-adrenergic responsiveness is controversial, and limited studies have addressed the mechanism underlying these differences. Studies were performed using isolated perfused hearts from male, intact female and ovariectomized female mice to investigate sex differences and the effects of ovarian hormone withdrawal on β-adrenergic receptor function. Female hearts exhibited blunted contractile responses to the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) compared with males but not ovariectomized females. There were no sex differences in β1-adrenergic receptor gene or protein expression. To investigate the role of adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterase, and the cAMP-signaling cascade in generating sex differences in the β-adrenergic contractile response, dose-response studies were performed in isolated perfused male and female hearts using forskolin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (CPT-cAMP). Males showed a modestly enhanced contractile response to forskolin at 300 nM and 5 μM compared with females, but there were no sex differences in the response to IBMX or CPT-cAMP. The role of the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) in antagonizing the β-adrenergic contractile response was investigated using both the A1AR agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl-adenosine and A1AR knockout (KO) mice. Intact females showed an enhanced A1AR anti-adrenergic effect compared with males and ovariectomized females. The β-adrenergic contractile response was potentiated in both male and female A1ARKO hearts, with sex differences no longer present above 1 nM ISO. The β-adrenergic contractile response is greater in male hearts than females, and minor differences in the action of adenylyl cyclase or the A1AR may contribute to these sex differences. PMID:21685268
Yang, Jianfeng; Ming, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhen; Adams, Susan M
A meta-analysis of 143 studies was conducted to explore how the social desirability response bias may influence sex effects on ratings on measures of ethical decision-making. Women rated themselves as more ethical than did men; however, this sex effect on ethical decision-making was no longer significant when social desirability response bias was controlled. The indirect questioning approach was compared with the direct measurement approach for effectiveness in controlling social desirability response bias. The indirect questioning approach was found to be more effective.
Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M
The current study examined longitudinal associations between listening to aggression, sex, and prosocial behavior in music on a number of behavioral outcomes across a one-year period during adolescence. Adolescents (N = 548, M age = 15.32, 52% female) completed a number of questionnaires on musical preferences, general media use, aggression, sexual outcomes, and prosocial behavior at two different time points separated by about one year. Using structural equation modeling to analyze the data, results revealed that listening to aggression in music was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior over time, even when controlling for initial levels of these behaviors. Listening to sexual content in music was associated with earlier initiation of sexual intercourse and a trend for a higher number of sexual partners (reported at Time 2). Prosocial behavior in music was not associated with any behavioral outcome longitudinally. Collectively, these results suggest that listening to certain types of content in music can have a longitudinal effect on behavior during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi
Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…
Full Text Available Sara M Vambheim,1 Magne Arve Flaten2 1Department of Psychology, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Objectives: The present review investigated whether there are systematic sex differences in the placebo and the nocebo effect. Methods: A literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Studies were included if the study compared a group or condition where a placebo was administered to a natural history group or similar cohort. Results: Eighteen studies were identified – 12 on placebo effects and 6 on nocebo effects. Chi-square tests revealed that 1 males responded more strongly to placebo treatment, and females responded more strongly to nocebo treatment, and 2 males responded with larger placebo effects induced by verbal information, and females responded with larger nocebo effects induced by conditioning procedures. Conclusion: This review indicates that there are sex differences in the placebo and nocebo effects, probably caused by sex differences in stress, anxiety, and the endogenous opioid system. Keywords: placebo response, nocebo response, placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, sex differences
Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle
Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492
Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle
Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.
Charlotte A Cornil
Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.
Geer, Carol A.; Hurst, James C.
A Sex of Subject x Sex of Counselor interaction in the desensitization of test anxiety among 44 college students suggested consideration of the sex variable. Results showed significant treatment effects by both male and female counselors and a significant interaction effect by the male counselor with female subjects. (Author)
Moriya, Yuki; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Hall, F Scott; Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Uhl, George R; Tomita, Hiroaki; Sora, Ichiro
Evidence based on clinical and experimental animal studies indicates that adolescent social deprivation influences alcohol consumption in a sex-dependent manner, perhaps by influencing stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these phenomena remain to be elucidated. Since the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) has been reported to have key roles in social stress responses as well as the reinforcing/addictive effects of ethanol, MOP is a candidate molecule that may link adolescent social deprivation and subsequent alterations in alcohol consumption. To evaluate the involvement of MOP and social isolation-induced changes in alcohol consumption, as well as the effect of sex differences on responses to social isolation, alcohol consumption was assessed using a two-bottle home-cage consumption procedure (8 % ethanol vs. water) in MOP knockout (MOP-KO) and wild type (WT) mice of both sexes exposed to adolescent social deprivation or reared socially. Isolation rearing had no effects upon alcohol consumption of WT mice, whereas it significantly altered alcohol consumption in both male and female MOP-KO mice. Interestingly, social isolation affected ethanol consumption differently in male and female mice. Ethanol consumption was increased in male MOP-KO mice, but decreased in female MOP-KO mice, by isolation rearing. These results indicate that disturbances of MOP function influence the effects of isolation rearing on ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner. Consequently, this suggests the possibility that genetic variation that influences MOP function may have differential roles in alcoholism in men and women, and alcoholism treatments that target MOP function may be differentially effective in males and females.
Chan, Neil C S; Connolly, Sean R; Mapstone, Bruce D
Marine reserves have become widely used in biodiversity conservation and are increasingly proposed as fisheries management tools. Previous modeling studies have found that reserves may increase or decrease yields, depending on local environmental conditions and on the specific life-history traits of the fishery species. Sex-changing (female-to-male) fish are targets of some of the most important commercial and recreational fisheries in the world. The potential for disproportionate removal of the larger, older sex of such species requires new theory to facilitate our understanding of how reserves will affect the yields of surrounding fisheries, relative to fishes with separate sexes. We investigated this question by modeling the effects of marine reserves on a non-sex-changing and a sex-changing population. We used demographic parameter estimates for the common coral trout as a baseline, and we conducted extensive sensitivity analyses to determine how sustainable yields of sex-changing species are likely to be affected by reserves across a broad range of life-history parameters. Our findings indicate that fisheries for sex-changing species are unlikely to receive the same yield-enhancing benefit that non-sex-changing fisheries enjoy from marine reserves, and that often reserves tend to reduce sustainable yields for a given overall population size. Specifically, the increased egg production and high fertilization success within reserves is more than offset by the reduced egg production and fertilization success in the fished areas, relative to a system in which fishing mortality is distributed more evenly over the entire system. A key reason for this appears to be that fertilization success is reduced, on average, when males are unevenly distributed among subpopulations, as is the case when reserves are present. These findings suggests that, for sex-changing populations, reserves are more suited to rebuilding overfished populations and sustaining fishery viability
Toups, Melanie L.; Holmes, William R.
Many attempts have been made to address the problem of teenage premarital sexual activity in order to reduce the number of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. The authors review some of those efforts and attempt to identify effective approaches. Implications for research are also presented. (Author)
Gilpin, Andrew R.; Glanville, Bradley B.
Surveyed 94 couples to determine effects on child care experience associated with gender, parity, and various other demographic variables. As expected, women had higher scores than men. Experience was a linear function of parity for men, but not for women, and was unrelated to attitudes toward women. Implications for child care responsibility are…
Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J
The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
HAWKINS, VIVIAN N.; FOSTER-SCHUBERT, KAREN; CHUBAK, JESSICA; SORENSEN, BESS; ULRICH, CORNELIA M.; STANCYZK, FRANK Z.; PLYMATE, STEPHEN; STANFORD, JANET; WHITE, EMILY; POTTER, JOHN D.; MCTIERNAN, ANNE
Purpose The effect of exercise on androgens in middle-aged to older men is poorly understood, and it could have implications for several aspects of health. This analysis was conducted to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on serum sex hormones in middle-aged to older men. Methods One hundred two sedentary men, ages 40–75 yr, were randomly assigned to a 12-month exercise intervention or a control group (no change in activity). The combined facility- and home-based exercise program consisted of moderate/vigorous-intensity aerobic activity for 60 min·d−1, 6 d·wk−1. Serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 3α-androstanediol glucuronide (3α-Diol-G), estradiol, free estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results Exercisers trained a mean of 370 min·wk−1 (102% of goal), with only two dropouts. Cardiopulmonary fitness (V̇O2max) increased 10.8% in exercisers and decreased by 1.8% in controls (P < 0.001). DHT increased 14.5% in exercisers versus 1.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.6% above baseline in exercisers versus a 3.1% decrease in controls (P = 0.03). SHBG increased 14.3% in exercisers versus 5.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.9% above baseline in exercisers versus 4.0% in controls (P = 0.13). There were significant trends toward increasing DHT and SHBG, with greater increases in V̇O2max at 3 and 12 months in exercisers. No statistically significant differences were observed for testosterone, free testosterone, 3α-Diol-G, estradiol, or free estradiol in exercisers versus controls. Conclusions A yearlong, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program increased DHT and SHBG, but it had no effect on other androgens in middle-aged to older men. PMID:18202581
Cardinale, M.; Doering-Arjes, P.; Kastowsky, M.
The effects of sex, stock, and environment on the shape of known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths from the Faroe Islands were investigated. Moreover, the feasibility of otolith shape analysis for stock identification was evaluated. The shape was described by using several normalized Fourier...... descriptors and morphometric variables. There were no consistent differences between the left and right otoliths and between sexes within different age classes, stocks, and environments. With our experimental design, we could evaluate the relative importance of genetic and environmental conditions (water...... temperature and diet regime) on otolith shape and morphometrics. Using otolith shape, cod individuals were significantly separated into Bank and Plateau stocks. Total classification success was between 79% and 85% between stocks and between 85% and 96% between environments for the different age classes...
... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...
Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L
Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p
Strollo, Felice; Pecorelli, Lia; Uva, Bianca Maria; Masini, Maria Angela; More, Massimo; Strollo, Giovanna; Riondino, Giuseppe
Real and modelled μG conditions seem to induce reversible testicular failure. Suitable onground simulation methods are anyway needed in order to better aim further studies in humans in space. A 5- hour head down tilt (5h-HDT) was therefore performed in 22 male and female healthy volunteers looking at adrenal and gonadal hormones as compared to 12 age- and gender- matched controls. Cortisol and A decreased significantly in both genders, being cortisol decrease less pronounced in women, while leptin, LH, testosterone, estradiol and estrone failed to do so. The authors conclude that a 5h-HDT is only acceptable for adrenal adaptation studies whole longer duration HDT protocols are needed for gonadal investigations.
H. Arfah; S. Mariam; . Alimuddin
Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny. In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean) than that of 30°C (10 males), while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny. Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock r...
Grech, Victor; Zammit, Dorota; Scherb, Hagen
Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR. France exhibited a decline in SR in 1968 (p=0.042), with a particularly strong dip in May of that year (p=0.015). For Japan, there was no statistically significant dip for 1995 but there was a significant dip in June of that year (p=0.026). The SR dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are perceived to be momentous enough by a given populace. It is believed that SR slumps may be caused by population stress, which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male fetuses. It has been observed that these fluctuations are comparable in intensity to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially making this a public health issue.
Although males and females differ both biologically and in their social and power relations throughout their life span, research in environmental and occupational neurotoxicology often ignore sex and/or gender as a characteristic that requires in-depth consideration. The neurotoxicology literature continues to confuse the terms sex (biological attributes) and gender (socially constructed roles and behavior) and the words are still used interchangeably. Throughout the lifespan, sex and gender are in interaction and both may play a role in influencing exposure and effect. Studies that have examined both males and females, provide evidence for sex differences in toxicokinetics and responses to neurotoxic assault as well as gender differences in exposure patterns, biomarkers of exposure, neurobehavioral performance and social consequences. Integrating sex and gender considerations into research in neurotoxicology would not only provide us with a better understanding of the mechanisms and pathways that lead to toxic assault, but also provide a means to improve preventive intervention strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of Sex Hormones on Progression of Diabetic Renal Disease in Experimental Model of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. ... into five groups 8 rats each, normal control, diabetic, gonadectomized diabetic, 17 beta estradiol is given to female and testosterone propionate to male diabetic and gonadectomized diabetic.
Stone, Christopher I.; Shute, Robert E.
This experiment was performed to assess the effects of the experimental confederates' sex and contrived group peer pressure on the drug attitudes of male college students. Subjects were exposed to all male or all female groups of experimental confederates (persuaders) who expressed either extremely pro-drug or anti-drug sentiments in a guided…
von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG
Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,
Cinan, Sevtap; Atalay, Deniz; Sisman, Simge; Basbug, Gokce; Dervent-Ozbek, Sevinc; Teoman, Dalga D.; Karagoz, Ayca; Karadeniz, A. Yezdan; Beykurt, Sinem; Suleyman, Hediye; Memis, H. Ozge; Yurtsever, Ozgur D.
This paper reports two experiments conducted to examine priority effects and sex differences in object location memory. A new task of paired position-learning was designed, based on the A-B A-C paradigm, which was used in paired word learning. There were three different paired position-learning conditions: (1) positions of several different…
W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); I.M. Leenders (Ineke); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)
textabstractAIMS: To describe the effects of sex and age on eyeball, eyelid, and eyebrow position. METHODS: A cross sectional cohort study was performed in which both eyes of 320 normal subjects aged between 10 and 89 years were included. Of each 10 year age cohort,
Ruble, Diane N.; And Others
Presents a cognitive-developmental analysis of the effects of televised, sex-stereotypic information on children's behavior and attitudes towards toy play. Subjects were 100 children, ages four to six divided into groups exhibiting high and low gender-constancy. (Author/CM)
Van Volkom, Michele; Beaudoin, Elizabeth
The current study examined demographic factors (e.g., parental marital status) as well as sex and birth order effects on emerging adults' views of their sibling relationships. One hundred sixty-seven participants completed a demographic and sibling relationship questionnaire designed for the purposes of this study. Factors of the sibling…
Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. C A Chineke, F A Adeniran, A G Olugun, C ON Ikeobi, O A Oseni. Abstract. (Tropical Journal of Animal Science: 2003, 6(2): 85-90). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.
Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in
Liljeberg, Jenny Freidenfelt; Eklund, Jenny M.; Fritz, Marie Vafors; Klinteberg, Britt af
The association between poor school bonding and delinquency has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents' experienced school bonding and self-rated delinquency over time. A total of 788…
Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…
Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.
In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536
Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S
Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a "Western diet" might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy lead to a marked skew in the secondary sex ratio (proportion of males, 0.60; P < 0.006). The effect was not mediated by selective developmental arrest of female embryos or influenced by fetal position in the uterine horn or sex-specific effects on sperm motility, suggesting a direct effect of glycolyzable monosaccharide on the maternal ovary and/or ovulated oocyte. Furthermore, combined excess maternal consumption of salt and fructose-sweetened beverage significantly reduced fertility, reflected as a 50% reduction in preimplantation and term litter size. In addition, we also noted birth order effects in the rat, with sequential implantation sites tending to be occupied by the same sex.
Becks, L; Agrawal, A F
The evolution of sex is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. While this topic has been the focus of much theoretical work, there is a serious dearth of empirical data. A simple yet fundamental question is how sex affects the mean and variance in fitness. Despite its importance to the theory, this type of data is available for only a handful of taxa. Here, we report two experiments in which we measure the effect of sex on the mean and variance in fitness in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. Compared to asexually derived offspring, we find that sexual offspring have lower mean fitness and less genetic variance in fitness. These results indicate that, at least in the laboratory, there are both short- and long-term disadvantages associated with sexual reproduction. We briefly review the other available data and highlight the need for future work. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Mehdi Shafiee Sabet
Full Text Available Background: A sexual dimorphism is seen in ischemic stroke. Women have lower stroke incidence than men until an advanced age, when the epidemiology of ischemic stroke shifts and incidence rises dramatically in women. This could indicate the role of sex hormones in pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. This Review summarizes the sex differences related to stroke, and the effects of endogenous and exogenAous hormones on the cerebrovasculature of the male and female brain. Methods: We conducted a vast review to analyze possible associations between exposure to endogenous and exogenous female and male steroid hormones and the risks of cerebrovascular diseases. This association is discussed in the context of the effects of sex hormone levels on the progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular tone, and various risk factors including patient's lipid profile, arterial blood pressure and diabetes. Their therapeutic potentials is also reviewed. Results: There is a debate on the role of androgens. A large array of data testifies in favor of a variety of neuroprotective androgen effects in men mostly, but in many cases in women as well. Testosterone supplementation in low to normal levels in hypogonadal men has mostly been shown to benefit the subjects receiving it, but administration in supraphysiological doses however, along with anabolic steroid abuse, seems to adversely affect both the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in men. Its effects in women have yet to be researched in depth. Due to the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women and robust preclinical evidence of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen, researchers have focused on the potential benefits of hormones to reduce ischemic brain injury. However, hormone therapy to postmenopausal females increases the risk and severity of ischemic stroke. Moreover, while estrogen treatment is neuroprotective in younger females, estrogen paradoxically increases
Natalya P. Bondar
Full Text Available Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual’s life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day or handling (HD, 15 min once a day on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling, which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior.
Derman, R J
Androgen excess in women is manifested typically by clinical features that may include hirsutism, acne, central obesity, male-pattern baldness, upper torso widening, increased waist-to-hip ratio, clitoral hypertrophy, and deepening of the voice. The differential diagnosis includes androgen-producing ovarian and adrenal neoplasms, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and the intake of exogenous androgens. Physicians treating patients for one symptom of androgen excess must be alert for other symptoms and signs. The cosmetic manifestations of androgen excess belie the serious health risks associated with this condition, including cardiovascular disease, intravascular thrombosis, and insulin resistance. Prompt clinical recognition of androgen excess, understanding of the androgen-related biochemical abnormalities underlying the risks associated with this condition, and implementation of risk modification can reduce the incidence of associated morbidity and mortality. An interdisciplinary approach to management is strongly recommended. Risk reduction strategies include correction of dyslipidemias, low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of myocardial infarction, maintenance of ideal weight, smoking cessation, exercise, use of oral contraceptives containing a low-androgenic progestin, and postmenopausal estrogen replacement. Combination oral contraceptives containing low-androgenic progestins are effective not only in reducing signs of androgen excess but also in potentially retarding the progression of long-term sequelae such as cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7–18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and ‘age × sex’ interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7–12 and 13–18 years. As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.
Aloisi, A M; Steenbergen, H L; van de Poll, N E; Farabollini, F
The sex-dependent effects of acute restraint (RT) on nociceptive and pituitary-adrenal responses were investigated in the rat. In a first experiment, the effect of 30 min RT on pain sensitivity was evaluated through repeated use of the tail withdrawal test during and after treatment. RT induced an increase in the nociceptive threshold, i.e., analgesia, in males and females, but the duration and time-course of this effect varied between sexes. The latencies returned to approximately control values in females in the second half of RT, but in males they remained higher for the whole period of RT and immediately afterwards. Twenty-four hours later, males displayed longer latencies than controls in response to simple reexposure to the environment. In a second experiment, ACTH and corticosterone plasma levels were measured immediately after 15 or 30 min of RT. ACTH and corticosterone were higher in restrained animals than in controls after both periods of treatment, and in both sexes; however, females showed higher basal and stress corticosterone levels than males. The role played by corticosteroids in the nociceptive responses of the two sexes is discussed.
Rice, Nathaniel C; Makar, Jennifer R; Myers, Todd M
The stimulus-movement effect refers to the phenomenon in which stimulus discrimination or acquisition of a response is facilitated by moving stimuli as opposed to stationary stimuli. The effect has been found in monkeys, rats, and humans, but the experiments conducted did not provide adequate female representation to investigate potential sex differences. The current experiment analyzed acquisition of stimulus touching in a progressive series of classical conditioning procedures in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as a function of sex and stimulus movement. Classical conditioning tasks arrange two or more stimuli in relation to each other with different temporal and predictive relations. Autoshaping procedures overlay operant contingencies onto a classical-conditioning stimulus arrangement. In the present case, a neutral stimulus (a small gray square displayed on a touchscreen) functioned as the conditional stimulus and a food pellet functioned as the unconditional stimulus. Although touching is not required to produce food, with repeated stimulus pairings subjects eventually touch the stimulus. Across conditions of increasing stimulus correlation and temporal contiguity, male monkeys acquired the response faster with a moving stimulus. In contrast, females acquired the response faster with a stationary stimulus. These results demonstrate that the stimulus-movement effect may be differentially affected by sex and indicate that additional experiments with females are needed to determine how sex interacts with behavioral phenomena discovered and elaborated almost exclusively using males. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Adam, Philippe; Woertman, Liesbeth
Ethical guidelines for research with human participants stress the importance of minimizing risks and maximizing benefits. In order to assist Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers to make more informed risk/benefit analyses with regard to sex research among adolescents, the current study examined the effects of participation in sex research among 899 young people (15-25 years old). Participants completed three questionnaires on a wide range of sexuality-related measures. They also completed scales measuring their levels of distress, need for help, and positive feelings due to their research participation. In general, negative effects of research participation seemed limited, while benefits of participation appeared substantial. Several differences with regard to sociodemographic characteristics were found (e.g., females experienced more distress then males and younger or lower educated participants experienced more positive feelings). In addition, victims of sexual coercion reported more distress and need for help due to their participation, but also experienced more positive feelings. No significant differences were found in relation to experience with sexual risk behaviors (e.g., experience with one-night-stands). Several limitations of the study were discussed, as were implications for future research. Overall, the findings caution IRBs and researchers against being overly protective regarding the inclusion of young people in sex research.
Amos, Nevil; Harrisson, Katherine A; Radford, James Q; White, Matt; Newell, Graeme; Mac Nally, Ralph; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra
Loss of functional connectivity following habitat loss and fragmentation could drive species declines. A comprehensive understanding of fragmentation effects on functional connectivity of an ecological assemblage requires investigation of multiple species with different mobilities, at different spatial scales, for each sex, and in different landscapes. Based on published data on mobility and ecological responses to fragmentation of 10 woodland-dependent birds, and using simulation studies, we predicted that (1) fragmentation would impede dispersal and gene flow of eight "decliners" (species that disappear from suitable patches when landscape-level tree cover falls below species-specific thresholds), but not of two "tolerant" species (whose occurrence in suitable habitat patches is independent of landscape tree cover); and that fragmentation effects would be stronger (2) in the least mobile species, (3) in the more philopatric sex, and (4) in the more fragmented region. We tested these predictions by evaluating spatially explicit isolation-by-landscape-resistance models of gene flow in fragmented landscapes across a 50 x 170 km study area in central Victoria, Australia, using individual and population genetic distances. To account for sex-biased dispersal and potential scale- and configuration-specific effects, we fitted models specific to sex and geographic zones. As predicted, four of the least mobile decliners showed evidence of reduced genetic connectivity. The responses were strongly sex specific, but in opposite directions in the two most sedentary species. Both tolerant species and (unexpectedly) four of the more mobile decliners showed no reduction in gene flow. This is unlikely to be due to time lags because more mobile species develop genetic signatures of fragmentation faster than do less mobile ones. Weaker genetic effects were observed in the geographic zone with more aggregated vegetation, consistent with gene flow being unimpeded by landscape
Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that for much of the 20th century helped to propel the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among black South Africans denied permanent urban residence. But while the deep-rooted antecedents of AIDS have been noted, less attention has been given to more recent changes in the political economy of sex, including those resulting from the post-apartheid government's adoption of broadly neo-liberal policies. As an unintentional consequence, male migration and apartheid can be seen as almost inevitably resulting in AIDS, a view that can disconnect the pandemic from contemporary social and economic debates. Combining ethnographic, historical, and demographic approaches, and focusing on sexuality in the late apartheid and early post-apartheid periods, this article outlines three interlinked dynamics critical to understanding the scale of the AIDS pandemic: (1) rising unemployment and social inequalities that leave some groups, especially poor women, extremely vulnerable; (2) greatly reduced marital rates and the subsequent increase of one person households; and (3) rising levels of women's migration, especially through circular movements between rural areas and informal settlements/urban areas. As a window into these changes, the article gives primary attention to the country's burgeoning informal settlements--spaces in which HIV rates are reported to be twice the national average--and to connections between poverty and money/sex exchanges.
Stracciolini, Andrea; Yen, Yi-Meng; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Lewis, Cara L; Sugimoto, Dai
To compare sports-related hip injuries on the basis of sex and age in a cohort of young athletes. A 5% random probability sample of all new patients' charts over a 10-year time period was selected for investigation. The most common hip injury diagnoses, sport at time of injury, mechanism (acute/traumatic vs. overuse), and types (bony vs. soft tissue) were compared by sex and age (preadolescent vs. adolescent). Descriptive and χ-analyses were carried out. The interaction of sex and age with respect to hip injury over time was examined by two-way (sex, age) analysis of variance. A total of 2133 charts were reviewed; N=87 hip injuries. The main diagnoses for males included labral tear (23.1%), avulsion fracture (11.5%), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (11.5%), dislocation (7.7%), and tendonitis (7.7%). The main diagnoses for females were labral tear (59.0%), tendonitis (14.8%), snapping hip syndrome (6.6%), strain (4.9%), and bursitis (4.9%). The five most common sports/activities at the time of hip injury were dancing/ballet (23.0%), soccer (18.4%), gymnastics (9.2%), ice hockey (8.1%), and track and field (6.9%). Age by sex comparisons showed a greater proportion of the total hip injuries (38.5%) in males compared with females (8.2%) during preadolescence (5-12 years). However, in adolescence (13-17 years), the hip injury proportion was significantly higher in females (91.8%) compared with males (61.5%; PInjury mechanism and type differed by sex, with females sustaining more chronic/overuse (95.1%) and soft tissue type injuries (93.4%) compared with males (50.0 and 53.8%, respectively; Pinjury proportion as they progressed through puberty compared with males (analysis of variance sex-by-age interaction; Pinjury mechanism and type differed significantly between males and females during growth. Notably, the proportion of hip injuries in the young female athletes showed a significantly greater increase with advancing age compared with males. Hip injuries in children
Kalkhoff, R K
The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.
Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F
Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary
Zhang, Yuhao; Lingappan, Krithika
Despite the well-established sex-specific differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the molecular mechanism(s) behind these are not completely understood. Pulmonary angiogenesis is critical for alveolarization and arrest in vascular development adversely affects lung development. Human neonatal umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) provide a robust in vitro model for the study of endothelial cell physiology and function. Male and Female HUVECs were exposed to room air (21% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) or hyperoxia (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) for up to 72 h. Cell viability, proliferation, H 2 O 2 production and angiogenesis were analyzed. Sex-specific differences in the expression of VEGFR2 and modulation of NF-kappa B pathway were measured. Male HUVECs have decreased survival, greater oxidative stress and impairment in angiogenesis compared to similarly exposed female cells. There is differential expression of VEGFR2 between male and female HUVECs and greater activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in female HUVECs under hyperoxic conditions. The results indicate that sex differences exist between male and female HUVECs in vitro after hyperoxia exposure. Since endothelial dysfunction has a major role in the pathogenesis of BPD, these differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in the incidence of this disease. - Highlights: • Cellular sex effects viability and oxidative stress in HUVECs exposed to hyperoxia. • Male HUVECs show greater impairment in angiogenesis compared to female cells. • Sex-specific modulation of VEGFR2 and the NF-kappaB pathway was noted.
Zoladz, Phillip R; Warnecke, Ashlee J; Woelke, Sarah A; Burke, Hanna M; Frigo, Rachael M; Pisansky, Julia M; Lyle, Sarah M; Talbot, Jeffery N
We have examined the influence of sex and the perceived emotional nature of learned information on pre-learning stress-induced alterations of long-term memory. Participants submerged their dominant hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3 min. Thirty minutes later, they studied 30 words, rated the words for their levels of emotional valence and arousal and were then given an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via delayed free recall and recognition assessments. The resulting memory data were analyzed after categorizing the studied words (i.e., distributing them to "positive-arousing", "positive-non-arousing", "negative-arousing", etc. categories) according to participants' valence and arousal ratings of the words. The results revealed that participants exhibiting a robust cortisol response to stress exhibited significantly impaired recognition memory for neutral words. More interestingly, however, males displaying a robust cortisol response to stress demonstrated significantly impaired recall, overall, and a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory, while females exhibiting a blunted cortisol response to stress demonstrated a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory. These findings support the notion that a brief stressor that is temporally separated from learning can exert deleterious effects on long-term memory. However, they also suggest that such effects depend on the sex of the organism, the emotional salience of the learned information and the degree to which stress increases corticosteroid levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pahlke, Erin; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Mertz, Janet E.
Some U.S. school districts are experimenting with single-sex schooling, hoping that it will yield better academic outcomes for students. Empirical research on the effects of single-sex schooling, however, has been equivocal, with various studies finding benefits, disadvantages, or no effect. Most of this research is marred because families…
Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E
Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hodes, Georgia E.; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E.; Suckow, Raymond F.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Lucki, Irwin
Neurogenesis is a mechanism through which antidepressants may produce therapeutic effects. There is a dearth of information regarding the effects of antidepressants on neurogenesis and neurotrophin mobilization in females. This study examined sex differences in the alteration of cell proliferation and survival in multiple regions of the brain. Additional experiments examined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine to determine whether they mediate se...
Sárria, Marisa P; Santos, Miguel M; Castro, L Filipe C; Vieira, Natividade M; Monteiro, Nuno M
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to disturb several ecological relevant endpoints. Surprisingly, EDC-induced effects on fish sexual behaviour have been poorly studied despite the fact that even subtle alterations might contribute to a disruption of sexual interactions, thus negatively impacting reproduction. As the few assessments on sexual behaviour have been conducted in species with orthodox sex roles, it might be argued that sex-role reversed species might provide a potentially complementary system to further explore the effects of EDCs on reproduction. In the present study, two pipefish species with distinct degrees of sex-role reversal were selected to further elucidate the impact of chronic EE2 exposure on sexual behaviour and reproduction-related endpoints. The obtained results indicate that, independently of the degree of sex role reversal, courtship behaviour seems to resist oestrogenic chemical exposure. However, exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 levels did induce a complete absence of pregnancies at 18 ng/L. Even though pregnancies were observed at intermediate concentrations, the percentage of non-transferred or misplaced oocytes increased and a dose-dependent decrease of oocyte volume was observed. Imbalances in the oogenesis process, induction of vitellogenin in males and the absence of pregnancies highlight that environmental relevant concentrations of EE2 have the potential to negatively affect pipefish populations, most of them inhabiting coastal areas where oestrogenic contamination is more prevalent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Evaluation of the effect of genotype (Romanov breed: n = 26, and F1 crossbreds of Suffolk-Romanov: n = 29, sex (males: n = 37 and females: n = 18 and litter size (singles: n = 6, twins: n = 16, triples: n = 21 and quadruplets: n = 12 on growth and basic carcass quality traits of light lambs was carried out at an organic sheep farm in Kuklík over the years 2007 and 2008. Throughout the experiment the lambs were reared with their mothers, indoors. The weaning of lambs was carried out just before slaughter. The daily feeding ration of the lambs consisted of the mother’s milk (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum, whereas the lambs had free access to the feedstuff of their mothers.The daily feeding ration of the ewes consisted of haylage (2.5 kg/ewe, meadow hay (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum. The genotype (G and the sex (S had not a significant effect on growth of lambs in the period from birth till the slaughter. On the other hand the litter size (LS had a highly significant effect on this trait, whilst the highest daily gain in above-mentioned period was found in singles (157 g. Concerning the carcass traits the G had a significant effect only on carcass dressing percentage while the S had a significant effect only on proportion of kidney. Nevertheless the LS had a significant effect on carcass dressing percentage and the proportions of skin, kidney and kidney fat. In conclusion it can be completed that the fatness scores of all individual carcasses were relatively very low which is important for good realisation of the carcasses on the market.
Full Text Available Internationally, it is widely recognised that labour law and associated protections are a critical part of any comprehensive response to trafficking in persons. In this article, we argue that while Australia has taken some important steps to incorporate labour protection systems into the anti-trafficking response, there is still more work to be done. In particular, the federal, and state and territory governments have yet to take up the opportunity to link anti-trafficking efforts with initiatives aimed at improving the working conditions of workers in the sex industry. We suggest this reflects a common—but unjustified—assumption that “labour trafficking” and “sex trafficking” are distinct and different species of harm. As a result of this distinction, workers in the Australian sex industry—an industry where slavery and trafficking crimes have been detected— are missing out on a suite of potentially effective prevention interventions, and access to civil remedies. We argue that there is a need to provide practical and financial support, so that the national industrial regulator, the Fair Work Ombudsman, can work directly with sex worker advocacy groups, to examine opportunities and barriers to accessing the labour law system, particularly for migrant sex workers.
Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wright, Jonathan
An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. In sexual size dimorphic
Full Text Available Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hormone effects on ventricular cell and tissue dynamics comprised of Faber-Rudy computational models. The "female" model predicts changes in action potential duration (APD at different stages of the menstrual cycle that are consistent with clinically observed QT interval fluctuations. The "male" model predicts shortening of APD and QT interval at physiological testosterone concentrations. The model suggests increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmia when estradiol levels are high, while testosterone and progesterone are apparently protective. Simulations predict the effects of sex steroid hormones on clinically observed QT intervals and reveal mechanisms of estrogen-mediated susceptibility to prolongation of QT interval. The simulations also indicate that acute effects of estrogen are not alone sufficient to cause arrhythmia triggers and explain the increased risk of females to Torsades de Pointes. Our results suggest that acute effects of sex steroid hormones on cardiac ion channels are sufficient to account for some aspects of gender specific susceptibility to long-QT linked arrhythmias.
Full Text Available During the development of chick embryo, the genotype of the zygote determines the nature of the gonads, which thereafter creates the male or female phenotype. Differentiation of gonads during the period called “critical period for sexual differentiation “is accompanied with beginning of secretion of sexual hormones. Every change in the rate of steroidal hormones concentration during this critical period, affects on the structure of gonads. Therefore, injection of aromatase inhibitors (which blocks the synthesis of estrogen from testostron in 5th day of incubation into the eggs, causes the production of males with female genotype. These sex reversal females have bilateral testes with complete spermatogenesis, having normal physical appearance and behavior. In this study, 14-α-hydroxy 3,6,17, androstan-trion inhibitor (1mg/egg was injected into the eggs. Furthermore, the effect of three anti-estrogens (which blocks the estrogen receptor Tamoxifen, and Clomiphen Citrate and GAR79 were studied. Injection of aromatase inhibitors into the eggs during incubation period caused statistically significant (p
Oncken, Cheryl A; Litt, Mark D; McLaughlin, Lynn D; Burki, Nausherwan A
This study examined overall changes in nicotine concentrations when using a popular e-cigarette and 18 mg/mL nicotine e-Juice, and it further explored effects of sex and flavorings on these concentrations. We recruited nontreatment-seeking smokers who were willing to try e-cigarettes for 2 weeks and abstain from cigarette smoking. Subjects were randomized to either menthol tobacco or non-menthol tobacco-flavored e-cigarette use for 7-10 days, and the next week they were crossed over to the other condition. On the last day of e-cigarette use of each flavor, subjects completed a laboratory session in which they used the e-cigarette for 5 min ad libitum. Nicotine concentrations were obtained 5 min before and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after the onset of e-cigarette use. Twenty subjects completed at least 1 monitoring session. Nicotine concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 5 min by 4 ng/mL at the first laboratory session (p e-cigarette as less likeable (p e-cigarette use for 5 min, and flavor may impact nicotine concentrations with e-cigarette use in women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, Luther K; Buck, Germaine M; Druschel, Charlotte M; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Sever, Lowell E; Vena, John E
Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for or =2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For > or =2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors.
Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, L.K.; Buck, G.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Sever, L.E.; Vena, J.E.
Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors
Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno
Cancer screening has contributed to downward trends in cancer mortality, but is also associated with adverse effects, which highlights the importance of promoting the participation based on informed decisions. We aimed to describe the use of cancer screening (either in organized programmes or as opportunistic screening), awareness of organized programmes and perception of its potential benefits and adverse effects, depicting possible sex differences. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews. To quantify sex differences, adjusted prevalence ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression. Among eligible age groups, the lifetime prevalence of screening for breast and cervical cancers was 89.8 and 71.9%, respectively. The prevalence was 23.7% for colorectal cancer and no significant sex differences were observed. Prostate cancer screening was reported by 63.8% of men. Over half of the participants referred that cancers such as prostate, skin, lung and stomach should be screened for, in addition to those for which organized programmes are recommended. Reassurance by negative results was identified as the main potential benefit of screening by nearly one-third of men and women. Anxiety while waiting for results was the most mentioned potential adverse effect (60.4%); men refer less often this and financial costs, although statistical significance of these results was borderline. This study provides a benchmark to plan and monitor the effects of awareness-raising interventions, as well as for international comparisons across countries with different cancer prevention and control structures. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Flanagan, Katie L; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E
Vaccines have non-specific effects (NSE) on subsequent morbidity and mortality from non-vaccine related infectious diseases. Thus NSE refers to any effect that cannot be accounted for by the induction of immunity against the vaccine-targeted disease. These effects are sex-differential, generally...... being more pronounced in females than males. Furthermore, the NSE are substantial causing greater than fifty percent changes in all cause mortality in certain settings, yet have never been systematically tested despite the fact that millions of children receive vaccines each year. As we strive...... to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex...
Kvaløy, K; Kulle, B; Romundstad, P; Holmen, T L
The impact of previously identified genetic variants directly or indirectly associated with obesity, were investigated at birth, adolescence and adulthood to provide knowledge concerning timing and mechanisms of obesity susceptibility with focus on sex differences. Twenty four previously identified obesity- and eating disorder susceptibility loci were tested for association with adiposity traits at birth (ponderal index (PI)), adolescence and young adulthood (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) in 1782 individuals from the HUNT study. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were evaluated individually and by haplotype sliding-window approach for windows50 kb (near-MC4R, FTO and near-BDNF). The analyses were performed on the total and sex stratified samples. The most substantial effect on BMI was observed for the near-MC4R variants at adolescence and adulthood (adjusted P-values in adolescence: 0.002 and 0.003 for rs17782313 and rs571312, respectively). The same variants showed inverse association with PI in males (adjusted P-values: 0.019-0.036). Furthermore, significant effects were observed at adolescence with BMI for the near-KCTD15 variant (rs11084753) (adjusted P=0.038) in the combined sample. The near-INSIG2 (rs7566605) was significantly associated to WHR in males and near-BDNF (rs925946) in the combined sample (adjusted P=0.027 and P=0.033, respectively). The OPRD1 locus was associated to BMI and WC in males both at adolescence and adulthood with highest effect in adults (adjusted P=0.058). Interaction with sex was identified for near-MC4R, OPRD1, COMT, near-BDNF and DRD2. Most obesity susceptibility variants show stronger effect at adolescence than at birth and adulthood with a clear sex-specific effect at some loci. The near-MC4R locus exhibit inverse effect on weight at birth in boys compared with findings at adolescence and adulthood. Some variants less known for obesity-susceptibility such as OPRD1 were found to
Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol studied for its possible protective properties in inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, it has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors. In the present study, we aimed to investigate possible diverse effects of resveratrol on female and male mice in DSS-induced colitis. Thirty-seven C57BL/6 mice (21 female and 16 male were divided into three groups for each sex. The first group received pure water (CTRL. The other two groups received 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to induce colitis from which one group was treated with resveratrol (DSS + RSV. Intake of 1.5% DSS caused weight loss in all DSS groups compared to control mice. Weight loss, stool consistency, and discomfort did not show any protective effect of resveratrol in males and showed even adverse effects in females. In females, the activity of myeloperoxidase was lower compared to that in males. However, colon length and spleen weight showed no sex differences, which can indicate the induction of only mild colitis in mice. Resveratrol did not have any effect on TNF-alpha levels. Taken together, these results for the first time propose possible diverse effects of resveratrol in DSS-induced colitis model depending on the sex of the animal. However, this conclusion must be confirmed by further analyses.
Bowen, Raven; Bungay, Vicky
As part of a larger study examining the effects of the design of the off-street sex industry on sex worker's health and safety practices, eight sex work experts who had experience as sex workers and as advocates and service providers were interviewed to garner their community engagement expertise in shaping the research. During narrative interviews, these experts discussed how stigma influenced their personal lives and their social justice work among sex workers. Their insights into stigma are unique to the literature because our experts simultaneously confronted direct instances of stigma that were a part of their personal and professional lives, sometimes concealing their sex work histories during the course of their professional support and advocacy work. As a result of this concealment, and because of how sex workers are sometimes mistreated, experts experienced stigma vicariously (indirectly) when their own sex work histories were not apparent. As a result of these experiences, participants became proficient at managing discrediting information about themselves when in the presence of those they mistrusted. They supported sex workers through stigmatising ordeals by using knowledge gained from these intersecting direct and vicarious experiences stigma, continuously building capacity within themselves and among other sex workers to resist stigma.
Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.
While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008
Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Morgan-Thomas, Ruth; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Mwangi, Peninah; Win, Kay Thi; McFall, Allison; Fonner, Virginia A; Butler, Jennifer
A community empowerment-based response to HIV is a process by which sex workers take collective ownership of programmes to achieve the most effective HIV outcomes and address social and structural barriers to their overall health and human rights. Community empowerment has increasingly gained recognition as a key approach for addressing HIV in sex workers, with its focus on addressing the broad context within which the heightened risk for infection takes places in these individuals. However, large-scale implementation of community empowerment-based approaches has been scarce. We undertook a comprehensive review of community empowerment approaches for addressing HIV in sex workers. Within this effort, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of community empowerment in sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries. We found that community empowerment-based approaches to addressing HIV among sex workers were significantly associated with reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and with increases in consistent condom use with all clients. Despite the promise of a community-empowerment approach, we identified formidable structural barriers to implementation and scale-up at various levels. These barriers include regressive international discourses and funding constraints; national laws criminalising sex work; and intersecting social stigmas, discrimination, and violence. The evidence base for community empowerment in sex workers needs to be strengthened and diversified, including its role in aiding access to, and uptake of, combination interventions for HIV prevention. Furthermore, social and political change are needed regarding the recognition of sex work as work, both globally and locally, to encourage increased support for community empowerment responses to HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R
Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.
Davis, Daniel J; Hecht, Patrick M; Jasarevic, Eldin; Beversdorf, David Q; Will, Matthew J; Fritsche, Kevin; Gillespie, Catherine H
Dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on reducing the symptoms associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that the vast repertoire of commensal bacteria within the gut plays a critical role in regulating various biological processes in the brain and may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease risk. The present study determined the contribution of DHA on anxiety and depressive-like behaviors through modulation of the gut microbiota in a paradigm of social isolation. Adult male and female mice were subjected to social isolation for 28days and then placed either on a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% or 1.0% DHA. Fecal pellets were collected both 24h and 7days following the introduction of the new diets. Behavioral testing revealed that male mice fed a DHA diet, regardless of dose, exhibited reduced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors compared to control fed mice while no differences were observed in female mice. As the microbiota-brain-axis has been recently implicated in behavior, composition of microbial communities were analyzed to examine if these sex-specific effects of DHA may be associated with changes in the gut microbiota (GM). Clear sex differences were observed with males and females showing distinct microbial compositions prior to DHA supplementation. The introduction of DHA into the diet also induced sex-specific interactions on the GM with the fatty acid producing a significant effect on the microbial profiles in males but not in females. Interestingly, levels of Allobaculum and Ruminococcus were found to significantly correlate with the behavioral changes observed in the male mice. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt was performed on the fecal samples collected from males and
R N Srivastava
Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procreational. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is
R N Srivastava
Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procreational. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also
Lane, A D; Ranadive, S M; Yan, H; Kappus, R M; Cook, M D; Sun, P; Woods, J A; Wilund, K; Fernhall, B
Wasted left ventricular effort (∆Ew) refers to work required of the left ventricle to eject blood that does not result in increased stroke volume and is related to left ventricular hypertrophy. Literature shows that men and women have differing ventricular and vascular responses to and following exercise. Our purpose was to determine how ∆Ew changes post-exercise in men and women and examine potential mechanisms. We hypothesized a reduction in ∆Ew that would be greater in men and that central pulse wave velocity and wave intensity (WIA) would be related to ∆Ew. Blood pressures, central pulse wave velocity (cPWV), and WIA were obtained at rest, 15 and 30 min after maximal exercise. Both sexes reduced ∆Ew post-maximal exercise (p>0.05 for interaction), but women had higher ∆Ew at each time point (p<0.05). The first peak of WIA increased 15 min post-exercise only in women (p<0.05). cPWV was attenuated (p<0.05) in women at 15 min and men at 30 min (p<0.05) post-exercise with a significant time by sex interaction (p<0.05). WIA (1st peak) was correlated (p<0.05) to ∆Ew in both sexes before and 15 min post-exercise, but cPWV was only associated with ∆Ew in men at 30 min post-exercise. We conclude that both sexes decrease ∆Ew after maximal exercise, but vascular and ventricular changes associated with the attenuation of ∆Ew are not uniform between sexes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Warach, S.; Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Skolnick, B.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Reivich, M.
Repeated applications of the 133 Xe inhalation technique for measuring regional CBF (rCBF) were made during consecutive resting conditions in a sample of young healthy subjects. Subjects were grouped by order and by sex [nine had resting studies as the initial two measurements in a series of four measurement (six men, three women) and six had these measurements later (two men, four women)]. Three flow parameters were examined: f1 (fast flow) and IS (initial slope) for gray matter CBF, and CBF-15 for mean CBF (gray and white matter over 15-min integration), as well as w1, the percentage of tissue with fast clearing characteristics. With all groups combined, there were no significant differences between the two resting measurements, and high test-retest correlations were obtained for the flow parameters and w1. Analyses by order and sex grouping revealed, for the flow parameters, significant interactions of test-retest difference with order. Repeated initial studies showed reduced CBF from the first to second measurement, whereas resting studies performed later in the series showed no reduction. Interactions for test-retest difference with sex indicated that reduced CBF in serial measures was more pronounced for women. No hemispheric or regional specificity to account for these effects was found. Correction for PaCO 2 differences did not alter these results. The results resemble data regarding habituation effects measured for other psychophysiologic measures, and suggest that reduction in CBF for consecutive measurements made on the same day may reflect habituation. This underscores the importance of controlling for effects of habituation on serial measurements of CBF and metabolism
Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta
Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...
Salvatore Velotto; Ettore Varricchio; Maria Rosa Di Prisco; Tommaso Stasi; Antonio Crasto
The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes) in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60%) and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For ea...
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, body weight and growth rates on basic fattening and slaughter indexes in PEN-AR-LAN fatteners. The research was conducted on 274 PEN-ARLAN hybrid fatteners coming from sows of the Naïma maternal line and was sired by boars of the P-76 meat line. Recorded ...
Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina
In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.
Kidwell, Jeannie S.
Examined the effect of the sibling structures of number and spacing, sex composition, and birth order on adolescents' perceptions of the power and support dimensions of parental behavior. Results suggest that research focusing on birth order must control for number of siblings, spacing, and sex composition of siblings. (Author)
Childress Ann C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy and safety profiles by sex and age (6-9 vs 10-12 years and magnitude and duration of effect by effect size overall and across the day of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX vs placebo were assessed. Methods This study enrolled children (6-12 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in an open-label dose optimization with LDX (30-70 mg/d followed by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover phase. Post hoc analyses assessed interaction between sex or age and treatment and assessed effect sizes for Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP scales and ADHD Rating Scale IV measures. No corrections for multiple testing were applied on time points and subgroup statistical comparisons. Results 129 participants enrolled; 117 randomized. Both sexes showed improvement on all assessments at postdose time points; females showed less impairment than males for SKAMP and PERMP scores in treatment and placebo groups at nearly all times. Both age groups improved on all assessments at postdose time points. Children 10-12 years had less impairment in SKAMP ratings than those 6-9 years. Treatment-by-sex interactions were observed at time points for SKAMP-D, SKAMP total, and PERMP scores; no consistent pattern across scales or time points was observed. LDX demonstrated significant improvement vs placebo, by effect size, on SKAMP-D from 1.5-13 hours postdose. The overall LS mean (SE SKAMP-D effect size was -1.73 (0.18. In the dose-optimization phase, common (≥2% treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs in males were upper abdominal pain, headache, affect lability, initial insomnia, and insomnia; in females were nausea and decreased weight. During the crossover phase for those taking LDX, higher incidence (≥2% greater was observed in males for upper abdominal pain and insomnia and in females for nausea and headache. Overall incidence of
Empirical research suggests that financial globalization has insignificant effects on business cycles. Based on standard theoretical models it might be conjectured that the effects should be significant. I show that this conjecture is wrong. Theoretical effects of financial globalization can be determined to any level of precision by expanding the underlying artificial samples. In contrast, in the data the effects are imprecisely estimated because of short samples. I show that if the conclusi...
Strasburger, Victor C
In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided.
Tan, Jing-guang; Cheng, Jin-quan; Lu, Zu-xun
This study aimed to explore and evaluate the effects of combination intervention model conducted by Center for Disease Control and Prevention and activity place to men who have sex with men (MSM). To implement one-year combination intervention in 4 MSM venues during May, 2009 and April, 2010. Meanwhile, 3 similar MSM venues were chosen as control. MSM places introduced CDC to consumption crowds. Experts and volunteers sent by CDC undertook health education programme on site and condom, lubricant, pamphlet, consultation, test were provided at the same time. The intervention measures applied to control only included providing pamphlet, condom, lubricant by volunteers. Investigations were conducted among subjects of combination intervention group and control group before (111, 120 subjects) and after (105, 98 subjects) the intervention with questions related to knowledge and behavior of AIDS prevention. After one-year intervention, among MSM with combination intervention, the awareness rate of knowledge level about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased from 73.0% (81/111) to 91.7% (110/120), proportion of condom-use with male at last anal intercourse increased from 73.0% (81/111) to 85.0% (102/120), ratio of never-use condom with male decreased from 10.8% (11/102) to 1.7% (2/112), percentage of acquiring AIDS-related service and intervention improved significantly, acquiring condom (lubricant) increased from 70.3% (78/111) to 85.0% (102/120), acquiring peer education increased from 10.8% (12/111) to 24.2% (29/120), the proportion of acquiring counseling and testing of HIV increased from 69.4% (77/111) to 90.8% (109/120) (all P values 0.05) in control MSM venues. Combination intervention model was an effective intervention model contributing to an increase in knowledge of AIDS prevention and decreasing high risk behavior in MSM population.
...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes... Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging Technologies, on the Safety and Regulatory Status of Food... determining whether changes in manufacturing process, including the intentional reduction in particle size to...
Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung
Spouses' ability to care for survivors can be particularly challenging because patients and spouses are interdependent and mutually influence one another. Family functioning such as family cohesion and communication may play a primary role in improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of couples, given that cancer can influence family dynamics. The aims of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of family communication on the relationship between family cohesion and HRQOL and examine the moderating effect of sex on this relationship among cancer survivor-spouse dyads. A total of 91 cancer survivors with a diagnosis of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer and their spouses were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. The dyadic data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the actor-partner interdependence mediation model. Findings demonstrated that the spouses' own perceived family communication mediated the associations between their own family cohesion and physical HRQOL and between the survivors' family cohesion and physical HRQOL. The spouse actor effects between family communication and HRQOL significantly differed by sex. Enhancing family cohesion and communication within the family can improve the spouses' HRQOL. Findings regarding sex differences serve as a rationale for gender-based approaches to improving HRQOL in survivorship care in the family context. Couple- and/or family-based interventions should be designed to enhance family cohesion and improve family communication skills for effective adjustments within couples and families. Supportive care within the family context can be promoted to address the diverse challenges of survivorship care.
Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O
pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....
Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Breidenstein, Anja; Wolf, Oliver T; Brüne, Martin
Empathy is a fundamental attribute required for appropriate social functioning. The extent to which we empathize with others in pain is influenced by numerous factors. Being highly social species, humans face social stress on a regular basis, which undoubtedly affects how we react to our environment. It is not yet known how social stress may modulate our neural mechanisms when we empathize with others in painful circumstances, and its effects on empathic behavior are still unclear. For this reason, we recorded the electroencephalography (EEG) of healthy men and women, half of which were previously exposed to psychosocial stress, while they observed photographs of hands in painful and neutral situations. At the behavioral level, stress induced higher unpleasantness ratings to painful stimuli, and lower ratings to neutral pictures, independent of sex. At the neurophysiological level, we found that early (N110 over fronto-central sites) event-related potentials (ERPs) were not affected by stress, while late (P3 over centro-parietal regions) components showed a sex-dependent differential effect of stress. Correlation analyses further indicated a strong association between N110 with trait markers of empathy in all participants, while P3 was associated with the change in cortisol in stressed males. Our findings suggest that sex-dependent effects of social stress on the neural responses to empathy for pain give rise to comparable behaviors in men and women in the paradigm we employed, implying that each sex may engage in distinct mechanisms to cope with stress. Moreover, stress seems to modulate late neural mechanisms of empathy but not our early perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.
Li Jiayuan; Yang Fei; Huang Zhonghang; Lu Xiaoqing; Liu Hui; Jiang Di; Yang Yuan
Objective: To explore the relationship between long-time exposure to low-dose ionization radiation and health effects. Methods: 1052 occupational subjects exposed to ionization radiation in Chengdu city were recruited in monitoring cohort in 2007, including 785 men (74.62%) and 267 women (25.38%). Individual exposure dose were monitored by Thermoluminescent Measurement. Health effects include blood routine examination, Chromosomal aberration, eye lens test, etc. Variance Analysis (ANOVA), χ 2 Test and Univariate Procedure of General Liner Model (Covariance Analysis) were implemented to test the difference among subgroups with SPSS 13.0 software. Results: Annual average of exposure dose of male and female were (0.76 ± 0.65) mSv and (0.75 ± 0.64) mSv. There is no statistical significant between sex subgroups (F= (0.136, P = 0.712). In females subgroup, the frequencies and ratios with low WBC, Low platelet, high RBC and high HGB were 30 (11.2%), 45(16.9%), 4(1.5%) and 3(1.1%) respectively. And in male subgroup, frequencies and ratios of above index were 32 (4.1%), 147 (18.7%), 64 (8.2%) and 115 (14.6%) respectively. Except low platelet, the distribution differences of the rest three blood indexes between sex subgroups were statistically significant (χ 2 test, P<0.01). Either in male or in female subgroups, no statistically significant difference of all health indexes(RBC, WBC, Platelet, HGB, and Chromosomal aberration) was observed in different radiation dose teams. Conclusion: In this monitoring cohort, the health effects were related to hormesis and adaptive response as well as radiation damage accumulation effect of low-dose ionization radiation. Females were the sensitive group to suffer adverse effects, while blood indexes were the sensitive indexes for monitoring radiation exposure. (authors)
Miller, Madeline M; Trapp, Jessica L; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinicians should be aware that single-sport male athletes may display deficits in dynamic balance, potentially
Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G
Placentae from control and diabetic subjects were analysed using stereological techniques in order to assess the effects of mode of delivery (vaginal versus caesarean) and sex of neonate on parenchymal morphology. Effects were assessed using indices of peripheral villous and fetal capillary growth......, villous maturity, extent of maternal intervillous space and thickness of intervascular tissue layers. Placentae were from pregnancies (37-42 wk) which were either uncomplicated (control group) or complicated by diabetes mellitus (diabetic group, White class D) which was reasonably well controlled in terms......, diabetic placentae were 17% heavier and showed shorter fetal plasma distances (30%) and larger fetal capillaries (volume 45%, surface 39% and length 30% greater). Mode of delivery had significant main and interaction effects on stromal diffusion distance (25% greater in vaginal deliveries...
Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.
days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... and 78% of oestradiol-treated eels developed female-gonads. Minced porcine testicular tissue fed to 2-g eels for up to 371 days had effects similar to oestradiol-enriched food (68% with female-gonads), whereas feeding for only 91 days had no effect during the next 8 months. Oestradiol-enriched food...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...
Hughes, Robert N; Otto, Maria T
In groups of four same-sexed animals, PVG/c hooded rats were housed for 4.5 months in standard or enriched cages containing several objects that could be explored and manipulated. On separate occasions, each rat then experienced two consecutive daily trials in an open field, a light-dark box or a Y maze with arm inserts that enabled an acquisition trial comprising one black and one white arm to be changed for a retention trial consisting of two black arms. Before their trials in the open field and light-dark box, and following each acquisition trial in the Y maze, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg scopolamine or isotonic saline. In the open field, enrichment led to higher levels of ambulation, walking, rearing and occupancy of the center of the apparatus and shorter emergence latencies from the dark into the light compartment of the light-dark box accompanied by more entries of this compartment. Enrichment also increased entries of and time spent in the changed (or novel) Y-maze arm only for male rats treated with scopolamine. The drug decreased rearing and increased grooming in the open field as well as increasing emergence latencies and decreasing entries of and the time spent on the light compartment of the light-dark box. The main results were interpreted as enrichment having attenuated anxiogenic effects of the behavioral testing and the action of scopolamine for male (but not female) rats in their choices of the novel arm in the Y maze. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus
Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905
Sara K Shivapour
Full Text Available The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we examined how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred and sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56 to 90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. After controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several additional age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation, whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation. In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants’ financial decision-making and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one’s financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources.
Orlofsky, Jacob L.; And Others
A median split and a difference/median split method were used to classify college students into masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated sex role orientations using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The difference/ median split procedure was more successful in discriminating between sex role groups and in predicting sex role ideology. (EVH)
Ingvorsen, C; Karp, N A; Lelliott, C J
Metabolic disorders are commonly investigated using knockout and transgenic mouse models on the C57BL/6N genetic background due to its genetic susceptibility to the deleterious metabolic effects of high-fat diet (HFD). There is growing awareness of the need to consider sex in disease progression, but limited attention has been paid to sexual dimorphism in mouse models and its impact in metabolic phenotypes. We assessed the effect of HFD and the impact of sex on metabolic variables in this strain. We generated a reference data set encompassing glucose tolerance, body composition and plasma chemistry data from 586 C57BL/6N mice fed a standard chow and 733 fed a HFD collected as part of a high-throughput phenotyping pipeline. Linear mixed model regression analysis was used in a dual analysis to assess the effect of HFD as an absolute change in phenotype, but also as a relative change accounting for the potential confounding effect of body weight. HFD had a significant impact on all variables tested with an average absolute effect size of 29%. For the majority of variables (78%), the treatment effect was modified by sex and this was dominated by male-specific or a male stronger effect. On average, there was a 13.2% difference in the effect size between the male and female mice for sexually dimorphic variables. HFD led to a significant body weight phenotype (24% increase), which acts as a confounding effect on the other analysed variables. For 79% of the variables, body weight was found to be a significant source of variation, but even after accounting for this confounding effect, similar HFD-induced phenotypic changes were found to when not accounting for weight. HFD and sex are powerful modifiers of metabolic parameters in C57BL/6N mice. We also demonstrate the value of considering body size as a covariate to obtain a richer understanding of metabolic phenotypes.
Duneau, David; Luijckx, Pepijn; Ruder, Ludwig F; Ebert, Dieter
Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration, which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.
Sarah L. Strout
Full Text Available Doubt has been raised about the validity of results that appear to demonstrate sex differences in the type of infidelity that elicits jealousy. Two studies explored proposed methodological weaknesses of this research. The first study distinguished participants who had experienced infidelity and those who had only imagined infidelity. The study found the classic sex differences when participants were “forced” to choose which kind of infidelity would be most upsetting, and these differences were more pronounced among participants who were recalling the actual infidelity of a partner. The second study explored the impact of the relatively brief, perhaps cursory response that is commonly evoked by questionnaires versus a slower, more vivid imagining of the infidelity experience. The classic forced choice results were found, and the vivid imagining produced effects that are more powerful. The overall results suggest that participants who had experienced infidelity or vividly imagined infidelity showed greater sex differences, suggesting that the usual format (filling out a questionnaire may not trigger the evolved mechanism for jealousy.
Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts. PMID:23249484
Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P
Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Klein Laura C
Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step in determining whether psychogenic stressors might be incorporated into periadolescent mouse models of stress, we evaluated whether a commonly used psychogenic stressor, exposure to red fox urine, alters serum corticosterone levels in periadolescent C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Findings In a 1-day experiment, forty-eight 38-day-old C57BL/6J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females and DBA/2J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females mice were exposed to 10-min of red fox urine via cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice or to a non-saturated cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice. All mice were sacrificed 15-min after cotton ball exposure and serum was collected for corticosterone assessment. Overall, there was a main effect for strain such that C57BL/6J male and female mice displayed higher corticosterone levels than did male and female DBA/2J mice. There were no main effects for sex or odor exposure. However, there was a significant strain by odor exposure interaction, whereby, within odor-exposed mice, DBA/2J mice displayed lower corticosterone levels (ng/mL compared to C57BL/6J mice, regardless of sex. Further, among DBA/2J mice, predator odor exposure reduced corticosterone levels compared to no odor exposure. Conclusions Findings indicate that mouse strain, but not sex, may play an important role in the efficacy of a predator odor among periadolescent mice.
Reas, Emilie T; Laughlin, Gail A; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; McEvoy, Linda K
This study investigated how cognitive function changes with age and whether rates of decline vary by sex or education in a large, homogenous longitudinal cohort characterized by high participation rates, long duration of follow-up, and minimal loss to follow-up. Between 1988 and 2016, 2,225 community-dwelling participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study, aged 31 to 99 years at their initial cognitive assessment, completed neuropsychological testing approximately every 4 years, over a maximum 27-year follow-up. Linear mixed effects regression models defined sex-specific cognitive trajectories, adjusting for education and retest effects. Significant decline across all cognitive domains began around age 65 years and accelerated after age 80 years. Patterns of decline were generally similar between sexes, although men declined more rapidly than women on the global function test. Higher education was associated with slower decline on the tests of executive and global functions. After excluding 517 participants with evidence of cognitive impairment, accelerating decline with age remained for all tests, and women declined more rapidly than men on the executive function test. Accelerating decline with advancing age occurs across multiple cognitive domains in community-dwelling older adults, with few differences in rates of decline between men and women. Higher education may provide some protection against executive and global function decline with age. These findings better characterize normal cognitive aging, a critical prerequisite for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive impairment, and lay the groundwork for future studies of health and behavioral factors that affect age-related decline in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Touma, Chadi; Sachser, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Palme, Rupert
Non-invasive techniques to monitor stress hormones in small animals like mice offer several advantages and are highly demanded in laboratory as well as in field research. Since knowledge about the species-specific metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids is essential to develop such a technique, we conducted radiometabolism studies in mice (Mus musculus f. domesticus, strain C57BL/6J). Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 740 kBq of 3H-labelled corticosterone and all voided urine and fecal samples were collected for five days. In a first experiment 16 animals (eight of each sex) received the injection at 9 a.m., while eight mice (four of each sex) were injected at 9 p.m. in a second experiment. In both experiments radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the feces, although males excreted significantly higher proportions via the feces (about 73%) than females (about 53%). Peak radioactivity in the urine was detected within about 2h after injection, while in the feces peak concentrations were observed later (depending on the time of injection: about 10h postinjection in experiment 1 and about 4h postinjection in experiment 2, thus proving an effect of the time of day). The number and relative abundance of fecal [3H]corticosterone metabolites was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC separations revealed that corticosterone was extensively metabolized mainly to more polar substances. Regarding the types of metabolites formed, significant differences were found between males and females, but not between the experiments. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of these metabolites was assessed by screening the HPLC fractions with four enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, only a newly established EIA for 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,11beta,21-triol-20-one (measuring corticosterone metabolites with a 5alpha-3beta,11beta-diol structure) detected several peaks of radioactive metabolites with high intensity in both sexes, while
Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail
Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a
Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Shintaku, Yoko; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa
Tributyltin, an organotin compound, was used worldwide as an antifouling agent in aquatic environments and there has been much concern about the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of organotin compounds. Even though it has been prohibited worldwide, tributyltin is still detected at low concentrations in aquatic environments. Here we investigated the effects of tributyltin on the early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). In adults, exposure to tributyltin at 3.82 μg/L suppressed fecundity and fertility and increased mortality. At 10.48 μg/L all medaka died by the sixth day of exposure. Exposure to tributyltin during early life-stages induced no significant differences in mortality or embryonic development, but growth was suppressed in groups exposed to 0.13 and 0.68 μg/L. Furthermore, there was no abnormal gonadal development in Japanese medaka exposed to tributyltin. These results provide evidence of the negative effects of tributyltin on reproduction in a teleost fish. Tributyltin did not affect gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka, but fecundity and fertility were suppressed, although it is not clear whether this suppression resulted from the endocrine-disrupting action of tributyltin or its toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foley, Louise; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Maddison, Ralph
The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n=322; aged 10-14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p=0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of determination of serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Methods: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and leptin (with RIA) levels were determined in 35 girls with early development of breast as the sign of precocious puberty, of which, 15 was considered to be of the ICPP group and 20 of simple premature thelarche group (SPT). Criteria of diagnosis for ICPP were: peak LH value>12IU/L and LH/FSH>1 after GnRH stimulating test. Results: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I leptin levels in girls with ICPP were significantly higher than those in the girls with SPT (P 0.2 as the cut-off value for diagnosis of ICPP there would still be a positive rate of 86.6% suggesting that the diagnostic criteria might be set lower. Serum IGF-I levels were positively correlated to those of E 2 (r=0.47, P 2 and IGF-I. Conclusion: Determinations of serum E 2 , LH, FHS, IGF-I and leptin levels were helpful for the early diagnosis of ICPP. (author)
Onakomaiya, Marie M; Henderson, Leslie P
For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking. The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies in both sexes. Studies examining AAS use in females are limited, reflecting the lower prevalence of use in this sex. Data, however, indicate significant sex-specific differences in AAS effects on anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors, interactions with other drugs of abuse, and the interplay of AAS with other environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Current methods for assessing AAS use have limitations that suggest biases of both under- and over-reporting, which may be amplified for females who are poorly represented in self-report studies of human subjects and are rarely used in animal studies. Data from animal literature suggest that there are significant sex-specific differences in the impact of AAS on aggression, anxiety, and concomitant use of other abused substances. These results have relevance for human females who take these drugs as performance-enhancing substances and for transgender XX individuals who may illicitly self-administer AAS as they transition to a male gender identity.
Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D
Agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are frequently used in patients with end-stage renal disease, but whether they exert beneficial cardiovascular effects is unclear. Here the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, irbesartan, were studied in hemodialysis......, and residual renal function. Brachial blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference between placebo and irbesartan. Use of additional antihypertensive medication, ultrafiltration volume, and dialysis dosage were not different. Intermediate cardiovascular end...... points such as central aortic blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, left ventricular mass index, N-terminal brain natriuretic prohormone, heart rate variability, and plasma catecholamines were not significantly affected by irbesartan treatment. Changes in systolic blood pressure during...
Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyze selected reproductive characteristics in sows and losses of piglets according to their age and to evaluate the effect of sex on survivability of piglets before weaning. The experimental observation involved 80 sows with their second litters (40 sows of genotye I and 40 sows of genotype II. The sows were mated with a boar of Danish Duroc. No significant difference was found between the evaluated genotypes of sows in numbers of live‑born piglets and reared piglets, however it is evident that better results were reached by the sows of the genotype II. Also the losses of piglets per litter were lower, by 0.65 piece (P ≤ 0.05. In sows of the genotype I a high correlation (P ≤ 0.01 was confirmed between the number of live‑born piglets and the number of reared piglets per litter (r = 0.750. Another correlation was found between the number of live‑born piglets and their losses before weaning (r = 0.716. Similar trend was observed in the genotype II, however without significant correlation between the number of live‑born piglets and the losses of piglets before weaning. The results also revealed that the piglets died mostly before the 14th day of age, while the losses of male piglets were more frequent than of female piglets. Losses of female piglets of the genotype I before the 14th day of age were 6.82 %, in the genotype II they were 3.01 %. In this period, the losses of male piglets reached 9.56 % in the genotype I and 4.49 % in the genotype II. From the 14th day to weaning the losses of female piglets counted 2.39 % vs. 0.75 %, the losses of male piglets 1.37 % vs. 2.88 %. The total losses from birth to weaning were 9.22 % vs. 3.76 % in female piglets and 10.92 % vs. 7.37 % in male piglets.
Rammsayer, Thomas H; Borter, Natalie; Troche, Stefan J
The present study was designed to systematically investigate the functional relationships among biological sex; masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics; and sociosexual behavior, attitude toward, and desire for uncommitted casual sex as three facets of sociosexual orientation. For this purpose, facets of sociosexuality were assessed by the Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R) and masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics were assessed by a revised German version of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory in 499 male and 958 female heterosexual young adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed differential mediating effects of masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics on the relationship between biological sex and the three facets of sociosexual orientation. Sociosexual behavior was shown to be primarily controlled by an individual's level of masculine gender-role characteristics irrespective of biological sex. Sociosexual desire was identified as being a sole function of biological sex with no indication for any effect of masculine or feminine gender-role characteristics, while sociosexual attitude was influenced by biological sex as well as by masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics to about the same extent.
Deng, Mingming; Chan, Alan H S; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun
Racing games have emerged as top-selling products in the video and computer game industry. The effect of playing racing games on the inclination of gamers to take risks has been investigated. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the impact of personality traits on the effects of playing racing games on risk-taking inclination was examined. The Vienna Test System, which includes the Eysenck Personality Profile Test and the Vienna Risk-Taking Test, was used to measure risk-taking inclination and risk-taking while driving. Experiment 2 was designed and conducted to analyse the effects of different intensity levels of car racing games on risk-taking inclination, and to study the relationship between physiological data and risk-taking inclination. Physiological data on skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure were measured with the NeuroDyne System. Participants playing a racing game were more inclined to take risks in critical road traffic situations than those playing a neutral game. The adventurousness dimension of the Eysenck Personality Profile Test correlated significantly positively with risk-taking inclination. More importantly, the effect of the intensity level of a racing game on risk-taking inclination was significant. The higher the intensity level of the racing game, the higher the risk-taking inclination while driving. The effect of intensity level of the racing game on skin conductance was significantly positive. Skin conductance correlated significantly positively with risk-taking inclination. The effect of playing racing games on risk-taking inclination is linked to personality and physiological data. Some recommendations are proposed as a result of this study for racing game management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Crow, James F.
Base substitution mutations are far more common in human males than in females, and the frequency increases with paternal age. Both can be accounted for by the greater number of pre-meiotic cell divisions in males, especially old ones. In contrast, small deletions do not show any important age effect and occur with approximately equal frequency in the two sexes. Mutations in most genes include both types, and the sex and paternal age effect depends on the proportion of the two types. A few traits, of which Apert Syndrome is best understood, are mutation hot spots with all the mutations occurring in one or two codons, usually at one nucleotide. They occur with very high frequency almost exclusively in males and the frequency increases rapidly with paternal age. It has been suggested that the mutant cells have a selective advantage in the male germ-line prior to meiosis. Evidence for this surprising, but important, hypothesis is discussed. A possible mechanism is the conversion of asymmetrical stem-cell divisions into symmetric ones. Some traits with complex etiology show a slight paternal age effect. There is also a short discussion of the high deleterious mutation rate and the role of sexual reproduction in reducing the consequent mutation load. (author)
Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason
Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885
Dore, David D; Zullo, Andrew R; Mor, Vincent; Lee, Yoojin; Berry, Sarah D
The Food and Drug Administration recommends a reduced dose of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics in women, yet little is known about the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of these drugs on risk of hip fracture, especially among nursing home (NH) residents. We estimated the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics on the rate of hip fracture among NH residents. Case-crossover study in US NHs. A total of 691 women and 179 men with hip fracture sampled from all US long-stay NH residents. Measures of patient characteristics were obtained from linked Medicare and the Minimum Data Set (2007-2008). The outcome was hospitalization for hip fracture with surgical repair. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from conditional logistic regression models for nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (vs nonuse) comparing 0 to 29 days before hip fracture (hazard period) with 60 to 89 and 120 to 149 days before hip fracture (control periods). We stratified analyses by age, sex, and dose. The average RR of hip fracture was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any use. The RR of hip fracture was higher for residents aged ≥90 years vs <70 years (2.2 vs 1.3); however, the CIs overlapped. No differences in the effect of the hypnotic on risk of hip fracture were evident by sex. Point estimates for hip fracture were greater with high-dose versus low-dose hypnotics (RR 1.9 vs 1.6 for any use), but these differences were highly compatible with chance. The rate of hip fracture in NH residents due to use of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics was greater among older patients than among younger patients and, possibly, with higher doses than with lower doses. When clinicians are prescribing a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic to any NH resident, doses of these drugs should be kept as low as possible, especially among those with advanced age. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart
Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.
Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan
Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (PSemen collection index and sperm viability of ganders exposed to blue light were significantly the lowest (Psemen quality than that with red or blue lights in ganders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To investigate whether hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle affect corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition (ICI or facilitation (ICF in primary motor cortex, and also whether the hormonal fluctuations have any effect on manual dexterity in neurologically intact women.Twenty volunteers (10 Female, 10 Male were included in this study. The levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured from saliva during the women's menstrual follicular, ovulation and mid-luteal phases. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Single and paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS were delivered in a block of 20 stimuli. With paired-pulse technique, 3ms and 10ms inter-stimulus intervals were used to assess ICI and ICF, respectively. The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT was completed in each session before the TMS assessments. Male participants were tested at similar time intervals as female participants.Mixed design ANOVA revealed that GPT score in female participants was significantly lower at the mid-luteal phase compared to the ovulation phase (p = 0.017. However, it was not correlated with progesterone or estrogen fluctuations during the menstrual cycle. The results also showed that the effect of phase, sex and the interaction of phase by sex for resting motor threshold, ICI or ICF were not significant (p > 0.05.Manual dexterity performance fluctuates during the menstrual cycle in neurologically intact women, which might be due to the balance of the neuromodulatory effects of P4 and E2 in the motor cortex during different phases.
Full Text Available Quantifying vigilance and exploring the underlying mechanisms has been the subject of numerous studies. Less attention has focused on the complex interplay between contributing factors such as reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size. Reproductive status and social rank are of particular interest due to their association with mating behavior. Mating activities in rutting season may interfere with typical patterns of vigilance and possibly interact with social rank. In addition, balancing the tradeoff between vigilance and life maintenance may represent a challenge for gregarious ungulate species rutting under harsh winter conditions. We studied vigilance patterns in the endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii during both the rutting and non-rutting seasons to examine these issues.Field observations were carried out with focal sampling during rutting and non-rutting season in 2008-2009. Results indicated a complex interplay between reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size in determining vigilance in this species. Vigilance decreased with group size in female but not in male gazelles. Males scanned more frequently and thus spent more time vigilant than females. Compared to non-rutting season, gazelles increased time spent scanning at the expense of bedding in rutting season. During the rutting season, territorial males spent a large proportion of time on rutting activities and were less vigilant than non-territorial males. Although territorial males may share collective risk detection with harem females, we suggest that they are probably more vulnerable to predation because they seemed reluctant to leave rut stands under threats.Vigilance behavior in Przewalski's gazelle was significantly affected by reproductive status, social rank, sex, group size and their complex interactions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying vigilance patterns and the tradeoff between vigilance and other crucial
Full Text Available Circulating lipid molecules reflect biological processes in the body and, thus, are useful tools for preclinical estimation of the efficacy and safety of newly developed drugs. However, background information on profiles of circulating lipid molecules in preclinical animal models is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple factors such as sex (fasted male vs. female, age (fasted 10 vs. 30 weeks old, and feeding conditions (feeding vs. fasting, 16 vs. 22 hr fasting, 10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection, on the global profiles of lipid molecules in plasma from Sprague-Dawley rats by using a lipidomic approach. Our assay platform determined 262 lipid molecules (68 phospholipids, 20 sphingolipids, 138 neutral lipids, and 36 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in rat plasma. Multivariate discriminant analysis (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and heat maps of statistically significant lipid molecules revealed that the plasma lipid profiles in rats are predominantly influenced by feeding conditions, followed by sex and age. In addition, the fasting duration (16 vs. 22 hr fasting or the time of blood collection (10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection has limited or no contribution on the profiles of lipid molecules in rat plasma. Our results provide useful, fundamental information for exploring and validating biomarkers in future preclinical studies and may help to establish regulatory standards for such studies.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith
We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men.
Bégarie, Jérôme; Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory
To study the effects of age, sex, weight, and their interactions on global self-esteem (GSE) and physical self-concept in teenagers with intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 353 teenagers with ID, aged 12 to 18 years, participated in this study. The Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory—for adolescents with ID (PSI-VSF-ID) was used to assess GSE and physical self-perceptions (physical value perceived [PVP], sport skills [SS], physical condition, physical appearance, and strength). Multivariate covariance analyses show: (i) lower GSE and physical self levels (except for PVP) in females, compared with males; (ii) reduced GSE, PVP, SS, and perceived physical appearance (PPA) scores during adolescence; (iii) lower GSE, PVP, and PPA scores in obese adolescents, compared with overweight or normal weight peers; and (iv) lower PPA scores in obese females, compared with other teenagers. The sex and age results are almost identical to those for the general population, according to the literature. However, they are far from the main effect in the weight category.
Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M
We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.
Rodrigues, S; Teixeira, A
The main purpose of this work was the characterization of Cabrito Transmontana goat kid carcass and meat, which is a Protected Origin Designation product. The effects of sex and carcass weight were studied. Sensory attributes of toughness, juiciness, flavor intensity, flavor quality, odor intensity, fiber presence (stringy), sweet intensity, and overall acceptability were evaluated in 60 males and females allocated to 3 carcass weight groups: 4, 6, and 8 kg. Sensory quality of meat was evaluated by a trained taste panel of 11 experts in 5 sessions. Generalized Procrustes analysis was performed, and 93% of total variability was explained by the 2 first factors (axes). Correlation between sensory traits and factors 1 and 2 allowed the factors to be renamed as toughness/aroma and juiciness/acceptability, respectively. Procrustes analysis indicated that a sex effect was detected by experts. Meat from males presented greater juiciness, flavor quality, and general acceptability than did meat from females. Cabrito Transmontano Protected Origin Designation includes animals from 4 to 9 kg of carcass weight. However, differences among them can be important, because the taste panel found differences between animals from distinct carcass weight ranges. Lighter weight carcasses were considered more tender with less flavor and odor intensity than heavier carcasses.
Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C
Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.
Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.
Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.
Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Biai, Sidu; Lisse, Ida M; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine S
Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys. Urban area in Guinea-Bissau, with a demographic surveillance system and registration of all pediatric hospitalizations. Guinea-Bissau experienced a large outbreak of measles infection in 2003-2004. We used hospital and community data to examine the impact of other vaccines on the risk of hospitalizations for measles infection. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against hospitalization for children aged 6 to 59 months of age was examined. We assessed whether VE depended on vaccination status for other vaccines and whether the pattern differed for boys and girls. Sex-specific vaccine efficacy against hospitalization for children aged 6 to 59 months of age. The VE depended on sex and the sequence of vaccinations. The VE of MV against hospitalization for measles was better for girls than for boys. Among children who had received MV as the most recent vaccine VE against hospitalization was as high as 96% for girls, but only 81% for boys (P = 0.002). Among children who had received DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV, VE declined for girls (91%) and increased for boys (90%). Compared with having received MV as most recent vaccination, DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV improved the efficacy significantly for boys and the effect was significantly different for boys and girls (P = 0.023). The female-male risk ratio of hospitalization varied significantly, depending on the most recent vaccination (P = 0.014); it was 0.28 (0.11-0.68) for MV alone, but 1.21 (0.82-1.77) for DTP but no MV, and 1.13 (0.58-2.18) for DTP simultaneously with MV or after MV. Among MV-unvaccinated children, BCG-vaccinated girls had a lower risk of measles hospitalization than DTP-vaccinated girls (RR=0.0 (0.0-0.99), exact test).
Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P
Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature. © The Author(s) 2014.
Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.
days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... and in control eels. Otherwise no correlation was found between growth rate and gonadal sex. (C) 1996 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...
Liben, Lynn S.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan; Schwab, Jacqueline; Dubas, Judith Semon; Demers, Laurence M.; Lookingbill, Georgia; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Krogh, Holleen R.; Kulin, Howard E.
Investigated the relationship between sex hormones and spatial performance among adolescents treated with sex steroids for delayed puberty. Found that spatial performance varied according to gender but did not vary with levels of actively circulating sex steroids. Reviewed physiological mechanisms, developmental periods, and past empirical work…
Armstrong, Suzy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The influence of sex-labelling on adult-infant interactions is explored in this study. It is hypothesized that, when introduced to a single infant identified as either male or female, adults will (1) offer more masculine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to be male; (2) offer more feminine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to…
Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F
Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688
Doering, Robert W.; And Others
The study of typical gender development suggests that both approach and avoidance mechanisms are involved in the eventual display of sex-typed behavior. Some experiments have attempted to demonstrate the independent contribution of these two parameters. Studies suggest that avoidance behavior for cross-sex toys is a useful index of sex-role…
Vignoli, Alessia; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Saccenti, Edoardo
In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We
Kemme, Kristina; Kaiser, Sylvia; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Wewers, Dirk; Groothuis, Ton; Sachser, Norbert
Evolutionary theory suggests that offspring sex should be adjusted to environmental conditions in order to maximize future reproductive success. In several animal taxa environmental factors indeed affect the secondary sex ratio. In humans, changes in the sex ratio at birth have been associated with
Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in girls between 9-13 years before age at menarche.This study was conducted on a sample of 58 subjects (age range: 9-13 years, who were divided intotwo groups of fasting (N=31 and non-fasting (N=27. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone and estradiol were measured in all the subjectsbefore and after Ramadan. Measurements were carried out three days before the start of Ramadan,and one day afterwards.In this study, FSH levels significantly increased in the non-fasting group (P=0.01, and the level ofDehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA had a significant decrease during the time of study in bothgroups (P=0.001, P=0.006. In addition, serum levels of LH significantly increased in the non-fastinggroup after Ramadan (P=0.006, and estradiol significantly increased in both groups (P=0.008,P=0.004.Given the similar changes in the levels of DHEA, progesterone and estradiol in both study groups, itcould be concluded that fasting has no effects on these parameters, and the changes in LH and FSHlevels could be due to other contributing factors.
Tennoune, Naouel; Legrand, Romain; Ouelaa, Wassila; Breton, Jonathan; Lucas, Nicolas; Bole-Feysot, Christine; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O
The biological background of sex-related differences in the development of eating disorders (EDs) is unknown. Recent data showed that gut bacteria Escherichia coli induce autoantibodies against anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) associated with psychopathology in ED. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of E. coli on feeding and autoantibodies against α-MSH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), between female and male rats. Commensal E. coli K12 were given in a culture medium daily to adult Wistar rats by intragastric gavage over a 3-wk period; control rats received culture medium only. Before gavage, E. coli K12 DNA was detected in feces of female but not male rats. E. coli provision was accompanied by an increase in body weight gain in females, but a decrease in body weight gain and food intake in males. Independent of E. coli treatment, plasma levels of anti-α-MSH and ACTH immunoglobulin (Ig)G were higher in female than male rats. Females responded to E. coli by increasing α-MSH IgG levels and affinity, but males by increasing α-MSH IgM levels. Affinity of IgG for ACTH was increased in both E. coli-treated females and males, although with different kinetics. IgG from females stimulated more efficiently α-MSH-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate production by melanocortin 4 receptor-expressing cells compared with IgG from males. Sex-related response to how E. coli affects feeding and anti-melanocortin hormone antibody production may depend on the presence of these bacteria in the gut before E. coli supplementation. These data suggest that sex-related presence of certain gut bacteria may represent a risk factor for ED development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun
To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9.45, or 18.9 g/kg ZGP by gastric perfusion, respectively. The alprazolam group was treated by gastric perfusion with 0.036 mg/kg alprazolam. The control and model groups were treated with distilled water. The animals were pretreated once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The behaviors of rats in the open fifield test and the elevated T-maze (ETM) were observed after induced panic attack, and the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and the plasma levels of sex hormones were measured. Compared with the control group, the mean ETM escape time and the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenalin (NE) of the model group were signifificantly reduced (P<0.05), Compared with the model group, the mean ETM escape time and the 5-HT and NE levels of all the ZGP groups increased signifificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, no signifificant difference was observed in the levels of sex hormones between the groups. Pretreatment with ZGP in climacteric rats may improve the behavior of panic attack, which may be related to increased 5-HT and NE in the brain.
Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M
Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention
Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services
Cushla R. McCarthny
Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/− on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/− mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17β-estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment. Dorsal (DHP and ventral hippocampus (VHP were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Significant genotype × OVX interactions were found for GluN1 and GluN2 expression within the DHP of female mice, suggesting modulation of select NMDA-R levels by female sex hormones is mediated by BDNF. Furthermore, within the DHP BDNF+/− mice show a hypersensitive response to hormone treatment on GluN2 expression which may result from upstream alterations in TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast to the DHP, the VHP showed no effects of hormone manipulation but significant effects of genotype on NMDA-R expression. Castration had no effect on NMDA-R expression; however, androgen treatment had selective effects on GluN2B. These data show case distinct, interactive roles for sex steroid hormones and BDNF in the regulation of NMDA-R expression that are dependent on dorsal versus ventral hippocampal region.
Allen, Patricia J.; D'Anci, Kristen E.; Kanarek, Robin B.; Renshaw, Perry F.
The potential role of metabolic impairments in the pathophysiology of depression is motivating researchers to evaluate the treatment efficacy of creatine, a naturally occurring energetic and neuroprotective compound found in brain and muscle tissues. Growing evidence is demonstrating the benefit of oral creatine supplements for reducing depressive symptoms in humans and animals. A novel question is whether dietary creatine, when combined with antidepressant drug therapy, would be more effective than either compound alone. To answer this question, four studies were conducted to investigate the behavioral effects of combined creatine and low-dose fluoxetine treatment using the forced swim test in male and female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed powdered rodent chow supplemented with 0%, 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for 5 weeks. Rats were injected with fluoxetine (5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) or saline according to a sub-acute dosing schedule. Female rats maintained on a 4% creatine diet displayed antidepressant-like effects compared to non-supplemented females prior to fluoxetine treatment. In contrast, creatine did not alter behavior reliably in males. Following drug treatment and a second forced swim trial, the antidepressant-like profile of creatine remained significant only in females co-administered 5.0 mg/kg fluoxetine. Moreover, in females only, supplementation with 4% creatine produced a more robust antidepressant-like behavioral profile compared to either dose of fluoxetine alone. Estrous cycle data indicated that ovarian hormones influenced the antidepressant-like effects of creatine. Addressing the issue of sex differences in response to treatment may affect our understanding of creatine, its relationship with depressive behavior, and may lead to sex-specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22429992
Wainstock, Tamar; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Glasser, Saralee; Anteby, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat
Prenatal maternal stress is associated with pregnancy complications, poor fetal development and poor birth outcomes. Fetal sex has also been shown to affect the course of pregnancy and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fetal sex modifies the association between continuous exposure to life-threatening rocket attack alarms and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which the exposed group was comprised of 1846 women exposed to rocket-attack alarms before and during pregnancy. The unexposed group, with similar sociodemographic characteristics, delivered during the same period of time at the same medical center, but resided out of rocket-attack range. Multivariable models for each gender separately, controlling for possible confounders, evaluated the risk associated with exposure for preterm births (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age and small head circumference (HC). In both univariable and multivariable analyses exposure status was a significant risk factor in female fetuses only: PTB (adj. OR = 1.43; 1.04-1.96), LBW (adj. OR = 1.41; 1.02-1.95) and HC stress.
Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Lab. of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)
Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)
Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Okamoto, Taro; Matsuda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tadateru; Ogundigie, P.S.; Ito, Akihiro
The influence of sex hormones on induction of intestinal metaplasia was examined in 5 week old Crj:CD (SD) rats of both sexes. At the age of 4 weeks, the animals were gonadectomized and given testosterone or dimethyl estradiol (DES). One week after operation, they were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3 day interval for a total of 20 Gy. At the termination of the experiment, 6 months after the X-irradiation, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) positive foci in males was significantly higher than in females, in orchidectomized males or orchidectomized plus DES treated rats (P<0.01). On the other hand, the incidence of intestinal metaplasia with ALP-positive foci in normal females appeared lower than in ovariectomized females (P<0.01), and was increased in rats by treatment with testosterone or decreased by DES. Numbers of foci of intestinal metaplasias with Paneth cells and total numbers appeared to increase in males treated with DES. The results suggested a promising role for testosterone in the development of ALP positive lesions and indicated considerable heterogeneity between intestinal metaplasia subtypes. (author)
Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.
Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)
Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J
It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lindén, Magdalena; Ramírez Sepúlveda, Jorge I; James, Tojo; Thorlacius, Gudny Ella; Brauner, Susanna; Gómez-Cabrero, David; Olsson, Tomas; Kockum, Ingrid; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibodies, dysregulated B cells, and notably high female-to-male incidence ratios. Genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility SNPs for both diseases. Many SNPs in the genome are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), with context-dependent effects. Assuming that sex is a biological context, we investigated whether SLE/pSS SNPs act as eQTLs in B cells and used a disease-targeted approach to understand if they display sex-specific effects. We used genome-wide genotype and gene expression data from primary B cells from 125 males and 162 females. The MatrixEQTL R package was used to identify eQTLs within a genomic window of 2 Mb centered on each of 22 established SLE and/or pSS susceptibility SNPs. To find sex-specific eQTLs, we used a linear model with a SNP * sex interaction term. We found ten SNPs affecting the expression of 16 different genes (FDR rs7574865-INPP1, rs7574865-MYO1B, rs4938573-CD3D, rs11755393-SNRPC, and rs4963128-PHRF1 were novel observations for the immune compartment and B cells. By analyzing the SNP * sex interaction terms, we identified six genes with differentially regulated expression in females compared to males, depending on the genotype of SLE/pSS-associated SNPs: SLC39A8 (BANK1 locus), CD74 (TNIP1 locus), PXK, CTSB (BLK/FAM167A locus), ARCN1 (CXCR5 locus), and DHX9 (NCF2 locus). We identified several unknown sex-specific eQTL effects of SLE/pSS-associated genetic polymorphisms and provide novel insight into how gene-sex interactions may contribute to the sex bias in systemic autoimmune diseases.
Patel, Mehul D; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S; Patel, Ajay G; Joshi, Axay B
To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases.
Bisenius, Erin S; Veeramachaneni, D N Rao; Sammonds, Ginger E; Tobet, Stuart
The preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (POA/AH) is one of the most sexually dimorphic areas of the vertebrate brain and plays a pivotal role in regulating male sexual behavior. Vinclozolin is a fungicide thought to be an environmental antiandrogen, which disrupts masculine sexual behavior when administered to rabbits during development. In this study, we examined several characteristics of the rabbit POA/AH for sexual dimorphism and endocrine disruption by vinclozolin. Pregnant rabbits were dosed orally with vinclozolin (10 mg/kg body weight) or carrot paste vehicle once daily for 6 wk beginning at midgestation and continuing through nursing until Postpartum Week 4. At 6 wk, offspring were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and brains processed for immunocytochemical localization of tyrosine hydroxylase, calbindin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), or Nissl stain. There were significant sex differences in the distribution of calbindin in the POA/AH and the size of cells in the dorsal POA/AH (values greater in females than in males), but not in the number or distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase or GnRH neurons. In both sexes, exposure to vinclozolin significantly increased calbindin expression in the ventral POA/AH and significantly decreased number of GnRH neurons selectively in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) but not more caudally in the POA/AH. This is the first documentation of a sexually dimorphic region in the rabbit brain, and further supports the use of this species as a model for studying the influence of vinclozolin on reproductive development with potential application to human systems.
Full Text Available Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny. In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean than that of 30°C (10 males, while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny. Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock reared at 30°C is higher than that of 27°C. Incubation time of embryo before birth is sorter in broodstock reared at 30°C (4-12 days compared with 27°C (18-22 days. However, several progeny of broodstock reared at 30°C had abnormal vertebrae. Keywords: guppy, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduction, monosex ABSTRAK Suhu air inkubasi diduga dapat mempengaruhi reproduksi induk ikan dan nisbah kelamin keturunannya. Pada penelitian ini, induk ikan gapi (Poecilia reticulata Peters dipelihara pada suhu 27°C, 30°C dan suhu 33°C untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap reproduksi dan rasio kelamin keturunannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk ikan gapi yang dipelihara pada suhu 27°C menghasilkan anak lebih banyak (rata-rata 16 ekor daripada di suhu 30°C (10 ekor, sementara induk gagal melahirkan pada suhu pemeliharaan 33°C. Proporsi anak jantan yang dihasilkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih banyak dibandingkan pada suhu 27°C. Waktu inkubasi embrio sebelum dilahirkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih singkat, yaitu 4-12 hari, dibandingkan pada suhu 27°C, 18-22 hari. Namun demikian beberapa anak ikan yang lahir dari induk yang dipelihara pada suhu suhu 30°C mengalami abnormalitas pada bagian tulang belakangnya. Kata kunci: ikan gapi, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduksi, monoseks
Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William
Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.
Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.
Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Meteau, K; Bordeau, T; Juin, H; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Lessire, M; Berri, C
1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sex and genotype on carcase composition and nutritional and sensory characteristics of chicken meat. The "Geline de Touraine" (GT) characterised by high carcase fatness was compared with an experimental crossbreed (EC) and "Label rouge" (LR) genotype. 2. Females compared with males, and GT chickens compared with LR and EC chickens were characterised by increased carcase fatness and an increased lipid level in thigh meat. 3. In both breast and thigh meat, the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids was increased and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was decreased. However, these effects did not affect sensory characteristics of meat particularly those of roasted breast fillets containing very low lipid level by comparison with thigh meat. 4. Finally, in our study, high carcase fatness was related to high intermuscular fatness affecting the nutritional characteristics of meat but not its sensory attributes.
Shepard, Donald S; Lwin, Aung K; Barnett, Nancy P; Mastroleo, Nadine; Colby, Suzanne M; Gwaltney, Chad; Monti, Peter M
To estimate the incremental cost, cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratio of incorporating a significant other (SO) into motivational intervention for alcohol misuse. We obtained economic data from the one year with the intervention in full operation for patients in a recent randomized trial. The underlying trial took place at a major urban hospital in the United States. The trial randomized 406 (68.7% male) eligible hazardous drinkers (196 during the economic study) admitted to the emergency department or trauma unit. The motivational interview condition consisted of one in-person session featuring personalized normative feedback. The significant other motivational interview condition comprised one joint session with the participant and SO in which the SO's perspective and support were elicited. We ascertained activities across 445 representative time segments through work sampling (including staff idle time), calculated the incremental cost in per patient of incorporating an SO, expressed the results in 2014 US$, incorporated quality and mortality effects from a closely related trial and derived the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. From a health system perspective, the incremental cost per patient of adding an SO was $341.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) = $244.44-437.74]. The incremental cost per year per hazardous drinker averted was $3623 (CI = $1777-22,709), the cost per QALY gained $32,200 (CI = $15,800-201,700), and the benefit-cost ratio was 4.73 (95% CI = 0.7-9.66). If adding an SO into the intervention strategy were concentrated during the hours with highest risk or in a trauma unit, it would become even more cost-beneficial. Using criteria established by the World Health Organization (cost-effectiveness below the country's gross domestic product per capita), incorporating a significant other into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse is highly cost-effective. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Kouchi, Hayet; Uppari, NagaPraveena; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida
Caffeine is widely used for the treatment of apnea of prematurity (AoP) but whether this effect varies with sex is unknown. To shed some light on this question, we present a summary of data obtained on the effects of caffeine on the respiratory chemoreflexes and apnea frequency in 1- and 12-days old male and female rats. Caffeine was either administered as a single acute injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) or for 10 consecutive days (7.5mg/kg/day between 3 and 12days of life by gavage, simulating its clinical use). Acute caffeine had little effects on breathing in 1-day old male and female rats. In 12-days old female rats caffeine reduced the response to hypercapnia (not hypoxia) compared to males. During the steady state of hypoxia females had a lower frequency of apneas than males, and acute injection of caffeine decreased the frequency of apnea, suppressing the differences between males and females. In 12-days old rats chronic administration of caffeine stimulated basal breathing and decreased the frequency of apnea similarly in males and females. In response to hypoxia, chronic caffeine administration also masked the difference in respiratory frequency between males and females observed in control rats. Female rats had lower frequency of apnea than males with or without caffeine treatment. These observations indicate that sex influences the respiratory responses to caffeine and this effect seems to depend on the modality of administration (acute vs chronic) and environmental oxygen (normoxia vs hypoxia). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C
Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Md. Reazul Islam
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17
Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Jayaram-Lindstrom, Nitya; Hermes, Gretchen; Sinha, Rajita
Chronic drug abuse leads to sex-specific changes in drug cue and stress physiologic and neuroendocrine reactivity as well as in neural responses to stress and cue-related challenges and in executive function such as inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and self control. Importantly, these functions have been associated with high risk of relapse and treatment. Alpha-2 agonism may enhance inhibitory cognitive processes in the face of stress with sex-specific effects, however this has not been previously assessed in cocaine dependence. Forty inpatient treatment-seeking cocaine dependent individuals (13F/27M) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or up to 3mgs of Guanfacine. Three laboratory sessions were conducted following 3-4 weeks of abstinence, where patients were exposed to three 10-min personalized guided imagery conditions (stress, drug cue, combined stress/cue), one per day, on consecutive days in a random, counterbalanced order. The Stroop task was administered at baseline and immediately following imagery exposure. Guanfacine treated women improved their performance on the Stroop task following exposure to all 3 imagery conditions compared with placebo women (p=0.02). This improvement in cognitive inhibitory performance was not observed in the men. Enhancing the ability to cognitively regulate in the face of stress, drug cues and combined stress and drug cue reactivity may be key targets for medications development in cocaine dependent women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.
Billy, A J; Crews, D
Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards.
Full Text Available Seventy-eight kids of both sexes and five genotypes were used: Alpine, ½ Boer + ½ Alpine (½ BA, ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpine, ½ Anglo-nubian + ½ Alpine and "tricross" (½ Anglo-nubian + ¼ Boer + ¼ Alpine with initial average weight of 14.1 ± 2.5. The objective was to evaluate the effect of genotype, finishing system, and sex on the physiochemical characteristics of goat meat. Finishing systems were: ST1 - kid + dam in pasture and ST2 - weaned kid and feedlot. Kids in ST1 were kept in an area with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and after grazing, water and mineral salt/mix were fed ad libitum to the animals. The animals in ST2 were confined in collective pens distributed according to genotypes and received diet with 16% CP and 73% TDN. The values of pH, a* (red content, Cooking Loss (CL, and Ether Extract (EE percentage were influenced by genotype. Values for red content (a* and L* (brightness, CL and percentages of moisture, protein, EE, and ash were influenced by the finishing system. Longissimus dorsi muscle from animals ½ BA exhibited better physiochemical characteristics. For greater tenderness and higher percentages of fat, consumers should choose female kid goat meat.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.
McQuillan, H James; Lokman, P Mark; Young, Graham
Sex steroids appear to be responsible for hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis that occurs in mature semelparous Pacific salmon as a prelude to post-spawning (programmed) death. This study was undertaken to examine the direct effects of sex steroids on interrenal activity of semelparous (chinook salmon) and iteroparous (rainbow trout) salmonids using an in vitro incubation system. In addition, phenotypic sex differences in cortisol production by interrenals of sexually mature (spawning) rainbow trout and chinook salmon were investigated. Interrenal tissue from juvenile and sexually mature chinook salmon and rainbow trout was incubated for 48 h in culture medium containing either no steroid (controls), 1 microM estradiol (E2) or 1 microM 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This tissue was then challenged for 3h with either pregnenolone, dibutyryladenosine 3('):5(')-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) or forskolin, or synthetic human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH(1-24)). Sex differences in in vitro interrenal cortisol production were assessed using separate tissue pools challenged with the same agents. Cortisol in media was measured by radioimmunoassay. E2 suppressed the ability of juvenile chinook salmon interrenals to utilize pregnenolone as substrate for cortisol synthesis. In mature female chinook salmon the suppressive effect of E2 was less pronounced, but was observed as a reduced response of interrenals to both pregnenolone and dbcAMP. E2 did not affect ACTH(1-24) stimulated cortisol production. Immature and mature rainbow trout interrenals were both relatively insensitive to E2. 11-KT did not affect cortisol production by juvenile chinook salmon and juvenile or mature rainbow trout, and had only minor effects in male and female spawning chinook salmon. In mature chinook salmon and rainbow trout, the interrenals of females were more responsive to ACTH stimulation and showed a greater utilization of pregnenolone as a substrate than
Yang, Yan; Lu, Xiao Song; Li, Ding Long; Yu, Yun Jiang
To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45 μg/L, respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Kanit, L; Koylu, E O; Erdogan, O; Pogun, S
The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in learning strategies and to elucidate the mechanisms, which may underlie these differences. In two separate experiments, rats were presented with different strategies that could be employed to learn the position of a platform in a water maze (WM); furthermore, rats received treatments that could influence these strategies. In the first experiment, we demonstrated that the response-learning paradigm can be applied to the WM and can be compared with visually cued learning and reversal learning. Naïve rats of either sex could acquire this protocol relatively easily. On the probe trial, where the rats are presented with a choice between using response versus visually cued learning, initially response learning was preferred, however, during these experiments, laterality emerged as a significant factor and rats trained to turn right had difficulty in reversing the learned pattern to find the platform. The second part of our study evaluated the effects of nicotine and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the aforementioned parameters. Drug treatments impaired acquisition compared to saline treatments and the effect was more pronounced with NOS inhibition. During the probe trial, while NOS inhibition enhanced the right-side bias in both sexes, nicotine treatment had the same effect only in males. In conclusion, naïve rats can acquire place learning using visible cues or response learning; however, there is a right side bias in both sexes and the laterality effect is more pronounced in male rats. In drug-treated animals, while NOS inhibition enhances laterality (right bias) in both sexes similarly, nicotine modifies the cognitive strategy in a sexually dimorphic manner by augmenting the right bias only in male rats.
Hill, Michael D; Kent, David M; Hinchey, Judith; Rowley, Howard; Buchan, Alastair M; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Higashida, Randall T; Fischbein, Nancy J; Dillon, William P; Gent, Michael; Firszt, Carolyn M; Schulz, Gregory A; Furlan, Anthony J
Sex influences outcome after intravenous thrombolysis. In a combined analysis of the tissue plasminogen activator clinical trials, a sex-by-treatment interaction was observed. We sought to confirm that observation in an independent data set. Data were from the Pro-Urokinase for Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism-2 (PROACT-2) trial. Baseline factors were compared by sex. The primary outcome was an assessment of a sex-by-treatment interaction term within a logistic regression model, using a modified Rankin Scale score
Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu
To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; O'Connor, Shannon; Fowler, Natasha; Burt, S Alexandra
Recent data show significant phenotypic and genetic associations between ovarian hormones and binge eating in adulthood. Theories of hormonal risk focus on puberty and the possibility that hormone activation induces changes in genetic effects that then lead to differential risk for binge eating in postpuberty and adulthood. Although this theory is difficult to test in humans, an indirect test is to examine whether genetic influences on binge eating increase during the pubertal period in girls. Prior work has shown pubertal increases in genetic influences on overall disordered eating symptoms, but no study to date has examined binge eating. The present study was the first to examine these increases for binge eating. Participants included 1,568 female twins (aged 8-25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Binge eating and pubertal development were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models showed significant linear increases in genetic effects from prepuberty (5%) to postpuberty (42%), even after controlling for the effects of age and body mass index. Results provide critical support for increased genetic influences on binge eating during puberty. Additional studies are needed to identify hormonal mechanisms and fully test contemporary models of ovarian hormone risk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Imbir, Kamil K
Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.
Kamil Konrad Imbir
Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.
Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Rosser, B R Simon
a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). Main Outcome Measure. A revised version of the PCES by Hald and Malamuth. Methods. Online cross-sectional survey study of 1,333 US adult Men Who Have Sex with Men. Results. This study...... health potential for MSM. Hald GM, Smolenski D, and Rosser BRS. Perceived effects of sexually explicit media among men who have sex with men and psychometric properties of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES). J Sex Med 2013;10:757-767....
Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M
Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams Jim E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.
V. A. Sednin
Full Text Available Technologies of direct conversion of the fuel energy into electrical power are an upcoming trend in power economy. Over the last decades a number of countries have created industrial prototypes of power plants on fuel elements (cells, while fuel cells themselves became a commercial product on the world energy market. High electrical efficiency of the fuel cells allows predictting their further spread as part of hybrid installations jointly with gas and steam turbines which specifically enables achieving the electrical efficiency greater than 70 %. Nevertheless, investigations in the area of increasing efficiency and reliability of the fuel cells continue. Inter alia, research into the effects of oxidizing reaction thermodynamic parameters, fuel composition and oxidation reaction products on effectiveness of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC is of specific scientific interest. The article presents a concise analysis of the fuel type effects on the SOFC efficiency. Based on the open publications experimental data and the data of numerical model studies, the authors adduce results of the statistical analysis of the SOFC thermodynamic parameters effect on the effectiveness of its functioning as well as of the reciprocative factors of these parameters and gas composition at the inlet and at the outlet of the cell. The presented diagrams reflect dimension of the indicated parameters on the SOFC operation effectiveness. The significance levels of the above listed factors are ascertained. Statistical analysis of the effects of the SOFC functionning process thermodynamical, consumption and concentration parameters demonstrates quintessential influence of the reciprocative factors (temperature – flow-rate and pressure – flow-rate and the nitrogen N2 and oxygen O2 concentrations on the operation efficiency in the researched range of its functioning. These are the parameters to be considered on a first-priority basis while developing mathematical models
Mulmi, Prajula; Block, Steven A; Shively, Gerald E; Masters, William A
Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life. We find significant differences by sex: males are most affected by conditions in their second trimester of gestation, and females in the first three months after birth. Each 100-point difference in NDVI at those times is associated with a difference in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) measured at age 12-59 months of 0.088 for boys and 0.054 for girls, an effect size similar to that of moving within the distribution of household wealth by close to one quintile for boys and one decile for girls. The entire seasonal change in NDVI from peak to trough is approximately 200-300 points during the 2000-2011 study period, implying a seasonal effect on HAZ similar to one to three quintiles of household wealth. This effect is observed only in households without toilets; in households with toilets, there is no seasonal fluctuation, implying protection against climatic conditions that facilitate disease transmission. We also use data from the Nepal Living Standards Surveys on district-level agricultural production and marketing, and find a climate effect on child growth only in districts where households' food consumption derives primarily from their own production. Robustness tests find no evidence of selection effects, and placebo regression results reveal no significant artefactual correlations. The timing and sex-specificity of climatic effects are consistent with previous studies, while the protective effects of household sanitation and food markets are
Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn
of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...
Sueki, Kenta; Niino, Hiroshi
The characteristics of typhoons that spawned tornadoes (tornadic typhoons: TTs) in Japan from 1991 to 2013 were investigated by composite analysis using the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis and compared with those of typhoons that did not spawn tornadoes (nontornadic typhoons: NTs). We found that convective available potential energy (CAPE), which considers the effects of entrainment (entraining CAPE: E-CAPE), and storm-relative environmental helicity (SREH) are significantly large in the northeast quadrant of TTs where tornadoes frequently occur and that E-CAPE and SREH in that quadrant for TTs are larger than those for NTs. On the other hand, ordinary CAPE without entrainment does not account for the spatial distribution of tornado occurrences nor does it distinguish TTs from NTs. E-CAPE is sensitive to humidity in the midtroposphere; thus, it is effective for detecting a conditionally unstable layer up to about 550 hPa, which is distinctive of TTs.
Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...
Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda
improvement. Most importantly, researchers should abandon the misleading practice of interpreting the results from inferential tests based solely on whether they are statistically significant (or not) and, instead, focus on reporting and interpreting effect sizes, confidence intervals, and significance levels. Nursing researchers also need to conduct and report a priori power analyses, and to address the issue of Type I experiment-wise error inflation in their studies. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in
van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Klugkist, I.G.
The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one’s sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the
Nalkur, Priya G; Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel
Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. The Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA's) rating system's effectiveness in reducing youth exposure to harmful content has been questioned. To determine the MPAA's rating system's effectiveness in screening explicit violence and sex since the system's initiation (1968) and the introduction of the PG-13 category (1984). Also, to examine evidence of less restrictive ratings over time ("ratings creep"). Top-grossing movies from 1950 to 2006 (N = 855) were coded for explicitness of violent and sexual content. Trends in rating assignments and in the content of different rating categories since 1968 were assessed. The explicitness of violent and sexual content significantly increased following the rating system's initiation. The system did not differentiate violent content as well as sexual content, and ratings creep was only evident for violent films. Explicit violence in R-rated films increased, while films that would previously have been rated R were increasingly assigned to PG-13. This pattern was not evident for sex; only R-rated films exhibited higher levels of explicit sex compared to preratings period. While relatively effective for screening explicit sex, the rating system has allowed increasingly violent content into PG-13 films, thereby increasing youth access to more harmful content. Assignment of films in the current rating system should be more sensitive to the link between violent media exposure and youth violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crocker, Melissa K; Kaplowitz, Paul
Thyroid hormones are involved in metabolic regulation, but the degree to which they affect body weight and body mass index (BMI) in children is unclear. We examined the effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on weight and BMI at the time of diagnosis and after appropriate treatment. Prospective and retrospective case series. Children referred for thyroid dysfunction were enrolled prospectively if their total or free T4 was elevated with TSH 20 (N = 29). Almost all patients had at least 2 classic signs or symptoms including goitre, but hyperthyroid patients had more symptoms. Mean BMI z scores at the time of diagnosis did not significantly differ between the two groups. Males with hyperthyroidism complained of weight loss more frequently and had a lower pretreatment BMI z score than hyperthyroid females. Hypothyroid patients lost a minimal amount of weight by the first follow-up (mean of 0·3 kg) and on average gained weight by the second follow-up visit. In contrast hyperthyroid patients gained a mean of 3·4 kg at the first follow-up visit and a mean of 7·1 kg by the second. Correction of hypothyroidism resulted in minimal weight loss, suggesting that hypothyroidism does not cause significant weight gain in children. In contrast, correction of the hyperthyroid state had a somewhat greater impact on weight status. These results are consistent with prior reports but surprising given the opposite metabolic effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Crocker, Melissa K.; Kaplowitz, Paul
Objective Thyroid hormones are involved in metabolic regulation, but the degree to which they affect body weight and body mass index (BMI) in children is unclear. We examined the effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on weight and BMI at the time of diagnosis and after appropriate treatment. Design Prospective and retrospective case series Patients Children referred for thyroid dysfunction were enrolled prospectively if their total or free T4 was elevated with TSH 20 (N=29). Results Almost all patients had at least 2 classic signs or symptoms including goiter, but hyperthyroid patients had more symptoms. Mean BMI z scores at the time of diagnosis did not significantly differ between the two groups. Males with hyperthyroidism complained of weight loss more frequently and had a lower pretreatment BMI z score than hyperthyroid females. Hypothyroid patients lost a minimal amount of weight by the first follow-up (mean of 0.3 kilograms (kg)) and on average gained weight by the second follow-up visit. In contrast hyperthyroid patients gained a mean of 3.4 kg at the first follow-up visit and a mean of 7.1 kg by the second. Conclusions Correction of hypothyroidism resulted in minimal weight loss, suggesting that hypothyroidism does not cause significant weight gain in children. In contrast, correction of the hyperthyroid state had a somewhat greater impact on weight status. These results are consistent with prior reports but surprising given the opposite metabolic effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. PMID:20874768
Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F
We examined the effects of cue types on human spatial memory in 3D virtual environments adapted from classical animal and human tasks. Two classes of cues of different functions were investigated: those that provide directional information, and those that provide positional information. Adding a directional cue (geographical slant) to the spatial delayed-match-to-sample task improved performance in males but not in females. When the slant directional cue was removed in a hidden-target location task, male performance was impaired but female performance was unaffected. The removal of positional cues, on the other hand, impaired female performance but not male performance. These results are consistent with results from laboratory rodents and thus support the hypothesis that sex differences in spatial memory arise from the dissociation between a preferential reliance on directional cues in males and on positional cues in females. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schlosser, H. J.; Anger, K.
Filtration rate (F) and ingestion rate (I) were measured in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis feeding on the flagellate Dunaliella spec. and on yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 60-min experiments in rotating bottles served as a standard for testing methodological effects on levels of F and I. A lack of rotation reduced F values by 40 %, and a rise in temperature from 18° to 23.5 °C increased them by 42 %. Ingestion rates increased significantly up to a particle (yeast) concentration of ca. 600-800 cells · μl-1; then they remained constant, whereas filtration rates decreased beyond this threshold. Rotifer density (up to 1000 ind · ml-1) and previous starvation (up to 40 h) did not significantly influence food uptake rates. The duration of the experiment proved to have the most significant effect on F and I values: in 240-min experiments, these values were on the average more than 90 % lower than in 15-min experiments. From this finding it is concluded that ingestion rates obtained from short-term experiments (60 min or less) cannot be used in energy budgets, because they severely overestimate the actual long-term feeding capacity of the rotifers. At the lower end of the particle size spectrum (2 to 3 µm) there are not only food cells, but apparently also contaminating faecal particles. Their number increased with increasing duration of experiments and lead to an underestimation of F and I. Elemental analyses of rotifers and their food suggest that B. plicatilis can ingest up to 0.6 mJ or ca. 14 % of its own body carbon within 15 min. The long term average was estimated as 3.4 mJ · ind-1 · d-1 or ca. 75 % of body carbon · d-1.
Caroline L Smith
Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a naturally occurring inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis that accumulates in a wide range of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Clinical studies implicate plasma ADMA as a major novel cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which low concentrations of ADMA produce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system are unclear.We treated human coronary artery endothelial cells with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA and assessed the effects on gene expression using U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix. Changes in several genes, including bone morphogenetic protein 2 inducible kinase (BMP2K, SMA-related protein 5 (Smad5, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3; also known as HRMT1L3, were confirmed by Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and in some instances Western blotting analysis to detect changes in protein expression. To determine whether these changes also occurred in vivo, tissue from gene deletion mice with raised ADMA levels was examined. More than 50 genes were significantly altered in endothelial cells after treatment with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA (2 microM. We detected specific patterns of changes that identify pathways involved in processes relevant to cardiovascular risk and pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BMP2K and PRMT3 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels, in vitro and in vivo.Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA are sufficient to elicit significant changes in coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression. Changes in bone morphogenetic protein signalling, and in enzymes involved in arginine methylation, may be particularly relevant to understanding the pathophysiological significance of raised ADMA levels. This study identifies the mechanisms by which increased ADMA may contribute to common cardiovascular diseases and thereby indicates possible targets for therapies.
This article is a review of academic research on the content and effects of sexual information in advertising (i.e., sex in advertising). In addition to covering common types of sexual content analyzed in research, inquiry on processing and emotional response effects is reviewed. Several areas for continued research are identified, especially with regard to advertisers' use of sexual outcomes as reasons for using brands and the ability of sexual information to influence brand perceptions. This review has applicability to advertising and marketing research and practice, as well as to any area that employs sexual information for persuasive purposes (e.g., safer-sex social marketing campaigns). In addition, it is hoped that sex researchers will recognize and elaborate on the role of sexual response identified in this research to further inform advertising theory and effects research.
Cihoric, Nikola; Crowe, Susanne; Eychmüller, Steffen; Aebersold, Daniel M; Ghadjar, Pirus
This study was performed to evaluate the outcome after hemostatic radiotherapy (RT) of significant bleeding in incurable cancer patients. Patients treated by hemostatic RT between November 2006 and February 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Bleeding was assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scale (grade 0 = no bleeding, 1 = petechial bleeding, 2 = clinically significant bleeding, 3 = bleeding requiring transfusion, 4 = bleeding associated with fatality). The primary endpoint was bleeding at the end of RT. Key secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and acute toxicity. The bleeding score before and after RT were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Time to event endpoints were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. Overall 62 patients were analyzed including 1 patient whose benign cause of bleeding was pseudomyxoma peritonei. Median age was 66 (range, 37–93) years. Before RT, bleeding was graded as 2 and 3 in 24 (39%) and 38 (61%) patients, respectively. A median dose of 20 (range, 5–45) Gy of hemostatic RT was applied to the bleeding site. At the end of RT, there was a statistically significant difference in bleeding (p < 0.001); it was graded as 0 (n = 39), 1 (n = 12), 2 (n = 6), 3 (n = 4) and 4 (n = 1). With a median follow-up of 19.3 (range, 0.3-19.3) months, the 6-month OS rate was 43%. Forty patients died (65%); 5 due to bleeding. No grade 3 or above acute toxicity was observed. Hemostatic RT seems to be a safe and effective treatment for clinically and statistically significantly reducing bleeding in incurable cancer patients
Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C
The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric
Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.
Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G
Placentae from control and diabetic subjects were analysed using stereological techniques in order to assess the effects of mode of delivery (vaginal versus caesarean) and sex of neonate on parenchymal morphology. Effects were assessed using indices of peripheral villous and fetal capillary growt...
Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong
The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W. Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)
Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W; Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)
María del Carmen Giménez-Espert
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze differences in the variables for the object of this study (attitude toward communication, emotional intelligence, and empathy according to sex; verify correlations among variables between men and women and analyze regression models according to sex. Method: the ATC was used to measure attitudes toward communication; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to measure empathy; and the Trait Meta Mood Scale 24 was used to measure emotional intelligence. The sample was composed of 450 nurses working in 7 hospitals located in Valencia, Spain. The t-test for independent samples was used to verify whether there were statistically significant differences, together with a prior application of the Levene test to assess the equality of variances. The correlations were analyzed using Person’s coefficient. Finally, the Beta coefficients of variables predicting ATC’s dimensions were verified using hierarchical multiple linear regression according to sex. Results: There are statistically significant differences based on sex for the variables, correlations and power of prediction. Conclusions: This study presents evidence on how the levels of variables (attitudes toward communication, EI, and empathy vary among nurses according to sex, as well as the relationships established among such variables.
Campanile, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Domenico; Neglia, Gianluca; Bella, Antonino; Prandi, Alberto; Senatore, Elena M; Gasparrini, Bianca; Presicce, Giorgio A
The use of sexed semen technology in buffaloes is nowadays becoming more and more accepted by farmers, to overcome the burden of unwanted male calves with related costs and to more efficiently improve production and genetic gain. The aim of this study was to verify the coupling of some variables on the efficiency of pregnancy outcome after deposition of sexed semen through AI. Pluriparous buffaloes from two different farms (N = 152) were screened, selected, and subjected to Ovsynch protocol for AI using nonsexed and sexed semen from four tested bulls. AI was performed in two distinct periods of the year: September to October and January to February. Neither farms nor bulls had a significant effect on pregnancy rates pooled from the two periods. The process for sexing sperm cells did not affect pregnancy rates at 28 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 44/73 (60.2%) and 50/79 (63.2%), P = 0.70, and at 45 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 33/73 (45.2%) and 33/79 (49.3%), P = 0.60. Pregnancy rate at 28 days after AI during the transitional period of January to February was higher when compared with September to October, respectively 47/67 (70.1%) versus 47/85 (55.2%), P = 0.06. When the same pregnant animals were checked at Day 45 after AI, the difference disappeared between the two periods, because of a higher embryonic mortality, respectively 32/67 (47.7%) versus 40/85 (47.0%), P = 0.93. Hematic progesterone concentration at Day 10 after AI did not distinguish animals pregnant at Day 28 that would or would not maintain pregnancy until Day 45 (P = 0.21). On the contrary, when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI, the difference in progesterone concentration between pregnant animals that would maintain their pregnancy until Day 45 was significant for both pooled (P = 0.00) and nonsexed (P = 0.00) and sexed semen (P = 0.09). A similar trend was reported when blood samples were taken at Day 25, being highly significant
Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Pelosi, Annalisa; Passalacqua, Chiara; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola
A considerable number of studies have reported differences among dog breeds with respect to their genetic profile, cognitive abilities or personality traits. Each dog breed is normally treated as a homogeneous group, however, researchers have recently questioned whether the behavioural profile of modern breeds still reflects their historical function or if the intense divergent selective pressures and geographical barriers have created a more fragmented picture. The majority of studies attempting to assess and compare modern breeds' personality focused on the evaluation of adult dogs where the potential effects of environmental/human factors on the dogs' behaviour are hard to discern from their genetic heritage. In the following study, we aimed at investigating between- and within-breed differences in the personality of two-months-old puppies by direct behavioural observation of 377 puppies from 12 breeds. Results showed that there was no effect of sex, however both breed and litter, significantly affected all personality traits. Breed on average explained 10% of the variance, whereas the effect of litter was noticeably higher, explaining on average 23% of the variance. Taken together, our results suggest that breed does have some influence on personality traits, but they also highlight the importance of taking litter effects into account.
Långström, Niklas; Rahman, Qazi; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul
There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly population-based 2005-2006 survey of all adult twins (20-47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed biometric modeling with data on any and total number of lifetime same-sex sexual partners, respectively. The analyses were conducted separately by sex. Twin resemblance was moderate for the 3,826 studied monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs. Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained .34-.39 of the variance, the shared environment .00, and the individual-specific environment .61-.66 of the variance. Corresponding estimates among women were .18-.19 for genetic factors, .16-.17 for shared environmental, and 64-.66 for unique environmental factors. Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment (social and biological) on same-sex sexual behavior.
Gildner, Theresa E; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Urlacher, Samuel S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection peaks during childhood and varies by sex. The impact of market integration (MI) (increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy) on these infection patterns, however, is unclear. In this study, STH infection is examined by sex and age among indigenous Shuar inhabiting two regions of Amazonian Ecuador: (1) the modestly market-integrated Upano Valley (UV) and (2) the more traditional Cross-Cutucú (CC) region. Kato-Katz fecal smears were examined for parasite presence and infection intensity. Factorial ANOVAs and post hoc simple effects analyses were performed by sex to compare infection intensity between regions and age categories (infant/child, juvenile/adolescent, adult). Significant age and regional differences in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection were detected. Overall, infants/children and juveniles/adolescents displayed higher parasite loads than adults. CC females exhibited higher A. lumbricoides loads than UV females, while the opposite pattern was observed for T. trichiura infection in males. Regional infection patterns varied by sex and parasite species, perhaps due to MI-linked environmental and lifestyle changes. These results have public health implications for the identification of individuals at risk for infection and contribute to ongoing efforts to track changes and alleviate STH infection in indigenous populations undergoing MI.
Janzen, F. J.
The magnitude of quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was measured in families extracted from a natural population of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which possesses temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at three temperatures that produced mixed sex ratios. This experimental design provided estimates of the heritability of sex ratio in multiple environments and a test of the hypothesis that genotype X environment (G X E) interactions may be maintaining genetic variation for sex ratio in this population of C. serpentina. Substantial quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was detected in all experimental treatments. These results in conjunction with the occurrence of TSD in this species provide support for three critical assumptions of Fisher's theory for the microevolution of sex ratio. There were statistically significant effects of family and incubation temperature on sex ratio, but no significant interaction was observed. Estimates of the genetic correlations of sex ratio across environments were highly positive and essentially indistinguishable from +1. These latter two findings suggest that G X E interaction is not the mechanism maintaining genetic variation for sex ratio in this system. Finally, although substantial heritable variation exists for primary sex ratio of C. serpentina under constant temperatures, estimates of the effective heritability of primary sex ratio in nature are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Small effective heritability and a long generation time in C. serpentina imply that evolution of sex ratios would be slow even in response to strong selection by, among other potential agents, any rapid and/or substantial shifts in local temperatures, including those produced by changes in the global climate. PMID:1592234
Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah; Fry, Megan E; Lawson, Joseph D; Stoner, Lauren E; Johnson, Brandon L; Zoladz, Phillip R
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience many debilitating symptoms, including intrusive memories, persistent anxiety and avoidance of trauma-related cues. PTSD also results in numerous physiological complications, including increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, characterization of PTSD-induced cardiovascular alterations is lacking, especially in preclinical models of the disorder. Thus, we examined the impact of a psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to psychosocial stress or control conditions for 31 days. Stressed rats were given two cat exposures, separated by a period of 10 days, and were subjected to daily social instability throughout the paradigm. Control rats were handled daily for the duration of the experiment. Rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) on day 32, and hearts were isolated on day 33 and subjected to 20 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Stressed male and female rats gained less body weight relative to controls, but only stressed males exhibited increased anxiety on the EPM. Male, but not female, rats exposed to psychosocial stress exhibited significantly larger infarcts and attenuated post-ischemic recovery of contractile function compared to controls. Our data demonstrate that predator stress combined with daily social instability sex-dependently increases myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Thus, this manipulation may be useful for studying potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular alterations in PTSD, as well as sex differences in the cardiovascular stress response.
Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell cultures to a particles results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells in the population. The induction of non-targeted biological responses in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation and to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the induction of stressful effects in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of 1000 MeV/u iron ions (linear energy transfer (LET) 151 keV/μm), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET 50 keV/μm) or 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET 13 keV/μm). We compared the results with those obtained in cell cultures exposed, in parallel, to low fluences of 0.92 MeV/u a particles (LET 109 keV/μm). Induction of DNA damage, changes in gene expression, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation during 24 h after exposure of confluent cultures to mean doses as low as 0.2 cGy of iron or silicon ions strongly supported the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to bystander cells. At a mean dose of 0.2 cGy, only 1 and 3 % of the cells would be targeted through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion, respectively. Within 24 h post-irradiation, immunoblot analyses revealed significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of the responses suggested participation of non-targeted cells in the response. Furthermore, when the irradiated cell populations were subcultured in fresh medium shortly after irradiation, greater than expected increases in the levels of these markers were also observed during 24 h. Together, the results imply a rapidly propagated and persistent bystander effect. In situ analyses in confluent cultures showed 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage, in
Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli
New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf......New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic...
Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito
Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....
Full Text Available For magnetically suspended rigid rotors (MSRs with significant gyroscopic effects, phase lag of the control channel is the main factor influencing the system nutation stability and decoupling performance. At first, this paper proves that the phase lag of the cross channel instead of the decentralized channel is often the main factor influencing the system nutation stability at high speeds. Then a modified cross feedback control strategy based on the phase compensation of cross channel is proposed to improve the stability and decoupling performances. The common issues associated with the traditional control methods have been successfully resolved by this method. Analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control method.
Haberle, Robert M.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Schaeffer, James R.; Montmessin, Frank; Phillips, R J.
The large variations in Mars orbit parameters are known to be significant drivers of climate change on the Red planet. The recent discovery of buried CO2 ice at the South Pole adds another dimension to climate change studies. In this paper we present results from the Ames GCM that show within the past million years it is possible that clouds from a greatly intensified Martian hydrological cycle may have produced a greenhouse effect strong enough to raise global mean surface temperatures by several tens of degrees Kelvin. It is made possible by the ability of the Martian atmosphere to transport water to high altitudes where cold clouds form, reduce the outgoing longwave radiation, and drive up surface temperatures to maintain global energy balance.
Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.
Males are born in excess of females and the ratio is expressed as M/F (male/female births=secondary sex ratio, also known as secondary sex ratio). This is expected to approximate 1.048. Racial M/F disparities are known. A recent study in China showed that pregravid systolic hypertension is higher in women who delivered a boy than in those who had a girl. This study was carried out in order to identify the effect of pregravid hypertension in the United States on M/F by race. Monthly male and female live births by race for the entire US along with the presence/absence of hypertension were obtained from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 2007-2015 for the four racial groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American and White. This study analysed 36,364,253 live births. For White births, mothers who had chronic hypertension were likelier to have male than female offspring when compared to non-hypertensives (p=0.003). Conversely, Black or African American mothers who had hypertension were less likely to have male than female offspring when compared to non-hypertensives (p=0.022). There were F differences for/F differences for the presence or absence of hypertension for the other two races or for the total. It is possible that hypothesised innate interracial periconceptual hormonal differences may modulate M/F responses to hypertension in different races. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Campi, Katharine L; Greenberg, Gian D; Kapoor, Amita; Ziegler, Toni E; Trainor, Brian C
Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a critical role in the regulation of motivational states. Recent studies in male rodents show that social defeat stress increases the activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons projecting to the NAc, and that this increased activity is necessary for stress-induced social withdrawal. Domestic female mice are not similarly aggressive, which has hindered complementary studies in females. Using the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we found that social defeat increased total dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA content in the NAc in both males and females. These results are generally consistent with previous studies in Mus, and suggest defeat stress also increases NAc dopamine signaling in females. However, these results do not explain our previous observations that defeat stress induces social withdrawal in female but not male California mice. Pharmacological manipulations provided more insights. When 500 ng of the D1 agonist SKF38393 was infused in the NAc shell of females that were naïve to defeat, social interaction behavior was reduced. This same dose of SKF38393 had no effect in males, suggesting that D1 receptor activation is sufficient to induce social withdrawal in females but not males. Intra-accumbens infusion of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 increased social approach behavior in females exposed to defeat but not in females naïve to defeat. This result suggests that D1 receptors are necessary for defeat-induced social withdrawal. Overall, our results suggest that sex differences in molecular pathways that are regulated by D1 receptors contribute to sex differences in social withdrawal behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.
We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.
Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes
Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in