WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant scientific progress

  1. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  2. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for understa...

  3. Scientific progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The R + D-projects in this field and the infrastructural tasks mentioned are handled in seven working- and two project groups: Computer systems, Numerical and applied mathematics, Software development, Process calculation systems- hardware, Nuclear electronics, measuring- and automatic control technique, Research of component parts and irradiation tests, Central data processing, Processing of process data in the science of medicine, Co-operation in the BERNET-project in the 'Wissenschaftliches Rechenzentrum Berlin (WRB)' (scientific computer center in Berlin). (orig./WB)

  4. Scientific progress at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is moving forward with studies to determine whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would be a suitable site for the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository; however, the DOE's Congressionally mandated task of characterizing the site has been severely delayed by a lack of cooperation from the state of Nevada. The state has refused to issue the appropriate permits that must be obtained before surface disturbing studies can proceed; therefore, an extensive surface-based drilling and trenching program and construction of underground exploration facilities are on hold until pending litigation between the DOE and Nevada has been resolved. Despite this major impasse, significant scientific progress has been made, and the DOE is aggressively pursuing investigations that can be conducted without the state-issued permits. Additionally, the DOE is developing a high-quality technical and management structure as well as equipment, plans, and quality assurance procedures, so that the scientific investigation program can proceed without delay once the appropriate permits are obtained

  5. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  6. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  7. GBF scientific progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The structure and style of representation of the paragraphs about scientific results are adjusted to the research and development program 1979. Since in this program an arrangement according to fields or departments resp. was chosen, the individual reports of this report on results were arranged as to departments too. In doing so, however, a survey of the aims and the development of the department as a whole precedes, and subsequently information on the results of the individual projects is given. In addition to the results of the year under report, the aims during the life of the project are summarized. Para. 2.1 puts the individual FE (research and development) projects into relation to the five research programs, which are at present dealt with by the GBF (Society for Biotechnological Research). The reports on the individual projects refer to the FE program number. For the first time, the report on the results contains a paragraph about the collecting activity and the research work of the DSM (German collection of microorganisms), which became part of the GBF at the beginning of the year under report. A separate paragraph deals with the scientific and technical infrastructure, especially with the work of the Service-Unit 'Biotechnikum' which produces natural substances, which are commercially not available. Paragraphs about further activities in the fields of scientific cooperation, results transfer etc, as well as about the staff and the economical developments of the GBF follow. (orig./AJ) [de

  8. Scientific progress report 1/1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Review articles report on the progress in research and development in the fields theoretical physics, nuclear reactions, nuclear moments and internal fields, nuclear collision processes, VICKSI. The publications of the HMI department nuclear and radiation physics in the form of scientific publications, theses, conference papers, colloquium papers, as well as the members are listed. (HK) [de

  9. Scientific progress without increasing verisimilitude: In response to Niiniluoto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Darrell P

    2015-06-01

    First, I argue that scientific progress is possible in the absence of increasing verisimilitude in science's theories. Second, I argue that increasing theoretical verisimilitude is not the central, or primary, dimension of scientific progress. Third, I defend my previous argument that unjustified changes in scientific belief may be progressive. Fourth, I illustrate how false beliefs can promote scientific progress in ways that cannot be explicated by appeal to verisimilitude. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argue...

  11. Scientific progress despite irreproducibility: A seeming paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffrin, Richard M; Börner, Katy; Stigler, Stephen M

    2018-03-13

    It appears paradoxical that science is producing outstanding new results and theories at a rapid rate at the same time that researchers are identifying serious problems in the practice of science that cause many reports to be irreproducible and invalid. Certainly, the practice of science needs to be improved, and scientists are now pursuing this goal. However, in this perspective, we argue that this seeming paradox is not new, has always been part of the way science works, and likely will remain so. We first introduce the paradox. We then review a wide range of challenges that appear to make scientific success difficult. Next, we describe the factors that make science work-in the past, present, and presumably also in the future. We then suggest that remedies for the present practice of science need to be applied selectively so as not to slow progress and illustrate with a few examples. We conclude with arguments that communication of science needs to emphasize not just problems but the enormous successes and benefits that science has brought and is now bringing to all elements of modern society.

  12. The role of data in scientific progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 109 papers presented at the 9th Int. CODATA Conference and illustrates two main themes (1) new computer-based methods for storing, manipulating and disseminating scientific and technical data, and (2) the use of such computerized data files to give new scientific insights. The broad range of scientific disciplines covered includes geology and geochemistry, oceanography and ecology, molecular biology and biotechnology, chemical engineering, materials properties, energy systems, data base design and management - theory and practice, and finally, a last section on data retrieval and library systems. 12 items are included in Atomindex separately. (Auth.)

  13. [Significance of the doctorate in scientific medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    According to European and German law, the medical education of physicians must take place in a scientific degree program at a university or under the supervision of a university. To keep up the ideal of a scientific degree program, various organizations and associations, such as the German Research Foundation, the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Medical Faculty Association, see the need for an even stronger anchoring of academic learning content in the course of study. Traditionally, a scientific project, which is carried out during the studies, provides the basis for the Doctor of Medicine (Dr. med.) after graduation, although the research projects as a basis for medical degrees are currently not obligatory parts of the curricula. The number of medical students performing such research projects is significantly decreasing, thus they are missing major skills for working in science. To counteract these developments, faculties of medicine are currently developing model curricula including deepened scientific education. Despite these efforts, the German Association of Faculties of Medicine argues that the performance of research projects leading to the doctoral degree is most suitable for obtaining expertise in scientific work. According to recommendations by the German Council of Science on the requirements for quality assurance of graduation doctoral degree programs have been introduced. This and further measures, like MD/PhD programs or research-based additional study programs serving the scientific qualification of medical students, are the subject of this article.

  14. Progress of scientific researches and project of CSR in IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Genming

    2004-01-01

    The article reviews the recent progress of the scientific researches including synthesis of new nuclides, investigations of the isospin effects in heavy ion collisions, studies of the nuclear structure in high spin states and the applications of heavy ion beams to other scientific researches, such as biology and material science. It also gives a brief introduction of the development of the design and progress of the new project of heavy ion cooling storage ring (CSR) of Lanzhou. (author)

  15. Immunotoxicology: fifty years of global scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKarns, Susan C; Kerkvliet, Nancy I; Dean, Jack H; Bonn, Michael B; Cohen, Mitchell D; Franko, Jennifer; Laiosa, Michael D; Lawrence, B Paige; Luebke, Robert W; Luster, Michael I; Miller, Patrick G; Palmer, Rachel K; Pfau, Jean C; Raman, Priyadarshini; Regal, Jean F; Rodgers, Kathleen E; Schondelmeyer, Rio S; Zhang, Xiaochu; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Immunotoxicology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) celebrated the 50(th) Anniversary of the SOT by constructing a poster to highlight the milestones of Immunotoxicology during that half-century period. This poster was assembled by an ad hoc committee and intertwines in words, citations, graphics, and photographs our attempts to capture a timeline reference of the development and progressive movement of immunotoxicology across the globe. This poster was displayed during the 50(th) Annual SOT Meeting in Washington DC in March, 2011. The poster can be accessed by any Reader at the SOT Website via the link http://www.toxicology.org/AI/MEET/AM2011/posters_rcsigss.asp#imss. We dedicate this poster to all of the founders and the scientists that followed them who have made the discipline of Immunotoxicology what it is today.

  16. Hans H. Ussing - scientific work: contemporary significance and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    As a zoologist, Hans H. Ussing began his scientific career by studying the marine plankton fauna in East Greenland. This brought him in contact with August Krogh at the time George de Hevesy, Niels Bohr and Krogh planned the application of artificial radioactive isotopes for studying the dynamic...... at the cellular level and raised new questions about cellular mechanisms of actions of hormones and drugs. His theoretical treatment of osmotic water fluxes versus fluxes of deuterium labeled water resulted in the discovery of epithelial water channels. His discovery of paracellular transport in frog skin bridged...... studies of high and low resistance epithelia and generalized the description of epithelial transport. He devoted the last decade of his scientific life to solute-coupled water transport. He introduced the sodium recirculation theory of isotonic transport, and in an experimental study, he obtained...

  17. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  18. Health Psychology Bulletin : Improving Publication Practices to Accelerate Scientific Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Gjalt-jorn Ygram; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Sanderman, Robbert

    2017-01-01

    The instrument of scientific publishing, originally a necessary tool to enable development of a global science, has evolved relatively little in response to technological advances. Current scientific publishing practices incentivize a number of harmful approaches to research. Health Psychology

  19. Replicative nature of Indian research, essence of scientific temper, and future of scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no.Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.

  20. Facilitating Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals through Open Scientific Data and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to a shared future encompassing sustainable management of the planet and significant improvement in the human condition around the world. The scientific community has both an ethical responsibility and substantial self-interest—as residents of this planet—to help the world community to better understand the complex, interlinked behavior of human and environmental systems and to elucidate pathways to achieve long-term sustainability. Critical to making progress towards the SDGs is the open availability of timely, reliable, usable, and well integrated data and indicators relevant to all SDGs and associated targets. Such data and indicators will not only be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of progress, but also in developing policies and making decisions on environmental and societal issues affecting sustainability from local to global scales. The open availability of such data and indicators can help motivate performance, promote accountability, and facilitate cooperation. A range of scientific, technical, organizational, political, and resource challenges need to be addressed in developing a coherent SDG monitoring and indicator framework. For example, assembling and integrating diverse data on consistent spatial and temporal scales across the relevant natural, social, health, and engineering sciences pose both scientific and technical difficulties, and may require new ways to interlink and organize existing cyberinfrastructure, reconcile different data policy regimes, and fund integration efforts. New information technologies promise more timely and efficient ways of collecting many types of data, but may also raise privacy, control, and equity issues. Scientific review processes to ensure data quality need to be coordinated with the types of quality control and review employed by national statistical agencies for trusted economic and social statistics. Although

  1. Science as a Common Language in a Globalised World - Scientific Collaboration Promoting Progress, Building Bridges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    International scientific collaboration and co-operation can accelerate the progress of science, help build bridges between diverse societies, and foster the development of science and technology in non-industrialised countries. This is possible because science is a common language (although the progress of science is often influenced by non-scientific factors). I shall describe examples of the role that scientific collaboration can play in bridge building and in conflict resolution. I shall then present a proposal for "Bridge Building Fellowships" which would contribute to strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries by helping to stem the brain drain and providing a basis for collaborations with scientists in industrialised countries.

  2. Progress in inertial fusion research at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO 2 laser system delivering up to 6kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO 2 experiments in the tens-of-kJ regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40kJ of CO 2 laser light on target. (author)

  3. Wind Energy Department: Scientific and technical progress 1999-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Wind Energy Department fall within boundary layer meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, structural dynamics, machine and construction technology and design of power systems and power system controls. Theobjective is to develop methods for design......; test and siting of wind turbines; prediction of wind loads and wind resources as well as methods to determine the dispersion, transformation and effect of air pollution. The present report describes theorganisation of the department and presents selected scientific highlights and results from the two...

  4. Progress report on scientific and technological activities: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of the Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentine), during the period January-December 1996 is presented. The research and development activities are reported under the following headings: Fuel Elements; Non Destructive and Structural Test; Physics; Materials; Chemistry; Radiobiology Nuclear Reactors; Institute of Technology; Quality Management; Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI); Computer and Communication Services Center; Nuclear Power Stations Support Group. List of publications by the scientific staff of the Atomic Center is provided. The list includes paper published in journals, papers presented in conferences, symposia, etc., and technical reports

  5. Progress report on scientific and technological activities: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of the Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentine), during the period January-December 1995 is presented. The research and development activities are reported under the following headings: Fuel Elements; Non Destructive and Structural Test; Physics; Materials; Chemistry; Radiobiology Nuclear Reactors; Institute of Technology; Quality Management; Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI); Computer and Communication Services Center; Nuclear Power Stations Support Group. List of publications by the scientific staff of the Atomic Center is provided. The list includes paper published in journals, papers presented in conferences, symposia, etc., and technical reports

  6. Wind energy department: Scientific and technical progress 1999 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, G.

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Wind Energy Department fall within boundary layer meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, structural dynamics, machine and construction technology and design of power systems and power system controls. The objective is to develop methods for design; test and siting of wind turbines; prediction of wind loads and wind resources as well as methods to determine the dispersion, transformation and effect of air pollution. The present report describes the organisation of the department and presents selected scientific highlights and results from the two-year period 1999-2000. (au)

  7. SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS OF THE MC-PAD NETWORK

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, J; Ambalathankandy, P; Apostolakis, J; Arora, R; Balog, T; Behnke, T; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Caiazza, S; Dong, J; Heller, M; Heuser, J; Idzik, M; Joram, C; Klanner, R; Koffeman, E; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Lohmann, W; Milovanović, M; Miscetti, S; Moll, M; Novgorodova, O; Pacifico, N; Pirvutoiu, C; Radu, R; Rahman, S; Rohe, T; Ropelewski, L; Roukoutakis, F; Schmidt, C; Schön, R; Sibille, J; Tsagri, M; Turala, M; Van Beuzekom, M; Verheyden, R; Villa, M; Zappon, F; Zawiejski, L; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    MC-PAD is a multi-site Initial Training Network on particle detectors in physics experiments. It comprises nine academic participants, three industrial partners and two associated academic partners. 17 recruited Early Stage and 5 Experienced Researchers have performed their scientific work in the network. The research and development work of MC-PAD is organized in 12 work packages, which focus on a large variety of aspects of particle detector development, electronics as well as simulation and modelling. The network was established in November 2008 and lasted until October 2012 (48 months). This report describes the R&D activities and highlights the main results achieved during this period.

  8. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed

  9. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.J. (comp.)

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.

  10. Scientific progress and the prospects for culture-bound syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blease, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to show that the classification by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of a distinct listing of disorders known as Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS) is misguided. I argue that the list of CBS (in Appendix I of the manual) comprises either (a) genuine disorders that should be included within the main body of the DSM; or (b) ersatz-disorders that serve a practical role for psychiatrists dealing with patients from certain cultures but will one day be eliminated or assimilated by bona fide DSM classifications. In support of these views I draw on claims from two key themes in the philosophy of science: (1) the claim that all folk (that is, non-scientific) explanations for phenomena are thoroughly theoretical and therefore fallible; and (2) the occurrence of theoretical elimination in the history of science. I contend that any ersatz-disorders located in the DSM that are judged to be radically false do not differ in kind from eliminated theories in the history of pre-science. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI; Nexhmie Berisha VOKSHI

    2017-01-01

    There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a sour...

  12. Significant progress towards development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebe, M.; Henry, T.L.; Corpstein, P.

    1996-01-01

    Development of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste is a complicated legal, regulatory and public sector process. Development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to support generators in Illinois and Kentucky is well under way. Significant progress has been made to re-engineer the siting development process capitalizing on prior lessons learned and a recommitment from Illinois state leadership assuring the future success of the program. Comparisons of why this new process will succeed are the major focus of this paper. Specific changes in approach from the previous process including changes in the Illinois Management Act (Management Act), creation of the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Task Group (Task Group), new roles for the Illinois State Geologic Survey and Illinois State Water Survey (Scientific Surveys) and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), a new contractor reliance approach and increased confidence on the open-quote science close-quote are the major contrasts between the previous process and the new process currently underway

  13. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  14. A Progressive Reading, Writing, and Artistic Module to Support Scientific Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie B. Stockwell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science—course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I present an argument based on evidence, II analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery. Phase I entails guided reading and reflection of citizen science–themed texts. In Phase II, students write, peer-review, and edit position and counterpoint papers inspired by the following prompt, “Nonscientists should do scientific research.” Phase III involves two creative assignments intended to communicate the true nature of science. Students work collaboratively to develop public service announcement–like poster campaigns to debunk a common misconception about the nature of science or scientists. Individually, they create a work of art to communicate a specific message about the raw experience of performing scientific research. Suggestions for implementation and modifications are provided. Strengths of the module include the development of transferable skills, temporal distribution of grading demands, minimal in-class time needed for implementation, and the inclusion of artistic projects to support affective learning domains. This citizen science–themed learning module is an excellent complement to laboratory coursework, as it serves to surprise, challenge, and inspire students while promoting disciplinary values.

  15. A Progressive Reading, Writing, and Artistic Module to Support Scientific Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Stephanie B

    2016-03-01

    Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science-course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I) present an argument based on evidence, II) analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III) experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery. Phase I entails guided reading and reflection of citizen science-themed texts. In Phase II, students write, peer-review, and edit position and counterpoint papers inspired by the following prompt, "Nonscientists should do scientific research." Phase III involves two creative assignments intended to communicate the true nature of science. Students work collaboratively to develop public service announcement-like poster campaigns to debunk a common misconception about the nature of science or scientists. Individually, they create a work of art to communicate a specific message about the raw experience of performing scientific research. Suggestions for implementation and modifications are provided. Strengths of the module include the development of transferable skills, temporal distribution of grading demands, minimal in-class time needed for implementation, and the inclusion of artistic projects to support affective learning domains. This citizen science-themed learning module is an excellent complement to laboratory coursework, as it serves to surprise, challenge, and inspire students while promoting disciplinary values.

  16. A Progressive Reading, Writing, and Artistic Module to Support Scientific Literacy†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science—course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I) present an argument based on evidence, II) analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III) experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery. Phase I entails guided reading and reflection of citizen science–themed texts. In Phase II, students write, peer-review, and edit position and counterpoint papers inspired by the following prompt, “Nonscientists should do scientific research.” Phase III involves two creative assignments intended to communicate the true nature of science. Students work collaboratively to develop public service announcement–like poster campaigns to debunk a common misconception about the nature of science or scientists. Individually, they create a work of art to communicate a specific message about the raw experience of performing scientific research. Suggestions for implementation and modifications are provided. Strengths of the module include the development of transferable skills, temporal distribution of grading demands, minimal in-class time needed for implementation, and the inclusion of artistic projects to support affective learning domains. This citizen science–themed learning module is an excellent complement to laboratory coursework, as it serves to surprise, challenge, and inspire students while promoting disciplinary values. PMID:27047600

  17. Is compatible the idea of incommensurability with that of scientific progress? Some reasons in support of its compatibility [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Jaramillo Uribe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of incommensurability and, particulary, the one of the scientific progress, is associated two names: Kuhn and Feyerabend, whose proposals caused than many put in doubt the apparent evidence of the call scientific progress, relativizing its validity to each school or paradigm. In this writing we will show that this type of epistemic relativism —just as convergentist theory of the truth— they lack of philosophical validity and historical and how the idea of scientific progress is compatible with the thesis of the incommensurability beyond the ontosemantics difficulties that it implies. This suppose to leave the the call statement view of the scientific theories and adopt a non-statement view where the intertheoretical relation of approach allows to subsink different non trivial incommensurability and to validate in them the notion oaf scientific progress.

  18. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a source of economic development but this advanced technology to be widely and effectively used should be accompanied by such ideological and institutional adjustments that guarantee the reasonable use of innovations produced by the huge improvements of human knowledge.

  19. From scientific progress to economic growth the economics and the economy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Frank

    2017-01-01

    he past few centuries have seen an enormous increase in living standards in many parts of the world and these economies have become more complex than ever before. At the same time, progress in science and technology has reached unprecedented heights, taking us far beyond the wildest dreams of a few generations ago. Questions as to how science, technology and the economy interact are pertinent and important ones, whose partial answers require a view "from across the fence" between disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the vast and varied field of the economics of science. It is a unique blend of an economic perspective on the way science works, what makes scientists tick, and a study of the impact of scientific and technological progress on economies and their growth. Whether it is about the speculative market of ideas or science and technology as engines of the economy, there is something here for economists, engineers and scientists alike.

  20. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  1. Does significant renal ablation truly and invariably lead to hyperfiltration and progressive chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Sam, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    It is generally believed that significant renal ablation leads to hyperfiltration and eventually progressively worsening chronic kidney disease. The data behind this belief have not been scrutinized intensively. More importantly, the above belief leads many physicians to manage patients differently than they otherwise would manage. Here, we examine the data behind whether hyperfiltration occurs when patients lose kidney mass (by excision or by disease) and whether the hyperfiltration is uniformly injurious.

  2. An Analysis of the Educational Significance of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Scientific and Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2010-01-01

    Due to the rapid development and growing societal role of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST), these emerging fields are also growing in educational importance. The demands for incorporating NST-related issues into curricula are often expressed with reference to the goals of scientific and technological literacy. This paper reports on a…

  3. Scientific and technical progress in high-energy astrophysics at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, N.A.; Jayanthi, U.B.; Jardim, J.O.D.; Braga, J.; Santo, C.M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The recent advances in high-energy Astrophysics pertains to the study of compact objects in galactic nuclei, binary systems and pulsars. These aspects are best understood by the study of the emissions in X- and gamma rays of these objects through the temporal variation in flux and spectrum. The Southern Hemisphere offers some of the unique objects for investigations such as galactic center, the Vela pulsar etc. For high temporal and spectra resolution studies two telescopes 'GeLi' and 'Pulsar' were designed and constructed. To support these scientific activities, a program in balloon launching and data acquisition facilities has been developed since 1971. The 'Balloon Launching Center' of INPE has capacity to launch balloons of -850,000 m 3 with payloads weighting about 1,000 Kg. Taking advantage of these facilities, project 'Bantar', with the goal to measure the atmospheric gamma-ray radiation in the Antartic Region, is under progress. (Author) [pt

  4. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  5. Electric power and its significance as the energy for innovation and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, H.; Boehmer, T.

    1999-01-01

    The significance of electric power as the essential form of energy to support innovation and progress well into the future is explained with respect to four major domains of application: 1. Innovative activities in microelectronics and semiconductor technology, for applications such as automation and computer technology, instrumentation and control technology, facility and systems management and control. 2. Energy efficiency programmes and schemes for increasing the penetration of energiy from renewable sources in the market. Example: Heat pump technology. 3. Electric power as an energy boosting innovation in industrial production processes. Examples are given from the transportation sector. (orig./CB) [de

  6. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it.

  7. IAEA Mission Sees Significant Progress in Georgia’s Regulatory Framework, Challenges Ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts said Georgia has made significant progress in strengthening its regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety. The team also pointed to challenges ahead as Georgia seeks to achieve further progress. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) team concluded a 10-day mission on 28 February to assess the regulatory safety framework in Georgia. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government and hosted by the Agency of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (ANRS), which is responsible for regulatory oversight in the country. IRRS missions are designed to strengthen the effectiveness of the national safety regulatory infrastructure, while recognizing the responsibility of each State to ensure nuclear and radiation safety. Georgia uses radioactive sources in medicine and industry and operates radioactive waste management facilities. It has decommissioned its only research reactor and has no nuclear power plants. In recent years, the Government and ANRS, with assistance from the IAEA, introduced new safety regulations and increased the number of regulatory inspections.

  8. Demonstrating the benefits of fuel cells: further significant progress towards commercialisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-01-01

    The fourteenth Fuel Cell Seminar held in San Diego, California in 1994 is reported. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is the closest to widespread commercialization. PAFC cogeneration plants have to be shown to compare favourable in reliability with current mature natural gas-fuelled engine and turbine technologies. Although highly efficient, further development is necessary to produce cost effective generators. Progress is being made on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stationary power plants, too, which may prove to be cost effective. In view of its lower operating temperature, at below 100[sup o]C compared with about 200[sup o]C for the PAFC, the principal use of the PEMFC has been identified as powering vehicles. Fuel cells have significant environmental advantages but further capital cost reductions are necessary if they are to compete with established technologies. (UK)

  9. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  10. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2010-02-01

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany ( N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  11. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  12. Understanding the nature of science and scientific progress: A theory-building approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chuy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students’ understanding of the nature of science is a “theory-building approach to teaching about inquiry.” The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological support for creating and improving theories. One class followed a Knowledge Building approach and used Knowledge Forum®, which together emphasize theory improvement and sustained creative work with ideas. The other class followed an inquiry approach mediated through collaborative project-based activities. Apart from this, the two classes were demographically similar and both fell within the broad category of constructivist, inquiry-based approaches and employed a range of modes and media for investigative research and reports. An augmented version of Carey and Smith’s Nature of Science Interview showed that the Knowledge Building approach resulted in deeper understanding of the nature of theoretical progress, the connections between theories and facts, and the role of ideas in scientific inquiry.

  13. Progressive significance map and its application to error-resilient image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Pearlman, William A; Li, Xin

    2012-07-01

    Set partition coding (SPC) has shown tremendous success in image compression. Despite its popularity, the lack of error resilience remains a significant challenge to the transmission of images in error-prone environments. In this paper, we propose a novel data representation called the progressive significance map (prog-sig-map) for error-resilient SPC. It structures the significance map (sig-map) into two parts: a high-level summation sig-map and a low-level complementary sig-map (comp-sig-map). Such a structured representation of the sig-map allows us to improve its error-resilient property at the price of only a slight sacrifice in compression efficiency. For example, we have found that a fixed-length coding of the comp-sig-map in the prog-sig-map renders 64% of the coded bitstream insensitive to bit errors, compared with 40% with that of the conventional sig-map. Simulation results have shown that the prog-sig-map can achieve highly competitive rate-distortion performance for binary symmetric channels while maintaining low computational complexity. Moreover, we note that prog-sig-map is complementary to existing independent packetization and channel-coding-based error-resilient approaches and readily lends itself to other source coding applications such as distributed video coding.

  14. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress: in search of state obligations in relation to health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2011-01-01

    After having received little attention over the past decades, one of the least known human rights—the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications—has had its dust blown off. Although included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International

  15. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  16. Significance of Pirogov`s scientific ideas for modern organization of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova L.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, a surgeon and anatomist, prominent scientist and educator, founder of field surgery. He was the first to learn field surgery and military administration in practice. He was the first to use famous triage (the wounded were sorted according to the severity of injuries. N.I.Pirogov considered that well organized triage at dressing stations and temporary military hospitals is the main tool to provide proper care and to prevent harmful consequences. He organized training of medical nurses to help the wounded. He also published the work on the problems of pedagogy in which he proposed reforms of education system. The authors of the article have analyzed N.I.Pirogov`s works and showed their significance for modern social medicine and organization of Public Health.

  17. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  18. Expression status and clinical significance of lncRNA APPAT in the progression of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanming Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have been reported to modulate cardiovascular diseases, and expression dynamics of lncRNAs in the bloodstream were proposed to be potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. However, few cardiovascular diseases-related circulating lncRNAs were identified and their prediction power has not been investigated in depth. Here we report a new circulating lncRNA, atherosclerotic plaque pathogenesis associated transcript (APPAT, and evaluated its role and predicting ability in atherosclerotic development. Methods APPAT was analyzed and screened by high-throughput sequencing, and then detected in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH was utilized to explore distribution and subcellular location of APPAT. The expressing alteration of APPAT in samples of healthy and pathological coronary artery was explored further. We also assessed the level of circulating APPAT in blood samples from healthy individuals, and patients with angina pectoris (AP or myocardial infarction (MI. Additionally, we predicted and validated microRNA targets of APPAT, then showed the expression level of a candidate target which was primarily measured in human VSMCs cell line, coronary artery, and blood samples. Lastly, we examined the potential indicating ability of APPAT for the risk of AP or MI. Results APPAT showed significant reduction in ox-LDL treated human VSMCs in vitro. It enriched in contractile VSMCs of artery tunica media and mainly existed in cytoplasm. Significant down-regulation of APPAT was found in coronary artery samples with severe stenosis. More importantly, we observed decreased expression of APPAT in blood samples accompanying disease progression. ROC and correlation analyses further verified the relatively high predicting ability of APPAT. We also observed the predicted miRNA exhibited opposite expression direction to that of APPAT. Conclusions This study revealed that

  19. Discovery of CDH23 as a Significant Contributor to Progressive Postlingual Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Jik Kim

    Full Text Available CDH23 mutations have mostly been associated with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL in either syndromic or nonsyndromic SNHL (DFNB12. Herein, we demonstrate the contribution of CDH23 mutations to postlingual nonsyndromic SNHL (NS-SNHL. We screened 32 Korean adult probands with postlingual NS-SNHL sporadically or in autosomal recessive fashion using targeted panel or whole exome sequencing. We identified four (12.5%, 4/32 potential postlingual DFNB12 families that segregated the recessive CDH23 variants, qualifying for our criteria along with rapidly progressive SNHL. Three of the four families carried one definite pathogenic CDH23 variant previously known as the prelingual DFNB12 variant in a trans configuration with rare CDH23 variants. To determine the contribution of rare CDH23 variants to the postlingual NS-SNHL, we checked the minor allele frequency (MAF of CDH23 variants detected from our postlingual NS-SNHL cohort and prelingual NS-SNHL cohort, among the 2040 normal control chromosomes. The allele frequency of these CDH23 variants in our postlingual cohort was 12.5%, which was significantly higher than that of the 2040 control chromosomes (5.53%, confirming the contribution of these rare CDH23 variants to postlingual NS-SNHL. Furthermore, MAF of rare CDH23 variants from the postlingual NS-SNHL group was significantly higher than that from the prelingual NS-SNHL group. This study demonstrates an important contribution of CDH23 mutations to poslingual NS-SNHL and shows that the phenotypic spectrum of DFNB12 can be broadened even into the presbycusis, depending on the pathogenic potential of variants. We also propose that pathogenic potential of CDH23 variants and the clinical fate of DFNB12 may be predicted by MAF.

  20. Escherichia coli DinB inhibits replication fork progression without significantly inducing the SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Okazaki, Naoto; Furukohri, Asako; Maki, Hisaji; Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi

    2012-01-01

    The SOS response is readily triggered by replication fork stalling caused by DNA damage or a dysfunctional replicative apparatus in Escherichia coli cells. E. coli dinB encodes DinB DNA polymerase and its expression is upregulated during the SOS response. DinB catalyzes translesion DNA synthesis in place of a replicative DNA polymerase III that is stalled at a DNA lesion. We showed previously that DNA replication was suppressed without exogenous DNA damage in cells overproducing DinB. In this report, we confirm that this was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of ongoing replication forks by DinB. Interestingly, the DinB-overproducing cells did not significantly induce the SOS response even though DNA replication was perturbed. RecA protein is activated by forming a nucleoprotein filament with single-stranded DNA, which leads to the onset of the SOS response. In the DinB-overproducing cells, RecA was not activated to induce the SOS response. However, the SOS response was observed after heat-inducible activation in strain recA441 (encoding a temperature-sensitive RecA) and after replication blockage in strain dnaE486 (encoding a temperature-sensitive catalytic subunit of the replicative DNA polymerase III) at a non-permissive temperature when DinB was overproduced in these cells. Furthermore, since catalytically inactive DinB could avoid the SOS response to a DinB-promoted fork block, it is unlikely that overproduced DinB takes control of primer extension and thus limits single-stranded DNA. These observations suggest that DinB possesses a feature that suppresses DNA replication but does not abolish the cell's capacity to induce the SOS response. We conclude that DinB impedes replication fork progression in a way that does not activate RecA, in contrast to obstructive DNA lesions and dysfunctional replication machinery.

  1. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Consolidated Progress Report July 2006 - March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, D E; McInnes, L C; Govindaraju, M; Bramley, R; Epperly, T; Kohl, J A; Nieplocha, J; Armstrong, R; Shasharina, S; Sussman, A L; Sottile, M; Damevski, K

    2009-04-14

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  3. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress: in search of state obligations in relation to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2011-11-01

    After having received little attention over the past decades, one of the least known human rights--the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications--has had its dust blown off. Although included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)--be it at the very end of both instruments -this right hardly received any attention from States, UN bodies and programmes and academics. The role of science in societies and its benefits and potential danger were discussed in various international fora, but hardly ever in a human rights context. Nowadays, within a world that is increasingly turning to science and technology for solutions to persistent socio-economic and development problems, the human dimension of science also receives increased attention, including the human right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications. This contribution analyses the possible legal obligations of States in relation to the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, in particular as regards health.

  4. Evolving from academic to academic entrepreneur: overcoming barriers to scientific progress and finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    The overall goal of my career as an academic chemist has always been the design and creation of advanced therapeutics and diagnostics that address unmet medical need in the management of chronic diseases. Realising this goal has been an immensely difficult process involving multidisciplinary problem-driven research at the chemistry-biology-medicine interfaces. With success in the laboratory, I started seriously to question the value of remaining an academic whose career is spent in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding alone without making any significant effort to translate knowledge and understanding gained into products of genuine utility for public benefit. Therefore, I elected by choice to become an academic entrepreneur, seeking opportunities wherever possible for the translation of the best of my personal and collaborative academic research work into potentially valuable and useful products. This choice has brought with it many unexpected difficulties and challenges. Nevertheless, progress bas been made and sufficient learnt to suggest that this would be an appropriate moment to take stock and provide some personal reflections on what it takes to design and create advanced therapeutics and diagnostics in the laboratory then seek to develop, innovate and translate the best towards market.

  5. Citation classics in neuro-oncology: assessment of historical trends and scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mansouri, Alireza; Juraschka, Kyle; Taslimi, Shervin; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2017-09-01

    Citation classics represent the highest cited works in a field and are often regarded as the most influential literature. Analyzing thematic trends in citation classics across eras enables recognition of important historical advances within a field. We present the first analysis of the citation classics in neuro-oncology. The Web of Science database was searched using terms relevant to "neuro-oncology." Articles with >400 citations were identified and the top 100 cited articles were evaluated. The top 100 neuro-oncology citation classics consisted of 43 clinical studies (17 retrospective, 10 prospective, 16 randomized trials), 43 laboratory investigations, 8 reviews/meta-analyses, and 6 guidelines/consensus statements. Articles were classified into 4 themes: 13 pertained to tumor classification, 37 to tumor pathogenesis/clinical presentation, 6 to imaging, 44 to therapy (15 chemotherapy, 10 radiotherapy, 5 surgery, 14 new agents). Gliomas were the most common tumor type examined, with 70 articles. There was a significant increase in the number of citation classics in the late 1990s, which was paralleled by an increase in studies examining tumor pathogenesis, chemotherapy, and new agents along with laboratory and randomized studies. The majority of citation classics in neuro-oncology are related to gliomas and pertain to tumor pathogenesis and treatment. The rise in citation classics in recent years investigating tumor biology, new treatment agents, and chemotherapeutics may reflect increasing scientific interest in nonsurgical treatments for CNS tumors and the need for fundamental investigations into disease processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Clinical Significance of HER-2 Splice Variants in Breast Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2 occurs in 20–30% of breast cancers and confers survival and proliferative advantages on the tumour cells making HER-2 an ideal therapeutic target for drugs like Herceptin. Continued delineation of tumour biology has identified splice variants of HER-2, with contrasting roles in tumour cell biology. For example, the splice variant 16HER-2 (results from exon 16 skipping increases transformation of cancer cells and is associated with treatment resistance; conversely, Herstatin (results from intron 8 retention and p100 (results from intron 15 retention inhibit tumour cell proliferation. This review focuses on the potential clinical implications of the expression and coexistence of HER-2 splice variants in cancer cells in relation to breast cancer progression and drug resistance. “Individualised” strategies currently guide breast cancer management; in accordance, HER-2 splice variants may prove valuable as future prognostic and predictive factors, as well as potential therapeutic targets.

  7. Scientific journals and conflict of interest disclosure: what progress has been made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Kathleen

    2015-05-30

    The article addresses the failure of the scientific community to create an effective mechanism to protect the integrity of the scientific literature from improper influence by vested interests. The seriousness of this threat is increasingly recognized. Scientists willing to distort scientific research to serve vested interests receive millions of dollars for their services. Organizations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) have launched initiatives to establish international standards for Conflict of Interest (COI) disclosure. COPE requires its 7,000 member journals to comply with its Code of Conduct for Journal Editors. While these initiatives are encouraging, they are internal educational endeavours only. Five examples are given showing failure of COPE member journals to comply with COPE's Code of Conduct. While COPE offers a complaint process, it involves only discussion and voluntary compliance. COPE neither polices nor enforces its Code. Instead of the current feeble, un-resourced process, which delivers neither transparency nor accountability, the article proposes the creation of a mechanism that will employ specific, effective measures to address contraventions of COI disclosure requirements.

  8. Realization of radiation-chemical processes in national economy-important stage of scientific and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, A.Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Realization of energy resourses of the atomic power engineering will greatly contribute to the scientific and technological progress. The dominat role play the radiochemical methods of properties modification applied for the well-known materials and for the production of materials with modern operating characteristics necessary for their application in different branches of industry and agriculture. Radiation modeling of products from polyolefine, wood-plastic and concrete-polymer materials are considered as well as the processes in ''thin'' units of agitating systems. The future developments and present state of the art of radiation sources are presented

  9. Progressive degradation of alloy 690 and the development of a significant improvement in alloy 800CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.; Arioka, Koji; Tapping, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present most widely used alloys for tubing in steam generators and structural materials in water cooled reactors are Alloy 690 and Alloy 800. However, both alloys, while improved over Alloy 600 may not meet the needs of longer range applications in the range of 80-100 years. Alloy 690 sustains damage resulting from the formation of cavities at grain boundaries which eventually cover about 50% of the area of the grain boundaries with the remainder covering being covered with carbides. The cavities seem to nucleate on the carbides leaving the grain boundaries a structure of cavities and carbides. Such a structure will lead the Alloy 690 to fail completely. Normal Alloy 800 does not produce such cavities and probably retains a large amount of its corrosion resistance but does sustain progressive SCC at low rate. A new alloy, 800CR, has been developed in a collaboration among Arioka, Tapping, and Staehle. This alloy is based on a Cr composition of 23.5-27% with the remainder retaining the previous Alloy 800 composition. 800CR sustains a crack velocity about 100 times less than Alloy 690 and a negligible rate of initiation. The 800CR, alloy is now seeking a patent. (authors)

  10. Progression of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is significantly impeded with a combination of vaccine and COX-2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Basu, Gargi D; Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Bradley, Judy M; Arefayene, Million; Skaar, Todd; De Petris, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    With a 5-year survival rate of <5%, pancreatic cancer is one of the most rapidly fatal malignancies. Current protocols for the treatment of pancreas cancer are not as effective as we desire. In this study, we show that a novel Mucin-1 (MUC1)-based vaccine in combination with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), and low-dose chemotherapy (gemcitabine) was effective in preventing the progression of preneoplastic intraepithelial lesions to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The study was conducted in an appropriate triple transgenic model of spontaneous pancreatic cancer induced by the KRAS(G12D) mutation and that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule. The combination treatment elicited robust antitumor cellular and humoral immune responses and was associated with increased apoptosis in the tumor. The mechanism for the increased immune response was attributed to the down-regulation of circulating prostaglandin E(2) and indoleamine 2, 3,-dioxygenase enzymatic activity, as well as decreased levels of T regulatory and myeloid suppressor cells within the tumor microenvironment. The preclinical data provide the rationale to design clinical trials with a combination of MUC1-based vaccine, celecoxib, and gemcitabine for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Rowe, C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (PR); Bedford, J.; Whicker, W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of this report is to establish a protocol for assessing risks to non-human populations exposed to environmental stresses typically found on many DOE sites. The authors think that they can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables (such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity). This research is needed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. The experimental facility will allow them to develop a credible assessment tool for appraising ecological risks, and to evaluate the effects of radionuclide/chemical synergisms on non-human species. This report summarizes work completed midway of a 3-year project that began in November 1996. Emphasis to date has centered on three areas: (1) developing a molecular probe to measure stable chromosomal aberrations known as reciprocal translocations, (2) constructing an irradiation facility where the statistical power inherent in replicated mesocosms can be used to address the response of non-human organisms to exposures from low levels of radiation and metal contaminants, and (3) quantifying responses of organisms living in contaminated mesocosms and field sites.'

  12. Progress report on scientific and technological activities: 1995; Informe de actividades cientificas y tecnologicas: 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An overview of research and development activities of the Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentine), during the period January-December 1995 is presented. The research and development activities are reported under the following headings: Fuel Elements; Non Destructive and Structural Test; Physics; Materials; Chemistry; Radiobiology Nuclear Reactors; Institute of Technology; Quality Management; Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI); Computer and Communication Services Center; Nuclear Power Stations Support Group. List of publications by the scientific staff of the Atomic Center is provided. The list includes paper published in journals, papers presented in conferences, symposia, etc., and technical reports.

  13. Progress report on scientific and technological activities: 1996; Informe de actividades cientificas y tecnologicas: 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    An overview of research and development activities of the Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentine), during the period January-December 1996 is presented. The research and development activities are reported under the following headings: Fuel Elements; Non Destructive and Structural Test; Physics; Materials; Chemistry; Radiobiology Nuclear Reactors; Institute of Technology; Quality Management; Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI); Computer and Communication Services Center; Nuclear Power Stations Support Group. List of publications by the scientific staff of the Atomic Center is provided. The list includes paper published in journals, papers presented in conferences, symposia, etc., and technical reports.

  14. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July to September 1982) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the licensee with respect to the enforcement action. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security. This publication is issued on a quarterly basis to include significant enforcement actions resolved during the preceding quarter

  15. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, January-June 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during two quarterly periods (January to June 1982) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the licensee with respect to the enforcement action. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security. The intention is that this publication will be issued on a quarterly basis to include significant enforcement actions resolved during the preceding quarter

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  18. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 4, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1985) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory commission to licensees with respects to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses

  19. Future health care applications resulting from progress in the neurosciences: The significance of neural plasticity research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelijns, A.C.; Graaff, P.J.; Lopes da Silva, F.A.; Gispen, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Neurological, communicative and behavioral disorders afflict a significant part of the population in industrialized countries, and these disorders can be expected to gain in importance in the coming decades. In a considerable number of these dis-orders impairments in plasticity, i.e. deficiencies in

  20. Recent Scientific Progress on Developing Supported Ni Catalysts for Dry (CO2 Reforming of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ook Seo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major green house gases (CO2 and CH4 can be converted into useful synthetic gas (H2 and CO during dry reforming of methane (DRM reaction, and a lot of scientific efforts has been made to develop efficient catalysts for dry reforming of methane (DRM. Noble metal-based catalysts can effectively assist DRM reaction, however they are not economically viable. Alternatively, non-noble based catalysts have been studied so far, and supported Ni catalysts have been considered as a promising candidate for DRM catalyst. Main drawback of Ni catalysts is its catalytic instability under operating conditions of DRM (>700 °C. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the appropriate choice of metal-oxide supports can address this issue since the chemical and physical of metal-oxide supports can prevent coke formation and stabilize the small Ni nanoparticles under harsh conditions of DRM operation. This mini-review covers the recent scientific findings on the development of supported Ni catalysts for DRM reaction, including the synthetic methods of supported Ni nanoparticles with high sintering resistance.

  1. A warning to the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology community about the importance of scientific and clinical activities in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beber, Bárbara Costa; Brandão, Lenisa; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to warn the Brazilian Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology scientific community about the importance and necessity of scientific and clinical activities regarding Primary Progressive Aphasia. This warning is based on a systematic literature review of the scientific production on Primary Progressive Aphasia, from which nine Brazilian articles were selected. It was observed that there is an obvious lack of studies on the subject, as all the retrieved articles were published in medical journals and much of it consisted of small samples; only two articles described the effectiveness of speech-language therapy in patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia. A perspective for the future in the area and characteristics of Speech-Language Therapy for Primary Progressive Aphasia are discussed. As a conclusion, it is evident the need for greater action by Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology on Primary Progressive Aphasia.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, April-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1987) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July-December 1996) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  12. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1986. Volume 5, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1986) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved industrial licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1994--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April - June 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to industrial licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, July--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1986. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1986) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  16. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1985. Volume 4, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1985) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions, and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  17. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1984. Volume 3, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1984 and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions and the licensees' responses. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1987) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1983. Volume 2, No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July-September 1983) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions ad licensees' responses. This and future issues will include cases involving Severity Level III violations for which no civil penalty was assessed. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, in the interest of promoting public health and safety as well as common defense and security

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993: Volume 12, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July 1996--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July-December 1996) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved: Quarterly progress report, January-March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1988) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Progression of Authorship of Scientific Articles in The Journal of Hand Surgery, 1985-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Alex; Almeida, Neil; Cohen, Jordan S; Peck, Kathryn M; Merrell, Gregory A

    2017-04-01

    For scientists, authorship is academic currency. Authorship characteristics have been studied in a subset of the surgical and medical literature, but trends in the specialty of hand surgery have not yet been investigated. Specifically, a longitudinal analysis of number, educational training, sex, and geographical origin of authors has not been conducted. We explored the progression of authorship of scientific articles in a leading hand surgery journal. We recorded number of authors, number of references, degrees, and sex of the first and senior authors as well as geographical origin of the corresponding author in The Journal of Hand Surgery in 1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015. All original work was analyzed. A total of 892 articles were reviewed. The mean number of authors per article increased significantly from 2.6 in 1985 to 3.9 in 2015 and the number of references increased significantly from 13.7 in 1985 to 22.6 in 2015. There was a significant increase in the proportion of first authors with an MD/PhD, PhD, master's or bachelor's degree since 1985. During that same time period, a decrease in the proportion of first authors who held solely an MD was seen. There was a significant increase in proportion of the number of last authors with an MD/PhD, PhD or Master's degree in that same time period. There has been significant growth in publications originating from the "Far East" and "Other" regions, with 4.2% and 5.0% of publications, respectively, in 1985 having increased to 10.3% and 7.4% of publications, respectively, in 2015. Female first authorship significantly increased over the study period from 7.9% in 1985 to 22.1% of publications in 2015. There has been a significant increase in number of authors per article in The Journal of Hand Surgery. Similar to other studies, we noted shifts in the degrees most commonly held by authors, an increase in references per article, and a greater representation of international authors in the hand surgery. In addition, the

  6. Retention Esophagitis as a Significant Clinical Predictor of Progression to Esophageal Cancer in Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Chronic liquid and/or food stasis caused by retention esophagitis (RE in achalasia is a notable endoscopic finding because of the presence of a thickened or whitish esophageal mucosa and histologically altered squamous hyperplasia. We aimed to identify the clinical features of RE associated with achalasia and to clarify the clinical definition of RE in achalasia as a precancerous lesion identified by analyzing biomarker expressions. Methods From 2006 to 2015, we retrospectively reviewed 37 patients with achalasia without previous treatment. Among them, 21 patients had diagnostic findings of RE (RE+ and 16 patients had no diagnostic findings of RE (RE–. Immunohistochemical staining of p53, p16, and Ki-67 was performed on the endoscopic biopsy tissues from the patients with achalasia and 10 control patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Results The symptom duration and transit delay were significantly longer in the RE+ group than in the RE– group. We found particularly high p53 positivity rates in the RE+ group (p<0.001. The rate of p16 expression was also significantly higher in the RE+ group than in the other two groups (p=0.003. Conclusions A high p53 expression rate was more frequently found in the RE+ group than in the other two groups. RE could be a meaningful clinical feature of achalasia for predicting esophageal carcinogenesis.

  7. V.V. Davydov – the founder of significant scientific school and director of the Psychological Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubtsov V.V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the stages of biography of the famous Russian psychologist Davydov, who was a brilliant leader of a large scientific group, director of the Psychological Institute of the RAE. The content of the work of Davydov’s scientific schools is based upon the three proverbial whales that define its theoretical, methodological and didactical boundaries: the theory of content generalization and con cept formation, psychological theory of learning activity and the system of developmental teaching. The article also outlines the results of researches conducted by V.V. Davydov’s scientific group. It is demon strated that for evaluating the effectivity of learning activity, the systems of assessment of theoretical thinking and its components (such as analysis, reflection, planning, systemic characteristics of thinking were elaborated for different object matter. Also the scientific group elaborated the criteria for assessing the levels of learning activity development, as a whole as well as its separate components. The scientific school of V.V. Davydov is a living and evolving organism. The disciples and followers of Davydov conduct empirical research that bring his ideas to life. The article analyzes the philosophical, methodological and psychological foundations of Davydov’s scientific school. The content of Davydov’s debates with Vygotsky concerning the mechanisms of theo retical generalization is outlined. Davydov’s point of view is illustrated by large empirical evidence

  8. Descriptive scientific analysis: progress of the educational system of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie PROFANTER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has set itself the goal of developing a knowledge-based society. Demographic changes and economic growth within short time in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia led to radical changes of the educational system. Higher education institutions are in expansion and international collaborations are being intensified. The policy of gender segregation based on a neopatriarchal society favored by the tribal system is an important cultural element of Saudi society and influences the Saudi educational culture.This article provides a scientific description and analyzes the main elements of the Saudi higher education system using the few data available due to the limited release of official statistics. Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University is analyzed as a case study based on the author’s experience who taught there as an academic years of 2006 and 2008. Being the first private institution to admit both male and female students it had to face several challenges. Furthermore, the impact of international collaborations is identified by exploring the «King Abdullah Scholarship Programme» which gives thousands of students the opportunity to study abroad.Education while having a global function also fulfills a national function. Therefore, collaborations with Western universities in the Kingdom have created challenges for the recent generations in balancing Western values imposed throughout their higher education with their traditional culture. Due to the policy of gender segregation, the Saudi educational system represents different obstructions and opportunities particularly for female students.

  9. United European Gastroenterology Week scientific abstracts and their progression to full publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suneil A; Sanders, David S; Akram, Rahim; Glover, Rebecca; Al-Rifaie, Ammar; Peever, Elise; Purves, Josh; Scanu, Emily; Kurien, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    Abstracts presentations at scientific meetings enable rapid dissemination of novel research. The percentage of abstracts that proceed to full publication from differing medical specialties is highly variable. This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of abstracts presented at the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW). All abstracts presented at UEGW between 2009 and 2011 were assessed. Cross-referencing of the first author, senior author and at least one keyword of the abstract was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases. Abstracts and possible resultant full publications were then examined in tandem to ensure that they represented the same study. Data were also collected on lag time to publication, journal impact factors, country of the author and factors influencing subsequent publication. A total of 6785 abstracts (1438 oral and 5347 poster presentations) were presented during the period assessed. Of these, 2099 (30.9%) proceeded to full publication in indexed journals. Oral abstract presentations were most likely to proceed to full publication compared with poster presentations (odds ratio: 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.56) and were more likely to achieve publication in higher impact journals (median impact factor 4.78 vs. 2.89, PEuropean Gastroenterology abstract conversion rate to full publication (46.8%). This is the first study to assess the publication rates of UEGW. Findings are favourable with similar studies from other societies.

  10. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: scientific progress and facility upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, S.; Ahn, J.; Albanese, R.; Alberti, S.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Ariola, M.; Bernert, M.; Beurskens, M.; Bin, W.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T. C.; Boedo, J. A.; Bolzonella, T.; Bouquey, F.; Braunmüller, F. H.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Calabró, G.; Camenen, Y.; Carnevale, D.; Carpanese, F.; Causa, F.; Cesario, R.; Chapman, I. T.; Chellai, O.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Czarnecka, A.; Decker, J.; De Masi, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Douai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B. P.; Eich, T.; Elmore, S.; Esposito, B.; Faitsch, M.; Fasoli, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Fontana, M.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno, I.; Galeani, S.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Garrido, I.; Geiger, B.; Giovannozzi, E.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T. P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Graves, J. P.; Guirlet, R.; Hakola, A.; Ham, C.; Harrison, J.; Hawke, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hnat, B.; Hogeweij, D.; Hogge, J.-Ph.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Huang, Z.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Ionita Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Jacquier, R.; Jardin, A.; Kamleitner, J.; Karpushov, A.; Keeling, D. L.; Kirneva, N.; Kong, M.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krawczyk, N.; Kudlacek, O.; Labit, B.; Lazzaro, E.; Le, H. B.; Lipschultz, B.; Llobet, X.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V. P.; Lunt, T.; Maget, P.; Maljaars, E.; Malygin, A.; Maraschek, M.; Marini, C.; Martin, P.; Martin, Y.; Mastrostefano, S.; Maurizio, R.; Mavridis, M.; Mazon, D.; McAdams, R.; McDermott, R.; Merle, A.; Meyer, H.; Militello, F.; Miron, I. G.; Molina Cabrera, P. A.; Moret, J.-M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Naulin, V.; Nespoli, F.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Odstrčil, T.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pisokas, T.; Porte, L.; Preynas, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reux, C.; Ricci, P.; Rittich, D.; Riva, F.; Robinson, T.; Saarelma, S.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Schlatter, Ch.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Sciortino, F.; Sertoli, M.; Sheikh, U.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, M.; Sinha, J.; Sozzi, C.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Tamain, P.; Teplukhina, A.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tophøj, L.; Tran, M. Q.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Uccello, A.; Vartanian, S.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Vlahos, L.; Vu, N. M. T.; Walkden, N.; Wauters, T.; Weisen, H.; Wischmeier, M.; Zestanakis, P.; Zuin, M.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-10-01

    The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutral beam injector (NBI) was recently installed and promptly extended the TCV parameter range, with record ion temperatures and toroidal rotation velocities and measurable neutral-beam current drive. ITER-relevant scenario development has received particular attention, with strategies aimed at maximizing performance through optimized discharge trajectories to avoid MHD instabilities, such as peeling-ballooning and neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments on exhaust physics have focused particularly on detachment, a necessary step to a DEMO reactor, in a comprehensive set of conventional and advanced divertor concepts. The specific theoretical prediction of an enhanced radiation region between the two X-points in the low-field-side snowflake-minus configuration was experimentally confirmed. Fundamental investigations of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are progressing rapidly, again in widely varying configurations and in both D and He plasmas; in particular, the double decay length in L-mode limited plasmas was found to be replaced by a single length at high SOL resistivity. Experiments on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have begun in earnest, in parallel with studies of runaway electron generation and control, in both stable and disruptive conditions; a quiescent runaway beam carrying the entire electrical current appears to develop in some cases. Developments in plasma control have benefited from

  11. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study: an international cooperative scientific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Simon, S L; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Nakashima, N; Arisawa, K; Schoemaker, M J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer.

  12. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  13. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  14. Mapping longitudinal scientific progress, collaboration and impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yao

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years.Citation information of ADNI-related publications from 01/01/2003 to 05/12/2015 were downloaded from the Scopus database. Five fields, including authors, years, affiliations, sources (journals, and keywords, were extracted and preprocessed. Statistical analyses were performed on basic publication data as well as journal and citations information. Science mapping workflows were conducted using the Science of Science (Sci2 Tool to generate geospatial, topical, and collaboration visualizations at the micro (individual to macro (global levels such as geospatial layouts of institutional collaboration networks, keyword co-occurrence networks, and author collaboration networks evolving over time.During the studied period, 996 ADNI manuscripts were published across 233 journals and conference proceedings. The number of publications grew linearly from 2008 to 2015, so did the number of involved institutions. ADNI publications received much more citations than typical papers from the same set of journals. Collaborations were visualized at multiple levels, including authors, institutions, and research areas. The evolution of key ADNI research topics was also plotted over the studied period.Both statistical and visualization results demonstrate the increasing attention of ADNI research, strong citation impact of ADNI publications, the expanding collaboration networks among researchers, institutions and ADNI core areas, and the dynamic evolution of ADNI research topics. The visualizations

  15. Support of scientific and technical progress in system of power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapunov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The priority trends of the Republic Kazakhstan energetic policy are listed. These priorities define the principal trends in power engineering and coal industry. There are as following: creation and mastering new and modernizing existing technologies of mining, processing and combustion of fuel; electric and thermal power generation, maintaining significant reduce of a harmful exposure to environment, an economic efficiency at market economy conditions under high level of use of nature resources and raw materials; involving in power balance nontraditional and renewable energy sources, intensification works on energy conservation, reliability and vitality of power systems

  16. Progress report No. 2 on the Scientific Investigation Program for the Nevada Yucca Mountain Site, October 1, 1989--March 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. No. 97-425), as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of scientific investigation activities at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for October 1, 1989, through March 31, 1990. This report is the second of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during the period of scientific investigation. The progress report presents short summaries of the status of scientific investigation activities and cites technical reports and research products that provide more detailed information on the activities. The report provides highlights of work started during the reporting period, work in progress, and work completed and documented during the reporting period. In addition, the report is the vehicle for discussing major changes, if any, to the DOE's scientific investigation program. The progress report conveys information in a convenient summary form to be used for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be the mechanism for controlling and documenting technical or policy positions regarding changes in schedules or the technical program. Such changes are controlled through rigorous DOE change-control procedures. The progress report only describes such approval changes. 49 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Scientific progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report discusses planing and development activities in the field of computer systems, user software, process computer systems, measurement and control technology, processing of process data in medicine, research on structural elements and radiation tests carried out in the data processing and electronics department. (WB) [de

  18. Scientific progress report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent work of HMI in the following fields is reported: HMI interconnected computer operation numerical and graphical user software, process computer systems - software and hardware, measurement and control, process data processing in medicine, research on structural element radiation tests. (WB) [de

  19. Scientific progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the results of research and development at the named institute concerning theoretical physics, nuclear reactions, hyperfine interactions, atomic collision processes, and the VICKSI accelerator together with a list of publications and speeches. (HSI) [de

  20. Scientific progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the results in research and technology concerning neutron scattering, radiation defects in solids, reactor chemistry, the study of trace elements in biomedical science, geochemistry, and reactor operation. Furthermore, a list of publications and speeches is given. (HSI) [de

  1. Scientific progress report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This is a short description of the research work of the working groups on neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in biomedicine, and geochemistry as well as of the available infrastructure for the fields of reactors and radionuclide production. The description is followed by a bibliography of 1978 publications (some of them with abstracts) and papers read by HMI members. Also listed are papers by HMI guest scientists, lectures at Berlin universities, and dissertations and theses written at HMI. (RB) [de

  2. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  3. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  4. SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS IN THE DEPLOYMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RETRIEVAL OF HANFORD RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYMOND RE; DODD RA; CARPENTER KE; STURGES MH

    2008-01-01

    Significant enhancements in the development and deployment of new technologies for removing waste from storage tanks at the Hanford Site have resulted in accelerated progress and reduced costs for tank cleanup. CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. is the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for safely storing and retrieving approximately 53 million gallons of highly-radioactive and hazardous waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The waste is stored in 149 older single-shell tanks (SST) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DST) that are grouped in 18 so-called farms near the center of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. Tank contents include materials from years of World-War II and post-war weapons production, which account for 60 percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. A key strategy for improved cleanup is the development and deployment of innovative technologies, which enhance worker safety, resolve technical challenges, streamline retrieval processes, and cut project costs and durations. During the past seven years of tank cleanout projects we have encountered conditions and waste chemistry that defy conventional approaches, requiring a variety of new tools and techniques. Through the deployment of advanced technology and the creative application of resources, we are finding ways to accomplish the retrieval process safely, swiftly, and economically. To date, retrieval operations have been completed in seven tanks, including a record six tanks in a two-year period. Retrieval operations are in progress for another three tanks. This paper describes the following tank cleanup technologies deployed at Hanford in the past few years: Modified waste sluicing, High pressure water lance, Mobile retrieval tools, Saltcake dissolution, Vacuum retrieval, Sparging of wastes, Selective dissolution for waste treatment, Oxalic acid dissolution, High-pressure water mixers, Variable height pumps

  5. Some Approaches to the Accounting and Analysis of the Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Harrod-Domar Economic Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor O.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methods for the accounting of autonomous and induced scientific and technological progress in the Harrod-Domar model of economic dynamics that imply determining the incremental capital/output ratio of the model in the form of special functions of time. As part of the received version of the Harrod-Domar model, on the basis of conditional data there conducted a numerical study of some aspects of the impact of parameters of scientific and technological progress and the initial state of the economy being modeled on peculiarities of corresponding trajectories of its dynamics. A simple economic and mathematical problem of determining an optimal value of investments in the implementation of the induced STP is formulated, and content interpretation of the obtained solution is carried out. Possible directions of development of the obtained results may be associated with the application of the proposed modification of the Harrod-Domar model to build and analyze mathematical models of optimal economic growth in view of the induced STP, as well as with the prospective use of these results to improve dynamic models of the Leontief type in terms of considering innovation processes (scientific and technical progress of various kinds.

  6. The Significance of Trust in the Political System and Motivation for Pupils' Learning Progress in Politics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Barbara; Weisseno, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the contribution of political education to learning progress in Germany. Hence, there is a need for intervention studies measuring performance against the theoretical background of a political competence model. This model comprises three constructs: subject knowledge, motivation and attitudes. According…

  7. The IRSN's scientific strategy for the progress of nuclear safety, nuclear security and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication defines the new strategy of the IRSN to fulfil its role in nuclear safety, in the protection of mankind and of the environment against ionizing radiations, and in the protection of nuclear materials, installations and transports against malevolent acts. The IRSN is also involved in public information, and as an actor and a partner in the definition of other major public policies such as research and innovation, work health or environmental health. In a first part, the report highlights these missions, the current evolution of the international scientific, technological and economic context, and briefly evokes the major scientific challenges for the next decade. The second part highlights the abilities and capacities of the IRSN to support scientific approaches and works. The main orientations are then formulated and commented: to justify scientific orientation backgrounds and means to assign, to associate final recipients to research works, to implement initiatives to develop national, European and international cooperation in the field of nuclear and radiological risks, to develop academic partnerships and to participate to national research alliances, to develop collaboration with industries, nuclear operators and actors of the medical sector, to possess tools to perform numeric simulation, to guarantee the access for the Institute to research and experimentation infrastructures and data bases, to develop methodologies and tools for aid to decision, to perpetuate knowledge and know-how for a better renewal of risk assessment. The report then presents the main questions of interest regarding radiation protection and nuclear safety

  8. Progress and perspectives of the Brazilian scientific production in international journals in the field of motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kogake Claudio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that one of the key indicators of scientific production is the number of papers published in international journals, and of the apparent growing interest in the area of motor behavior, we conducted a survey of articles published by Brazilian researchers in this area over the last 10 years (1999-2008 in international journals rated “Qualis International-A” and “Qualis International-B” by CAPES. This quantification was performed to provide a qualified viewpoint regarding the profile of Brazilian scientific production of international repercussion in the area of motor behavior. Articles were identified using the Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Scopus search systems, with the search being restricted to characteristic terms involving motor behavior and to researchers associated with Brazilian universities. The results showed an increase in production over the last 5 years of the period studied, with the peak in 2006. In addition, Brazilian scientific production was concentrated in four public universities. These results suggest that in order to keep growing, the new groups should work in collaboration with productive laboratories, decentralizing the scientific production.

  9. Progression of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Is Significantly Impeded with a Combination of Vaccine and COX-2 Inhibition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Basu, Gargi D.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Subramani, Durai B.; Bradley, Judy M.; Arefayene, Million; Skaar, Todd; De Petris, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    With a 5-year survival rate of <5%, pancreatic cancer is one of the most rapidly fatal malignancies. Current protocols for the treatment of pancreas cancer are not as effective as we desire. In this study, we show that a novel Mucin-1 (MUC1)-based vaccine in combination with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), and low-dose chemotherapy (gemcitabine) was effective in preventing the progression of preneoplastic intraepithelial lesions to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The study was conducted in an appropriate triple transgenic model of spontaneous pancreatic cancer induced by the KRASG12D mutation and that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule. The combination treatment elicited robust antitumor cellular and humoral immune responses and was associated with increased apoptosis in the tumor. The mechanism for the increased immune response was attributed to the down-regulation of circulating prostaglandin E2 and indoleamine 2, 3,-dioxygenase enzymatic activity, as well as decreased levels of T regulatory and myeloid suppressor cells within the tumor microenvironment. The preclinical data provide the rationale to design clinical trials with a combination of MUC1-based vaccine, celecoxib, and gemcitabine for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19109152

  10. Progress report on the scientific investigation program for the Nevada Yucca Mountain site, September 15, 1988--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. This report is the first of a series of reports that will hereafter be issued at intervals of approximately 6-months during site characterization. The DOE's plans for site characterization are described in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site. The SCP has been reviewed and commented on by the NRC, the State of Nevada, the affected units of local government, other interested parties, and the public. More detailed information on plans for site characterization is being presented in study plans for the various site characterization activities. This progress report presents short summaries of the status of site characterization activities and cites technical reports and research products that provide more detailed information on the activities. The report provides highlights of work started during the reporting period, work in progress, and work completed and documented during the reporting period. In addition, the report is the vehicle for discussing major changes, if any, to the DOE's site characterization program resulting from ongoing collection and evaluation of site information; the development of repository and waste-package designs; receipt of performance-assessment results; and changes, if any, that occur in response to external comments on the site characterization programs. 80 refs

  11. Progress in inertial fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Paper No. IAEA-CN-38/B-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO 2 laser system delivering up to 6 kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO 2 experiments in the tens-of-kilojoule regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40 kJ of CO 2 laser light on target

  12. Maximum standard uptake value on pre-chemotherapeutic FDG-PET is a significant parameter for disease progression of newly diagnosed lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    F-18 FDG-PET is useful for detection and staging of lymphoma. We investigated the prognostic significance of maximum standard uptake (maxSUV) value of FDG-PET for newly diagnosed lymphoma patients before chemotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (male: female = 17: 10: age: 49±19 years) with newly diagnosed lymphoma were enrolled. Nine-teen patients suffered from B cell lymphoma, 6 Hodgkins disease and 2 T cell lymphoma. One patient was stage I, 9 stage II, 3 stage III, 1 stage IV and 13 others. All patients underwent FDG-PET before initiation of chemotherapy. MaxSUV values using lean body weight were obtained for main and largest lesion to represent maxSUV of the patients. The disease progression was defined as total change of the chemotherapeutic regimen or addition of new chemotherapeutic agent during follow up period. The observed period was 389±224 days. The value of maxSUV ranged from 3 to 18 (mean±SD = 10.6±4.4). The disease progressions occurred in 6 patients. Using Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis, maxSUV was identified as a significant parameter for the disease progression free survival (p=0.044). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis revealed that the group with higher maxSUV (=10.6, n=5) suffered from shorter disease progression free survival (median 299 days) than the group with lower maxSUV (<10.6, n = 22) (median 378 days, p=0.0146). We found that maxSUV on pre-chemotherapeutic F-18 FDG-PET for newly diagnosed lymphoma patients is a significant parameter for disease progression. Lymphoma patients can be stratified before initiation of chemotherapy in terms of disease progression by the value of maxSUV 10.6

  13. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  14. Prognostic significance of genetic polymorphisms in disease progression and survival in prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Yi Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that androgens and their receptors regulate normal prostate growth and mediate prostate cancer development. Androgen deprivation therapy is the most commonly used treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Although the therapy is initially effective, progression of the disease to castration-resistant prostate cancer is almost inevitable, leading to treatment failure. Despite the existence of current clinical parameters, new biomarkers are urgently needed to improve the prognosis. Some molecules and DNA-based genetic biomarkers are under investigation as potential prognostic factors. The advancement in molecular cytogenetic research, such as genome-wide association for single-nucleotide polymorphisms, has made possible the detection of genetic mutations. In this study, a literature search from August 1985 to April 2013 was performed through the PubMed database using the keywords “genetic polymorphisms”, “prostate cancer” and “androgen deprivation therapy”. The results revealed that several genome-wide association studies (such as rs16901979, rs7931342, HSD17B4, rs6162 in the CYP17A1, rs4243229 and rs7201637 in the HSD17B2, rs1062577 in the ESR1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, rs2939244 in the ARRDC3, rs9508016 in the FLT1, rs6504145 in the SKAP1, rs7830611 in the FBXO32, rs9508016 in the FLT1, rs12529 in the AKR1C3, rs16934641 in the BNC2, rs3763763 in the TACC2, rs2051778 in the ALPK1, and rs3763763 in the TACC2, AR, ESR1, and ESR2 and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in important pathways (such as androgen signal, biosynthesis, metabolism, androgen receptor binding site, response element, androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism length, and estrogen receptor-binding sites involved in prostate cancer occurrence and mechanism could serve as candidate biomarkers for the early detection of castration-resistant prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy. Additional investigations are required to decipher precisely the gene

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  16. Significance of coagulase negative Staphylococcus from blood cultures: persisting problems and partial progress in resource constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Shailpreet K; Malhotra, Sita; Devi, Pushpa; Tuli, Arpandeep K

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is frequently isolated from blood cultures but their significance is difficult to interpret. CoNS bacteria which are often previously dismissed as culture contaminants are attracting greater importance as true pathogens in the past decades. Clinical evaluation of these isolates suggests that although there is a relative increase of CoNS associated bloodstream infections in recent years, the microorganisms still remain the most common contaminants in blood cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of CoNS isolated from blood cultures. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the rate of contamination in blood cultures in a tertiary care hospital. The paired specimens of blood were cultured using conventional culture methods and the isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci were identified by standard methodology. Clinical data, laboratory indices, microbiological parameters and patient characteristics were analyzed. Of 3503 blood samples, CoNS were isolated from blood culture of 307 patients (8.76%). The isolates were reported as true pathogens of bloodstream infections in only 74 out of 307 cases (24.1%). In the vast majority, 212 of 307 (69.0%), they were mere blood culture contaminants and reported as insignificant/contaminant. Determining whether a growth in the blood culture is a pathogen or a contaminant is a critical issue and multiple parameters have to be considered before arriving at a conclusion. Ideally, the molecular approach is for the most part a consistent method in determining the significant isolates of CoNS. However, in countries with inadequate resources, species identification and antibiogram tests are recommended when determining significance of these isolates.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994; Volume 13, Number 3, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Reactor licensees: Volume 14, No. 1, Part 1, Quarterly progress report January--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994: Volume 13, Number 3, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 13, No. 1, Part 1: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to these described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, January--June 1997; Volume 16, Number 1, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January--June 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in patients with HPV positive DNA testing and correlation with disease progression by age group: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Reynolds, Jordan P; Jenkins, Sarah M; Winter, Stephanie M; Henry, Michael R; Nassar, Aziza

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a broad diagnostic category that could be attributed to human papillomavirus infection (HPV), malignant neoplasia and reactive conditions. We evaluated our institutional experience with ASC-US in women who are positive for high risk HPV (HRHPV+) by the Digene hybrid capture method from 2005-2009 to identify the risk of progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in association with age. We reviewed cytologic and follow-up surgical pathology reports for all specimens available. Progression was defined as a diagnosis of at least CINI on follow-up biopsy or resection or SIL on cytology. We identified 2613 cases and follow-up was available in 1839 (70.4%). Of these 74.2% had just one follow-up, 16.2% had a total of 2 follow-ups, 5.3% had a total of 3 follow-ups, and the remaining had as many as 6 follow-ups. Among the 1839 patients, 69.4% were age 30 or younger, 16.0% were between 31 to 40, 9.0% were between 41 to 50, and 5.6% were 51 or older. Among these, 25-30% progressed to dysplasia. The risk of progression varied by age (p=0.04) and was lowest among women between the ages of 41-50. Our findings highlight the importance of continued cytologic follow-up in women with HRHPV+ ASC-US in order to detect progression of disease, although the risk of progression is age dependent.

  18. Impacts of neglected tropical disease on incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: scientific links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common infections of humans in Sub-Saharan Africa. Virtually all of the population living below the World Bank poverty figure is affected by one or more NTDs. New evidence indicates a high degree of geographic overlap between the highest-prevalence NTDs (soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and trachoma and malaria and HIV, exhibiting a high degree of co-infection. Recent research suggests that NTDs can affect HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis (TB, and malaria disease progression. A combination of immunological, epidemiological, and clinical factors can contribute to these interactions and add to a worsening prognosis for people affected by HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria. Together these results point to the impacts of the highest-prevalence NTDs on the health outcomes of malaria, HIV/AIDS, and TB and present new opportunities to design innovative public health interventions and strategies for these ‘big three’ diseases. This analysis describes the current findings of research and what research is still needed to strengthen the knowledge base of the impacts NTDs have on the big three.

  19. Modern Trends Of Computation, Simulation, and Communication, And Their Impacts On The Progress Of Scientific And Engineering Research, Development, And Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunjamin, Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    A short report on the modern trends of computation, simulation, and communication in the 1990s is presented, along with their impacts on the progress of scientific and engineering research, development, and education. A full description of this giant issue is certainly a m ission impossible f or the author. Nevertheless, it is the author's hope that it will at least give an overall view about what is going on in this very dynamic field in the advanced countries. After t hinking globally t hru reading this report, we should then decide on w hat and how to act locally t o respond to these global trends. The main source of information reported here were the computational science and engineering journals and books issued during the 1990s as listed in the references below

  20. Malignant progressive tumor cell clone exhibits significant up-regulation of cofilin-2 and 27-kDa modified form of cofilin-1 compared to regressive clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Wang, Yufeng; Okada, Futoshi; Baron, Byron; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Takao; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    QR-32 is a regressive murine fibrosarcoma cell clone which cannot grow when they are transplanted in mice; QRsP-11 is a progressive malignant tumor cell clone derived from QR-32 which shows strong tumorigenicity. A recent study showed there to be differentially expressed up-regulated and down-regulated proteins in these cells, which were identified by proteomic differential display analyses by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Cofilins are small proteins of less than 20 kDa. Their function is the regulation of actin assembly. Cofilin-1 is a small ubiquitous protein, and regulates actin dynamics by means of binding to actin filaments. Cofilin-1 plays roles in cell migration, proliferation and phagocytosis. Cofilin-2 is also a small protein, but it is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. There are many reports showing the positive correlation between the level of cofilin-1 and cancer progression. We have also reported an increased expression of cofilin-1 in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to adjacent paired normal tissues. On the other hand, cofilin-2 was significantly less expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Therefore, the present study investigated the comparison of the levels of cofilin-1 and cofilin-2 in regressive QR-32 and progressive QRsP-11cells by western blotting. Cofilin-2 was significantly up-regulated in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells (p<0.001). On the other hand, the difference of the intensities of the bands of cofilin-1 (18 kDa) in QR-32 and QRsP-11 was not significant. However, bands of 27 kDa showed a quite different intensity between QR-32 and QRsP-11, with much higher intensities in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 (p<0.001). These results suggested that the 27-kDa protein recognized by the antibody against cofilin-1 is a possible biomarker for progressive tumor cells.

  1. Quality and quantity of research publications by Iranian neurosurgeons: Signs of scientific progress over the past decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Marjan; Taslimi, Shervin; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-01-01

    This is an analysis of papers published by Iranian neurosurgeons while working in Iran until the year 2010. We collected bibliometric data and assigned a level of evidence (LOE) for each paper and compared neurosurgical research productivity across three time periods (before 1990, between 1991 and 2000, and after 2000). For further illustration, the annual growth rates of Iranian publications were calculated for all papers published after 1995. We found a total of 1196 papers by 422 Iranian neurosurgeons. Five authors accounted for 22.9% of the papers. The average number of authors for each published manuscript was 3.48 and increased significantly from 2.0 to 4.0 across the three investigated periods (P papers were published in local journals only. A total of 74.6% articles were published after 2000, which was a significant increase compared with the decades before (P paper (obtained from web of science) were found to be 1.2 and 5.46, respectively. A partitioning of these publications into assigned categories reflecting the LOE of each paper yielded the following LOE distribution for all assessed publications: Ib: 6.02%, Ic: 0.3%, IIa: 0.2%, IIb: 5.4%, IIc: 0.41%, IIIb: 4.8%, IV: 22.5%, and V: 1.2%. The relative number of publications categorized into higher LOE classes increased over the three investigated periods (P = 0.003). Based on growth curve model, the rate of increase in total numbers of publications following each position change from nonuniversity affiliated neurosurgeon to university affiliated and from university affiliated neurosurgeon to chairman university affiliated neurosurgeon was 81%. A considerable increase in amount and quality of Iranian papers was observed during the past decade as reflected in a higher number of papers categorized in upper LOE classes.

  2. Quality and quantity of research publications by Iranian neurosurgeons: Signs of scientific progress over the past decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Marjan; Taslimi, Shervin; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is an analysis of papers published by Iranian neurosurgeons while working in Iran until the year 2010. Methods: We collected bibliometric data and assigned a level of evidence (LOE) for each paper and compared neurosurgical research productivity across three time periods (before 1990, between 1991 and 2000, and after 2000). For further illustration, the annual growth rates of Iranian publications were calculated for all papers published after 1995. Results: We found a total of 1196 papers by 422 Iranian neurosurgeons. Five authors accounted for 22.9% of the papers. The average number of authors for each published manuscript was 3.48 and increased significantly from 2.0 to 4.0 across the three investigated periods (P neurosurgeon to university affiliated and from university affiliated neurosurgeon to chairman university affiliated neurosurgeon was 81%. Conclusions: A considerable increase in amount and quality of Iranian papers was observed during the past decade as reflected in a higher number of papers categorized in upper LOE classes. PMID:23607060

  3. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the establishment of scientific consensus on the interpretation and significance of the results of science programmes into radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This document presents conclusions and recommendations on establishment of scientific consensus on the interpretation and significance of the results of science programmes into radioactive waste disposal. The topics discussed include: the nature of science and its limitations; societal views of science and the radioactive waste problem; issues upon which consensus will be needed; evidence of past attempts at greater involvement of the public; the linking of scientific and social consensus; communicating the nature of consensus to the public

  4. Association between metformin use and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma in US veterans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Luo, Suhong; O'Brian, Katiuscia K; Thomas, Theodore S; Colditz, Graham A; Carlsson, Nils P; Carson, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is one of the most common haematological malignancies in the USA and is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We aimed to assess the association between metformin use and progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. We did a retrospective cohort study of patients registered in the US Veterans Health Administration database and diagnosed with MGUS between Oct 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2009. We included patients (aged >18 years) with at least one International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) code for diabetes mellitus and one treatment for their diabetes before MGUS diagnosis. We reviewed patient-level clinical data to verify diagnoses and extract any available data for size of baseline M-protein and type of MGUS. We defined metformin users as patients with diabetes who were given metformin consistently for 4 years after their diabetes diagnosis and before multiple myeloma development, death, or censorship. Our primary outcome was time from MGUS diagnosis to multiple myeloma diagnosis. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models to analyse the association between metformin use and MGUS progression. We obtained data for 3287 patients, of whom 2003 (61%) were included in the final analytical cohort. Median follow-up was 69 months (IQR 49–96). 463 (23%) participants were metformin users and 1540 (77%) participants were non-users. 13 (3%) metformin users progressed to multiple myeloma compared with 74 (5%) non-users. After adjustment, metformin use was associated with a reduced risk of progression to multiple myeloma (hazard ratio 0·47, 95% CI 0·25–0·87). For patients with diabetes diagnosed with MGUS, metformin use for 4 years or longer was associated with a reduced risk of progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether this association is causal and whether these results can be extrapolated to non-diabetic individuals. Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation

  5. Scientific progress report 2 - 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The work in the field of radiation chemistry was carried out in the year 1975 in the following work groups: Pulsed radiolysis (P), reaction kinematics (RK), and insulators and synthetics (IK). Continuing running research work, the groups P and IK together used the electron accelerator (16 MeV linear accelerator and 1.5 MeV Van de Graaff generator) as well as a laser flash irradiation apparatus (Rubin laser). The new electron accelerator for the nanosecond region ELBENA was installed. Test runs were started. Furthermore, two additional pulsable laser devices were acquired (one of these for work in the picosecond region), which are to be put in operation in 1976. The main topic of investigation in the work group P was the solving of complex reaction mechanisms and the determination of physical-chemical properties of short-lived intermediary products in the investigation of biologically relevant and micelle systems. The problems worked on are partly closely related to problems concerning the photochemical use of solar energy. This involves, e.g., the light-induced reduction of metal ions and the photoionization in micelle systems. The work group RK continued work on elastic, inelastic and reactive scattering processes between ions and molecules as well as electron transfer processes between atoms and molecules. The problems investigated are of fundamental importance to the understanding of chemical elementary processes in the gas phase relevant to procedures in space. The work group IK concentrate on studies for the production and transport of charge carriers in hydrocarbons and liquidized noble gases; amongst others, the electron mobility in short chain paraffins and polyethylene was investigated. A further main topic of investigation was the decomposition of polymers which, amongst others, brought considerable knowledge on the motion of macromolecules and a new method of detecting the preferential solvation of macrolecules. (orig.) [de

  6. Features of formation spirituality pictures of the world in youth in in the era of information-highlytechnological scientific and technical progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Polishchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause necessity of formation of a spiritual picture of the world, anthropocosmos at young generation at the present stage of development much crisis world and, including, the Ukrainian society is proved. In the article the necessity of formation of anthropocosmos-spiritual picture of the world at young generation at the present stage of development bagalicious the world and, in particular, of the Ukrainian society. The proposed definition of new terms: anthropocosmos is a spiritual picture of the world, anthropocosmic spirituality, anthropocosmic worldview and other anthropocentric concepts and definitions in contemporary philosophical and pedagogical discourse. The presented model of the formation of anthropocosmos-spiritual worldview of the young generation in the information and high-tech scientific and technical progress and the author’s interpretation of its philosophical, educational, pedagogical and spiritual essence. It is proved, that having generated in consciousness of the young man a anthropocosmos-spiritual picture of the world, will allow it in conditions of inevitable crash in the near future of a human civilization, if it will not solve present global-civilizational crises and will not avoid geocosmic accidents, to understand sense space-ekzoplanete lives which will be esclusivi, and, therefore, crisis-free, conflict-free, comprehensive and meaningful, anthropocosmos-highly spiritual (divine M. Berdyaev, and, therefore, progressive and virtually eternal as the life of society, which is composed of such anthropocosmos educated individuals. Solved zagalnoosvitnioi sense anthropocosmos spiritual world picture, which is to solve the problem of the choice of life strategies of mankind, the search for new ways of civilization development, in particular, resettlement anthropocosmos-conscious part of humanity for exoplanets space with the aim of preserving the gene pool of humanity and creation of human cosmically

  7. Localization of aPKC lambda/iota and its interacting protein, Lgl2, is significantly associated with lung adenocarcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Naoko; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Toriumi, Kentaro; Kitatani, Kanae; Ogura, Go; Masuda, Ryota; Nakamura, Naoya; Takekoshi, Susumu; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2013-12-20

    Atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKC λ/ι) is expressed in several human cancers; however, the correlation between aPKC λ/ι localization and cancer progression in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains to be clarified. We found that patients with a high level of aPKC λ/ι expression in LAC had significantly shorter overall survival than those with a low level of aPKC λ/ι expression. In addition, localization of aPKC λ/ι in the apical membrane or at the cell-cell contact was associated with both lymphatic invasion and metastasis. The intercellular adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, was decreased in LACs with highly expressed aPKC λ/ι at the invasion site of tumor cells. This result suggested that the expression levels of aPKC λ/ι and E-cadherin reflect the progression of LAC. On double-immunohistochemical analysis, aPKC λ/ι and Lgl2, a protein that interacts with aPKC λ/ι, were co-localized within LACs. Furthermore, we found that Lgl2 bound the aPKC λ/ι-Par6 complex in tumor tissue by immune-cosedimentation analysis. Apical membrane localization of Lgl2 was correlated with lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis. These results thus indicate that aPKC λ/ι expression is altered upon the progression of LAC. This is also the first evidence to show aPKC λ/ι overexpression in LAC and demonstrates that aPKC λ/ι localization at the apical membrane or cell-cell contact is associated with lymphatic invasion and metastasis of the tumor.

  8. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  9. Clinical progress of human papillomavirus genotypes and their persistent infection in subjects with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology: Statistical and latent Dirichlet allocation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yee Suk; Lee, Sungin; Zong, Nansu; Kahng, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in prognosis based on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, persistent infection and genotype variations for patients exhibiting atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in their initial Papanicolaou (PAP) test results. A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based tool was developed that may offer a facilitated means of communication to be employed during patient-doctor consultations. The present study assessed 491 patients (139 HPV-positive and 352 HPV-negative cases) with a PAP test result of ASCUS with a follow-up period ≥2 years. Patients underwent PAP and HPV DNA chip tests between January 2006 and January 2009. The HPV-positive subjects were followed up with at least 2 instances of PAP and HPV DNA chip tests. The most common genotypes observed were HPV-16 (25.9%, 36/139), HPV-52 (14.4%, 20/139), HPV-58 (13.7%, 19/139), HPV-56 (11.5%, 16/139), HPV-51 (9.4%, 13/139) and HPV-18 (8.6%, 12/139). A total of 33.3% (12/36) patients positive for HPV-16 had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or a worse result, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of CIN2 of 1.8% (8/455) in patients negative for HPV-16 (Paged ≥51 years (38.7%) than in those aged ≤50 years (20.4%; P=0.036). Progression from persistent infection to CIN2 or worse (19/34, 55.9%) was higher than clearance (0/105, 0.0%; Page and long infection period with a clinical progression of CIN2 or worse. Therefore, LDA results may be presented as explanatory evidence during time-constrained patient-doctor consultations in order to deliver information regarding the patient's status. PMID:28587376

  10. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100∼200 m, 600∼850 m and 1450∼1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole. (paper)

  11. [The scientific progress of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" as seen through the contents of the journal "La Medicina del Lavoro". ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foà, V; Camerino, Donatella

    2003-01-01

    On occasion of the Centenary of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto", its researchers suggested that awareness of its historical identity and scientific development should constitute the basis for the future of the Institution. The directors of the Institute who have succeeded one to the other over the years have left a vivid report of the vast amount of work developed in several research fields and also of the original results achieved with significant impact on the scientific community and on society. Content analysis of "La Medicina del Lavoro" allowed us to shed light on strong bonds existing between manufacturing techniques, work organization and health, in the different political and social periods in which they developed. Many actions have been defined and several research subjects have been renewed (according to current demands and new methodological possibilities) between the past and the present, nevertheless many new approaches need to be taken in the fields of epidemiology, indoor air quality, ergophthalmology, muskuloskeletal disorders, environmental and molecular toxicology, and further research will be undertaken thanks to the potential of this discipline for the future. The aim of this report is also to express our thanks to all the medical and non-medical staff who have made their contribution over 100 years of engagement.

  12. Significance of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement for the differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson's disease: evaluation by 3.0-T MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Kazumichi; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Kakite, Suguru; Fujii, Shinya; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide; Matsusue, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The clinical differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may be challenging, especially in their early stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement to distinguish among these degenerative disorders. Twenty-five MSA, 20 PSP, and 17 PD patients and 18 healthy controls were retrospectively studied. Axial diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained using a 3-T MR system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were precisely placed in the midbrain, pons, putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle, cerebellar white matter, and cerebellar dentate nucleus, and the regional ADC (rADC) value was calculated in each ROI. In MSA, rADC values in the pons, middle cerebellar peduncle, cerebellar white matter, and cerebellar dentate nucleus were significantly higher than in PSP, PD, and controls. Furthermore, rADC values in the posterior putamen were significantly higher in MSA than in PSP and controls. In PSP, rADC values were significantly higher in the globus pallidus and midbrain than in MSA, PD, and controls. Furthermore, rADC values in the caudate nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle were significantly higher in PSP than in MSA and controls. In PD, there were no significant differences in the rADC values compared to in MSA, PSP, and controls in all regions. Evaluation of rADC values in characteristic lesions in MSA, PSP, and PD by placing ROIs using 3-T systems can provide useful additional information for differentiating these disorders. (orig.)

  13. A large scale survey reveals that chromosomal copy-number alterations significantly affect gene modules involved in cancer initiation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigudosa Juan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations point towards the existence of a large number of neighborhoods composed of functionally-related gene modules that lie together in the genome. This local component in the distribution of the functionality across chromosomes is probably affecting the own chromosomal architecture by limiting the possibilities in which genes can be arranged and distributed across the genome. As a direct consequence of this fact it is therefore presumable that diseases such as cancer, harboring DNA copy number alterations (CNAs, will have a symptomatology strongly dependent on modules of functionally-related genes rather than on a unique "important" gene. Methods We carried out a systematic analysis of more than 140,000 observations of CNAs in cancers and searched by enrichments in gene functional modules associated to high frequencies of loss or gains. Results The analysis of CNAs in cancers clearly demonstrates the existence of a significant pattern of loss of gene modules functionally related to cancer initiation and progression along with the amplification of modules of genes related to unspecific defense against xenobiotics (probably chemotherapeutical agents. With the extension of this analysis to an Array-CGH dataset (glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate the validity of this approach to investigate the functional impact of CNAs. Conclusions The presented results indicate promising clinical and therapeutic implications. Our findings also directly point out to the necessity of adopting a function-centric, rather a gene-centric, view in the understanding of phenotypes or diseases harboring CNAs.

  14. Workshop on defining the significance of progressive brain change in schizophrenia: December 12, 2008 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) all-day satellite, Scottsdale, Arizona. The rapporteurs' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, Stefan J; Dickey, Chandlee; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Whitford, Thomas J; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2009-07-01

    In 1990 a satellite session of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Annual Meeting was held that focused on the question of whether progressive changes in brain structure occur in schizophrenia and this session raised considerable controversy. Eighteen years later, on December 12, 2008, after much data have since accumulated on this topic, a group of approximately 45 researchers gathered after the annual ACNP meeting to participate in a similar workshop on several unresolved questions still remaining: (1) How strong and consistent is the evidence? (2) Is there anatomic specificity to changes and is it disease specific or subject specific? (3) What is the time course? (4) What is the underlying pathophysiology (i.e. is it central to the disease process or is it due to neuroleptic treatment or other epiphenomena? (5) What is its clinical significance? and (6) Are there treatment implications? The day was chaired by Lynn E. DeLisi and co-chaired by Stephen J. Wood. Christos Pantelis and Jeffrey A. Lieberman extensively helped with its planning. The ACNP assisted in its organization as an official satellite of its annual meeting and several pharmaceutical companies provided support with unrestricted educational grants. The following is a summary of the sessions as recounted by rapporteurs whose job was to record as closely as possible the outcome of discussions on the above outlined questions.

  15. On the computational assessment of white matter hyperintensity progression: difficulties in method selection and bias field correction performance on images with significant white matter pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Gonzalez-Castro, Victor; Wang, Xin; Doubal, Fergus; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Centre for Clinical Brian Sciences, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ghandour, Dina T. [University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Subtle inhomogeneities in the scanner's magnetic fields (B{sub 0} and B{sub 1}) alter the intensity levels of the structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affecting the volumetric assessment of WMH changes. Here, we investigate the influence that (1) correcting the images for the B{sub 1} inhomogeneities (i.e. bias field correction (BFC)) and (2) selection of the WMH change assessment method can have on longitudinal analyses of WMH progression and discuss possible solutions. We used brain structural MRI from 46 mild stroke patients scanned at stroke onset and 3 years later. We tested three BFC approaches: FSL-FAST, N4 and exponentially entropy-driven homomorphic unsharp masking (E{sup 2}D-HUM) and analysed their effect on the measured WMH change. Separately, we tested two methods to assess WMH changes: measuring WMH volumes independently at both time points semi-automatically (MCMxxxVI) and subtracting intensity-normalised FLAIR images at both time points following image gamma correction. We then combined the BFC with the computational method that performed best across the whole sample to assess WMH changes. Analysis of the difference in the variance-to-mean intensity ratio in normal tissue between BFC and uncorrected images and visual inspection showed that all BFC methods altered the WMH appearance and distribution, but FSL-FAST in general performed more consistently across the sample and MRI modalities. The WMH volume change over 3 years obtained with MCMxxxVI with vs. without FSL-FAST BFC did not significantly differ (medians(IQR)(with BFC) = 3.2(6.3) vs. 2.9(7.4)ml (without BFC), p = 0.5), but both differed significantly from the WMH volume change obtained from subtracting post-processed FLAIR images (without BFC)(7.6(8.2)ml, p < 0.001). This latter method considerably inflated the WMH volume change as subtle WMH at baseline that became more intense at follow-up were counted as increase in the volumetric change. Measurement of WMH volume change remains

  16. Impact of changes in metabolic control on progression to photocoagulation for clinically significant macular oedema:a 20 year study of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, B.; Larsen, M.; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Although increasing hyperglycaemia, arterial hypertension and longer duration of diabetes raise the risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy, short-term benefits in terms of improved metabolic control and lowered blood pressure have not been demonstrated. We therefore examined ...

  17. The Significance of α-Synuclein, Amyloid-β and Tau Pathologies in Parkinson’s Disease Progression and Related Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Y.; Parkkinen, L.; Kempster, P.; Selikhova, M.; Lashley, T.; Holton, J.L.; Lees, A.J.; Revesz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is one of the milestones of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), with its neuropathological substrate still being a matter of debate, particularly regarding its potential mechanistic implications. Objective The aim of this study was to review the relative importance of Lewy-related α-synuclein and Alzheimer’s tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) pathologies in disease progression and dementia in PD. Methods We reviewed studies conducted at the Queen Square Brain Bank, Institute of Neurology, University College London, using large PD cohorts. Results Cortical Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies are associated with milestones of poorer prognosis and with non-tremor predominance, which have been, in turn, linked to dementia. The combination of these pathologies is the most robust neuropathological substrate of PD-related dementia, with cortical Aβ burden determining a faster progression to dementia. Conclusion The shared relevance of these pathologies in PD progression and dementia is in line with experimental data suggesting synergism between α-synuclein, tau and Aβ and with studies testing these proteins as disease biomarkers, hence favouring the eventual testing of therapeutic strategies targeting these proteins in PD. PMID:24028925

  18. Make new contribution to the development of uranium mining and metallurgy in 21ST century, based on scientific and technological progresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Delin

    2000-01-01

    The key project of national defense and nuclear energy, study on new techniques of uranium ore mining and uranium extraction, undertaken by Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy, and its main scientific research achievements during the 9th Five-year Plan are briefly introduced. Aim and tasks of work during the 10th Five-year Plan are determined

  19. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. How does the scientific progress in developing countries affect bibliometric impact measures of developed countries? A counterfactual case study on China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlschmidt, S.; Hinze, S.

    2016-07-01

    Many developed countries have found their bibliometric impact measures to be improving over the last decade. Also the BRICS states, the economically largest group of developing countries, observe a similar pattern. This uniform growth seems puzzling, as not every country can improve its relative performance to all other countries. A possible explanation for this uniform growth might be found in the dynamic environment and especially in the exponential growth of Chinese publications. We like to analyze how this unprecedented growth of contributions from a single country with its specific bibliometric characteristics affects the whole bibliometric measurement process. We show that due to the lowly cited Chinese publications the overall corpus of scientific publications grows especially in the lower tail and argue that this unequal increase in publications benefits especially the bibliometric impact measures of developed countries. The actual magnitude of this effect will be derived by contrasting the actual bibliometric world with a counterfactual one without China. (Author)

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  3. Progress report on the scientific investigation program for the Nevada Yucca Mountain Site, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1992, Number 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    In accordance with the requirements of section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992. This report is the sixth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not officially part of site characterization. Information on these activities is provided in order to fully integrate all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994: Volume 13, Number 3, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated the managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Progresso científico em pequenos ruminantes na primeira década do século XXI Scientific progress in small ruminants in the first decade of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kléber Tomás de Resende

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelos pequenos ruminantes aumentou nos últimos anos sob os aspectos produtivo e científico. No Brasil, caprinos e ovinos são os que despertam maior interesse econômico. Assim, este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de discutir o progresso científico com caprinos e ovinos nos últimos dez anos. Foram pesquisadas várias bases de dados, entre elas as do Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, da Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE e da Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - FAO. Na última década, os pequenos ruminantes têm merecido especial atenção dos pesquisadores, o que pode ser comprovado pelo aumento de 41% nas publicações mundiais envolvendo estas espécies, o que foi acompanhado por aumento ainda mais expressivo, 219%, em âmbito nacional. A evolução também foi observada sob os aspectos metodológicos dos projetos, ressaltando a abordagem multidisciplinar nas pesquisas mais atuais. Nos últimos dez anos, houve crescimento do aporte de recursos para editais temáticos demandados pela sociedade e pela cadeia da carne e do leite, além da preocupação com qualidade, competitividade e sustentabilidade.Worldwide interest in small ruminants has increased in recent years in both, the productive and scientific aspects. In Brazil, the same trend has been observed, however, among all small ruminants, goats and sheep can be highlighted. Thus, this review aimed to discuss scientific progress in goat and sheep in the last decade. Data were collected in different databases, such as Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  11. Cutting edges and weaving threads in the gene editing (Я)evolution: reconciling scientific progress with legal, ethical, and social concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune; Horst, Maja; Mortensen, Kell; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Gene-editing technology, such as CRISPR/Cas9, holds great promise for the advancement of science and many useful applications technology. This foundational technology enables modification of the genetic structure of any living organisms with unprecedented precision. Yet, in order to enhance its potential for societal benefit, it is necessary to adapt rules and produce adequate regulations. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in legal thinking. Any legislative initiative needs to consider both the benefits and the problematic aspects of gene editing, from a broader societal and value-based perspective. This paper stems from an interdisciplinary research project seeking to identify and discuss some of the most pressing legal implications of gene-editing technology and how to address these. While the questions raised by gene editing are global, laws and regulations are to a great extent bound by national borders. This paper presents a European perspective, written for a global audience, and intends to contribute to the global debate. The analysis will include brief references to corresponding USA rules in order to place these European debates in the broader international context. Our legal analysis incorporates interdisciplinary contributes concerning the scientific state of the art, philosophical thinking regarding the precautionary principle and dual-use issues as well as the importance of communication, social perception, and public debate. Focusing mainly in the main regulatory and patent law issues, we will argue that (a) general moratoriums and blank prohibitions do a disservice to science and innovation; (b) it is crucial to carefully consider a complex body of international and European fundamental rights norms applicable to gene editing; (c) these require further developments grounded in consistent and coherent implementation and interpretation; (d) legal development should follow a critical contextual approach capable of integrating

  12. Scientific Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This annual scientific report gives an concise overview of research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2007. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  13. Scientific Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor

  14. Scientific Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research.

  15. Scientific Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  16. Scientific Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research.

  17. Scientific Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor.

  18. Scientific Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research.

  19. Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  20. Scientific Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research.

  1. Scientific Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  2. Scientific Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research

  3. Brazilian scientific progress in pasture research during the first decade of XXI century Progresso científico em pastagem na primeira década do século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the scientific progress obtained in the past ten years in genetics and plant breeding, soil fertility and plant nutrition and the importance of target sward conditions for planning, controlling and recommending management grazing of tropical grasses. In addition, progress in crop-livestock integration systems and management alternatives for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission by beef cattle production systems, two very important areas related to sustainable production systems, will also be discussed.O objetivo neste trabalho é discutir os progressos científicos obtidos nos últimos dez anos em genética e melhoramento de plantas, fertilidade do solo e nutrição de plantas, além da importância dos objetivos concernentes a condições de pasto para planejamento, controle e recomendações de manejo de pastejo de gramíneas tropicais. Além disso, também serão discutidos o progresso nos sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária e as alternativas de gestão para a mitigação das emissões de gases de efeito estufa em sistemas de produção de gado de corte, duas áreas muito importantes associadas a sistemas de produção sustentável.

  4. The Uncertain of Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovina dÁvila Bordoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the existence of certainty in the scientific process, it seeks the truth, however, faced with the unknown, causes uncertainties and doubts. We used the bibliographical research, in which it systematized the scientific literature on epistemology and knowledge related to the scientific process and the uncertainties that surround him. The scientific process, though continuously seeks the truth, will not attain perfection, because the researcher deals with the unknown. The science seeks constantly new knowledge and progress with the criticism of the mistakes, seeks the truth, however these are provisional. It is concluded that all scientific knowledge is uncertain.

  5. Influence of the Scientific and Technical Progress upon the Fuel and Energy Complex of Ukraine until 2050: Methodology of Assessment of Long-term Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko Leonid A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes an attempt, using new methodological initial grounds by the works of leading foreign authors, to present an aggregate of qualitatively different conditions of development of the fuel and energy complex of Ukraine until 2050 in the context of forecasts of development of USA until 2100. The authors justify factors that significantly differentiate trajectories of future development of the Ukrainian energy sector and USA energy sector, which envisages development of own methodology and realisation of forecasts officially already developed by Ukrainian scientists. On the basis of this the article presents the authors’ comparative analysis of fuel and energy complexes of Ukraine and China.

  6. Progress report for '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podest, M.

    1990-08-01

    The 1989 Progress Report presents the most important scientific and technical achievements of the Nuclear Research Institute's research work. Some specialized products prepared at or fabricated by the NRI are mentioned as well. (author). 24 figs., 8 tabs., 101 refs

  7. [Progress in precision medicine: a scientific perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy for disease prevention and treatment by taking into account differences in genetics, environment and lifestyles among individuals and making precise diseases classification and diagnosis, which can provide patients with personalized, targeted prevention and treatment. Large-scale population cohort studies are fundamental for precision medicine research, and could produce best evidence for precision medicine practices. Current criticisms on precision medicine mainly focus on the very small proportion of benefited patients, the neglect of social determinants for health, and the possible waste of limited medical resources. In spite of this, precision medicine is still a most hopeful research area, and would become a health care practice model in the future.

  8. Industrial Revolution and Scientific and Technological Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fremdling, Rainer

    1996-01-01

    This working paper is a draft chapter for the UNESCO-History of Humanity. Different views on the concept and spread of the industrial revolution, which took place from the late 18th century onwards, are dealt with. By way of example the revolutionary character of technological change and the search

  9. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  10. Open scientific communication urged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

  11. 1997 Scientific Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes

  12. THE OBJECT AND FIELD OF ACTION’s PEDAGOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE, AND ITS SYSTEMATIZATION IN THE LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH / LA SIGNIFICATIVIDAD PEDAGÓGICA DEL OBJETO Y EL CAMPO DE ACCIÓN Y SU SISTEMATIZACIÓN EN LA LÓGICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaritza Tardo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It reflects on how to reveal the significance of scientific and pedagogical purpose and field of action in educational research through the scientific 'analysis argumentative logic, built by the researcher, in an attempt to improve teaching methodological guidance to those who want to venture into the construction process of scientific knowledge in this field. Subsequently, a critical analysis of the correspondence between the research logic and the formative nature of the objects and fields declared is done, by concrete examples of doctoral theses in the educational field, to contribute to the training of researchers.

  13. Balancing interests: limitations to the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications / Une balance des intérêts - Les restrictions au droit de bénéficier du progrès scientifique et de ses applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications (REBSP) is still, despite increased attention from United Nations (UN) human rights bodies and academics, very much unknown. Several studies and reports have been elaborated on the normative content and State obligations of

  14. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  15. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  16. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  17. The Revista Scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Revista Scientific aims to publish quality papers that include the perspective of analysis in educational settings. Together with www.indtec.com.ve, this electronic publication aims to promote and disseminate, with seriousness and rigor, the academic production in this field. Editorial of the new stage Revista Scientific was created with the aim of constituting a reference space for scientific research in the field of research analysis that is carried out within the universities in Latin America, once the distribution list hosted on the INDTEC platform (http://www.indtec.com.ve is consolidated as a space for dissemination and development of new ideas and initiatives. The first presentation of INDTEC Magazine was held in August 2016 in Venezuela. Thanks to the support of the INDTEC platform, SCIENTIFIC Magazine has been able to develop from the cooperative work of the people who make up its Editorial Committee, Academic Committee and Scientific Committee in Electronic Edition, and of the referees of each one of the numbers. Part of the success is due to the motivation of its co-editors and excellent professionals from different parts of the world: Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Venezuela, which form the various committees, with enthusiasm and joy participating in this project (whose organizational structure is presented in this edition and continues in increcendo. Also, the strategy adopted to edit a monographic number from the various events organized in the framework of the universities, has contributed to provide SCIENTIFIC with a point value speaker of intellectual progress in the field of education. SCIENTIFIC Magazine is currently indexed in ISI, International Scientific Indexing, Dubai - UAE; ROAD, the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ISSN International Center, France; REVENCYT-ULA, Venezuela; Google Scholar (Google Scholar, International Index; Published in Calaméo; ISSUU; Academia

  18. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  19. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  20. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the 'Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires' (DRN) during the year 1999. DRN is one of the CEA Institutions. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in English) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department for the year 1999 are presented giving information on the simulation of low mach number compressible flow, experimental irradiation of multi-materials, progress in the dry route conversion process of UF 6 to UO 2 , the neutronics, the CASCADE installation, the corium, the BWR type reactor cores technology, the reactor safety, the transmutation of americium and fuel cell flow studies, the crack propagation, the hybrid systems and the CEA sites improvement. (A.L.B.)

  1. Scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  2. Report of scientific results 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The scientific progress report of the HMI for 1977 gives a survey of the main results of HMI research in the fields of neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in biomedicine, geochemistry, reactor operation, and radionuclide production. After this, short summaries are given of HMI publications and papers in the above fields. (HK) [de

  3. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    This progress report describes the scientific work and research results done by the institute for experimental physics, atom and nuclear physics of the Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz in the period of 1982. The covered subject areas are ionization by cations, investigations of surface areas by light ions, measurement of stopping power in solids, data acquisition and aerosol physics. (A.N.)

  4. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science.

  5. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Sabbi, G.L.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Goodin, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed

  6. Scientific publications 1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This catalogue supplements the HMI report 'Scientific publications 1958-1972' (HMI-B-142). It lists all the publications by the Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin of the years 1973-1974. The catalogue contains progress reports, dissertations, publications from scientific journals and anthologies if these are available in print. The titles listed in this catalogue are based on the HMI's annual reports. The classification according to fields and departments follows the development of the institute as outlined in the annual reports. Further classification is done according to the year of publication. (orig./HK) [de

  7. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    scientific research and intellectual honesty of researchers which would be absolutely applicable in all situations and in all research institutions. A special form of plagiarism is self-plagiarism. Scientists need to take into consideration this form of plagiarism, though for now there is an attitude as much as their own words can be used without the word about plagiarism. If the authors cite their own research facilities already stated then they should be put in quote sand cite the source in which it was published. Science should not be exempt from disclosure and sanctioning plagiarism. In the fight against intellectual dishonesty on ethics education in science has a significant place. A general understanding of ethics in scientific research work in all its stages had to be acquired during the undergraduate course and continue to intensify. It is also important ethical aspect of the publishing industry,especially in small and developing economies,because the issuer has an educational role in the development of the scientific community that aspires to relish so. In this paper author describe his experiences in discovering of plagiarism as Editor-in-Chief of three indexed medical journals with presentations of several examples of plagiarism recorded in countries in Southeastern Europe.

  8. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    scientific research and intellectual honesty of researchers which would be absolutely applicable in all situations and in all research institutions. A special form of plagiarism is self-plagiarism. Scientists need to take into consideration this form of plagiarism, though for now there is an attitude as much as their own words can be used without the word about plagiarism. If the authors cite their own research facilities already stated then they should be put in quote sand cite the source in which it was published. Science should not be exempt from disclosure and sanctioning plagiarism. In the fight against intellectual dishonesty on ethics education in science has a significant place. A general understanding of ethics in scientific research work in all its stages had to be acquired during the undergraduate course and continue to intensify. It is also important ethical aspect of the publishing industry,especially in small and developing economies,because the issuer has an educational role in the development of the scientific community that aspires to relish so. In this paper author describe his experiences in discovering of plagiarism as Editor-in-Chief of three indexed medical journals with presentations of several examples of plagiarism recorded in countries in Southeastern Europe. PMID:23378684

  9. SCIENTIFIC RATIONALITY: ESSENCE, TYPES, TREND FOR INTEGRATION, PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2012-10-01

    It is proven that in the time of substantial advancement of contemporary technology, incorporation of humanitarian values into the domain of natural and engineering sciences and formulation of the issue of ecological and ethical examination of engineering projects will prevent a global ecological catastrophe and collapse of the civilization.

  10. Metadata in Scientific Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Discussions of standards in the scientific community have been compared to religious wars for many years. The only things scientists agree on in these battles are either "standards are not useful" or "everyone can benefit from using my standard". Instead of achieving the goal of facilitating interoperable communities, in many cases the standards have served to build yet another barrier between communities. Some important progress towards diminishing these obstacles has been made in the data layer with the merger of the NetCDF and HDF scientific data formats. The universal adoption of XML as the standard for representing metadata and the recent adoption of ISO metadata standards by many groups around the world suggests that similar convergence is underway in the metadata layer. At the same time, scientists and tools will likely need support for native tongues for some time. I will describe an approach that combines re-usable metadata "components" and restful web services that provide those components in many dialects. This approach uses advanced XML concepts of referencing and linking to construct complete records that include reusable components and builds on the ISO Standards as the "unabridged dictionary" that encompasses the content of many other dialects.

  11. Not Just a "Fleck" on the Epistemic Landscape: A Reappraisal of Ludwik Fleck's Views of the Nature of Scientific Progress and Change in Relation to Contemporary Educational and Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Perla, Rocco J.

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to Thomas Kuhn, the work of Ludwik Fleck, a Polish-born physician, microbiologist, and epistemologist, is conspicuously absent from the science education literature. His originally obscure monograph first published in German in 1935, Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact, anticipates a number of views explicated by contemporary philosophers of science, cognitive psychologists, and learning theorists, and Fleck's main thesis is, is many respects, strikingly similar to the oft-cited thesis developed later by Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Fleck's work is perhaps the best example of the social influence on scientific commitment and thinking and is one of the first works to suggest different scales or varieties of change in science. At the same time as Fleck's work gains recognition, momentum, and force in philosophical circles, some educators are calling for a critical appraisal of Kuhn's impact on science education. This climate provides an ideal opportunity to assess (or perhaps in some cases reassess) the value of Fleck's work in a science education context. The primary aim of this article, therefore, is to introduce educators in general, and science educators in particular, to the main ideas developed by Fleck in his Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Throughout this article, Fleck's ideas are compared and contrasted to those of Thomas Kuhn—arguably one of the most popular referents in nature of science studies over the past decade. As will be discussed, many of the ideas developed by Fleck anticipate central issues and perspectives in philosophy, epistemology, sociology, education, and cognitive psychology.

  12. Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error

  13. Progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupka, A.; Dirninger, G.

    1982-01-01

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1981. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  14. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupka, A.; Wild, E.; Dirninger, G.

    1983-01-01

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1982. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  15. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: the International Collaborative on Progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert J; Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-11-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS.

  16. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: The International Collaborative on Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  17. Quarterly Progress Report (January 1 to March 31, 1950)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    1950-04-01

    This is the first of a series of Quarterly Reports. These reports will deal primarily with the progress made in our scientific program during a three months period. Those interested in matters pertaining to organization, administration, complete scientific program, personnel and other matters not directly involved in current scientific progress are referred to our Annual Progress Report which is issued in January. We have attempted to describe new information that appears significant, or of interest, to other scientists within the Atomic Energy Commission Laboratories. No effort has been made, however, to detail progress in each and every research project. Little or no reference will therefore be found to the projects in which progress during the current period is considered too inconclusive. Since our organizational structure is departmental, the work described herein is arranged in the following sequence: (1) Accelerator Project; (2) Biology Department; (3) Chemistry Department; (4) Instrumentation and Health Physic8 Department; (5) Medical Department; (6) Physics Department; and (7) Reactor Science and Engineering Department.

  18. Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing in Plasma Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William

    2005-03-01

    Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research during the 21st Century. For example, the Department of Energy's ``Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing'' (SciDAC) Program was motivated in large measure by the fact that formidable scientific challenges in its research portfolio could best be addressed by utilizing the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing technology together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies. The imperative is to translate such progress into corresponding increases in the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems such as those encountered in high temperature plasma research. If properly validated against experimental measurements and analytic benchmarks, these codes can provide reliable predictive capability for the behavior of a broad range of complex natural and engineered systems. This talk reviews recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations with some illustrative examples taken from the plasma science applications area. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by the combination of access to powerful new computational resources together with innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning a huge range in time and space scales. In particular, the plasma science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations

  19. Engineering women re-visioning women's scientific achievements and impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Tietjen, Jill S

    2017-01-01

    Packed with fascinating biographical sketches of female engineers, this chronological history of engineering brightens previously shadowy corners of our increasingly engineered world’s recent past. In addition to a detailed description of the diverse arenas encompassed by the word ‘engineering’ and a nuanced overview of the development of the field, the book includes numerous statistics and thought provoking facts about women’s roles in the achievement of thrilling scientific innovations. This text is a unique resource for students launching research projects in engineering and related fields, professionals interested in gaining a broader understanding of how engineering as a discipline has been impacted by events of global significance, and scholars of women’s immense, often obscured, contributions to scientific progress. Illuminates the many significant contributions of women in engineering Educates readers about the evolution of the field of engineering over the last century Demonstrates how key ...

  20. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind

    2017-07-01

    The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressing several prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.

  1. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  2. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  3. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  4. Scientific impact: opportunity and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene Z; Alexander, Gregory L; Wyman, Jean F; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Porock, Davina; Wurzbach, Mary E; Rawl, Susan M; Conn, Vicki S

    2010-08-01

    Recent National Institutes of Health changes have focused attention on the potential scientific impact of research projects. Research with the excellent potential to change subsequent science or health care practice may have high scientific impact. Only rigorous studies that address highly significant problems can generate change. Studies with high impact may stimulate new research approaches by changing understanding of a phenomenon, informing theory development, or creating new research methods that allow a field of science to move forward. Research with high impact can transition health care to more effective and efficient approaches. Studies with high impact may propel new policy developments. Research with high scientific impact typically has both immediate and sustained influence on the field of study. The article includes ideas to articulate potential scientific impact in grant applications as well as possible dissemination strategies to enlarge the impact of completed projects.

  5. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  6. Dyslexia: The evolution of a scientific concept

    OpenAIRE

    FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 25 years, scientific understanding of dyslexia and other learning disabilities has seen rapid progress in domains involving definition and classification, neuropsychological correlates, neurobiological factors, and intervention. I discuss this progress, emphasizing the central organizing influence of research and theory on basic academic skills on identification and sampling issues. I also emphasize how neuropsychological approaches to dyslexia have evolved and the importance of a...

  7. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  8. 2004 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  9. 2004 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  10. Progresso científico em reprodução na primeira década do século XXI Scientific progress in reproduction research during the first decade of XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Pereira Neves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo nesta revisão é mostrar os principais avanços científicos obtidos na área da reprodução animal e como estes podem afetar a eficiência reprodutiva e produtiva do rebanho bovino brasileiro. Com o conhecimento dos mecanismos envolvidos no controle da fisiologia reprodutiva, em níveis endócrino, celular e molecular, foi possível o desenvolvimento das biotécnicas reprodutivas, destacando-se a IATF, que tem sido utilizada em larga escala, por permitir a multiplicação de animais superiores geneticamente, aumentar a taxa de natalidade e ser eficaz no ajuste da estação reprodutiva notadamente em pecuária de corte. Outras biotécnicas, como a TE, PIVE, clonagem e transgênese, também são fundamentais no desenvolvimento de pesquisas de ciência básica, medicina e preservação animal. São apresentados também os principais fatores de manejo reprodutivo nutricional e sanitário que afetam a produtividade da pecuária leiteira. Contudo, o incentivo às pesquisas é fundamental para que estas biotécnicas sejam aprimoradas e continuem auxiliando o desenvolvimento da pecuária nacional.The aim of the review is to show the major scientific advances achieved in the animal reproduction area and how they can affect the productive and reproductive performance of cattle in Brazil. The knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the reproductive physiology control, in endocrine, cellular and molecular level allowed the development of reproductive biotechnologies. Among these the TAI has been used in large scale, with some advantages such as the multiplication of genetically superior animals, increasing on birth rate in addition to being an effective tool for adjusting the breeding season especially in beef cattle. Other biotechnologies such as ET, IVEP, cloning and transgenesis are also fundamental in the development of basic science, medicine and animal preservation researches. The main nutritional, reproductive and health management

  11. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 885-894 ...

  12. Quantum chemistry and scientific calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Polytechnic School research team, concerning the quantum chemistry and the scientific calculus. The research program involves the following topics: the transition metals - carbon monoxide systems, which are a suitable model for the chemisorption phenomena; the introduction of the vibronic perturbations in the magnetic screen constants; the gauge invariance method (used in the calculation of the magnetic perturbations), extended to the case of the static or dynamic electrical polarizabilities. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  13. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent progress in understanding climate thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, Peter; Bamber, Jonathan; Halladay, Kate; Harper, Anna B.; Jackson, Laura C.; Kay, Gillian; Kruijt, Bart; Lowe, Jason A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Ridley, Jeff; Srokosz, Meric; Turley, Carol; Williamson, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the

  15. Progresso científico em equideocultura na 1ª década do século XXI Scientific progress in equine production at 1st decade of the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Queiroz de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, como nos demais países, os investimentos em pesquisa com equinos estão relacionados às perspectivas dos segmentos da indústria equina no país. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de revisar a literatura corrente com a perspectiva de avaliar o recente desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico na produção de equídeos. As pesquisas estão relacionadas às diversas áreas da equideocultura, como produção e manejo, genética e melhoramento, nutrição e alimentação, reprodução, medicina e cirurgia, doenças, sanidade e defesa sanitária. Há ainda pesquisas em áreas relacionadas ao hipismo, envolvendo fisiologia esportiva, equitação e treinamento de equinos e também, além de estudos sobre o comércio nacional e internacional de equinos. Considerando todas as áreas da equideocultura, o maior número de artigos publicados está relacionado às áreas da medicina e cirurgia e doenças e sanidade. Na área da Zootecnia, predominam as publicações de artigos associados à nutrição e alimentação dos equinos. No entanto, deve-se considerar que os interesses do agronegócio do cavalo, das associações de criadores, dos governos e da sociedade em geral influenciam as pesquisas e, consequentemente, as publicações dos artigos e trabalhos técnicos sobre equídeos.In Brazil, as in other countries, investments in research with horses are related to the objectives of the equine industry in the country. This study aimed to review the current literature with the purpose of assessing the latest scientific and technological development in horse's production. Researchers are related to many areas as in production and management, genetics and breeding, nutrition and feeding, reproduction, medicine and surgery, diseases and health protection. There is still research in areas related to equestrian sports, involving equine exercise physiology, riding and training horses and also studies on national and international equine

  16. Progress test utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Cees; Freeman, Adrian; Collares, Carlos Fernando

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of progress testing. A utopia is described where medical schools would work together to develop and administer progress testing. This would lead to a significant reduction of cost, an increase in the quality of measurement and phenomenal feedback to learner and school. Progress testing would also provide more freedom and resources for more creative in-school assessment. It would be an educationally attractive alternative for the creation of cognitive licensing exams. A utopia is always far away in the future, but by formulating a vision for that future we may engage in discussions on how to get there.

  17. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0008580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    We report scientific, technical, and organizational accomplishments under DE-SC0008580. This includes 10 publications, 5 patent or provisional patent applications, beamtime with important results at both LCLS and APS, and new progress in understanding target design for x-ray heating experiments at x-ray heating facilities.

  18. On the significance of magnetospheric research for progress in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C-G.; Akasofu, S-I.; Alfen, H.

    1978-04-01

    Recent discoveries by means of in situ measurements have led to a substantial revision of our picture of the magnetosphere and parts of the heliosphere. This concerns such essential aspects as the character and distribution of electric fields and currents, the ways in which charged particles are energized, and the chemical composition of the magnetospheric plasma. This revision reflects the fact that even in fundamental respects, real cosmical plasmas behave in different ways than predicted by the idealized models that have traditionally been used in magnetospheric physics as well as in astrophysics. The new understanding of the general properties of cosmical plasma that has been, and continues to be, provided by in situ measurements gives us a much improved basis on which to interpret astrophysical observations

  19. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  20. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  1. Evaluation of scientific production in Oral Surgery in Italy from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, V L; De Carlo, A; Lorusso, F; Tetè, S; Piattelli, A

    2014-06-20

    Dental research, especially in the field of oral surgery, showed a strong and significant increase during the last years. This was probably determined by the introduction among the clinicians of different therapeutic protocols through biomaterials engineering, and by the large broadcasting of scientific knowledge due to new media such as the internet. The aim of this work was to analyze the scientific production of a sample of Italian Oral Surgeons from 1998 to 2012. The scientific production of 252 Active Members belonging to three associations of Italian Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, SICOI) was examined. The number of authors, the number of publications and the number of citation were quantified for three periods of 5 years each from the first year considered along 15 years. The overall sample was then divided into two groups, Academics and Not Academics, in order to differently assess the scientific production conducted inside or outside the University. Over the years, scientific production increased considerably, with a progression not strictly proportional if compared to the number of authors, especially in the last 5 years. By spearately considering the Academics and the Not Academics authors, the biggest contribution to the scientific production increasingly came from the last 5 years, both in terms of authors' and published papers number. The results reported in this bibliometric analysis show how scientific research increasingly pursued by clinicians in Oral Surgery in the last 15 years.

  2. Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)-these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work.

  3. Lexical Features of Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rusko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a lot of emphasis is placed of the ability of a person to successfully communicate in any sphere of activity, which along with upbringing and education is among the factors that determine a person’s culture. In the context of rapid scientific and technological progress, it is vital to constantly exchange relevant infor- mation. The effectiveness of this process relies not only on the proficient knowledge of the subject and the ability to make grammatically correct sentences, but to a large extent on the level of competence in scientific language. The present article attempts to consider the interaction of discourse and vocabulary, different types of cognitive phenomena responsible for the use of a language in real time and related to the language as a means of storing and organising information. Analysing and classifying some key elements of a scientific discourse lexicon contributes to the development of certain provisions of lexicology, functional stylistics, cognitive linguistics and terminology. The results of the analysis may be advantageous both to linguistics and teaching the language for specific purposes.

  4. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  5. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  6. Progress toward heavy-ion IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Callahan, D.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Goodin, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of heavy-ion fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy-ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a ∼3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy-ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLIFE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from X-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLIFE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HIF. A target injector experiment capable of >5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass-production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed

  7. Progress in nanotechnology for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, V; Vittorio, O; Riggio, C; Cuschieri, A

    2010-06-01

    This review based on the Wickham lecture given by AC at the 2009 SMIT meeting in Sinaia outlines the progress made in nano-technology for healthcare. It describes in brief the nature of nano-materials and their unique properties which accounts for the significant research both in scientific institutions and industry for translation into new therapies embodied in the emerging field of nano-medicine. It stresses that the potential of nano-medicine to make significant inroads for more effective therapies both for life-threatening and life-disabling disorders will only be achieved by high-quality life science research. The first generation of passive nano-diagnostics based on nanoparticle contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging is well established in clinical practice and new such contrast agents are undergoing early clinical evaluation. Likewise active (second generation) nano-therapies, exemplified by targeted control drug release systems are undergoing early clinical evaluation. The situation concerning other nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is less advanced although considerable progress has been made on their coating for aqueous dispersion and functionalisation to enable carriage of drugs, genes and fluorescent markers. The main problem related to the clinical use of these nanotubes is that there is no consent among scientists on the fate of such nano-materials following injection or implantation in humans. Provided carbon nanotubes are manufactured to certain medical criteria (length around 1 mum, purity of 97-99% and low Fe content) they exhibit no cytotoxicity on cell cultures and demonstrate full bio-compatibility on in vivo animal studies. The results of recent experimental studies have demonstrated the potential of technologies based on CNTs for low voltage wireless electro-chemotherapy of tumours and for electro-stimulation therapies for cardiac, neurodegenerative and skeletal and visceral muscle

  8. The Classical Model of Science: a Millennia-Old Model of Scientific Rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W.R.; Betti, A.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout more than two millennia philosophers adhered massively to ideal standards of scientific rationality going back ultimately to Aristotle's Analytica posteriora. These standards got progressively shaped by and adapted to new scientific needs and tendencies. Nevertheless, a core of conditions

  9. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or... cultural resources, park lands, prime farmlands, wetlands, wild and scenic rivers, or ecologically critical...

  10. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  11. Multimodos e múltiplas Representações, aprendizagem significativa e subjetividade: três referenciais conciliáveis da educação científica Multimodal and multiple representation, significant learning and subjectivity: three reconcilable scientific education frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A linha de pesquisa em multimodos e múltiplas representações vem atualmente sendo inspiradora de ações instrucionais na educação científica. Partindo dos fundamentos que justificam um encaminhamento didático à luz dessas referências, este trabalho procura mostrar que há compatibilidade dos seus fundamentos com a teoria da aprendizagem significativa de Ausubel e com as questões levantadas pelas pesquisas que indicam a necessidade de se considerar a subjetividade dos alunos presentes numa sala de aula. Essencialmente, procuramos argumentar que a promoção de um ensino por meio de multimodos e múltiplas representações é consistente com o ambiente plural das subjetividades existentes numa sala de aula e com uma aprendizagem significativa.The research line in multi-modal and multiple representations is being currently inspiring instruction of actions in the scientific education. Starting by the foundations that justify a didactic direction in the light of theses references, this work tries to show that there is compatibility of their foundations with the theory of the significant learning of Ausubel, and with the lifted up subjects for the researches that indicate the need to consider the students' subjective diversity present in a classroom. Essentially, we tried to argue that the promotion of a teaching through multiple and multi-modal representation is consistent with the plural atmosphere of the existent subjectivities in a classroom and with a significant learning.

  12. Age and Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  13. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  14. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  16. Urban ecological systems: scientific foundations and a decade of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, S T A; Cadenasso, M L; Grove, J M; Boone, Christopher G; Groffman, Peter M; Irwin, Elena; Kaushal, Sujay S; Marshall, Victoria; McGrath, Brian P; Nilon, C H; Pouyat, R V; Szlavecz, Katalin; Troy, Austin; Warren, Paige

    2011-03-01

    Urban ecological studies, including focus on cities, suburbs, and exurbs, while having deep roots in the early to mid 20th century, have burgeoned in the last several decades. We use the state factor approach to highlight the role of important aspects of climate, substrate, organisms, relief, and time in differentiating urban from non-urban areas, and for determining heterogeneity within spatially extensive metropolitan areas. In addition to reviewing key findings relevant to each state factor, we note the emergence of tentative "urban syndromes" concerning soils, streams, wildlife and plants, and homogenization of certain ecosystem functions, such as soil organic carbon dynamics. We note the utility of the ecosystem approach, the human ecosystem framework, and watersheds as integrative tools to tie information about multiple state factors together. The organismal component of urban complexes includes the social organization of the human population, and we review key modes by which human populations within urban areas are differentiated, and how such differentiation affects environmentally relevant actions. Emerging syntheses in land change science and ecological urban design are also summarized. The multifaceted frameworks and the growing urban knowledge base do however identify some pressing research needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Science, democracy and emerging threats to scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Stephan M

    2012-08-23

    Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system) and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes?

  18. Science, democracy and emerging threats to scientific progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system) and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes? PMID:22916710

  19. Progress and scientific results in the TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coda, S.

    2011-01-01

    The TCV tokamak has the dual mission of supporting ITER and exploring alternative paths to a fusion reactor. Its most unique tools are a 4.5 MW electron cyclotron resonance heating system with seven real-time controllable launchers and a plasma control system with 16 independent shaping coils. Recent upgrades in temperature, density and rotation diagnostics are being followed by new turbulence and suprathermal electron diagnostics, and a new digital real-time network has been commissioned. The shape control flexibility of TCV has enabled the generation and control of the first 'snowflake' divertor, characterized by a null point in which both the poloidal field and its gradient vanish. The predicted increases in flux expansion and edge magnetic shear have been verified experimentally, and stable EC-heated snowflake ELMy H-modes have been obtained and characterized. ECCD modulation techniques have been used to study the role of the current profile in energy transport, and simulations reproduce the results robustly. The relation between impurity and electron density gradients in L-mode is explained in terms of neoclassical and turbulent drives. Studies of torqueless plasma rotation have continued, highlighting the important role of MHD and sawtooth relaxations in determining the rotation profiles. A newly predicted mechanism for turbulent momentum transport associated with up-down plasma asymmetry has been verified in TCV. Sawtooth period control, neoclassical tearing mode control and soft x-ray emission profile control have been demonstrated in TCV using the new digital control hardware, as a step on the way to more complex applications.

  20. Science, democracy and emerging threats to scientific progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Stephan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes?

  1. The BGC Feedbacks Scientific Focus Area 2016 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Randerson, James T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The BGC Feedbacks Project will identify and quantify the feedbacks between biogeochemical cycles and the climate system, and quantify and reduce the uncertainties in Earth System Models (ESMs) associated with those feedbacks. The BGC Feedbacks Project will contribute to the integration of the experimental and modeling science communities, providing researchers with new tools to compare measurements and models, thereby enabling DOE to contribute more effectively to future climate assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  2. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  3. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  4. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  5. Scientific meeting abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields

  6. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  7. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  8. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    The phrase pre-modern scientific may be used to describe certain attitudes and ..... But unfortunately, in the general atmosphere of poor education and collective fears .... present day science and technology that old time beliefs and traditional ...

  9. WITHER SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No library or information service and especially in a developing .... Good public relations, consultancy services including bilateral and ... project proposal for the creation of a scientific and technological information ... For example, in 1995 the ...

  10. Choosing ESRO's first scientific satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arturo

    1992-11-01

    The choice of the scientific payloads of the European Space Research Organization's (ESRO's) first generation of satellites is analyzed. Concentration is on those aspects of the decision process that involved more directly the scientific community and that emerged as major issues in the discussion of the Launching Program Advisory Committee (LPAC). The main theme was the growing competition between the various fields of space science within the progressive retrenching of the Organization's financial resources available for the satellite program. A general overview of the status of the program by the end of 1966 is presented. The choice of the first small satellites' payloads (ESRO 1 and 2, and HEOS-A) and the difficult definition of the TD satellite program are discussed. This part covers a time span going from early 1963 to the spring of 1966. In the second part, the narrative starts from the spring of 1967, when the decision to recommend a second HEOS-type satellite was taken, and then analyzes the complex situation determined by the crisis of the TD program in 1968, and the debates which eventually led to the abandonment of TD-2 and the start of the far less ambitious ESRO 5 project.

  11. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...... the importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....

  12. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  13. Scientific Integrity Policy Creation and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ensuring the integrity of science was a priority for the Obama Administration. In March 2009, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum that recognized the need for the public to be able to trust the science and scientific process informing public policy decisions. In 2010, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued a Memorandum providing guidelines for Federal departments and agencies to follow in developing scientific integrity policies. This Memorandum describes minimum standards for: (1) strengthening the foundations of scientific integrity in government, including by shielding scientific data and analysis from inappropriate political influence; (2) improving public communication about science and technology by promoting openness and transparency; (3) enhancing the ability of Federal Advisory Committees to provide independent scientific advice; and (4) supporting the professional development of government scientists and engineers. The Memorandum called upon the heads of departments and agencies to develop scientific integrity policies that meet these requirements. At the end of the Obama Administration, 24 Federal departments and agencies had developed and implemented scientific integrity policies consistent with the OSTP guidelines. This year, there are significant questions as to the Trump Administration's commitment to these scientific integrity policies and interest in the Congress in codifying these policies in law. The session will provide an update on the status of agency scientific integrity policies and legislation.

  14. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  15. Criminologyof the future: interdisciplinary scientific connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyan Yu.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of interdisciplinary scientific connections of the modern criminology conditional on the open character of this science and the necessity of its further development are given. The narrow-purpose character of criminological researches is noted: trivial subject matter; the criminologists’ lack of psychological, psychiatric, economical, historical, biological, ethnological and other knowledge; insufficiency of complex interdisciplinary works and empirical studies. Different viewpoints on the type of criminologists’ education are analyzed. That emphasizes the necessity of cooperation between criminology and other sciences, such as: sociology, demography, culturology, psychology, economics, pedagogics, psychiatry, ethnology, history, biology, political science, philosophy and others. The phenomenon of criminology is argued: it studies a “bad”, criminal, immoral person unlike other sciences (it belongs to the number of sciences which object is person. The main parameter of criminology as a science is examined – its subject which allows to distinguish it from other legal disciplines especially from criminal law. New aspects of interconnection between criminology and criminal procedure, criminalistics, the theory of investigation activity and criminal executive law are shown. The stable connections with family law, banking law, financial law and administrative law are considered. The author emphasizes the significant potential of developing criminology in its connection with nonlegal sciences: sociology, psychiatry, economics, statistics, psychology (including criminal psychology, biology and philosophy. It is noted that prospects and progress of criminology are possible only in its cooperation with other sciences.

  16. Technology Pathway Partnership Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John C. Dr.; Godby, Larry A.

    2012-04-26

    This report covers the scientific progress and results made in the development of high efficiency multijunction solar cells and the light concentrating non-imaging optics for the commercial generation of renewable solar energy. During the contract period the efficiency of the multijunction solar cell was raised from 36.5% to 40% in commercially available fully qualified cells. In addition significant strides were made in automating production process for these cells in order to meet the costs required to compete with commercial electricity. Concurrent with the cells effort Boeing also developed a non imaging optical systems to raise the light intensity at the photovoltaic cell to the rage of 800 to 900 suns. Solar module efficiencies greater than 30% were consistently demonstrated. The technology and its manufacturing were maturated to a projected price of < $0.015 per kWh and demonstrated by automated assembly in a robotic factory with a throughput of 2 MWh/yr. The technology was demonstrated in a 100 kW power plant erected at California State University Northridge, CA.

  17. Redressing the inverted pyramid of scientific publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-11-01

    Scientific publishing is currently undergoing a progressively rapid transformation away from the traditional subscription model. With the Open Access movement in full swing, existing business practices and future plans are coming under increasing scrutiny, while new "big deals" are being made at breakneck speed. Scientists can rightfully ask themselves if all these changes are going the right way, and if not, what can be done about it.

  18. The Scientific & Democratic Revolution in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Flecha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main issue dealt with in this theoretical paper is the explanation of the starting scientific and democratic revolution both in the educative field and in the educative research. In addition, evidence-based arguments are included to provide validity of some affirmations. The first section argues that the social sciences are the daughters and an essential part of democracy. A few historical arguments about the way in which the dominant classes have slowed down the scientific progress and the development of people that make it possible. In the second section, it is analyzed the opposition of feudal universities to this unstoppable beginning of what could be called the scientific and democratic revolution. At the same time, we deal with its ambivalent character requiring to be supported and to be criticized so that it can be improved. In the third section, we expound the way in which this progress has provide some conditions that makes it possible to overcome the strong gender-based violence happening in our institutions of higher education and makes it also possible that women who were persecuted are now transforming our universities. Influences and criticism to our university feudalism, made by social movements such as the named 'Spanish Revolution', appear in the fourth section. In the fifth and last section, we offer a proposal to promote the scientific, democratic, and revolutionary approach of the university.

  19. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  20. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2013 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:  - Monday 9 September 9:00 - 18:00  - Tuesday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00

  1. CERN scientific book fair 2010

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2010 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Some twelve companies will be present and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on offer. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground floor near the Restaurant 1 on Tuesday 7th and Wednesday 8th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Imperial College Press, McGraw-Hill, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, World Scientific. Fair opening times: Tuesday 7 September 9:00 &ndash...

  2. Annual progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP 2 -800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment [fr

  3. Scientific computer simulation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizer, Joshua S.; Heller, A. Kevin; Oberkampf, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Before the results of a scientific computer simulation are used for any purpose, it should be determined if those results can be trusted. Answering that question of trust is the domain of scientific computer simulation review. There is limited literature that focuses on simulation review, and most is specific to the review of a particular type of simulation. This work is intended to provide a foundation for a common understanding of simulation review. This is accomplished through three contributions. First, scientific computer simulation review is formally defined. This definition identifies the scope of simulation review and provides the boundaries of the review process. Second, maturity assessment theory is developed. This development clarifies the concepts of maturity criteria, maturity assessment sets, and maturity assessment frameworks, which are essential for performing simulation review. Finally, simulation review is described as the application of a maturity assessment framework. This is illustrated through evaluating a simulation review performed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In making these contributions, this work provides a means for a more objective assessment of a simulation’s trustworthiness and takes the next step in establishing scientific computer simulation review as its own field. - Highlights: • We define scientific computer simulation review. • We develop maturity assessment theory. • We formally define a maturity assessment framework. • We describe simulation review as the application of a maturity framework. • We provide an example of a simulation review using a maturity framework

  4. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  5. Making better scientific figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  6. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  7. Women Scientific Researchers in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettachy, Amina; Maaroufi, Fatiha; Nouira, Asmae; Baitoul, Mimouna

    2009-04-01

    Despite Moroccan progress in working toward gender equity, and the removal of many discriminatory practices and barriers for women, females are still significantly underrepresented in most fields, particularly science. Attitudes about the role of women in society, which continue to define careers as either male or female, are largely responsible for this imbalance. We present statistics about the current status of women and give recommendations to encourage girls and women to pursue and take leadership positions in science.

  8. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-01

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  9. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  10. Factors that influence career progression among postdoctoral clinical academics: a scoping review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, V.; Barratt, H.; Fulop, N.; Rees, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery. / Objectives: To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. / Design: ...

  11. Factors that influence career progression among postdoctoral clinical academics: a scoping review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, Veronica; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Background The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery. Objectives To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. Design This st...

  12. Scientific Community in Algeria: Adopting Traditions and Developing Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana I. Tyukaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of scientific development in Algeria, which has not been long, represents a series of continual rises and falls. The Algerian leadership and researchers have been making efforts to create Algeria's national science through protection from the western scientific tradition, which is reminiscent of the colonial period of the country, and at the same time adoption of scientific knowledge and scientific institutions functioning principles from abroad, with no organizational or scientific experience of their own. Since the time the independent Algerian state was established, its scientific development has been inevitably coupled with active support of European countries, especially France, and other western and non-western states. Today the Algerian leadership is highly devoted to the modernization of the national scientific and research potential in strong cooperation with its foreign partners. The article concentrates on examining the present period (the 2000s of the scientific development in Algeria. The main conclusion is that there still is a number of problems - for Algeria until now lacks an integral scientific community with the state preserving its dominating role in science and research activities. Despite these difficulties, the Algerian science has made an outstanding progress. The efficiently built organizational scientific structure, the growing science and technology cooperation with foreign countries as well as the increasing state expenses in science allow to hope for further success of the Algerian scientific development.

  13. Scientific annual report 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on scientific research at DESY in 1972. The activities in the field of electron-nucleon scattering, photoproduction and synchrotron radiation get a special mention. It is also reported on the work on the double storage ring as well as on the extension to the synchrotron. (WL/LN) [de

  14. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Fonda, C.; Zennaro, M.

    2006-11-01

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  15. Report of scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The findings of R+D activities of the HMI radiation chemistry department in the fields of pulsed radiolysis, reaction kinematics, insulators and plastics are presented as well as the scientific publications and lectures of HMI staff and visitors including theoretical contributions, theses and dissertations, and conference papers. (HK) [de

  16. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  17. Is risk analysis scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Scientific Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.

  19. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  20. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information in policymaking. The selection of scientists and technology professionals for positions in the... Administration on a wide range of issues, including improvement of public health, protection of the environment... technological findings and conclusions. If scientific and technological information is developed and used by the...

  1. Scientific annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the scientific research at DESY in 1973, which included the first storage of electrons in the double storage ring DORIS. Also mentioned are the two large spectrometers PLUTO and DASP, and experiments relating to elementary particles, synchrotron radiation, and the improvement of the equipment are described. (WL/AK) [de

  2. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  3. 1995 Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This annual scientific report of SCK-CEN presents a comprehensive coverage and research activities in the filed of (a) waste and site restoration (b) reactor safety and radiation protection (c) operation of BR2 Materials Testing Reactor and (d) services provided by the center (analysis for characterization of waste packages, nuclear measurements, low-level radioactivity measurements).

  4. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cushing, R.; Vasyunin, D.; Laat, C. de; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and

  5. 2003 Scientific Technological Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, A.; Gayoso Caballero, C.; Robles Nique, A.; Olivera Lescano, P.

    2004-08-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects

  6. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL)

  7. Scientific Tourism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its

  8. Turning Scientific Presentations into Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To increase students' confidence in giving scientific presentations, students were shown how to present scientific findings as a narrative story. Students who were preparing to give a scientific talk attended a workshop in which they were encouraged to experience the similarities between telling a personal anecdote and presenting scientific data.…

  9. [Scientific reductionism and social control of mind. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra Velázquez, Leonardo

    In the second part of this essay, the progressive subordination of scientific endeavor and knowledge of business and profit is pointed out. For instance, the way facts are prioritized over concepts and ideas in scientific knowledge can translate into technological innovation, central to enterprise competitiveness and key to social mechanisms of control (military, cybernetic, ideological). Overcoming the scientific reductionism approach indicates recognizing the need to define progress in another way, one that infuses scientific knowledge with real liberating and inquisitive power. Power is essential in the search for a more collaborative, inclusive and pluralistic society where respect for human dignity and care for the ecosystem that we live in are prioritized. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  11. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  12. Scientific Programming in Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fortran programming language was designed by John Backus and his colleagues at IBM to reduce the cost of programming scientific applications. IBM delivered the first compiler for its model 704 in 1957. IBM's competitors soon offered incompatible versions. ANSI (ASA at the time developed a standard, largely based on IBM's Fortran IV in 1966. Revisions of the standard were produced in 1977, 1990, 1995 and 2003. Development of a revision, scheduled for 2008, is under way. Unlike most other programming languages, Fortran is periodically revised to keep pace with developments in language and processor design, while revisions largely preserve compatibility with previous versions. Throughout, the focus on scientific programming, and especially on efficient generated programs, has been maintained.

  13. Scientific publications in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magar, A

    2012-09-01

    Scientific publications have become a mainstay of communication among readers, academicians, researchers and scientists worldwide. Although, its existence dates back to 17 th century in the West, Nepal is still struggling to take few steps towards improving its local science for last 50 years. Since the start of the first medical journal in 1963, the challenges remains as it were decades back regarding role of authors, peer reviewers, editors and even publishers in Nepal. Although, there has been some development in terms of the number of articles being published and appearances of the journals, yet there is a long way to go. This article analyzes the past and present scenario, and future perspective for scientific publications in Nepal.

  14. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  15. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... to their publication. Specifically, I suggest epistemic difference and the porosity of social structure as two conceptual leitmotifs in the study of group collaboration. With epistemic difference, I emphasize the value of socio-cognitive heterogeneity in group collaboration. With porosity, I underline the fact...

  16. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', (DRN) during the year 1998. DRN is one of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in english) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department, for the year 1998, are presented giving information on the reactors technology and safety, the neutronics, the transmutation and the hybrid systems, the dismantling and the sites improvement, the nuclear accidents, the nuclear matter transport, the thermonuclear fusion safety, the fuel cladding materials and radioactive waste control. (A.L.B.)

  17. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  18. 1982 Scientific works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Several themes of radiobiology emerged from this progress report. They are as follows: ocular effects of laser radiation; effect of gamma radiation and mixed gamma-neutron radiation on various biological parameters (blood cells, enzymes, amino acids, brain blood flow etc.); chemical radioprotection (cysteamine); radiocontamination therapy (DMPS, DTPA) [fr

  19. 1981 Scientific works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Studies connected with the general following topics were presented in this progress report. (1) Biological effects of various stresses: environmental stresses, chemical pollutants, bacteria, ionizing radiations. (2) Prophylaxis and treatment of external irradiation and radiocontamination. (3) Particular biological studies: blood biology, cellular biology, pharmacology, ecology. (4) Methods and techniques in biochemisry, microbiology, physiology, biophysics [fr

  20. 1980 Scientific works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Several themes of radiobiology emerged from this progress report. They are as follows: effects of external irradiation on some biochemical parameters used as biological dosemeters (enzymes, amino acids, brain nucleotides, blood cells, blood plasma, etc.); combined effects of irradiation and thermal burns; chemical radioprotection (cysteamine); radiocontamination therapy (DTPA); environmental impact of nuclear power plants (cesium radioecological concentration); physical measurement of irradiation (fluxmetry, dosimetry) [fr

  1. 1986 Scientific works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Several themes of radiobiology emerged from this progress report. They are as follows: effects of neutrons, gamma radiation and mixed gamma-neutron radiation on various anatomical structures (nerve cells, germ cells); biological parameters (hemostasia); pathological changes (inflammation); chemical radioprotection (cysteamine); relationships between radioprotection and the essential fatty acid status; radio contamination therapy (DTPA) [fr

  2. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  3. Scientific Technological Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso C, C.; Cuya G, T.; Robles N, A.; Prado C, A.

    2003-07-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects

  4. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    of the system, and post-interviews to understand the participants' views of doing science under both conditions. We hypothesized that study participants would be less effective, report more difficulty, and be less favorably inclined to adopt the system when collaborating remotely. Contrary to expectations...... of collaborating remotely. While the data analysis produced null results, considered as a whole, the analysis leads us to conclude there is positive potential for the development and adoption of scientific collaboratory systems....

  5. National nuclear scientific program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Matausek, M.V.; Neskovic, N.

    2001-01-01

    National scientific program of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Reactors And Radioactive Waste comprises research and development in the following fields: application of energy of nuclear fission, application of neutron beams, analyses of nuclear safety and radiation protection. In the first phase preparatory activities, conceptual design and design of certain processes and facilities should be accomplished. In the second phase realization of the projects is expected. (author)

  6. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large organizations losing power, direct supervision, the managers were looking for incentives to replace this power . One of the first practitioners of this new management system was Henry R. Towne, the president of the well-known enterprise "Yale and Towne Manufacturing Company", which applied the management methods in his company workshops. Publishers of magazines "Industrial Management" and "The Engineering Magazine" stated that HR Towne is, undisputedly, the pioneer of scientific management. He initiated the systematic application of effective management methods and his famous article "The Engineer as Economist" provided to the company. "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" in 1886 was the one that probably inspired Frederick W. Taylor to devote his entire life and work in scientific management.

  7. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  8. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  9. Manipulating the alpha level cannot cure significance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trafimow, David; Amrhein, Valentin; Areshenkoff, Corson N.; Barrera-Causil, Carlos J.; Beh, Eric J.; Bilgiç, Yusuf K.; Bono, Roser; Bradley, Michael T.; Briggs, William M.; Cepeda-Freyre, Héctor A.; Chaigneau, Sergio E.; Ciocca, Daniel R.; Correa, Juan C.; Cousineau, Denis; de Boer, Michiel R.; Dhar, Subhra S.; Dolgov, Igor; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Grendar, Marian; Grice, James W.; Guerrero-Gimenez, Martin E.; Gutiérrez, Andrés; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Jaffe, Klaus; Janyan, Armina; Karimnezhad, Ali; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Kosugi, Koji; Lachmair, Martin; Ledesma, Rubén D.; Limongi, Roberto; Liuzza, Marco T.; Lombardo, Rosaria; Marks, Michael J.; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Nalborczyk, Ladislas; Nguyen, Hung T.; Ospina, Raydonal; Perezgonzalez, Jose D.; Pfister, Roland; Rahona, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Medina, David A.; Romão, Xavier; Ruiz-Fernández, Susana; Suarez, Isabel; Tegethoff, Marion; Tejo, Mauricio; van de Schoot, Rens; Vankov, Ivan I.; Velasco-Forero, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are

  10. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a f...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems.......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  11. Jet Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This JET Progress Reports provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1990. In addition, the Report is supplemented by appendices of contributions (in preprint form) of the more important JET articles published during the year, which set out the details of JET activities

  12. Research progress on microgravity boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    Microgravity boiling heat transfer is one of the most basic research topics in aerospace technology, which is important for both scientific research and engineering application. Research progress on microgravity boiling heat transfer is presented, including terrestrial simulation technique, terrestrial simulation experiment, microgravity experiment, and flow boiling heat transfer

  13. On the Possibility of a Scientific Theory of Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical strengths and weaknesses of Laudan's normative naturalism, which understands the principles of scientific method to be akin to scientific hypotheses, and therefore open to test like any principle of science. Contains 19 references. (Author/WRM)

  14. Animal electricity at the end of the eighteenth century: the many facets of a great scientific controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresadola, Marco

    2008-01-01

    In the 1790s, Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta were the main protagonists of a lively debate on the role of electricity in animal organisms. Significant developments originated from this debate, leading to the foundation of two new disciplines, electrodynamics and electrophysiology, that were to play a crucial role in the scientific and technological progress of the last two centuries. The Galvani-Volta controversy has been repeatedly reconstructed, sometimes in an attempt to identify the merits and the errors of one or the other of the two protagonists, sometimes with the aim of demonstrating that the theories elaborated by the two Italian scholars were irreconcilable, reflecting completely different ways of looking at phenomena and conceiving of scientific research. In this article a different interpretation is offered, based on a discussion of the scientific issues that were central to Galvani's and Volta's research, and with reference to the context of science and society of the eighteenth century.

  15. Styx Grid Services: Lightweight Middleware for Efficient Scientific Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Blower

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The service-oriented approach to performing distributed scientific research is potentially very powerful but is not yet widely used in many scientific fields. This is partly due to the technical difficulties involved in creating services and workflows and the inefficiency of many workflow systems with regard to handling large datasets. We present the Styx Grid Service, a simple system that wraps command-line programs and allows them to be run over the Internet exactly as if they were local programs. Styx Grid Services are very easy to create and use and can be composed into powerful workflows with simple shell scripts or more sophisticated graphical tools. An important feature of the system is that data can be streamed directly from service to service, significantly increasing the efficiency of workflows that use large data volumes. The status and progress of Styx Grid Services can be monitored asynchronously using a mechanism that places very few demands on firewalls. We show how Styx Grid Services can interoperate with with Web Services and WS-Resources using suitable adapters.

  16. 1995-1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This progress report is mainly devoted to the scientific activity of the LLB or carried out in collaboration with external laboratories. The activity of the LLB is split in several chapters dealing with: magnetism, superconductivity, structures (including lattice dynamics), phase transitions, C 60 , quasi-crystal systems, disordered systems (amorphous, liquids, crystal solid solutions), biology, soft matter (polymers and colloids), physical metallurgy and materials science. Neutron scattering is the main tool used in all these topics but other techniques are also used such as: polarized neutron reflectivity, cold neutrons diffraction, NMR, synchrotron radiation etc. (J.S.)

  17. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, Felicia; Enescu, Sanda-Elena; Oancea, Margareta; Preda, Mihaela; Prodan, Lucia; Raduta, Adriana; Sandu, Doina; Schiaua, Claudiu

    2001-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, on 2000 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear and Atomic Physics (1 paper), Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles (4 papers), Physics of Information (11 papers)), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure (12 papers), Nuclear Reactions (11 papers), Applied Nuclear Physics (6 papers)), Atomic Physics (1 paper), Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics (3 papers), Inertial Fusion, Physics of Neutrons and Nuclear Transmutations (3 papers), Nuclear Instruments and Methods (12 papers), Particle Physics (11 papers), Health and Environmental Physics (8 papers), Applied Physics (13 papers), Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry (8 papers), Waste management and Site Restoration (1 paper) and Standardization (2 papers). Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, monographs and as preprints, contributions to international conferences, PhD theses, and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, invited seminars, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally the Institute scientific board and research staff are listed

  18. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstea, Stefan; Dragulici, Felicia; Enescu, Sanda-Elena; Oancea, Margareta; Preda, Mihaela; Prodan, Lucia; Raduta, Adriana; Sandu, Doina; Schiaua, Claudiu

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, on 1999 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear and Atomic Physics (14 papers); Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles (5 ); Physics of Information (6)), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure (11), Nuclear Reactions (10), Atomic Physics (3), Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics (3), Physics of Neutrons (2); Nuclear Instruments and Methods (11)), Particle Physics (7), Health and Environmental Physics (10), Applied Physics (21), Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry (16), Technological Development (2), Waste management and Site Restoration (2) and Standardization (4). Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, monographs and as preprints, contributions to international conferences, PhD theses, and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, invited seminars, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally the Institute scientific board and research staff are listed

  19. Marie Curie: scientific entrepreneur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, S.

    1998-01-01

    Marie Curie is best known for her discovery of radium one hundred years ago this month, but she also worked closely with industry in developing methods to make and monitor radioactive material, as Soraya Boudia explains. One hundred years ago this month, on 28 December 1898, Pierre Curie, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Gustave Bemont published a paper in Comptes-rendus - the journal of the French Academy of Sciences. In the paper they announced that they had discovered a new element with astonishing properties: radium. But for one of the authors, Marie Curie, the paper was more than just the result of outstanding work: it showed that a woman could succeed in what was then very much a male-dominated scientific world. Having arrived in Paris from Poland in 1891, Marie Curie became the first woman in France to obtain a PhD in physics, the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She also helped to found a new scientific discipline: the study of radioactivity. She became an icon and a role-model for other women to follow, someone who succeeded - despite many difficulties - in imposing herself on the world of science. Although Curie's life story is a familiar and well documented one, there is one side to her that is less well known: her interaction with industry. As well as training many nuclear physicists and radiochemists in her laboratory, she also became a scientific pioneer in industrial collaboration. In this article the author describes this side of Marie Curie. (UK)

  20. IPY Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2008-12-01

    We can summarize the IPY goals as: (a) make major advances in polar knowledge and understanding; (b) leave a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure; (c) excite a new generation of polar scientists and engineers, and (d) elicit exceptional interest and participation from polar residents, schoolchildren, the general public, and decision-makers, worldwide. This talk reports on the progress and prospects in each of those areas from an overall international view; separate talks will describe details of future researcher and the IPY outreach efforts. To achieve major advances in knowledge, IPY has entrained the intellectual resources of thousands of scientists, many more than expected, often from 'non- polar' nations, and representing an unprecedented breadth of scientific specialties; integration of those efforts across disciplines to achieve integrated system-level understanding remains a substantial challenge. Many national and international organizations prepare plans to sustain new and improved observational systems, but clear outcomes and the necessary resources remain elusive. International outreach networks gradually build breadth and strength, largely through IPY Polar Science Days and other internationally- coordinated IPY events. A new Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) devotes talent and energy to shaping the future of polar research. These activities and networks may, with time and with continued international coordination, achieve an exceptional level of interest and participation. In all areas, much work remains.

  1. Scientific (Wo)manpower?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Persson, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional regist...... scientific human capital. Originality/value – The study is the first to investigate career‐choice and earnings of Swedish PhDs. Further, the study is the first to investigate both the academic and the non‐academic labour markets....

  2. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This scientific report of the Fuel Cycle Direction of the Cea, presents the Direction activities and research programs in the fuel cycle domain during the year 1999. The first chapter is devoted to the front end of the fuel cycle with the SILVA process as main topic. The second chapter is largely based on the separation chemistry of the back end cycle. The third and fourth chapters present studies of more applied and sometimes more technical developments in the nuclear industry or not. (A.L.B.)

  3. Scientific report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.; Gueneau, C.; Doizi, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the up-side of the nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (plasma simulation) and technological developments and instrumentation (lasers diodes, carbides plasma projection, carbon 13 enrichment); the down-side nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (ion Eu 3+ complexation simulation, decay simulation, uranium and plutonium diffusion study, electrolyser operating simulation), scenario studies ( recycling, wastes management), experimental studies; dismantling and cleaning (soils cleaning, surface-active agent for decontamination, fault tree analysis); analysis with expert systems and mass spectrometry. (A.L.B.)

  4. Annual scientific report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Bobin, K.; Michiels, G.; Proost, J.

    1975-01-01

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1974 are reported in individual summaries. Fields of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  5. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegane GÜVEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations have increased exponentially over the past years in the dentistry profession. In this article, these developments are evaluated both in terms of clinical practice and their place in the educational program. The effect of the biologic and digital revolutions on dental education and daily clinical practice are also reviewed. Biomimetics, personalized dental medicine regenerative dentistry, nanotechnology, high-end simulations providing virtual reality, genomic information, and stem cell studies will gain more importance in the coming years, moving dentistry to a different dimension.

  6. Annual scientific report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Bobin, K.; Michiels, G.; Proost, J.

    1976-01-01

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1975 are reported in individual summaries. Field of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  7. Practical scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, A

    2011-01-01

    Scientific computing is about developing mathematical models, numerical methods and computer implementations to study and solve real problems in science, engineering, business and even social sciences. Mathematical modelling requires deep understanding of classical numerical methods. This essential guide provides the reader with sufficient foundations in these areas to venture into more advanced texts. The first section of the book presents numEclipse, an open source tool for numerical computing based on the notion of MATLAB®. numEclipse is implemented as a plug-in for Eclipse, a leading integ

  8. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  9. Energy and scientific communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, E.

    2013-06-01

    Energy communication is a paradigmatic case of scientific communication. It is particularly important today, when the world is confronted with a number of immediate, urgent problems. Science communication has become a real duty and a big challenge for scientists. It serves to create and foster a climate of reciprocal knowledge and trust between science and society, and to establish a good level of interest and enthusiasm for research. For an effective communication it is important to establish an open dialogue with the audience, and a close collaboration among scientists and science communicators. An international collaboration in energy communication is appropriate to better support international and interdisciplinary research and projects.

  10. Scientific visualization and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrance, D.P.; Hoyer, C.E.; Wrestler, F.A.; Kuhn, M.J.; Moore, W.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Scientific visualization is the visual presentation of numerical data. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) has developed methods for visualizing computerbased simulations of digital imaging data. The applicability of these various tools for unique and potentially medical beneficial display of MR images is investigated. Raw data are obtained from MR images of the brain, neck, spine, and brachial plexus obtained on a 1.5-T imager with multiple pulse sequences. A supercomputer and other mainframe resources run a variety of graphic and imaging programs using this data. An interdisciplinary team of imaging scientists, computer graphic programmers, an physicians works together to achieve useful information

  11. Greenhouse effect: Evolution of scientific message and its transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braicovich, L.; Amman, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, not anymore confined to scientific journals, is becoming a policy issue and, possibly, a nightmare in public opinion. In this analysis of the evolution of the scientific message and its transfer to policy makers and public opinion, the paper first considers, in general terms, the more recent trends in related research activity and in the transfer processes of the results. Then, a more detailed examination is made of the progress achieved in the years 1989-1990 through scientific research in various aspects of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that, for the time being, the scientific results leave many important points unresolved; policy decisions on the matter cannot therefore rely on present scientific knowledge as if it were firmly established

  12. Epistemological pluralism and scientific development: an argument against authoritative nosologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E

    2013-10-01

    The author examines the influence of authoritative nosological systems--those developed by an authoritative body or organization (e.g., the DSM, ICD, RDoC)--on the development of scientific theory and research. Although there has been extensive discussion of how such systems should be organized, and of the historical role of such systems, little focus has been placed on whether these systems impede or facilitate scientific progress. The author reviews the nature and role of constructs in scientific theory and the role of authoritative taxonomy in science. He presents an argument that, although authoritative classification systems clearly have value for nonscientific purposes, or for specific scientific purposes, the systems themselves, at least as they have been constructed thus far, likely impede scientific development by constraining competitive discourse. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

  13. Progress in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    thermonuclear research, the work was being conducted on more or less similar lines, the basic problems encountered were the same and the results obtained were strikingly similar. Commenting on this fact, Professor Edward Teller of the United States said: 'it is remarkable how closely parallel the developments are. This is of course due to the fact that we all live in the same world and all obey the same laws of nature'. And this underlined, more than ever before, the need for a wide exchange of knowledge and experience so that duplication of effort could be avoided and progress made quicker by a pooling of information on the latest experimental results and theoretical deductions. A major concrete step in this direction has been taken by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which recommended that the Agency should serve as the world focal point for the exchange of information on progress in thermonuclear research and plasma physics. Among the Committee's specific recommendations was that the Agency should start a scientific journal devoted exclusively to this subject. The proposed journal is expected to make its first appearance next year. It will contain, among other things, original papers on theoretical and applied research as well as on related engineering developments. Also the need arises for a permanent forum need will be met in large measure by IAEA's programme of work in this field

  14. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    , the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  15. Is biotechnology a victim of anti-science bias in scientific journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry I; Morandini, Piero; Ammann, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    Primarily outside the scientific community, misapprehensions and misinformation about recombinant DNA-modified (also known as 'genetically modified', or 'GM') plants have generated significant 'pseudo-controversy' over their safety that has resulted in unscientific and excessive regulation (with attendant inflated development costs) and disappointing progress. But pseudo-controversy and sensational claims have originated within the scientific community as well, and even scholarly journals' treatment of the subject has been at times unscientific, one-sided and irresponsible. These shortcomings have helped to perpetuate 'The Big Lie' - that recombinant DNA technology applied to agriculture and food production is unproven, unsafe, untested, unregulated and unwanted. Those misconceptions, in turn, have given rise to unwarranted opposition and tortuous, distorted public policy.

  16. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  17. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  18. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  19. Budapest scientific a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, István

    2015-01-01

    This guidebook introduces the reader—the scientific tourist and others—to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in Budapest—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artefacts. According to the Hungarian–American Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi, this metropolis at the crossroads of Europe has a special atmosphere of respect for science. It has been the venue of numerous scientific achievements and the cradle, literally, of many individuals who in Hungary, and even more beyond its borders became world-renowned contributors to science and culture. Six of the eight chapters of the book cover the Hungarian Nobel laureates, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the university, the medical school, agricultural sciences, and technology and engineering. One chapter is about selected gimnáziums from which seven Nobel laureates (Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, Wigner, Gabor, Harsanyi, Olah, and Kertész) and the five “Martians of Science” (von Kármán, Szilard, Wigner, von Neumann, and Teller...

  20. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  1. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  2. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  3. Analyzing Data Citations to Assess the Scientific and Societal Value of Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stakeholders in the creation, distribution, support, funding, and use of scientific data can benefit by understanding the value that the data have for society and science. For decades, the scientific community has been using citations of articles in the published scientific literature as one of the primary measures used for evaluating the performance of scientists, departments, institutions, and scientific disciplines. Similarly, citations in the published literature of scientific data may be useful for measuring and assessing the value of the scientific data and the performance of the individuals, projects, programs, and organizations that have contributed to the data and their use. The results of citation analysis and other assessments of the value of data also can contribute to planning for future data collection, development, distribution, and preservation efforts. The planned release of new data citation indexes and the more widespread adoption of unique data identifiers and automated attribution mechanisms have the potential to improve significantly the capabilities for analyzing citations of scientific data. In addition, rapid developments in the systems and capabilities for disseminating data, along with education and workforce development on the importance of data attribution and on techniques for data citation, can improve practices for citing scientific data. Such practices need to lead not only to better aggregate statistics about data citation, but also to improved characterization and understanding of the impact of data use in terms of the benefits for science and society. Analyses of citations in the scientific literature were conducted for data that were distributed by an interdisciplinary scientific data center during a five-year period (1997 - 2011), to identify the scientific fields represented by the journals and books in which the data were cited. Secondary citation analysis also was conducted for a sample of scientific publications that used

  4. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  5. Should scientific realists be platonists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Jacob; Morrison, Joe

    2015-01-01

    an appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism (in particular, IBE) to achieve platonism? (§2) We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we should be Scientific...

  6. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  7. Scientific-creative thinking and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bermejo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the relationship between scientific-creative thinking construct and academic performance in a sample of adolescents. In addition, the scientific-creative thinking instrument’s reliability will be tested. The sample was composed of 98 students (aged between 12-16 years old attending to a Secondary School in Murcia Region (Spain. The used instruments were: a the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test designed by Hu and Adey (2002, which was adapted to the Spanish culture by the High Abilities research team at Murcia University. The test is composed of 7 task based in the Scientific Creative Structure Model. It assesses the dimensions fluency, flexibility and originality; b The General and Factorial Intelligence Test (IGF/5r; Yuste, 2002, which assess the abilities of general intelligence and logic reasoning, verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning and spatial reasoning; c Students’ academic achievement by domains (scientific-technological, social-linguistic and artistic was collected. The results showed positive and statistical significant correlations between the scientific-creative tasks and academic achievement of different domains.

  8. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways......, the Scientific Committee concludes that particular care must be taken that the principles of CAC, OIE or IPPC are followed strictly. EFSA Scientific Panels should identify which specific approach is most useful in dealing with their individual mandates. The Scientific Committee considered detailed aspects...

  9. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  10. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  11. XVIS: Visualization for the Extreme-Scale Scientific-Computation Ecosystem Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Maynard, Robert [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The XVis project brings together the key elements of research to enable scientific discovery at extreme scale. Scientific computing will no longer be purely about how fast computations can be performed. Energy constraints, processor changes, and I/O limitations necessitate significant changes in both the software applications used in scientific computation and the ways in which scientists use them. Components for modeling, simulation, analysis, and visualization must work together in a computational ecosystem, rather than working independently as they have in the past. The XVis project brought together collaborators from predominant DOE projects for visualization on accelerators and combining their respective features into a new visualization toolkit called VTK-m.

  12. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  13. Scientific developments ISFD3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, M.H.I.; Soong, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Highlights, trends, and consensus from the 63 papers submitted to the Scientific Developments theme of the Third International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD) are presented. Realizing that absolute protection against flooding can never be guaranteed, trends in flood management have shifted: (1) from flood protection to flood-risk management, (2) from reinforcing structural protection to lowering flood levels, and (3) to sustainable management through integrated problem solving. Improved understanding of watershed responses, climate changes, applications of GIS and remote-sensing technologies, and advanced analytical tools appeared to be the driving forces for renewing flood-risk management strategies. Technical competence in integrating analytical tools to form the basin wide management systems are demonstrated by several large, transnation models. However, analyses from social-economic-environmental points of view are found lag in general. ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group.

  14. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-02

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity.

  15. Dishonesty in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone’s daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it’s adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  16. Annual scientific report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.

    1979-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1978. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  17. Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    As an American icon, Benjamin Franklin is often portrayed as wise and canny in business and politics, earnestly pursuing and extolling diligence, sensible conduct, pragmatism, and good works. Also legendary are some of his inventions, particularly the lightning rod, bifocals, and an efficient wood-burning stove. The iconic image is misleading in major respects. Today, surprisingly few people appreciate that, in the 18th century, Franklin was greatly esteemed throughout Europe as a scientist (termed then a "natural philosopher.") He was hailed as the "Newton of Electricity." Indeed, until Franklin, electricity seemed more mysterious than had gravity in Newton's time, and lightning was considered the wrath of God. By his own account, Franklin's studies of electricity and many other phenomena were prompted not by practical aims, but by his playful curiosity--which often became obsessive. Also not generally appreciated is the importance of Franklin's scientific reputation in enhancing his efforts to obtain French support for the American Revolution.

  18. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  19. Annual scientific report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.

    1978-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1977. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploraty research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear reseach and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  20. Annual scientific report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.; Proost, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1976. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry

  1. Annual scientific report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Proost, J.

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1980. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics; the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors, namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basis and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  2. Scientific journal cancellations

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    Earlier this year the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) requested the Library and the Working Group for Acquisitions to revise the current printed journal collection in order to cancel those titles that are less required. Savings could then be used for the development of other collections and particularly electronic resources needed to support CERN current research activities. A list of proposed cancellations was drawn and posted on the Library web pages: http://library.cern.ch/library_general/cancel.html The SIPB invites every one to check if any of the titles are of importance to their work, in which case you are invited to inform the Library before the 25th of September by sending an e-mail to: eliane.chaney@cern.ch Titles not reconsidered by the users will be cancelled by the end of the year. Thank you, The Library

  3. Apollo's scientific legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.

    1979-01-01

    The scientific value and importance of the Apollo lunar programme is assessed in the light of data obtained both from the lunar surface itself and also from the command modules which orbited above. It is stated that much of the material they returned still awaits a detailed examination and that the cooperative teams set up to handle the lunar material have established new methods and standards of analysis, which are currently revitalising the old science of meteoritics. The new forms of organised research have also been carried over in the rapidly developing subject of planetary science. It is concluded that whatever the motives for launching the Apollo missions, planetary scientists have been in a much better position to understand the Solar System since then. (UK)

  4. Designing scientific applications on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's complex scientific applications now require a vast amount of computational power. General purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) enable researchers in a variety of fields to benefit from the computational power of all the cores available inside graphics cards.Understand the Benefits of Using GPUs for Many Scientific ApplicationsDesigning Scientific Applications on GPUs shows you how to use GPUs for applications in diverse scientific fields, from physics and mathematics to computer science. The book explains the methods necessary for designing or porting your scientific appl

  5. PSI Scientific report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnicki, P.

    2010-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at work done at the institute in the year 2009. In particular, the SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility that will allow novel investigations of femtosecond molecular dynamics in chemical, biochemical and condensed-matter systems and permit coherent diffraction imaging of individual nanostructures is commented on. Potential scientific applications of the SwissFEL are noted. Further, the institute's research focus and its findings are commented on. Synchrotron light is looked at and results obtained using neutron scattering and muon spin resonance are reported on. Work done in the micro and nano-technology, biomolecular research and radiopharmacy areas is also reported on Work performed in the biology, general energy and environmental sciences area is also reported on. The institute's comprehensive research facilities are reviewed and the facilities provided for users from the national and international scientific community, in particular regarding condensed matter, materials science and biology research are noted. In addition to the user facilities at the accelerators, other PSI laboratories are also open to external users, e.g. the Hot Laboratory operated by the Nuclear Energy and Safety Department that allows experiments to be performed on highly radioactive samples. The Technology Transfer Office at PSI is also reported on. This department assists representatives from industry in their search for opportunities and sources of innovation at the PSI. Further, an overview is presented of the people who work at the PSI, how the institute is organised and how the money it receives is distributed and used. Finally, a comprehensive list of publications completes the report

  6. IPNS progress report 2001-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, B.

    2006-11-27

    In August 1981, the proton beam from the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) was first delivered to the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) neutron scattering target and now, in June 2006, it is with great joy that we celebrate the impending 25th anniversary of this event. This edition of the IPNS Progress Report will focus on the development and scientific accomplishments of the past 5 years, since our last Progress Report, but with some mention of the 25 years of IPNS experience. It is appropriate at this anniversary date to recall some of the more significant historic events that have led to the present IPNS and discuss some of the plans that will lead to even more successes. Below is a brief chronology that captures some of the developments of IPNS: 8/4/81 - First beam delivered to the neutron scattering target; 6/10/84 - IPNS produced its one billionth neutron pulse; 1/10/85 - Installed world's first solid methane moderator; 6/30/87 - 1000th experiment performed at IPNS; 9/19/87 - IPNS produced its two billionth neutron pulse; 11/20/91 - 2000th experiment performed at IPNS; 4/17/04 - IPNS produced its eight billionth neutron pulse; and 8/19/05 - 7000th experiment performed at IPNS. During the past 5 years, several significant source and instrument developments have taken place. Most of these are discussed in more detail elsewhere in the report, but three of the ones most visible to users are mentioned here.

  7. Scientific literacy in hospital workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerci, Alba M.; Pinero, Adalberto; Zubiria, M. Guillermina; Sanz, Vanesa; Larragueta, Nicolas; Puntigliano, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Previous studies realized by our group have demonstrated radio-induction of genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of hospital workers exposed to chronic X-ray. The cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was significant in the radiologists evaluated. Accordingly, we have researched the knowledge of risk radiation in 57 workers to different health centres, private and public, in La Plata city. Most of respondents (96.4%) answered to know the risk of working with radiation ionizing, but a large portion do not carry out with the appropriate safety rules. The workers have not interest in this rules, it is evidenced by negligence in the use of protective clothing and personal dosimeters. These results suggested that individuals could be sensitising to minimize their risk. For this purpose we are working in scientific literacy conferences which are organized by 'Asociacion de Tecnicos Radiologos y de Diagnostico por Imagenes de La Plata (ASTEDIRLP)'. (author)

  8. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  9. Manipulating the Alpha Level Cannot Cure Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance testing altogether. There are alternatives that address study design and sample size much more directly than significance testing does; but none of the statistical tools should be taken as the new magic method giving clear-cut mechanical answers. Inference should not be based on single studies at all, but on cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. When evaluating the strength of the evidence, we should consider, for example, auxiliary assumptions, the strength of the experimental design, and implications for applications. To boil all this down to a binary decision based on a p-value threshold of 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, or anything else, is not acceptable.

  10. Scientific days of Marcoule 2006; Journees scientifiques Marcoule 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The sixth scientific days of Marcoule 2006 took place in La Grande Motte, on 15-19 May 2006. During these days, the research works of the PhD students of Marcoule and Pierrelatte centers are presented. A summary of the progress of each PhD thesis is given below. (O.M.)

  11. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 2: Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Rosna

    1989-01-01

    Describes the acquisition of scientific literature by academic libraries in Malaysia. The discussion covers the impact of government policies, library acquisition policies, the selection process, acquisition of special materials, the role of gifts and exchanges, and problems with customs clearance and censorship. Progress in cooperative…

  12. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  13. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  14. Characterizing scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals through evaluation of bibliometric indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; De Carlo, Alessandro; Lorusso, Felice; Di Nicola, Marta; Piattelli, Adriano; Gherlone, Enrico; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals by evaluating different bibliometric indices. The bibliometric evaluation was conducted on the Scopus Database upon all the Active Members joining three important Italian scientific societies in Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, and SICOI). The scientific production was analysed by considering the number of total publications, number of total citations, h-index, and hc-index. Moreover, the overall sample was divided into two groups (Academics and Not Academics), according to the fact the professionals had or not a university position, and then into sub-groups according to the different career lengths. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the scientific productivity amongst groups. For all the considered parameters a lack of homogeneity between groups was reported, and significantly greater mean values were recorded for the Academics compared to the Not Academics Group. Moreover, the h-index values increased more regularly as the career length progressed than the hc-index values, even if the last seemed to be less variable. h- and hc-indices are both stable bibliometric parameters, but as the hc-index values are related not only to the number of citation but also to their age, it seems to be less influenced by the authors' career length. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in dentistry may facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and clinical performance and be useful for a comparative assessment of authors or research groups in terms of quality and quantity of the scientific production.

  15. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  16. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  19. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    reprocessed and yield continuous time series since 2008. The research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a consequent continuation of the ALPAACT initiatives. It is coordinated with the ZAMG efforts to keep the routine seismological work on a high scientific standard. Three polytechnic schools in Vienna and the southern Vienna Basin (Mödling and Wiener Neustadt) take part in SCHOOLS & QUAKES. So-called school seismometers as well as high performance short period stations have been installed at these locations. In addition to routine maintenance and site optimization of the seismic stations, scholars and teachers of these schools contribute to research by their unprejudiced approach to interactive event detection and travel time picking as well as by their expertise in electronics, informatics, and civil engineering. The development of low cost short period stations which meet the requirements of medium to high noise locations, or the generation of shake maps and their conversion into maps of potential source locations are work in progress in cooperation with graduate students.

  20. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  1. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  2. A significant time for Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    European Science ministers have unaminously approved a "Resolution on establishing a European area of research and innovation", a good start for scientific research to be co-ordinated at an Europe-wide level (1/2 page).

  3. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  4. Scientific and non-scientific information in the uptake of health information: The case of Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole A. Falade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2013–2016 claimed over 10 000 lives in less than 18 months. Low levels of familiarity with the disease, ease of transmission, scale of infection, gruesomeness of symptoms, lack of cure and high fatality rate created a global panic. From the perspective of the social psychology of communication and content analysis, this study examines media coverage of the crisis in Africa with a view to unpacking the scientific and non-scientific information that may have framed public understanding of the disease. Findings show that accepting scientific advice was not unproblematic, because of the similarity of early symptoms with known diseases such as Lassa, dengue and malaria fevers. Cultural and religious actors and beliefs posed a paradox for believers as the public assimilated disease prevention information into existing norms and practices. Rumours and conspiracy theories about Western governments and pharmaceuticals also contributed to the rejection of the scientific explanation of its origin. Fear of the devastating effects of the disease and the lack of a cure led to the stigmatisation of the infected and treatment centres and ultimately to public revolts. Findings show the importance of non-scientific information and actors in matters of health and illness in Africa. Significance: Scientific knowledge is not enough to change health behaviour. Non-scientific knowledge and actors, traditional and religious practices, rumours and conspiracy theories must all be factored into efforts to address behavioural change.

  5. Scientific Research Competencies of Prospective Teachers and their Attitu des toward Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Şahan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study has been constructed to determine scientific research competencies of prospective teachers and identify the extent of effect of prospective teachers’ attitudes toward scientific research and scientific research methods course on their research skills and attitudes towards research. This study has two dimensions: it is a descriptive study by virtue of identifying prospective teachers’ research skills and attitudes toward research, also an experimental study by virtue of determining the effect of scientificresearch methods course on prospective teachers’ skills and their attitudes toward research. In order to obtain the data related to identified sub-problems “Scale for Identifying Scientific Research Competencies” and “Scale for Identifying the Attitude toward Research” have been utilized. Data collection tools were applied to 445 prospective teachers. It has thus been concluded in this study that scientific research methods course had no significant effect in gaining scientific research competencies to prospective teachers and that this effect demonstrated no differentiation with respect to departments. On the other hand it has been explored that scientific research methods course had a negative effect onthe attitudes of prospective teachers toward research and that there was a differentiation to the disadvantage of prospective teachers studying at Primary Education Mathematics Teaching Department.

  6. La verità scientifica - Scientific truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mazzeo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific theory is not a speculation. On the contrary it is based on facts and observations. Nevertheless the facts and the observations are unable to show us the truth about the world. Indeed to understand the facts or even to discover them through experiments we need a starting theory about the world. Therefore the world is not only discovered by us, but we can say that it is created by our brain. Facts are the constraints for the possible theories and theories are creations of our minds to understand the facts. There are no facts without a theory in mind, and there are no scientific theories about the world without facts. It is obvious therefore that science cannot give any absolute truth but “only” temporary truths which will change with new discoveries and theories. The scientific truth is therefore unstable: after few decades the concepts become unable to explain the news discoveries and become old, but the new concepts will include the old ones. This is called science progress. In this work we analyze all these points discussing the historical creation of the gravitational theory from Aristotle to Newton.

  7. Atalante: scientific report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report makes a synthesis of the research works carried out at CEA Marcoule in the domain of the back-end of the fuel cycle. The research programs involving the ATALANTE facility concern: the improvement of the spent fuel reprocessing of today's and tomorrow's reactors, the separation of minor actinides prior to their transmutation, and the long-term behaviour of ultimate radioactive wastes immobilized in suitable matrices for a reversible storage or a disposal in deep geologic repositories. The report presents the main scientific results obtained these last years in the domain of: 1 - basic chemistry of actinides and fission products, 2 - processing of spent fuels, 3 - actinides recycling experiments, 4 - long-term behaviour of conditioning matrices for materials and wastes, and 5 - measurements and analytical techniques used in the above mentioned studies. The ATALANTE facility is in the core of the future nuclear stakes which aim at optimizing the recycling of nuclear materials using innovative and proliferation-safe processes, and at minimizing the impact of radioactive wastes on the environment. (J.S.)

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.

    1999-01-01

    This book contains technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the upper fuel cycle studies with the SILVA (isotope separation by laser on atomic vapor) process (a model of gas centrifuge separative performance, an estimation of electron gun cathodes erosion, a power improvement of diode-pumped solid-state-lasers, measurement using intracavity near resonant propagation in atomic vapours); the down side fuel cycle studies (electronic structure of lanthanide or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides complexes structural determination, experimental studies on separations, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning with the vitrification processes, radioactive wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation); studies on dismantling and cleansing (rheological behaviour of foams, remote decontamination of austenitic steel by ultra-violet laser); and technological analysis (high resolution wavelength meter, optimization methodology for diffractive and hybrid optic systems, reliability of fast switches in power electronics, study of cesium isolation, chemical optodes based on evanescent-wave absorption, study of viscous liquid ultrafiltration using supercritical CO 2 as a promoter). (A.L.B.)

  10. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with... reviews progress toward injury prevention goals and provides evidence in injury prevention- related... matters, including the: (1) Review of extramural research concepts for funding opportunity announcements...

  11. [Scientific journalism and epidemiological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the communications media in the construction of symbols has been widely acknowledged. Many of the articles on health published in the daily newspapers mention medical studies, sourced from scientific publications focusing on new risks. The disclosure of risk studies in the mass media is also a topic for editorials and articles in scientific journals, focusing the problem of distortions and the appearance of contradictory news items. The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning and content of disclosing scientific risk studies in large-circulation daily newspapers, analyzing news items published in Brazil and the scientific publications used as their sources during 2000. The "risk" is presented in the scientific research projects as a "black box" in the meaning of Latour, with the news items downplaying scientific disputes and underscoring associations between behavioral habits and the occurrence of diseases, emphasizing individual aspects of the epidemiological approach, to the detriment of the group.

  12. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  13. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  14. Scientific planning for the VLT and VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Berger, J.-P.

    2016-07-01

    An observatory system like the VLT/I requires careful scientific planning for operations and future instruments. Currently the ESO optical/near-infrared facilities include four 8m telescopes, four (movable) 1.8m telescopes used exclusively for interferometry, two 4m telescopes and two survey telescopes. This system offers a large range of scientific capabilities and setting the corresponding priorities depends good community interactions. Coordinating the existing and planned instrumentation is an important aspect for strong scientific return. The current scientific priorities for the VLT and VLTI are pushing for the development of the highest angular resolution imaging and astrometry, integral field spectroscopy and multi-object spectroscopy. The ESO 4m telescopes on La Silla will be dedicated to time domain spectroscopy and exo-planet searches with highly specialized instruments. The next decade will also see a significant rise in the scientific importance of massive ground and space-based surveys. We discuss how future developments in astronomical research could shape the VLT/I evolution.

  15. Mastering scientific computing with R

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to quantitatively answer scientific questions for practical purposes using the powerful R language and the open source R tool ecosystem, this book is ideal for you. It is ideally suited for scientists who understand scientific concepts, know a little R, and want to be able to start applying R to be able to answer empirical scientific questions. Some R exposure is helpful, but not compulsory.

  16. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios N. KOUMPAROULIS; Dionysios K. SOLOMOS

    2012-01-01

    Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape the modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but from the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management have become a machine of uni...

  17. Scientific Information Service at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.

  18. The GTC Scientific Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2005-12-01

    Since the early stages of the GTC project, the need of a scientific archive was already identified as an important tool for the scientific exploitation of the data. In this work, the conceptual design and the main functionalities of the Scientific Data Archive of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GSA) are described. The system will be developed, implemented and maintained at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (LAEFF).

  19. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M

    1999-01-01

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  20. Ghrelin and cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Hsiao, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function. Emerging evidences have revealed ghrelin's function in regulating several processes related to cancer progression, especially in metastasis and proliferation. We further show the relative GHRL and GHSR expression in pan-cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), suggesting the potential pathological role of the axis in cancers. This review focuses on ghrelin's biological function in cancer progression, and reveals its clinical significance especially the impact on cancer patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......Since the first attempts by Europeans to penetrate Greenland's interior, its geometric center, Eismitte (‘middle ice’), has been one of the most forbidding but scientifically rich locations in the Arctic. Tracing its history from European contact through the Cold War, this study shows how Eismitte......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  2. The craft of scientific writing

    CERN Document Server

    Alley, Michael

    2019-01-01

    The Craft of Scientific Writing uses scores of examples to show the differences between scientific writing that informs and persuades and scientific writing that does not. Focusing on technical papers, dissertations, and reports, this text shows engineers, scientists, and technical professionals the five keys of style that distinguish the best scientific documents: (1) having the details presented in a methodical fashion, (2) having the important details emphasized, (3) having ideas cast into clear and precise sentences, (4) having clear connections between those ideas, and (5) having illustrations that persuade.

  3. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  4. PSI Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J.

    2007-04-01

    Selected highlights in this years report include muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 and the antitumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale. From the energy research departments we hear that progress has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel, and towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutronic studies dealt with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors, thermal hydraulics with reactors of the future. safety is also the issue in how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as he facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume are only a fraction of the varied research undertaken at PSI in the past year; for more information visit our website www.psi.ch. (author)

  5. PSI Scientific report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capper, S [ed.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) on work done in 2007 presents selected highlights including work done on muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 as well as the anti-tumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS (Swiss Light Source) reported on include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale level. In the energy research departments, progress is reported on that has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel and work leading towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research is reported on which, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutron studies deal with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors and thermal hydraulics with aspects concerning reactors of the future. Safety is also the issue as far as how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as the facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume represent only a fraction of the research undertaken at PSI in 2007. The report also deals with know-how transfer and includes a list of publications on the work done in the various areas of research.

  6. PSI Scientific report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capper, S.

    2008-04-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) on work done in 2007 presents selected highlights including work done on muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 as well as the anti-tumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS (Swiss Light Source) reported on include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale level. In the energy research departments, progress is reported on that has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel and work leading towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research is reported on which, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutron studies deal with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors and thermal hydraulics with aspects concerning reactors of the future. Safety is also the issue as far as how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as the facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume represent only a fraction of the research undertaken at PSI in 2007. The report also deals with know-how transfer and includes a list of publications on the work done in the various areas of research

  7. Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommissetty, Venkat [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    2012-11-21

    This symposium aimed to bring together researchers working on quantifying nanoscale carrier transport processes in excitonic solar cells. Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such efforts can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well-defined electronic structures.

  8. PSI Scientific Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J [ed.

    2007-04-15

    Selected highlights in this years report include muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 and the antitumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale. From the energy research departments we hear that progress has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel, and towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutronic studies dealt with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors, thermal hydraulics with reactors of the future. safety is also the issue in how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as he facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume are only a fraction of the varied research undertaken at PSI in the past year; for more information visit our website www.psi.ch. (author)

  9. Ademe's scientific policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Ademe, the French agency of environment and energy mastery, is a public institution with industrial and commercial purposes. Its missions are multiple: fighting against climatic change (implementation of the French policy of energy efficiency, energy mastery and development of renewable energy sources); abatement of waste production and rehabilitation of polluted sites; monitoring of air quality and abatement of pollution sources (including noise); implementation of a sustainable development policy. The agency acts as a link between private and public research and follows a four steps strategy: contributing to the improvement of knowledge, technical progress and practices, valorizing the socio-economic aspects of the sustained researches, developing partnerships between public and private actors, and collaborating to the building up of a European research space. Today, in the energy domain, the Ademe is defending 5 technological priorities: hydrogen and fuel cells, CO 2 capture and sequestration, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic and biomass), clean and low energy transportation systems (PREDIT), and buildings without greenhouse effect (PREBAT). (J.S.)

  10. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  11. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: Comprehending spoken or written ... word meanings Naming objects Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing ...

  12. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  13. PSI scientific highlights 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnicki, P.

    2012-04-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the major highlights of the work done at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, in 2011. According to the institute's director, work was concerned with the design and analysis of advanced materials with new functionalities, for application in fields as diverse as communications and energy technology, transportation, construction and medicine. Of particular topical interest are research projects on materials for application in the field of energy, for example for improving batteries for future electrically powered vehicles. Another example is in the field of catalysts. Environmentally harmful compounds, such as nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide produced in an engine, are transformed into nontoxic gases through catalytic conversion. Work progress on the SwissFEL installation is noted, including a breakthrough for SwissFEL main Linac C-band accelerating systems. Further topics in relation to the SwissFEL system are noted. Planning of the initial set of experimental stations at the SwissFEL is discussed and close collaboration with growing number of user communities is noted. Cross-Correlation Scattering, and a theoretical framework for this method is being developed and experimentally verified, using artificial nanostructures and synchrotron radiation. Highlights of further research work are discussed, including topics such as Synchrotron light, work done on neutrons and muons, particle physics, micro and nanotechnology as well as on biomolecular research and radiopharmacy. Large research facilities are discussed as is the PSI proton therapy installation. General energy topics are looked at, as are nuclear energy and safety aspects and environmental and energy systems analysis. Various further work includes factors causing glacier retreat and aerosols. User facilities are listed, including accelerators, the SLS light source, the SINQ neutron source, the UCN ultra-cold neutron source

  14. Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Capability Development at NASA Langley Research Center: Strategy, Roadmap, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Yagle, Jeremy J.; Reith, William; McLarney, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a team of researchers, engineers and information technology specialists at NASA Langley Research Center developed a Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Strategy and Roadmap as part of Langley's Comprehensive Digital Transformation Initiative, with the goal of identifying the goals, objectives, initiatives, and recommendations need to develop near-, mid- and long-term capabilities for data analytics and machine intelligence in aerospace domains. Since that time, significant progress has been made in developing pilots and projects in several research, engineering, and scientific domains by following the original strategy of collaboration between mission support organizations, mission organizations, and external partners from universities and industry. This report summarizes the work to date in Data Intensive Scientific Discovery, Deep Content Analytics, and Deep Q&A projects, as well as the progress made in collaboration, outreach, and education. Recommendations for continuing this success into future phases of the initiative are also made.

  15. Progression from acute to chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Becker, Ulrik; Matzen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of the natural course of acute pancreatitis (AP) and risk of progression to chronic pancreatitis (CP) is limited. The aims were to describe: (1) the incidence of progression from AP to CP, (2) prognostic factors for progression, and (3) the natural course and mortality.......1%) during follow-up; 48.2% developed from alcoholic AP, 47.0% from idiopathic AP, and 4.8% from other causes. The mortality rate for patients with progressive AP was 2.7 times higher than in patients with nonprogressive acute pancreatitis, and 5.3 to 6.5 times higher than in the background population....... In Cox regression analyses corrected for age, only smoking was of significance for the progression from AP to CP. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis can progress to CP, not only from alcoholic but also from nonalcoholic AP. Smoking was the strongest risk factor associated with progression. The mortality...

  16. The Development of Scientific Thinking in Elementary School: A Comprehensive Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Susanne; Mayer, Daniela; Osterhaus, Christopher; Schwippert, Knut; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The development of scientific thinking was assessed in 1,581 second, third, and fourth graders (8-, 9-, 10-year-olds) based on a conceptual model that posits developmental progression from naïve to more advanced conceptions. Using a 66-item scale, five components of scientific thinking were addressed, including experimental design, data…

  17. The insignificance of statistical significance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Despite their use in scientific journals such as The Journal of Wildlife Management, statistical hypothesis tests add very little value to the products of research. Indeed, they frequently confuse the interpretation of data. This paper describes how statistical hypothesis tests are often viewed, and then contrasts that interpretation with the correct one. I discuss the arbitrariness of P-values, conclusions that the null hypothesis is true, power analysis, and distinctions between statistical and biological significance. Statistical hypothesis testing, in which the null hypothesis about the properties of a population is almost always known a priori to be false, is contrasted with scientific hypothesis testing, which examines a credible null hypothesis about phenomena in nature. More meaningful alternatives are briefly outlined, including estimation and confidence intervals for determining the importance of factors, decision theory for guiding actions in the face of uncertainty, and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and other statistical practices.

  18. Constructing Scientific Explanations: a System of Analysis for Students' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Vanessa; Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    This article describes a system of analysis aimed at characterizing students' scientific explanations. Science education literature and reform documents have been highlighting the importance of scientific explanations for students' conceptual understanding and for their understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, and despite general agreement regarding the potential of having students construct their own explanations, a consensual notion of scientific explanation has still not been reached. As a result, within science education literature, there are several frameworks defining scientific explanations, with different foci as well as different notions of what accounts as a good explanation. Considering this, and based on a more ample project, we developed a system of analysis to characterize students' explanations. It was conceptualized and developed based on theories and models of scientific explanations, science education literature, and from examples of students' explanations collected by an open-ended questionnaire. With this paper, it is our goal to present the system of analysis, illustrating it with specific examples of students' collected explanations. In addition, we expect to point out its adequacy and utility for analyzing and characterizing students' scientific explanations as well as for tracing their progression.

  19. Scientific Jargon, Good and Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2003-01-01

    Scientific and technical jargon--specialized vocabulary, usually Latinate--plays a vital role in scientific and technical communication. But its proper use continues to be a point of discussion because of our concern with audience adaptation, rhetorical exigence, rhetorical purpose, and ethics. We've focused on teaching students--and on convincing…

  20. In Search of Scientific Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    In the ever-expanding sea of scientific advances, how do you find inspiration for your own study? Cell editor Jiaying Tan talked with Mark Lemmon and Joseph (Yossi) Schlessinger about the importance of fueling your research creativity with the conceptual excitement and technical advance from the broad scientific field. An excerpt of the conversation appears below. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. International Scientific and Technical Organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear scientific and technical world is well aware of the EURATOM and IAEA activities but usually other international scientific and technical organisations relevant for their ordinary work are unknown. In this article three international organisations are described briefly, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry (IUPAC) and the international council of Science (ICSU). (Author)

  2. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

  3. Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, George O.

    2012-01-01

    As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

  4. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  5. Scientific legacy of Stanley Ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Stanley L. Ruby (1924-2004) made major contributions to Moessbauer spectroscopy and was the first to suggest the feasibility of observing the Moessbauer effect using synchrotron radiation. In this article we recall his scientific legacy that have inspired his scientific colleagues.

  6. Environmental knowledge. Empirical contributions according to the significance of scientific knowledge in the scope of envionmental education exemplified at BIODIESEL as a fuel; Umweltwissen und oekologisches Handeln. Empirische Beitraege zur Bedeutung naturwissenschaftlicher Bildung im Rahmen der Umwelterziehung am Beispiel der Verwendung von BIODIESEL als Treibstoff fuer moderne Dieselkraftfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantke, Guenter

    2006-09-15

    The world-wide heating up of the atmosphere as well as the increasing violence and frequency of extreme weather events mainly are due to the emission of carbon dioxide. The emission of carbon dioxide is based on the power production by combustion of fossil sources of energy. The motor traffic causes a substantial portion of these emissions. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration examines, to what extent young people are sensitized to the relation between power generation by burning fossil sources of energy and the global climatic change and to ecological acting. In the context of the environment project 'Biodiesel as a pollution-free alternative to mineral diesel oil', 55 young people were informed about these relations and interviewed afterwards. After this project, a fifth of the young people transferred to economical diesel engined vehicles. A third of the young person wants to drive with biodiesel based on economic considerations. Young peoples only have a small amount of knowledge on these relations. Only those young people, who drive with biodiesel, are informed better significantly.

  7. Scientific evaluation at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a statement of the scientific and technical activity of the French atomic energy commission (CEA) for the year 1998. This evaluation is made by external and independent experts and requires some specific dispositions for the nuclear protection and safety institute (IPSN) and for the direction of military applications (DAM). The report is divided into 5 parts dealing successively with: part 1 - the CEA, a public research organization (civil nuclear research, technology research and transfers, defence activities); the scientific and technical evaluation at the CEA (general framework, evaluation of the IPSN and DAM); part 2 - the scientific and technical councils (directions of fuel cycle, of nuclear reactors, and of advanced technologies); part 3 - the scientific councils (directions of matter and of life sciences); the nuclear protection and safety institute; the direction of military applications; part 4 - the corresponding members of the evaluation; part 5 - the list of scientific and technical councils and members. (J.S.)

  8. Progress in research on Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kevin J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Hershey, Tamara; McNaught, Kevin St. P.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder commonly complicated by obsessions and compulsions, but defined by frequent unwanted movements (motor tics) and vocalizations (phonic tics) that develop in childhood or adolescence. In recent years, research on TS has progressed rapidly on several fronts. Inspired by the Fifth International Scientific Symposium on Tourette Syndrome, the articles in this special issue review advances in the phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of TS. PMID:25436182

  9. Scientific Equipment Division - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: - designing of devices and equipment for experiments in physics, their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, there are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV; - maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; - participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and a AO plotter, what allows us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop can offer a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. It offers the following possibilities: - turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc-type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm; - milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm; - grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm; - drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm; - welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding; - soft and hard soldering; - mechanical works including precision engineering; - plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides; - painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fred drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop posses CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work-pieces up to 500 kg

  10. PSI scientific report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    at. The substantial enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of antibodies is reported on, as is the production of terbium radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. Non-homogeneous distribution of radionuclides in proton-irradiated liquid-metal targets is the topic covered in a further report and the precise simulation of high-intensity cyclotrons is reported on. The expanding horizons for proton therapy are examined. The report also reviews the Strategy and highlights of general energy research and deals with a Niobia-Ceria based multi-purpose catalyst for diesel exhaust gas after-treatment. High-flux solar-driven thermochemical dissociation of CO 2 and H 2 O using ceria redox reactions and the characterisation of combustion processes by laser spectroscopic measuring techniques are further topics covered. Results of the first projects completed by the Competence Center Energy and Mobility CCEM are discussed, scientific findings on nuclear safety and the safety analysis of the EPR nuclear reactor are discussed, as is the improved retention of radioactive aerosols during a steam-generator tube rupture. Predictive sorption modelling of various substances in Bentonite and opalinus clay and a safety analysis of nuclear power plant systems and their operators are reported on. The characterisation of plutonium in mixed-oxide nuclear fuel by synchrotron radiation is reported on. The impact of the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano eruption on air quality and the detection of recent climatic changes in the Russian Altai are further atmospheric topics dealt with. Finally, the heuristic design for the technical characterisation of passenger vehicles is looked at. The report also lists the facilities available to external users and their use in 2010. Technology transfer is discussed and a statistical overview of the PSI in 2010 is presented. The comprehensive report is finalised with contact information and an extensive overview of publications made

  11. Scientific Publication Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science based on consciousness of responsibility and principles of trust puts academics under an obligation to act according to the values and principles, ethical attitudes and standards of behaviour. A quest for perfectness, to observe truth and show respect for the dignity and value of each individual should be a fundamental principle. In this context, academic freedom and autonomy, academic integrity,  responsibility and accountabily, respect for others, the protection of the fundamental rights and competence are among the core values of academic merit. Science is not possible without ethics. Protection of academic value is essential for an academic publication. It is also fundamental that academics should not behave contrary to the ethics values. It is assumed that academic studies are conducted honestly, based on true foundations, that the research data are collected according to the correct methods, accurate statistics are used and results are reported accordingly. It is also assumed that professional standards are carried out in software presentation and share of results. The exceptional methods in academical publications should be classified as those carried out intentionally, aiming to mislead the related studies and the others to be distinguished from the ones carried out by some ignorances and various innocent facts. The most serious infraction of the ethical rules and standards is the ‘academic misappropriation’. Among all, the most crucial one is the academic plagiarism, which is transferring the production of some other person under one’s own name or stealing away the work of other persons. Creating some not-existing data and results, and fabrication is inventing some information just by sitting at the table. Changing the datas and results without scientific reasoning, and falsification is accepted as another and the third kind of misappropriation (FTP. Their most important difference from the other kinds is

  12. Revisiting four scientific debates in ocean acidification research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Andersson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ocean acidification has gained continuously increasing attention from scientists and a number of stakeholders and has raised serious concerns about its effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. With the increase in interest, funding resources, and the number of scientific investigations focusing on this environmental problem, increasing amounts of data and results have been produced, and a progressively growing and more rigorous understanding of this problem has begun to develop. Nevertheless, there are still a number of scientific debates, and in some cases misconceptions, that keep reoccurring at a number of forums in various contexts. In this article, we revisit four of these topics that we think require further thoughtful consideration including: (1 surface seawater CO2 chemistry in shallow water coastal areas, (2 experimental manipulation of marine systems using CO2 gas or by acid addition, (3 net versus gross calcification and dissolution, and (4 CaCO3 mineral dissolution and seawater buffering. As a summation of these topics, we emphasize that: (1 many coastal environments experience seawater pCO2 that is significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere and is strongly linked to biological processes; (2 addition of acid, base or CO2 gas to seawater can all be useful techniques to manipulate seawater chemistry in ocean acidification experiments; (3 estimates of calcification or CaCO3 dissolution based on present techniques are measuring the net of gross calcification and dissolution; and (4 dissolution of metastable carbonate mineral phases will not produce sufficient alkalinity to buffer the pH and carbonate saturation state of shallow water environments on timescales of decades to hundreds of years to the extent that any potential negative effects on marine calcifiers will be avoided.

  13. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements about 75 percent of that required for ignition have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R and D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century. In addition, a network of international agreements have been concluded between these major parties and a number of smaller fusion programs, to cooperate on resolving a complete spectrum of fusion science and

  14. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  15. Invention through bricolage: epistemic engineering in scientific communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander James Gillett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognised that knowledge accumulation is an important aspect of scientific communities. In this essay, drawing on a range of material from theoretical biology and behavioural science, I discuss a particular aspect of the intergenerational nature of human communities – “virtual collaboration” (Tomasello 1999 – and how it can lead to epistemic progress without any explicit intentional creativity (Henrich 2016. My aim in this paper is to make this work relevant to theorists working on the social structures of science so that these processes can be utilised and optimised in scientific communities.

  16. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  17. Scientific and Technical Report, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, Henri; Mur, Emmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    This report highlights the most significant scientific and technical achievements of the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety in 1997. In all 23 reports are grouped in the following 7 sections: 1.Reactor safety; 2.Safety of nuclear facility; 3.Safeguards for radioactive materials and transports; 4.Public protection; 5.Environment protection; 6.Radioactive waste safety; 7.Crisis management. Special attention is paid to the pressurized water and fast neutron reactors and, accordingly, the program PHEBUS PF and the first results obtained with it concerning nuclear safety are reported. The safety of nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel storage is addressed in a couple of reports, as well as the problem of inspection, measurement and containers for nuclear materials. Concerning the public and environment protection, studies are reported on medical surveillance of people working with CEA Group, and clinical dosimetric follow-up of radiological events as well as the strategy of contaminated site rehabilitation. In the field of radioactive waste management, the IPSN project of Tournemire tunnel and the project of deep disposal are presented. Finally, the issue of major nuclear accidents is approached through the exercise Becquerel, the SESAME system of predicting the radioactive products release in PWR reactors and ASTRAL, the evaluation system of aftermath of an accidental environmental contamination by radioactive release. Each section of this IPSN report is opened by a review paper

  18. Problematizing as a scientific endeavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McLean Phillips

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work of physics learners at all levels revolves around problems. Physics education research has inspired attention to the forms of these problems, whether conceptual or algorithmic, closed or open response, well or ill structured. Meanwhile, it has been the work of curriculum developers and instructors to develop these problems. Physics education research has supported these efforts with studies of students problem solving and the effects of different kinds of problems on learning. In this article we argue, first, that developing problems is central to the discipline of physics. It involves noticing a gap of understanding, identifying and articulating its precise nature, and motivating a community of its existence and significance. We refer to this activity as problematizing, and we show its importance by drawing from writings in physics and philosophy of science. Second, we argue that students, from elementary age to adults, can problematize as part of their engaging in scientific inquiry. We present four cases, drawing from episodes vetted by a panel of collaborating faculty in science departments as clear instances of students doing science. Although neither we nor the scientists had problematizing in mind when screening cases, we found it across the episodes. We close with implications for instruction, including the value of helping students recognize and manage the situation of being confused but not yet having a clear question, and implications for research, including the need to build problematizing into our models of learning.

  19. Problematizing as a scientific endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna McLean; Watkins, Jessica; Hammer, David

    2017-12-01

    The work of physics learners at all levels revolves around problems. Physics education research has inspired attention to the forms of these problems, whether conceptual or algorithmic, closed or open response, well or ill structured. Meanwhile, it has been the work of curriculum developers and instructors to develop these problems. Physics education research has supported these efforts with studies of students problem solving and the effects of different kinds of problems on learning. In this article we argue, first, that developing problems is central to the discipline of physics. It involves noticing a gap of understanding, identifying and articulating its precise nature, and motivating a community of its existence and significance. We refer to this activity as problematizing, and we show its importance by drawing from writings in physics and philosophy of science. Second, we argue that students, from elementary age to adults, can problematize as part of their engaging in scientific inquiry. We present four cases, drawing from episodes vetted by a panel of collaborating faculty in science departments as clear instances of students doing science. Although neither we nor the scientists had problematizing in mind when screening cases, we found it across the episodes. We close with implications for instruction, including the value of helping students recognize and manage the situation of being confused but not yet having a clear question, and implications for research, including the need to build problematizing into our models of learning.

  20. ERINDA Scientific Results: Transnational Access Activities and Scientific Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Transnational Access Activities and Scientific visits within the FP7 project ERINDA (European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data). It highlights the fact that nearly 3200 data - taking hours for external users were made available in the partner installations and 104 man weeks for scientific visits to par tner institutes. This is much more than the 2500 beam hours and 80 weeks promised in the Description of Work of the project.

  1. Mikhail Kondratyev's Scientific Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitskaya O.B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article illuminates the most important outcomes of research activities carried out by Mikhail Kondratyev. It reveals the relevance of his research for the development of concepts of social psychological processes that take place in closed communities, of relations of authority, as well as for the diagnostics and correction of relationships of interpersonal significance in groups of various types. The paper also reviews the main stages of Mikhail Kondratyev’s scholarly and teaching activities and highlights his major contributions to the further development of research in social psychological problems of small groups and interpersonal relationships that emerge within them.

  2. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  3. The scientific legacy of Beppo Occhialini

    CERN Document Server

    Redondi, Pietro; Tucci, Pasquale

    2006-01-01

    The Year 2007 marks the centenary of the birth of Guiseppe "Beppo" Occhialini, one of the pioneers of cosmic ray and space physics in Europe, and in Italy in particular. Occhialini, beyond being known as a skilled administrator and strong advocate of European Space Sciences, is co-discoverer of the pion in 1948. The present volume collects reviews, essays and personal reminiscences on Occhialini's scientific life and work. Through these recollections the reader will also gain a vivid impression of the pioneering days of elementary particle physics when new detection methods emerged, like the triggered cloud chamber and nuclear emulsions - two techniques perfected by Occhialini - which made progress on comic ray physics possible in the first place.

  4. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 2001 - 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oancea, Margareta; Schiaua, Claudiu; Grecu, Dan; Dumitriu, Marinela

    2003-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH on 2001-2002 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles, Computational Physics (Physics of Information) and Solid State Physics), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Reaction, Atomic Physics, Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics, Inertial Fusion, Physics of Neutrons and Nuclear Transmutation, Nuclear Instruments and Methods), Particle Physics, Health and Environmental Physics, Applied Physics, Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry, Waste Management and Site Restoration and Standardization. Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, books and preprints, participations in international conferences and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally, the Institute directorate and research staff are listed

  5. Accelerating the scientific exploration process with scientific workflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altintas, Ilkay; Barney, Oscar; Cheng, Zhengang; Critchlow, Terence; Ludaescher, Bertram; Parker, Steve; Shoshani, Arie; Vouk, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    Although an increasing amount of middleware has emerged in the last few years to achieve remote data access, distributed job execution, and data management, orchestrating these technologies with minimal overhead still remains a difficult task for scientists. Scientific workflow systems improve this situation by creating interfaces to a variety of technologies and automating the execution and monitoring of the workflows. Workflow systems provide domain-independent customizable interfaces and tools that combine different tools and technologies along with efficient methods for using them. As simulations and experiments move into the petascale regime, the orchestration of long running data and compute intensive tasks is becoming a major requirement for the successful steering and completion of scientific investigations. A scientific workflow is the process of combining data and processes into a configurable, structured set of steps that implement semi-automated computational solutions of a scientific problem. Kepler is a cross-project collaboration, co-founded by the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center, whose purpose is to develop a domain-independent scientific workflow system. It provides a workflow environment in which scientists design and execute scientific workflows by specifying the desired sequence of computational actions and the appropriate data flow, including required data transformations, between these steps. Currently deployed workflows range from local analytical pipelines to distributed, high-performance and high-throughput applications, which can be both data- and compute-intensive. The scientific workflow approach offers a number of advantages over traditional scripting-based approaches, including ease of configuration, improved reusability and maintenance of workflows and components (called actors), automated provenance management, 'smart' re-running of different versions of workflow instances, on-the-fly updateable parameters, monitoring

  6. Scientific Revolutions and Political Attitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mervart, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2014), s. 185-190 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Scientific revolution * party historiography * Czechoslovakia * communist reformism Subject RIV: AB - History

  7. Taylor’s Scientific Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Koumparoulis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management became a machine of universal efficiency since there was a widespread use of scientific management worldwide and beyond the scope of the workplace. Taylor’s theories on using science and statistical fact have become a guideline that many have followed to great success.

  8. Scientific papers for health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Samáris Ramiro; Duarte, Jacy Marcondes; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    From the hypothesis that the development of scientific papers, mainly in interdisciplinary areas such as Health Informatics, may bring difficulties to the author, as had its communicative efficacy decreased or compromising their approval for publication; we aim to make considerations on the main items to good players making this kind of text. The scientific writing has peculiarities that must be taken into consideration when it writes: general characteristics, such as simplicity and objectivity, and characteristics of each area of knowledge, such as terminology, formatting and standardization. The research methodology adopted is bibliographical. The information was based on literature review and the authors' experience, teachers and assessors of scientific methodology in peer review publications in the area. As a result, we designed a checklist of items to be checked before submission of a paper to a scientific publication vehicle in order to contribute to the promotion of research, facilitating the publication and increase its capacity in this important area of knowledge.

  9. EPA scientific integrity policy draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its draft scientific integrity policy on 5 August. The draft policy addresses scientific ethical standards, communications with the public, the use of advisory committees and peer review, and professional development. The draft policy was developed by an ad hoc group of EPA senior staff and scientists in response to a December 2010 memorandum on scientific integrity from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The agency is accepting public comments on the draft through 6 September; comments should be sent to osa.staff@epa.gov. For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/stpc/pdfs/draft-scientific-integrity-policy-aug2011.pdf.

  10. Scientific Services on the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David; Joshi, Karuna P.; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milt; Yesha, Yaacov; Nguyen, Phuong

    Scientific Computing was one of the first every applications for parallel and distributed computation. To this date, scientific applications remain some of the most compute intensive, and have inspired creation of petaflop compute infrastructure such as the Oak Ridge Jaguar and Los Alamos RoadRunner. Large dedicated hardware infrastructure has become both a blessing and a curse to the scientific community. Scientists are interested in cloud computing for much the same reason as businesses and other professionals. The hardware is provided, maintained, and administrated by a third party. Software abstraction and virtualization provide reliability, and fault tolerance. Graduated fees allow for multi-scale prototyping and execution. Cloud computing resources are only a few clicks away, and by far the easiest high performance distributed platform to gain access to. There may still be dedicated infrastructure for ultra-scale science, but the cloud can easily play a major part of the scientific computing initiative.

  11. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  12. Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis (somatic delusional disorder): A report of two cases. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  13. High-End Scientific Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA uses high-end scientific computing, geospatial services and remote sensing/imagery analysis to support EPA's mission. The Center for Environmental Computing (CEC) assists the Agency's program offices and regions to meet staff needs in these areas.

  14. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection ...

  15. An outline of the systematic-dialectical method: scientific and political significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuten, G.; Moseley, F.; Smith, T.

    2014-01-01

    The method of systematic-dialectics (SD) is reconstructed with a focus on what institutions and processes are necessary - rather than contingent - for the capitalist system. This allows for the detection of strengths and weaknesses in the actual structure of the system. Weaknesses should be

  16. The Significance of Islam's Scientific Heritage of the Moslem World Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawati, Georges C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are Moslem influences in the development of medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, and geography since the founding of Islam. Also considered is the decline of the influence of Arab culture. (SL)

  17. Fumagillin: an overview of recent scientific advances and their significance for apiculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Johan P; Thompson, Thomas S; Curtis, Jonathan M; Ibrahim, Abdullah; Pernal, Stephen F

    2014-04-02

    Fumagillin is a potent fungal metabolite first isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus. It is widely used in apiculture and human medicine against a variety of microsporidian fungal infections. It has been the subject of research in cancer treatments by employing its angiogenesis inhibitory properties. The toxicity of fumagillin has limited its use for human applications and spurred the development of analogues using structure-activity relationships relating to its angiogenesis properties. These discoveries may hold the key to the development of alternative chemical treatments for use in apiculture. The toxicity of fumagillin to humans is important for beekeeping, because any residues remaining in hive products pose a direct risk to the consumer. The analytical methods published to date measure fumagillin and its decomposition products but overlook the dicyclohexylamine counterion of the salt form widely used in apiculture.

  18. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  19. The Internet of Scientific Research Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam; Groman, Robert; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Wiebe, Peter; Glover, David

    2016-04-01

    The sum of the parts is greater than the whole, but for scientific research how do we identify the parts when they are curated at distributed locations? Results from environmental research represent an enormous investment and constitute essential knowledge required to understand our planet in this time of rapid change. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) curates data from US NSF Ocean Sciences funded research awards, but BCO-DMO is only one repository in a landscape that includes many other sites that carefully curate results of scientific research. Recent efforts to use persistent identifiers (PIDs), most notably Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCiD) for person, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for publications including data sets, and Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes for research grants and awards are realizing success in unambiguously identifying the pieces that represent results of environmental research. This presentation uses BCO-DMO as a test case for adding PIDs to the locally-curated information published out as standards compliant metadata records. We present a summary of progress made thus far; what has worked and why, and thoughts on logical next steps.

  20. Scientific and Technological Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, Antonio; Santiago Contreras, Julio; Solis Veliz, Jose; Lopez Moreno, Edith

    2011-10-01

    This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2010. This report includes 41 papers divided in 8 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, mining industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, scientific instrumentation and management aspects. It also includes annexes. (APC)